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SSB Screening Test Model - Page 2

Test - I
1. In each of the following questions an attribute situation is described in the form of statement that is
followed by two options. Tick Mark your choice. There is no right or wrong answers but the suitability
2. You have opted Defence Services as your carrier because…….
a. Defence Officers' are paid well.
b. It carries adventurous activities.
3. We keep dog because….
a. It is faithful
b. It guards the house
4. I prefer the following in a woman
a. Beauty

b. Education

5. Government service is better because.

a. There is good salary
b. There is job security.
6. A soldier serves the nation more because.
a. He sacrifices for the country
b. He fights against external aggressions.
7. Co-education is useful because-
a. It reduces government expenditure.
b. It gives better understanding between boys and girls.
8. We maintain garden for-
a. Beautifying the area
b. For regular morning walk.
9. Brave who laid their life on the battle field are endorsed in the books of History for
a. For the act of bravery and heroism.
b. To give lesson to new generation.
10. Police does his duties because-
a. He is paid for that
b. He feels responsibility.
11. We extend help to old persons because-
a. They need help.
b. They approach for help.
Test - II:
Fill in the missing words:-
1. As Long is to Short, so is Up is to _________.
2. As forest is to Tress so is Pond is to _________.
3. As teacher is to Chalk so is wood cutter is to_________.
4. As night is to Day so is Darkness is to _________.
5. As Good is to Bad so is Joys to _________.
6. As Stop is to Go, so is Smooth is to _________.
7. As Admiral is to sailor so is General is to _________.
8. As Food is to Eat so is Newspaper is to _________.
9. As Brave is to Coward so is Sharp is to _________.
10. As Scientist is to New Search so is Soldier to _________.

SSB Screening Test Model

Story Writing Tips

Thematic writing is given to judge your imagination and positive thoughts.
When you start writing the story remeber the following:
The story should have a Past
the present (i.e what is happening in the scene)
The Future.
In the story the hero/heroien may be seen/or imagined
the hero should bring out his good quality. ie that any one of the 15 OLQ already told to you in
this SSB Handbbok
The story should be about 12 to 15 sentences
3 for Past
6 for Present
3 for future
In the picture no 1.
Mr. Ram was an hard working and intelligent young man.
His aim was to become a collector, he started his preparation from his final year at the college.
In the picture we see him preparing for the forth coming prelim.
Being a maticulas and a student of forsight, he had collected thematerials for the test. His
hard workl and didication had paid him. He passed the exam with flying colours
He continued his hard work in the academy too, and he passed out as the best IAS officer in
his course.
Individual Task
Click Here to View the tasks assigned to the previous candidates at SSB.

1. >>Individual 2. >> Group

By carefully following the suggestions you will be able to Project your OLQ (Officer Like Qualities) to the
selectors at the Services
Selection Board.
Remember to be natural and calm, be your self, do your best, put the interest of the group before your own,
and always be alert. By being yourself your qualities are easily seen by the selectors. All the selectors are
well trained, so please do not use any unfair means are bluff.
What do they judge at SSB in Group Tasks ?
A) Assessment of Candidate's Participation within the formulated Rules
B) Planning and Intelligent Assessment of the situation
C) Inidividual Quality in context to the Group
D) Assuming control of a Group to execute a task
E) Assess the problem from different angles
F) Assign responsibility to Team mates
G) Ability to realise the Potential of Group Members
H) Capacity to motivate others
I) Alertness
J) Creative Thinking
K) Putting the Group before the Self
L) Helping Tendency
M) Originality of Thought
N) Quick Decision Making
O) Cooperation with Others
P) Group Integration
Q) Planning and Execution
R) Leadership Initiative

Group Planning
You are a group of Nine college students, all of you went to River Kasi for enjoying a boat ride.
While you were going for boating, you saw a school bus carrying children for picnic spot near
the River. When you started boating down the river, you you saw an Helicopter flying very low
and crashed near Fort, which was 2 kms away from your location. You also noticed that there
was a lot of hue and cry of small children, who got stuck in the cable car just near to your boating
site. Two of your friends who went to investigate the Helicopter crash reported to you stating,
that the Pilot was injured and a box, which he was carrying was to be delivered to ATC by 1500
hours, if not it would explode. The cable operator rushed towards you, and requested you to help him
out to repair the cable car and rescue the children. One of your friends told you that he had left his
wallet containing money and important address in the near by teashop. You were also required to reach
the college hostel to attend the function at 1700 hours. The time now is 1430 hours.
Write your actions and discuss a suitable solution.
Assume resources available are
a) a Jeep
b) traffic on the road
c) Phone at Local Hospital which is 6 Kms away from your location.
d) Road head is 2Kms from you
e) Fort is 4 kms away from you

Group Task


Every candidate will be asked to write a self- appraisal during the psychological test. This will be the last
part of the Psychological test. The aim of this is to make you commit about your-self regarding your
knowledge about your-self.
The usual headings under which you will be asked to give out the appraisal is:-
a) What is you personal opinion about your self?
b) What does your parents think of you?
c) What does your best friend think about you?
d) What does your worst enemy think of you?
e) What does your teacher think of you?
f) What are your strong points?
g) What are your weak points?
h) What are the qualities you would like to develop?
Tips: Go systematic. Suggested headings:
i) About your parents and place of birth and family background
ii) Physical Attributes
iv) Social Contacts
v) Education
vi) Extra curricular activities , achievements
vii) Your aims and goals. Both short term and long term
viii) Religion


Follow the suggestions to get clear the interviews, Your answers come under
the Candidates Reaction and the right way of answering comes under Suggestion
Candidates reactions: a) Peace overcomes war
b) War is destruction
c) I hate war
d) War means bloodshed
Suggestion: Love Peace, but be prepared for war
Candidate: a) Every one loves peace (Acceptable)
b) I love peace
c) Peace brings Progress ( Very Good)
Candidate: a) work is worship
b) Hard work pays (Acceptable)
c) Hardwork leads to success (Very Good)
d) Work while you work play while you play (Avoid using proverbs)
Candidate a) Defeat the enemy
b) Defeat the defeat
c) Defeat -dont get upset
d) Dont get depressed by defeats (Acceptable)
Suggestion: a) Defeat teaches us lessons.
b) Analyse causes of defeat to succeed
Candidate: a) I Love my Country (Good)
b) Serving our country is Nobel (Acceptable)
c) Its our duty to safeguard our country (A)
d) Country first self next
6.HOME Suggestion:. Home teaches us Manners
7 . Luck plus hardwork leads to success
8 . Ghost stories are famous in England
9 . Always trust your leader
10 . Enjoy good company of friends
11 . Playground teaches us many lessons
12 . Character is a virtue
13 . A part from studies involve in sports
14 . Happiness overcomes sadness
15 . Dont worry about failures
16 . success is the fruit of hardwork
17 . My garden has many kinds of flowers
18 . Indian army is known for its patriotism
19 .Music can cure diseases
20 . India won the kargil war
21 . Jogging keeps us in good health
22 . Its our custom to respect elders
23 . I have great affection towards my parents
24 . Fortune and hardwork makes one succeed
25 . Engineers are capable of rectifying faults
26 . Snakes poison is used as medicine
27 . ALways help others
28 . Co-operate with your neighbours
29 . I am a responsible person
30 . Yesterday I withdrew my savings to help the poor
31 . When intrested in work one feels seldom tired
32 . Soldiers risk their life for their motherland
33 . Boats are used to cross dangerous rivers
34 . Fail;ure is steeping stone for success
35 . Fight for a noble cause
36 . Every problem has a solution
37 . Machine is backbone of industry.
38 . Leaders always leads
39 .Education system in india is good
40 . Dont be afraid of obstacles
41 . Take things seriously and work
42 . Child was saved when he was drowned in the river
43 . Analyse the situation and jump into action
44 . Opinions always differ
45 . Exercise protects us from diseases

Services Selection Board

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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced
material may be challenged and removed. (January 2010)

Services Selection Board (SSB) is the Personality and Intelligence Interview spread over 5 days
which scientifically analyses each candidate's potential and compatibility for commission into
the Armed Forces of India.

• 1 Introduction
• 2 Procedure
• 3 Details of the Tests
• 4 Some General
• 5 Related Photos
• 6 External links

[edit] Introduction
There are numerous ways of earning Commission as an officer in Indian Armed Forces, both for
civilians (after 10+2, graduation, post graduation), as well as for serving personnel. Whatever be
the mode, SSB is the step all have to clear, except for the medical corps. There is no limit on the
number of attempts that can be made and the SSB Assessors encourage candidates to appear
again for SSB.
The interview exercise is mainly a psychological assessment of the personality of the candidate,
to gauge his/her potential as a future officer in Indian Military. The tests conducted by the SSB
aim at selecting individuals with OLQs (Officer Like Qualities).
These qualities include effective intelligence, sense of responsibility, initiative, judgment (under
stress), ability to reason and organize, communication skills, determination, courage, self-
confidence, speed in decision-making, willingness to set an example, compassion and a feeling
of loyalty to the nation.
Most of the tests require average intelligence. The SSB attempts to gauge the natural responses
of the individuals. The tests are graded into various categories of both individual and group
variety and each batch of candidates goes through the subtle testing pattern in the course of a few
days. They are under observation not only while they perform in various psychological tests but
even as they conduct themselves during the course of their stay at the SSB headquarters, where
they are billeted for that duration.
The SSB Board is not concerned with the number of vacancies. Its responsibility is to assess and
then, recommend. After recommendation, the candidates appear for Medical Examination and
after that is the Merit List. Those who finally make the grade join for training and hence become
Commissioned Officers.
Origin of these type of testing belongs to first world war era. In first world war, large number of
casualties on battle fields necessitated recruitment of best fighting talent in armed forces. For this
need, psychologists designed some scientific based tests which accesses candidate's Officer Like
Qualities (OLQs). Over the years SSB testing has been improved based on feedback and has
been proved to be an effective and accurate way of selecting candidates who are capable of being
atleast an average officer after training.

[edit] Procedure
The candidates who are declared by UPSC as having cleared the written exam, as well as those
shortlisted in Direct Entries are called through Call Letters to appear for SSB
(Allahabad/Bangalore/Bhopal/Dehradun/Mysore/Varanasi/) at the Centre allotted to the
candidate. There have instances when the call-up letter fails to reach the candidate and the onus
lies on the candidate to be alert and contact the office after a reasonable amount of time if the
letter is not received when UPSC written has been cleared. Similar is the way for service
candidates, except for that their movement is intimated to their seniors via movement orders.
• Day 0 (Day of Reporting)
SSB is a two stage process. To qualify for Stage II, a candidate needs to clear Screening Test or
Stage I. On the date of reporting, the candidates are picked from the railway station and during
the evening, certain Forms and also the Bio Data forms known as “Personal Information
Questionnaire” (PIQ) are filled. PIQ is very important- there must be no cutting and consistency
in each of the four or five copies of PIQ you are to fill. Candidates are also briefed on testing
schedule and general instructions, which must be followed throughout the duration of stay in
selection center.
• Day 1 (Screening Tests)
On the next day, is the Stage I, in which candidates are given Intelligence Test (Verbal and Non-
Verbal), then there is a Picture Perception test, in which a slide (hazy or clear) is shown and then
each candidate writes their story and later have a Group Discussion. This sequence is popularly
called PPDT- Picture Perception and Discussion Test. After the completion of these tests, results
are announced and those who do not make it in this attempt are dropped back to the railway
station and the successful ones are retained for 4 days of detailed assessment.
• Day 2 (Psychology Tests)
1. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)- Commonly known as Picture Story writing.
2. Word Association Test (WAT)
3. Situation Reaction Test (SRT)
4. Self Description Test (SD), or a variation of this like description from the eyes
of parents, teachers, colleagues, neighbours etc.
• Day 3 and Day 4 (GTO Tasks)

Recommended dress for GTO Tasks

Group Testing Officers (GTO) Test (Third and Fourth day)

The following tests are conducted in this category :-
1. Group discussion
2. Group Planning Exercise (sometimes known as Military Planning Exercise)
3. Progressive Group Tasks
4. Half Group Tasks
5. Individual Obstacles
6. Group Obstacles Race or Snake Race
7. Command Task
8. Lecturette
9. Final Group Task
Note:Interview :- (Held during afternoon/evening hours on 2nd/3rd/4th day)
• Day 5 (Conference)
On the final day, every Assessor and the candidate sit together for and have a chat- the fate of the
candidate for that SSB is decided by the Assessors collectively there. The candidates are required
to appear before the complete Board of Examiners comprising of President,Deputy President, all
the psychologists, all the GTOs and Technical Officer.
After the Board Meeting of every candidate is over,the final result is declared within ½ an hour.
Selected candidates are required to stay back for their medical examination (takes about 3 to 5
working days) in the Military Hospital near by or at a different place and the remaining
candidates are dropped at the Railway Station.

[edit] Details of the Tests

The SSB follows a three-pronged approach consisting of three independent methods, by three
different Officers to arrive at the most unbiased and objective conclusion:
• Purely psychological testing apparatus
• Outdoor test or group task officer's test
• Personal interview.
PIQ Form: On arrival at the SSB headquarters all candidates are given a questionnaire in which
they have to fill in personal details regarding family background, educational profile etc. In
addition this questionnaire is also a self-appraisal as some of the questions are aimed at gauging
the candidate's opinion of him/her self. It forms a base for questions, which may be put to a
candidate at the personal, interview stage and has importance for the psychologist on the Board
who analyzes the responses.
Intelligence Tests comprising both verbal and non-verbal questions are put to each candidate. It
is in the form of a written test of the objective type with multiple-choice questions. Approximate
time allotted for answering each question is 30 seconds. Candidates have to reason out the
answers using common sense and intelligence on the basis of the facts given or pictures shown.
It is presumed that a person of average intelligence does not lose the faculty of common sense
reasoning even under pressure. Since time is important, candidates should leave the tricky
questions for the last few minutes and attempt to answer the maximum number of questions.
There are two intelligence tests without breaks. Duration for the First intelligence test is 30
minutes and for second intelligence test is 27 minutes.
Word Association Tests (WAT): This part of the psychological testing attempts to gauge the
psychological make-up of the candidate on the basis of the responses of each candidate to words
in everyday usage. As soon as a word is given a candidate is expected to formulate a sentence
immediately. Only about 15 seconds are allowed to formulate each sentence and there are 60
words to be processed.
Word Association is a common word game involving an exchange of words that are
associated together. The game is based on the noun phrase word association, meaning
"stimulation of an associative pattern by a word"[1] or "the connection and production of other
words in response to a given word, done spontaneously as a game, creative technique, or in a
psychiatric evaluation."[2]
1. Broken, Clear, Eye Glass
2. Playing, Credit, Report Card
3. Barrel, Root, Belly Beer
4. Rock, Times, Steel Hard
5. Sore, Shoulder, Sweat Cold
6. Magic, Plush, Floor Carpet

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): TAT is also called as Picture Story Test. This again is a
device to assess the outlook of a candidate through the medium of his/her responses to pictures
or slides. About eight to twelve such pictures are shown to the candidates for less than a minute
and immediately after they are expected to write a small story based on the picture. Here again
the thrust is on portraying positive traits of personality. The technique analyzes the positive
factors of the personalities of the candidates since it is felt that leaders of men can be built up
from among those who already have inherent potential. The last slide is a blank slide, and it is
often said that the psychologist reads the blank slide story first.
Situation Reaction Tests (SRT): The reaction of the candidates in response to everyday lifelike
situations is analyzed. Certain instances, which may occur in the day-to-day life of ordinary
individuals, are put to the candidates and they have to give their immediate reaction from among
the multiple choices given. Answers are not rated in absolute terms of right or wrong; they are in
fact weighted in the degree of correctness. Time for reaction is very short, approximately 30
seconds and this is so because the Board wishes to analyze the spontaneous and natural
responses of the candidates. There are 60 questions and time allotted is 30 minutes.
Situation Reaction Test Girl Friend Weak Financial Condition
Ship Duty Person School Sports Day Person Snatches Purse Masked Persons Sells
Smuggled Goods
44) He was walking on a dark street with his girl friend
then suddenly 10 armed people came & started harassing
his girl friend the next police station was 10km away……
45) His friend was always quarrelling with him and the
papers were near. He.....
46) His boss gives a piece of work and orders him to
follow his instructions to complete the work, but the
work is difficult to finish within time. He............
47) He see a snake moving near to the bed where his
younger brother is sleeping, when he enters his room.
48) If some of your friend cracks a joke on you in
presence of your girlfriend, what will you do...
49) You received an urgent order from your commander.
But you feel that order passed on to you is wrong. You…..

Group Testing Officer (GTO) tasks: The basic aim is to examine and observe candidates from
close quarters in order to study their reactions to different tasks so as to analyze whether their
thinking and responses on the individual plane (as revealed in the psychological testing system)
tally with their actions in the groups tasks. There are a variety of tasks assigned in this phase.
• Group discussion: A certain topic or situation is given to a group of
candidates and they are expected to discuss the various aspects of the
issue. It may be or may not be required to come to a decision on it,
depending upon the instructions of the GTO. During the course of the
group discussion the Group Task Officer observes each candidate- in
his/her attitude as a member of the group, participation level,
interaction with contemporaries, level of communication, reception to
new ideas and view points alien to his/her own, ability to influence the
group etc.
• Lecturette: In this exercise each individual is given a choice of topics.
Then each one is expected to speak on the chosen topic for 2-3
minutes during which his/her ability to speak extempore is observed
and also the sequence of his thought processes. A logical, systematic
sequence of thought, clarity of expression, way of holding oneself is all
under review. A confident attitude, balanced views, easy flow and an
easy stance are factors for success in this exercise. One should try not
to fidget or move too much during the course of the lecture.
• Group Planning: A model of a real life practical situation is presented to
a group of candidates and they are asked to arrive at a plan of action.
Initially they are asked to write down their own plan of action and
thereafter they are expected to go over the different views and arrive
at a consensus or group action plan. This exercise evaluates the
analytical ability of the candidates, their ability to function in a group,
appreciate the situation and plan accordingly. It gives an opportunity
for the group to select a leader or for a leader to emerge in the group.
Then it remains to be seen whether the leader can come up with the
necessary qualities to carry the group towards a solution to the
problem. Apart from leadership qualities this exercise also studies the
group interaction level of each candidate.
• Command Task: The exercise gives candidates an opportunity to
assume command and get a task executed with the involvement of
group members. The leader has to carefully select his/her team, assess
the problem in hand and assign responsibilities to teammates. The
exercise reveals the quality of leadership, the ability of a candidate to
realize the potential of group members and the capacity to motivate
others to accomplish a group activity. It is an exercise in alertness,
tactical and administrative ability. It gives each one an opportunity to
reveal his/her worth.
• Individual Obstacles: In this exercise a candidate's level of physical
fitness is gauged through a series of obstacles and activities such as
rope climbing, climbing walls, jumping, etc. The activities are of
varying levels of difficulty and performance as well as attitude of the
candidate towards a difficult task is assessed. The SSB does not expect
a candidate to accomplish every task or at the first attempt. On the
basis of performance and attitude the candidate's level of physical
fitness is evaluated.
• Group Obstacles: Certain outdoor tasks are assigned to a group and
they are expected to find a way out of the difficulties on the basis of
group participation within the formulated rules. The exercise is an
assessment of candidate participation in-group activities, planning and
intelligent assessment of the situation put to the group. The Group
Testing Apparatus thus reviews individual qualities in the context of a
Personal Interview: In this exercise the candidate is in direct conversation with the Interviewing
Officer allotted to him/her. To put the candidate at ease, initial questions revolve around personal
family background, hobbies, studies, friends, environment in which growing years have been
The PIQ form of the candidate forms an important basis of the Interview. Some questions may
relate to current happenings. Views on politics, religion, and nationalism may be sought from the
candidate. Through real life situations the candidate's ability for common sense practical
reasoning are analyzed. A balanced view with an intelligent assessment of the pros and cons is
the best one.
Attitude towards family, friends, sports, games, hobbies, etc. are analyzed on the basis of the
answers. In the interview a number of factors count apart from the actual verbal responses. The
whole process of the interview right from the point of entering the room, manner of greeting,
stance, courtesy, power of expression, attitude, manner of speaking, handling of difficult
questions, objectivity of answers, manner of listening to a question are all under review and
Finally, One should never try to bluff or be inconsistent in views. A natural confident approach is
the best. Ultimately it is the overall analysis of the individual's performance in the written
examination in conjunction with the performance in the SSB tests. The list of recommended
candidates are forwarded to the Medical Board. After clearing the Medical, and being successful
in the Merit List, the candidate joins the training academy. For those who make it through this
interesting challenge the future holds a lot of promise and national responsibility.

[edit] Some General Points

• Candidates appearing for the first time for a particular type of entry are paid
2nd class to-and-fro journey fare from the place of their residence to the
place where they have come for the interview.
• Accommodation and messing are free for the entire duration of their stay
while undergoing SSB Tests.
• The recommended Air Force candidates are required to go to a different
place for medical examination on the specified date.
• Air Force candidates who had applied for ‘Pilot Entry’ have to first appear in
‘Pilot Aptitude Battery Test’ (PABT). Those who are rejected in P.A.B.T cannot
re-appear for Air Force Pilot entry again, but are welcome for other services
and entries.

[edit] Related Photos

[edit] External links

Your Handwriting is the mirror to judge your quality. Write neatly and
legibly.Since these tests are designed to calculate your IQ, try and
complete,as many questions as possible; but at the same time, do not
do so without thinking sufficiently. Even75% of the questions answered
correctly will see you thorough. Since every test is co-related, be
positive in what you write.Your pen picture should tally with your
thoughts pen down.Since you are being compared with all other
candidates your best performance will take you to your ultimate Goal.
WAT Word Association Test: Write the first positive thought that
comes to your mind.Time given is 15 seconds to write. The sentence
need not be grammatically correct or the word used just to write a
sentence. Remember this is not a Make a sentence type exam.This is
designed to test your inner thoughts. So be careful in what ever you
SRT (Situational Reaction Test) the tests contain day-to-day practical
incidents that you will be facing in your real life.Write what actions you,
Will be taking incase you are in those situations.There are no right or
wrong answers; best approach is to write a positive yet a good citizen
will do. Here your qualities such as Courage, helping attitude, empathy,
responsibility, social interaction, boldness, honesty etc are tested. Write
down the answers on a sheet of paper so thatyou can compare the same
with some suggestions. (Never copy the suggestions for it might lead
you to wrong conclusions)
Please take the Practice test.



WHAT TO Story Writing


Dos and Donts @ Group

SSB Interview
SSB Planning

Thematic Appreciation test

The Thematic Story writing will be 12 in all. 11 of them are having some
picture and one does not have any. You will get about 3 minutes for
each story. Do not write stereotype stories. Try different theme for
different stories. Remember you are the Hero; the aim should be to
bring out leadership qualities of the hero through these stories.
The Qualities that you are to project through your stories are:-



Only during the perception test you are required to give The age, sex,
mood, and number of group of the persons you see in the picture. Your
story should such that it suits the picture yet tells The past is that what
led to this situation What is happening in the picture? What will happen
in the future?

Get rid of your belly fat!

TNN, Aug 17, 2010, 12.00am IST

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Tags:work out|flat abdominals|diet|belly fat

Get rid of you rbelly fat now (Getty Images)

Whether you have a major paunch or a tiny roundness and want to slim down, we have just
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just three weeks. Do them four times a week, with a day of rest in between.

Work out
Your legs are your scissors: Lie on your back with arms by your sides, legs
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tummy muscles.

Inhale while lowering your right leg, so your toes are in line with your nose. Exhale,
switching your legs scissor-like, so your right leg lifts back up and your left comes
down. (Don’t touch the ground with your foot.) Do 3 sets of 8–10 reps.
Lie flat in front: Get on your knees and forearms with your elbows directly under
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A ball-game: Look up at the ceiling, lie down on a stability ball, and drape your abs
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Sleeping Buddha-pose: Lie on your left side with your legs straight and stacked
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Major paunch: Do 3 sets of 15 bicycle crunches 2-3 times a week, plus 30-45
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Tiny roundness: Do 3 sets of 12-15 crunches on a stability ball 2-3 times a week
to sculpt your tummy in 3 weeks.

Eat this
Major paunch: Cut or burn 500 calories and drink 2 cups of green tea daily as
green tea alone helped exercisers drop ab fat in 12 weeks.

Tiny roundness: Eat snacks with belly-busting monounsaturated fatty acids

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ab fat in a month.

Fake it
Major paunch: Dress in a way that your belly flat is kept hidden. Go for lacy
camisoles to pull in and shape your middle, plus give your chest a lift.

Tiny roundness: Get a belt that’s at least 3 inches wide and made of a stiff
material or leather. A belt that won’t bend like a corset helps to hide your tummy.

Read more:
Top of Form
Bottom of Form

name given to the series of conflicts between India and Pakistan
since 1947, when the Indian subcontinent was partitioned and the
two countries became independent of Great Britain. The most
violent outbreaks came in 1947–48, 1965, and 1971. The roots of
the conflicts lie in the hostility between Hindus and Muslims and,
initially, in the disposition of self-governing princely states.
The 1947–48 War
The first war arose over Kashmir, in NW India, in 1947 when
Muslim subjects revolted and were supported by Pakistani troops.
The Hindu ruler appealed to India for aid, agreeing to cede the
state to India in return. India moved quickly to consolidate its
position in Kashmir, pushing Pakistan's "volunteers" back. Conflicts
also arose in the Punjab and in Bengal. The undeclared war in
Kashmir continued until Jan. 1, 1949, when a truce was arranged
through UN mediation; negotiations between India and Pakistan
began and lasted until 1954 without resolving the Kashmir
problem. Pakistan controlled part of the area, Azad (Free)
Kashmir, while India held most of the territory, which it annexed in
The 1965 War
The second war began in Apr., 1965, when fighting broke out in
the Rann of Kachchh, a sparsely inhabited region along the West
Pakistan–India border. In August fighting spread to Kashmir and to
the Punjab, and in September Pakistani and Indian troops crossed
the partition line between the two countries and launched air
assaults on each other's cities. After threats of intervention by
China had been successfully opposed by the United States and
Britain, Pakistan and India agreed to a UN-sponsored cease-fire
and withdrew to the pre-August lines. Prime Minister Shri Lal
Bahadur Shastri of India and President Ayub Khan of Pakistan met
in Tashkent, USSR (now in Uzbekistan), in Jan., 1966, and signed
an agreement pledging continued negotiations and respect for the
cease-fire conditions. After the Tashkent Declaration another
period of relative peace ensued.
The 1971 War
Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated when civil war erupted in
Pakistan, pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis
demanding greater autonomy. The fighting forced 10 million East
Pakistani Bengalis to flee to India. When Pakistan attacked Indian
airfields in Kashmir, India attacked both East and West Pakistan. It
occupied the eastern half, which declared its independence as
Bangladesh, on Dec. 6, 1971. Under great-power pressure, a UN
cease-fire was arranged in mid-December, after Pakistan's defeat.
Pakistan lost its eastern half, an army of 100,000 soldiers, and
was thrown into political turmoil. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto emerged as leader of Pakistan, and Mujibur Rahman as prime
minister of Bangladesh. Tensions were alleviated by the Shimla accord of 1972, and by Pakistan's recognition of
Bangladesh in 1974, but tensions have periodically recurred.
See A. Lamb, Crisis in Kashmir, 1947–1966 (1966); W. N. Brown, The United States and India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh (1972); S. Ganguly, The Origins of War in South Asia (1986); R. Sisson, War and Secession (1990).
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright© 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Lernout &
Hauspie Speech Products N.V. All rights reserved.

Sino-Indian War
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sino-Indian War
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Part of Cold War

The Sino-Indian War (Hindi: भारत-चीन युद Bhārat-Chīn

Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict
(simplified Chinese: 中印边境战争; traditional
Chinese: 中印邊境戰爭; pinyin: Zhōng-Yìn Biānjìng
Zhànzhēng), was a war between China and India that
occurred in 1962. A disputed Himalayan border was the main
pretext for war, but other issues played a role. There had been a The Sino-Indian War occurred between
series of violent border incidents after the 1959 Tibetan
India and China.
uprising, when India had granted asylum to the Dalai
Lama. India initiated a Forward Policy in which it placed Date October 20[1] - 21
outposts along the border, including several north of the November 1962
McMahon Line, the eastern portion of a Line of Actual
Control proclaimed by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in Location South Xinjiang (Aksai
1959. Chin) and Arunachal
The Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and Pradesh (South Tibet,
across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962, coinciding with North-East Frontier
the Cuban Missile Crisis. Chinese troops advanced over Agency)
Indian forces in both theaters, capturing Rezang la in
Result Chinese military victory.
Chushul in the western theater, as well as Tawang in the
eastern theater. The war ended when the Chinese declared a Territori No significant territorial
ceasefire on 20 November 1962, and later withdrew from the al change compared with
disputed area. changes prior to the war.
The Sino-Indian War is notable for the harsh conditions China controls Tibet
under which much of the fighting took place, entailling large- (excluding Tawang and
scale combat at altitudes of over 4,250 metres (14,000 feet).[7] area south of McMahon
This presented enormous logistics problems for both sides. The
Line) and retains Aksai
Sino-Indian War was also noted for the non-deployment of the
Chin area (de facto) and
navy or air force by either the Chinese and Indian sides
India controls North-East
Frontier (South Tibet,
Arunachal) area (de


December 4, 1971: The first rays of dawn had just illuminated Vizag harbour when Lieutenant Sridhar More steered
the INS Akshay out towards the open sea. War had broken out between India and Pakistan the previous day, but all
was quiet on the eastern coast. At least until a few hours earlier when some fishermen had visited the Eastern Naval
Command with pieces of wreckage and reported an oil slick. As the Akshay made its way to the spot, More saw an
oil slick stretching out as far as the eye could see.

The first of the divers who went down to investigate surfaced after a few minutes and gasped. "Sir, it's a submarine."
A second diver was sent in. He surfaced half an hour later, excited. "I've felt the length of the submarine and its fin.
The mouth is blown open."

More punched out a signal to the Maritime Operations Room (MOR) in Vizag: "Have located bottomed submarine in
position Dolphin light 110 4.1." Soon after the divers could make out the Urdu initials on the black shape, More
flashed his second signal. "Confirmed submarine is Pakistani." Thumbing through his copy of Jane's Fighting Ships,
More sized up Pakistan's fleet of four submarines. Three were the smaller French coastal submarines of the
Daphne class, less than 200 ft long, and the fourth and largest one was the Ghazi. The divers estimated its length to
be over 300 ft. More's third and last signal sent a ripple through the base: "It is the Ghazi.''

December 10, 2003:Exactly 32 years and a week later, Petty Officer Rajaram Dinkar Patil rappelled down a rope
into the sea off Visakhapatnam. He was part of a team of 10 divers from the Eastern Naval Command, sent down
for another look at an old enemy that had come so close and failed.

As Patil switched on his underwater camera, the crew onboard the Gemini crowded around the monitor to see what
he was seeing. The Ghazi, in death, was teeming with life. Its hull was covered with thousands of fishing nets. Patil
relayed what would be the first publicly released footage of the last submarine to sink in a war. Footage that experts
from submarine museums in the US, USS Cod in Cleveland and USS Torsk in Baltimore, helped India Today

Ghazi was still sitting on an even keel, but its thin outer hull had all but chipped away, exposing the steel skeleton
which covered its internal pressure hull and its grid of pipes and fittings. The aft escape hatch was blown open and
lay exposed to the sea. An 18-inch high bronze capstan, used for docking and torpedo loading, sat fastened to the
deck, chalk white and coral-encrusted.

"The fishing nets made it look like a trapped marine beast," says Commander Ajay Chauhan, command diving and
special operations officer. The Ghazi had indeed fallen into and died in a net, a wartime ruse that killed it.

November 14, 1971: Millions of refugees were fleeing into India from the Pakistan Army's rampage in the east. A full-
scale war seemed only a matter of time. PNS Ghazi quietly cast its moorings and sailed out of Karachi harbour into
the Arabian Sea with its crew of 93 men and crammed with food and ammunition. It had sailed out ostensibly for
Chittagong in East Pakistan, but its real mission was known to only a few in the submarine directorate and probably
just its captain, Zafar Muhammad Khan.

The Ghazi, formerly USS Diablo, was built during World War II. It was leased to Pakistan in 1964 and rechristened
Ghazi or "holy warrior" and was South Asia's first submarine. The 26-year-old steel shark's sinews may have been
ageing but it still had phenomenal Pacific reach-it could stay out at sea for 75 days at a stretch and travel over
11,000 nautical miles (17,000 km). The pride of the Pakistan Navy now sailed to India's eastern coast to seek the
aircraft carrier Vikrant in a gladiatorial contest. By November 23, the Ghazi had travelled over 2,200 nautical miles
from Karachi to reach a patrol area codenamed Zone Mike-Madras.

Vice-admiral Krishnan, the Flag Officer Commanding, Eastern Naval Command, was a maverick whose colourful
language could make a seasoned sailor blush. In November 1971, he looked out to sea and was a worried man.
The Eastern Fleet's aircraft carrier Vikrant was tasked with blockading East Pakistan from the sea but the vessel
had a crack in its boiler which reduced its speed to just 16 knots and made it vulnerable to submarines. That was
not all. Signal intercepts of the Pakistan Navy indicated an imminent deployment of the Ghazi in the Bay.
November 14, 1971: Pakistani submarine Ghazi leaves Karachi for Chittagong in East Pakistan. Its real mission is to
target Indian aircraft carrier Vikrant. Fooled by an Indian ruse that Vikrant is in Vizag, Ghazi reaches the port town.

December 3, 1971: War breaks out between India and Pakistan. But a mysterious blast sinks Ghazi off Vizag
harbour. Three days later, Vikrant launches airstrike against East Pakistan.

December 10, 2003: Indian Navy divers go down to examine the Ghazi in a bid to solve the decades-old puzzle.
Underwater cameras take images of the vessel but the answer is still unclear.

But the maverick admiral was also a master of ruses. In 1946, as the captain of the Royal Indian Navy frigate RINS
Shamsher, Krishnan had fabricated an alarm for a downed aircraft off Mumbai, sailed out to hunt for this "aircraft"
and ensured his men didn't join the naval mutiny raging in the city. Now, 25 years later, he had to pull off his best
one yet.

Krishnan did everything to let the enemy believe that the Vikrant was still in Vizag. He summoned Lt-Commander
Inder Singh, the captain of INS Rajput, an ageing destroyer which was being sent to Vizag to be decommissioned.
The wily Krishnan gave it and Inder Singh one last mission-the Rajput was to pretend to be the Vikrant, sail 160
miles out of Vizag harbour and generate heavy wireless traffic-which would lead the enemy to believe there was a
large ship in the vicinity. He then falsely informed naval authorities in Madras that the carrier would be arriving there
shortly. In Vizag, he began ordering huge quantities of rations-meat and vegetables-which indicated that the fleet
was in harbour. He hoped that spies in the city would pick up and transmit this intelligence.

The bait was snapped up. On November 26, 1971, the Ghazi's wireless room crackled with a terse message from
the commodore, submarines: "Occupy Zone Victor with all despatch. Intelligence indicates carrier in port." Khan
altered course and sped his submarine north. Zone Victor was Vizag. Reaching Vizag on November 27, the
mechanical predator prowled perilously close to the Indian coast, looking for its quarry.

December 3, 1971: Shortly after midnight on December 3, an explosion tore through the forward section of the
Ghazi where torpedoes and mines were stored. The shockwave blew open the knife-shaped bow, crumpling the hull
and cracking open watertight compartments. Seawater rushed in, snuffing out all the lights and drowning the crew.
The submarine careened out of control and crashed to the seabed.


How the Pakistani submarine came so close to the Indian coast but failed
NOVEMBER 14, 1971: Ghazi leaves Karachi with a crew of 93. It sails for Chittagong but her real target is India's
Eastern Fleet.

NOVEMBER 23, 1971: Ghazi travels over 2,200 nautical miles to reach a patrol area codenamed Zone Mike-

NOVEMBER 26, 1971: Emergency declared in Pakistan. Ghazi commander gets signal to arm all torpedoes of the

NOVEMBER 27, 1971: Ghazi reaches Vizag and prowls around unseen in the narrow channel looking for an
opportunity to strike.

DECEMBER 3, 1971: A massive explosion in the forward section of the Ghazi blows open its hull. Unable to escape,
all 93 crew perish inside.

DECEMBER 4, 1971: Indian Navy discovers wreckage after fishermen report oil slick off the Vizag port. Divers
confirm identity of wreck.
"At a depth of 30 m, a hole as small as 0.5 mm would let in 30 tonnes of water per hour, impossible to pump out,''
explains marine medicine specialist Surgeon Commander Sangram Singh Pundir. "The lucky crewmen would have
died in the first few seconds, the unlucky ones in the aft section hours later when the air supply ran out.''

A few days later, divers blasted their way into the stricken submarine and brought to the surface six bloated bodies
of Pakistani crewmen. One of the dead sailors, a Petty Officer Mechanical Engineer, had a wheel spanner tightly
grasped in his fist. Another sailor had in his pocket a poignant letter written in Urdu to his fiancee. "I don't know if
you will ever read this, but we are here separated by thousands of miles of sea...

Where was the Vikrant? Days before the Ghazi arrived off Madras, the carrier and her escorts had already sailed
into "X Ray" a secret palm-fronded anchorage in the Andaman Islands nearly 1,000 miles away. Here, far from
prying eyes, the fleet awaited the signal to strike at East Pakistan and enforce a complete sea blockade. On
December 6 morning, three days after the sinking of the Ghazi, the Vikrant launched its first airstrike.

How exactly did the Ghazi die? Official accounts of the Pakistan Navy say that it triggered off one of its own mines,
but divers who studied the wreckage say the submarine must have suffered an internal explosion which blew up its
mines and torpedoes. Another theory suggests an explosion of gases built up inside the submarine while its
batteries were being charged. This too has been disputed since the bodies recovered were not charred.

In the past three decades, the Indian Navy has made a series of attempts to unravel the puzzle but failed. The latest
expedition was another bid to solve the enigma. "We would like to know what exactly happened to the Ghazi," says
Vice-admiral (retd) Vinod Pasricha who converted the submarine Kursura and the Vikrant into maritime museums.
"It would be of great historical value in the long term and would solve one of the last great mysteries of the 1971

Vice-admiral (retd) G.M. Hiranandani, whose book Transition to Triumph gives an exhaustive account of the sinking
of the Ghazi, says the submarine almost certainly suffered an internal explosion but its causes are debatable. "The
Pakistani account exonerates the poor condition of the submarine by saying it set off one of its mines, while the
chauvinistic Indian version says the Rajput dropped depth charges sinking it." The truth about the Ghazi, which
remains what the submarine community calls "on eternal patrol", lies somewhere in between.

An internal blast finishes off one claim which the Indian Navy use to have that Vikrant taking out Ghazi.

Last edited by Muradk; 06-10-2008 at 10:27 AM.

Role of NCC in India

An old Chinese proverb reads : For
your country/If you plan for a year sow
paddy/If you plan for a decade plant
trees/If you plan for the future, nurture
youth. This is where the National
Cadet Corps (NCC) proves its
significance. NCC inculcates in the
youth a sense of nationalism and
secular outlook that contributes
towards the building of the nation. It
also provides a platform for individual upliftment
through the process of channelising the energy of the
youth in constructive pursuits. Besides giving thrill
and excitement, NCC promotes camaraderie and
resilience and hones cultural skills to preserve the
cultural traditions and values of the society. It helps
the youth to realise the intimate relationship between
man and the community, between community and
nature and their inter-dependability.
NCC was conceived in 1917
when India Defence Act was
promulgated with an object of
making up the deficiencies in the
Armed Forces by raising the
University Corps. In 1920, with
the passage of India Territorial
Act, University Corps was
replaced by University Training Corps. In 1942, this Corps
was rechristened University Officers Training Corps. In
1946, a committee under Pandit H N Kunzru was set up at
the behest of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to formulate the
establishment of an organisation capable of training and
motivating the youth of the country to become better
citizens and leaders in all walks of life. Consequently, the
National Cadet Corps came into being on July 16, 1948
with the promulgation of the NCC Act XXXI of 1948. NCC
was placed under the Ministry of Defence.
Overall supervision and policy formation for the functioning
of this organisation rests with the Central Advisory
Committee. The Minister of State for Defence is the
Chairman of this committee. Constitution of the committee
is as under :
(a) Minister of State for Defence - Chairman.
(b) Defence Secretary - Ex officio member.
(c) Education Secretary - Ex officio member.
(d) Three Service Chiefs - Ex officio members.
(e) Financial Adviser Defence Services - Ex officio
(f) Two members of Lok Sabha - nominated members.
(g) One member from Rajya Sabha - nominated member.
(h) Five non - official members nominated by the Central
NCC is administered through the Ministry of Defence. The
Defence Secretary, Ministry of Defence is responsible to
ensure the smooth and efficient functioning of this
organisation at the Ministry level. In the year 2000, the
Central Advisory Committee modified the aims of NCC
which read :
- To develop qualities of character, courage, comradeship,
discipline, secular outlook, spirit of adventure,
sportsmanship and the ideals of selfless service among
the youth to make them useful citizens.
- To create a human resource of organised, trained and
motivated youth, to provide leadership in all walks of life
including the Armed Forces and always make them
available for the service of the nation.
- To create a suitable environment to motivate the youth to
take up a career in the Armed Forces.
NCC is a voluntary organisation
for students of the schools and
colleges. School students of the
age of above 13 years can join
as junior cadets and students
from class XI and above, can join
this organisation as senior
cadets. This organisation from its
humble beginning of 32500 senior cadets and 135000
junior cadets, has grown to above eleven lakhs cadets with
4.33 lakh senior cadets and 7.3 lakh junior cadets. While
these figures seem big, they cover only a meagre 3.8 per
cent student population of the country. The executive
network of 745 units spreads from Leh in the Himalayas to
the Nicobar Islands in the south and from the Rann of
Kutch in the west to Kohima in the east. Presently, NCC
coverage is provided to 4560 colleges and 7040 schools.
Over 1400 schools and colleges are in the waiting list to
join NCC. It was given an inter-service image when the Air
Wing and Naval Wing were added to this organisation in
1952 and 1956 respectively.
By 1960, demand for NCC had grown substantially. To
meet this demand, an auxiliary corps was raised called
National Cadet Corps Rifles. In 1963, NCC was made
compulsory in all schools and colleges and the National
Cadet Corps Rifles was merged with NCC. Considering
the suggestions from the Vice-Chancellors of the
universities, NCC was again made a voluntary
organisation in 1968.
As already mentioned, the
Ministry of Defence with the
Defence Secretary being the
overall in charge of the NCC
controls this organisation. At the
Headquarters level, this
organisation is headed by an
officer of the rank of Lieutenant
General. He is the Director General of the NCC. Two other
officers of the rank of Major General, five Brigadier level
officers and other civil officials assist him. The
Headquarters is located in Delhi. There are 16
Directorates located in the state capitals headed by an
officer of the rank of a Brigadier from the three Services.
Depending upon the size of the state and growth of NCC
in the states, Directorates have up to 14 Group
Headquarters under them through which they exercise
their command and control of the organisation in the state.
Group Headquarters have battalions and companies under
their command through which the organisation functions.
There are 91 Group Headquarters, 546 Army Wing Units,
58 Naval Wing Units and 58 Air Wing Units spread over
the length and breadth of the country. At the school and
college level, there are troops and companies that are
headed by the teacher of the institution who is selected
and trained to head the sub-unit. This person is called the
Associate NCC Officer. There are two training
establishments namely Officers Training School, Kamptee
and Women Officers Training School, Gwalior. These two
institutions train the school and college teachers selected
to head the company/troop. Courses in these institutions
range from 21 days to 90 days in duration.
The Central Government covers the pay and allowances of
the central government employees, NCC clothing,
centralised camps, 50 per cent of the budget of all states
camp and equipment for adventure activities like boats,
gliders, horses etc. State governments finance the pay and
allowances of the state employees, cadet’s refreshments
and washing allowances, funds to train and pay the
Associate NCC Officers and 50 per cent of the camp
budget of state NCC camps. Personnel for the conduct of
NCC activities include the service personnel, Associate
NCC Officers and the civilian staff. Service personnel
include officers, JCOs and NCOs. Officers formulate the
policies and supervise their implementation. Associate
NCC Officers, JCOs and NCOs are the implementing
A cadet can continue in NCC for two years as a junior
cadet and three years as a senior cadet. Each year of
training consists of 150 periods and 120 periods for junior
and senior division cadets respectively. Institutional
training consists of service subjects, social subjects and
subjects related to adventure activities and subjects
promoting national integration. During training years,
cadets get opportunity to attend various types of NCC
camps. At the end of two years training, the cadets can
appear for the certificate examinations.
NCC plays a very dominant role in inculcating social ethos
in the youth of the country. It undertakes various social
service activities like aid to the administration in times of
calamities, preservation of environment and ecology, blood
donation campaigns, literacy programs and construction
and cleanliness drives.
To be successful in life, one has to be bold to take
calculated risk even at great discomfort. NCC develops
these qualities in the youth by putting them through
rigorous training including adventure activities. These
activities develop special qualities of leadership, courage,
comradeship and self-confidence. Adventure activities in
the NCC include : mountaineering and trekking
expeditions, rock climbing, para training and jumping
camps, gliding, slithering, microlight flying, sailing, surfing,
scuba diving, boat pulling etc.
The Central Advisory Committee in November 1996
decided to include games and sports in the curriculum of
the cadets training to make NCC more attractive.
Disciplines included in this activity are athletics, football
and volleyball.
Youth Exchange Programmes between NCC of India and
youth organisations of other countries are undertaken
yearly. The Exchange Programme includes mutual visits
up to 24 days in which cadets undertake billeting families,
community work projects, educational activities etc. These
projects develop mutual respect, adaptability, self-
discipline, cross cultural learning and above all, love for
one’s country. India has Youth Exchange Programme with
Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Canada, Maldives, Nepal,
Singapore, Sri Lanka, United Kingdom and Vietnam.
NCC trains the cadets to become responsive individuals,
sensitive to the needs of the community. This active
participation teaches dignity of labour and ignites the
creative instinct that lies latent in the youth. This is
achieved through the scientifically planned NCC
curriculum. It aims at developing a new work of ethos
characterised by hard work, sincerity of purpose and the
ideals of selfless service with a secular outlook.