Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 316

BHARATHIAR UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)

CHALLENGES IN
INDIAN EDUCATION
UNIT: 1 – V

1
2
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION

Course Introduction

The course comprises five units

The first unit discusses history of Indian education – Gurukula system of


education, Buddhist, Jain and Christian missionaries. The progress of education in
Free India, the educational responsibilities of Central and State Government, India’s
secular policy and regional educational development in India has been discussed.

In unit 2 discusses the role of teacher towards pupils development,


community, National integration international understanding. Educational agencies
and system of education like formal and non formal.

Unit 3 discusses the current problems at various levels of education comprises


and primary, secondary, Higher secondary, the problem of Women’s education and
teacher education.

In unit 4 the main focus is on the areas like health and nutrition, population
education and physical education.

In unit 5 the main emphasis on the western schools of thought, educational


philosophies of Indian thinkers. Besides the principles, curriculum construction and
involvement of teachers in curriculum planning, promotion of scientific attitude
among students and the institutional planning and application modern management
techniques in educational institutions.

Course Writer

A. SURYALATHA
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

AVINASHILINGAM DEEMED UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN

COIMBATORE – 641 108.

3
4
BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.)
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
CONTENTS
Unit / Lesson No. Title Page No.

UNIT – I HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION


1.1 Education in Ancient and British Period 6

1.2 The Progress of Education in Free India 21

1.3 Education in Indian Constitution 33

1.4 India’s Secular Policy – Religious And Moral Education 45

1.5 Regional Educational Development In India 56

UNIT – II ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF


EDUCATION

2.1 Implications of Democracy, Socialism and Secularism


Through Indian Education 67

2.2 Role Of Teacher In Emerging Indian Society 77

2.3 Educational Influences of Home, School,


Community and Mass Media 90

2.4 Formal and non Formal System of Education 104

2.5 Continuing Education and The Concepts of


Open University 115

UNIT – III CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN


EDUCATION

3.1 Primary Education 127

3.2 Secondary Education 139


5
3.3 Higher Secondary Education 154

3.4 Women Education 161

3.5 Teacher Education 171

UNIT – IV HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION

4.1 School Health Education Programmes 183

4.2 Nutrition Education 195

4.3 Population Education 207

4.4 Physical Education 220

4.5 Environmental Education 233

UNIT – V PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF


EDUCATION

5.1 Different Philosophies of Education 247

5.2 Educational Philosophy of Gandhiji, Tagore


and Swami Vivekananda 260

5.3 Curriculum Construction 275

5.4 Promotion of Scientific Outlook and Attitude


among Students 284

5.5 Institutional Planning 294

6
UNIT – I

7
8
HISTORY OF INDIAN EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION
India has one of the oldest and longest traditions of philosophical thinking in
the world. This tradition covers the vedic thought Buddhism, Jainism and their
educational implication. During the later ages Indian thought also assimilated the
creative influence of the west.

Lesson1 deals with the salient features of Gurukula system of education, and
Jain system of education. Due emphasis has been laid on the recommend of various
commissions and committee during British Era.

In, Lesson 2, we have discussed the progress of education in Free India. The
appointment of various committees and commissions and their major
recommendations on various aspects of education have also been described

In Lesson 3, we emphasis our Indian constitution and its Directive Principles


and important articles related to education, educational responsibilities of Central and
State Government.

Lesson 4, of this Block explains the importance of Religious and Moral


education in Schools. The need, aims and recommendations of Committee on
Religious and Moral education has been dealt.

Lesson 5, discusses the regional educational development in India, regional


imbalances and variations in different environment.

9
10
LESSON 1.1
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND BRITISH PERIOD

STRUCTURE

1.1.1 Introduction

1.1.2 Objectives

1.1.3 Gurukula system of Education

1.1.3.1 Salient features of Gurukula system of Education

1.1.3.2 Merits of the Gurukula system of Education

1.1.4 Buddhist system of Education

1.1.4.1 Features of Buddhist system of Education

1.1.4.2 Educational implications of Buddhist education

1.1.5 Jain system of education

1.1.5.1 Practical teachings of Jainism

1.1.5.2 Aims of Jain system of Education

1.1.5.3 Curriculum of Jain system of Education

1.1.5.4 Methods of Jain system of Education

1.1.6 Education during British Era

1.1.6.1 Charter Act of 1813

1.1.6.2 Macaulay’s Minutes (1833)

1.1.6.3 Wood’s Despatch (1854)

1.1.6.4 Hunter Commission (1882)

1.1.6.5 Hartog Committee (1929)

11
1.1.6.6 Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937)

1.1.6.7 Sargent Report (1944)

1.1.7 Let us sum up

1.1.8 Unit End Exercises

1.1.9 Answers to check your progress

1.1.10 Suggested Readings

1.1.1 INTRODUCTION

The search for a proper system of education has been a subject for serious
thought in all the civilized societies since ancient times to present day. India, being
one of the most ancient democratic in the world, Education in India, has a long past
history starting in vedic education. The history of education passed through Buddhist,
Muslim and British periods, while vedic education was the ancient Indian model,
British system of education presented the modern western model. And even after
half a century since the departure of British rulers from India, the Indian system of
education is creating what Macaulay wanted to create, “a class of persons, Indian in
blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals and in the intellect”.

1.1.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. explain the salient features of Gurukula system of Education
2. discuss the notable features of Buddhist system of Education
3. describe the Jain system of Education
4. elucidate the education during British Era.

1.1.3 GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

Since time immemorial, education has ever been looked at Indian culture as a
holistic effort. Our culture is in the core attributes of education beginning from
Gurukula type of education, where the disciples lived in the house of the Master who
taught what all things he knew for years together.

1.1.3.1 SALIENT FEATURES OF GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

1. Ai m o f Edu cati on
Self Realizat io n. T he u lt imat e a im o f education in ancient India was
not knowledge as preparation for life, but for complete realisation of self for
liberation of the soul from fetters of life, both present and future. That
12
knowledge was real, which led to emaciation led from unreality to
realit y, from darkness, to light, from eternal to immorality
2. Free and Accessible. Education was free and accessible to all who sought
it.
3. No State Control on Education. Education was a private affair of the
people, managed entirely by Brahmans. Rulers of the country could subsidies
it, if they thought fit to do so, with grants of land or money. They could
impose no conditions or control on teachers affecting their freedom of
work.
4. High Status of Teachers. Teachers were a highly honoured class—honoured
even by kings. Kings rose from their thrones to receive great teachers such as
Narada, Vashishtha and Vishwamitra.
5. Teacher as Parents. Teachers behaved as parents to their pupils and pupils
behaved as members of the teacher’s family. The attitude of the pupil was to
be one of the complete submissions.
6. Residential Schools. Teachers and pupils lived together and so identified
themselves with one another
7. Immediate Aim Vocational. The immediate aim of education, however, was
to prepare the different classes of people for their actual needs of life.
8. Curriculum. The subjects of instruction varied according to the vocational
needs of the different classes from the Vedas and Vedandas in the case of
Brahmans, to the art of warfare in the case of Kshatriyas, and to
agriculture and trade, arts and crafts in the case of Vaishyas.
9. Method of Instruction. The method of instruction generally consisted of
recitation by the teacher and repetition by the pupil, followed by explanation
by the teacher, questioning by the pupil, and discussion between the
teacher and the pupil.
10. Individual Teaching. Pupils were taught, individually, not en masse by the
class method. Where pupils were many, the monitorial plan was
followed, the more advanced pupils being appointed to teach the less
advanced.
11. Method of Study. The method of study consisted of listening to the teacher,
reflection on what has been listened to and its constant revision.
12. Role of Travel in Education. Travel was regarded as necessary to give a
finishing touch of education.
13. Education of Moral, Religious and Spiritual. Education was not for a public
examination or for paid public or private service, as it is generally considered
to be at present. It was not merely intellectual. It was also moral, religious
and spiritual.
14. Forests as Centres of Education. The place of education was generally the
forest “far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife “
15. Sanskrit as the Medium of Instruction. The medium of instruction in
institutions conducted by Brahmans was Sanskrit.
16. Self-Control and Self-Discipline. There was, generally, corporal
punishment Self-control or self discipline was considered to be the best
discipline.

13
17. Wide-Spread Education in Women. In the earlier Vedic and Upanishad
times, girls were free to go through the Upanayana ceremony, lived a life of
celebacy, studied Vedas, Vedangas and other subjects among with their
brother pupils.

1.1.3.2 MERITS OF THE GURUKULA SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

The system of education was well-organised. It was suited to the needs of


the society. Education was considered as the greatest gift in ancient India. It was
aimed at the development of the personality of an individual to its maximum
extent. Education helped in the realisation of spiritual and moral values, besides
preparing for worldly pursuits. It was freely available to all those who wanted.
There was no system of paying fees as we find it today. The relations
between teachers and the pupils were based on love and affection. They were very
cordial and intimate. Both were bound by mutual confidence and reverence.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. What was the immediate aim of Education in the Gurukula system of Education?

2. What were the methods of instruction adopted in the Gurukula system of


Education?

3. Write any two merits of Gurukula system of Education?

14
1.4 BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

Buddhist education came into existence in the 5th century B.C. Brahmans
deprived the common people of their right to education, and hence the emergence of
Buddhism granted the people the freedom to obtain education and to practice their
religion themselves. Lord Buddha imparted to life a perfectly practicable form.
Consequently, a practicable religion and a practical educational system became a variable
to the common people.

Buddhism was originally conceived and imparted as ethical principles. Buddha


was concerned about the suffering, disease and death of the human beings. He
suggested following Astanga Marga (Eight-fold path) namely,
1. Right knowledge
2. Right thought
3. Right speech
4. Right activity
5. Right means of livelihood
6. Right endeavour
7. Right memory
8. Right contemplation

1.4.1 FEATURES OF BUDDHIST SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

Buddhist education had many notable features, the most significant of which were the
following
1. Abilities of the student: In the Buddhist period, every class in society, except
the Chandals, had the right to receive education. It was denied only to the ill, the
handicapped, the dishonoured and those punished for crimes. Education began at the age of
8 till the age of 12, the student remained in a state of Shramana. After attaining the age
of 20, he was qualified to become a monk. Education was imparted through the, medium
of Pali.
2. Pababja Ritual (First Ordination Ceremony) : Before a student could enter
a monastery for receiving education, he had to perform the Pababja ritual, in which,
the student had his head shaved of all hair, dressed himself in yellow clothes, placed
his forehead at the feet of the monks living in the monastery and sat cross-legged on the
floor to repeat the following words thrice
I take Refuge to Buddha.
I take Refuge to Dharma.
I take Refuge to Sangh.
He was then ordained to obey ten rules, which included abstaining from theft,
killing of any living being, impure conduct, partaking of food at prohibited times, use
of intoxicating things, use of cosmetics, taking things without being offered, accepting
objects of gold and silver in alms, watching dances or listening to music, etc. After the
performing of this ritual the student was called ‘shramana’ or ‘samner’.

15
3. Upsampada Ritual (Final Ordination Ceremony) : After attaining the age
of twenty years, the student had to adopt ‘Upsampada’. On this occasion, the presence
of the monks was essential. After this ritual, the male monks were called Bhikshu and
the female monks Bhikshuni. Even at this stage, monks were required to eat in their
begging bowls, wearing clothes begged from others and drinking the urine of a cow as
a medicine, etc.
4. System of Education: The total period of education was 22 years, composed
of 12 years as Pababja and 10 years as Upsampada.
5. Student-teacher relationship: Students were required to serve their teachers,
beg for alms, eat food thrice a day, wear three items. of clothes, bathe themselves with
pure water and live in discipline.
6. Status of Women: In the Buddhist period, women occupied a position inferior
to men. Initially; they were prohibited from joining a Sangha or congregation. Later on,
they were granted admission to such congregations and it was then that feminine
education progressed.
7. Vocational Education: The syllabus of education during this period was
comprehensive. It comprehended education in writing, agriculture, commerce,
cottage industries, animal husbandry, elephant lore, archery, magic, knowledge of
reviving the dead, knowledge of animal cries and sounds, control over sensuous activities,
bodily gestures, medicine, etc.
8. Syllabus: During the Buddhist period, education was impart in art, handicrafts,
military science, the science of taming and training animals, archery, geology, etc.,
along with education in script writing, arithmetic and religious discussion. The
education syllabus was divided into the religious and the material or worldly.

1.4.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION

The transition from the practical to the theoretic is referred to as later


Buddhism which is more philosophical than religious, changing the goals, meaning,
aspirations and, objectives of human life, giving birth to a variety of philosophical
schools varying in their origin, nature, approach, assumptions, depth and range. These
are called later Buddhist schools, which registered a shift from ethics to epistemology. The
entire pattern and approach of teaching changed as educat ion acquired new
meaning and significance as these schools progressively advanced in their
speculations, much in the same manner as the British Empiricists centuries later
1. According to Buddhist philosophy knowledge may have value for life and may,
therefore, be considered the aim of education It, however, has no metaphysical value for
life. Knowledge has value only if it works and brings desired results, almost sharing the
pragmatic and positivist outlook on life and education.
2. The concept of approximate verification is considered adequate to meet the demand
of practical life. Whatever its nature and extent, knowledge is at the core as it “lights
up the path of action; and, so long as it successfully does so, it is regarded as true”.
(Hiniyanna) Truth is knowledge in action and therefore, is the crux of all educational
activities which are in and through life.
3. As reality is becoming, a change is not only total but also perpetual. Hence,
nothing is of any permanent consequence. Life is in a flux, a continuous change creating

16
new and peculiar situations. Education must, therefore, prepare a child to understand
and deal with such fast moving situations and changes with alacrity and success.
Validity is effective and consequences, whatever works are true and good.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. Write Eight fold path


.

5. What is Pababja and Upsampada rituals?

6. Give the curriculum of Buddhist system to Education?

1.1.5 JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

Jainism is independent of Buddhism yet it resembles it in several respects, such


as, in its repudiation of the authority of the Vedas, its pessimistic outlook on life, and its
refusal to believe in supreme God. But the differences it exhibits are equally
noticeable, such as its recognition of permanent entities (like the self jiva) and matter.
In this it resembles Brahmanism and is called a theological mean between
Brahmanism and Buddhism. Derived from the word jina with root in it means
‘victor’, i.e., the one who has successfully subdued his passions and obtained mastery
over himself. Sometimes mixed up with Buddhism, it is much older than the latter, and
Vardhaman or Mahavira was its last prophet. In fact, twenty three ‘teerthankars’
(prophets) had preceded him. However, the credit for reforming and cleaning up its creed,
and to give it a shape that it has today, goes to Vardhaman.

1.5.1 PRACTICAL TEACHINGS OF JAINISM

The special features of Jainism are found in its practical teaching. Its chief feature,
however, is extreme severity which is applicable even to a householder. Jainism insists

17
neither on enlightenment alone or on conduct alone, but on both. As such, it has a foot in
both the words.

1. Tri-ratna or three gems of its teaching are as under three precious principles of
life
a) Right faith.
b) Right knowledge.
c) Right conduct.
2. Five vows (vrata) of an ascetic would indicate the general character. They are:
a) Not to injure.
b) Not utter falsehood.
c) Not to steal.
d) To lead a celibate life.
e) To renounce the world.
f) For a layman these are replaced by chastity and contentment.
3. Ahimsa (Non-violence) is the foremost virtue in Ind ian t ho ught but in
Jainism, it acquires dist inct meaning and depth: it is non-violence in
word, thought and deed.
4. Emphasizing the individualistic aspect, Jainism emphasizes on the
development of personality as the final aim. Jaina teachings are social and
tolerant, and believe in happiness to all.
5. There are two levels of discipline depending on the severity of the vows which
are different for the monks and of lay life, and considers those of the monk as
superior to the other kind.
6. The aim of life is to get oneself disentangled from karma. Jainism believes in
the transmigration of soul. Soul united with karma is called a soul in bondage,
and is to be redeemed and liberated.
7. Moksha means dissolution of partnership between soul and matter, restoring the
ideal character of the jiva.
8. Jainism rejects God as the creator of this world, as a need to create the world
would be inconsistent with his necessary perfection. Jainism looks upon man
himself as God when his inherent powers are fully in bloom.
9. Jaina views are both relativistic and pluralistic as it recognises jivas and the
material objects.
10. The primary aim of Jainism is the perfection of the soul, rather than the
interpretation of the universe, hence it fails to find ultimate solutions of the
metaphysical problem.

1.1.5.2 AIMS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

1. Self-realisation as jiva is divine. Education must focus on his divinity and


remove the material bond of soul.
2. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of jiva.
3. Development of personality as an individual. Hence, more stress on individual
aims.

18
4. Teaching should give necessary jnana and penance to help jiva disentangle from
Karma.
5. Belief in transmigration of soul, hence education may partly be the preparation for
the next world.
1.5.3 CURRICULUM IN JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

1. ‘Punya’ and ‘paap’ are the two principles of the nine categories. Hence, education
should develop sense of discrimination.
2. Education should include provision for attainment of Tri-ratnas, the precious
principles of life that bring happiness, success and love, here and now.
3. Education should inculcate non-violence as a virtue, practised and not only aspired
for, that would be socially desirable.
4. Teaching of nine principles called as Nine-categories of Jainism to dissolve the
partnership between soul and matter.

1.5.4 METHODS OF JAIN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

1. Knowledge is through senses and meditation. Teaching must develop these


faculties.
2. Teaching should be social and tolerant, and should bring happiness to all.
3. Jiva is essentially karmic, therefore, education must be action based and ideally
oriented.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

7. What are Triratnas ?

8. List out any two aims of Jain system of Education?

19
1.1.6 EDUCATION DURING BRITISH ERA

Evolution of the modern system of education proceeds in a zigzag fashion, with rally
and rout. The circumstances shape its course and when a foreign ruler governs its progress,
much of the system evolves through the fancy of the ruler. The indigenous education came
to a nought when the British rule fashioned the system of education modelled after their
own. We shall attempt to trace the progress of education through the reports available at
different periods.

1.6.1 THE CHARTER ACT OF 1813

The Charter Act of 1813 stated, “A sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in
each year shall be set apart and applied to the improvement of literature and the
encouragement of the learned natives of India for the introduction and promotion of
knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories in India”.

1.6.2 MACAULAY’S MINUTES (1833)

Macaulay in 1833 published a report, which prophesied that the government is going
to train a bunch of Bengalis in such a way that they will serve their British masters in
their administrative work, “they would be able to fill up the subordinate posts” in the
administrative machinery (Government of India, 1953).

Consequent to Macaulay's Minute, a government communiqué (1835) expressed that


“the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature
and science among the natives of India”. They promised to open schools and colleges to
teach English to the local Indians. Education was to be imparted with the limited object of
preparing pupils to join the service, and not for life.

1.6.3 WOOD'S DESPATCH (1854)

In 1854, a review of the existing system showed that much of the system was
inadequate. Through a report known as Wood’s Despatch (1854), they proceeded to
provide useful and practical knowledge to the people of India, which they were
incapable of obtaining from the schools of that time.
In the report some specific recommendations were made as follows:
1. To cause diffusion of knowledge of improved arts, science, philosophy and
literature of Europe.
2. To set up separate departments of, public instruction in the five provinces of
Bengal, Madras, Bombay, North West Province and Punjab.

1.6.4 HUNTER COMMISSION (1882)

Money was allocated to establish a number of high schools. However, primary

20
education was neglected. In 1882, the Government of India appointed an education
commission to enquire into the existing education system, and make suitable
recommendations (Hunter Commission). Following were the recommendations:

The Commission found proliferation of a number of schools. To ensure qualitative


improvement, it recommended that the Government should withdraw from further
expansion of education, and the local bodies may be entrusted with the running of the
schools. The universities dominated the secondary education. Instead of being a self-sufficient
course, secondary education became a step towards university. Courses of studies remained
unrelated to life, and no provisions were made for vocational or technical studies.

The Hunter Commission (1882) suggested two avenues of education, namely, general
education leading to the entry to the university and technical education which was of practical
and vocational nature. This was for the first time that a diversified system of education
was suggested. It also formulated definite policies on various aspects of education. The
decade following 1921 was a period of rapid expansion of education especially, at the
primary level.

1.6.5 HARTOG COMMITTEE (1929)

Hartog Committee of 1929 proposed introduction of diversified curriculum at the


secondary level so that industrial and commercial subjects may be taken up by children to
prepare them for practical occupations. Later on, they named these schools as polytechnic
schools.

At that time M.K. Gandhi gave his call for non-violent and non-cooperation movement.
Gandhi felt that the prevalent British education lent support to the exploitation and
oppression of the poor and helpless people of India. Then the prevalent education was
anti-national, godless (atheistic) and taught people to worship wealth and material success.
This education produced clerks by thousands and did not make men. He thought of
replacing this English education by a truly national system of education which must be
cheap enough to be available to crores of poor people and must make students self-reliant,
self-respecting and competent.

1.6.6 ZAKIR HUSSAIN COMMITTEE REPORT (1937)

In 1937, the Congress approached Gandhi for a well-thought out plan of primary and
secondary education. His ideas were discussed by Zakir Hussain Committee (1937).
• Universal free primary education,
• Secondary education, according to the ability and aptitude of the learners,
• Diversification from the age of 14 years in various streams.

1.6.7 SARGENT REPORT (1944)

In 1944, Postwar Report of Sir John Sargent was published. The broad
outlines of the report are as follows:
21
At the primary stage (6-11 years), all children are to have a common
curriculum. After this stage, children (11-14 years) should have a secondary course of
5-6 years duration which should be adequately planned for entry into industrial,
commercial and technical occupations as well as to universities. The report
suggested that there may be a third group of schools which would recruit pupils
aged 13 years from the other two types of schools and provide them with a general
education with a strong vocational bias to fit them for direct entry into commerce or
industry. The report suggested development of adult education scheme, Indian
University Grants Commission and All India Council for Technical Education.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

9. What are the provisions in Charter Act of 1813?

10. Hunter Commission was appointed in the year

11. Which Commission the establishment of Indian University Grants


Commission?

12. Zakhir Hussain Committee was appointed in the year

1.1.7 LET US SUM UP

Indian Education system has covered a long distance from vedic period of
British Empire. During this period it has fuced so many problems and it has tried to
save their own traditious and system for the new generation as we are feeling now and
observing their qualities to develop our country as we want.

The history of modern Indian education is traced through some reports of


various commissions. Macaulay (1833) accepted the responsibility of providing
primary education to the Indians. The objective of education was to provide

22
education of European literature, science and English language, so that the
Indians can help the British rulers in their administration.

Woods Despatch (1854) recommended specific course contents, setting up of


Department of Public Instruction in five provinces of India, establishment of
universities, teacher training centres and provision of grants-in-aid system to the
schools. Hunter's Commission (1882) recommended withdrawal of government
from running of the schools; instead private bodies were to take charge of schools. It
suggested diversified courses for polytechnic school. Hartog Commission (1929)
suggested stopping quantitative expansion and starting diversified courses.

Zakir Hussain Committee Report (1937) called for a national system of


education. Gandhiji's Basic Education Scheme was examined.

1.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Discuss the salient features of Gurukula system of education


2. What are the educational implications of Buddhist system of education?
3. Explain Jain system of education
4. Trace out the development of education during British Era.

1.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. The immediate aim of education, was to prepare the different classes of people
for their actual needs of life.

2. The method of instruction generally consisted of recitation by the teacher and


repetition by the pupil, followed by explanation by the teacher, questioning
by the pupil, and discussion between the teacher and the pupil.

3. a. The system of education was well-organised.


b. It was suited to the needs of the society.

4. Right knowledge, Right thought, Right speech, Right activity, Right means of
livelihood, Right endeavour, Right memory, Right contemplation.

5. First and Final Ordination Ceremony in Buddhist System of Education.

6. During the Buddhist period, education was impart in art, handicrafts, military
science, the science of taming and training animals, archery, geology, etc., along
with education in script writing, arithmetic and religious discussion.

23
7. a. Right faith.
b. Right knowledge.
c. Right conduct.

8. a. Education should lead to self-enlightenment and restore the full powers of


jiva.
b. Development of personality as an individual. Hence, more stress on individual aims.

9. Improvement of Literature, Encouragement of Learned Natives of Indian and


Introduction and Promotion of Knowledge of Science.

10. 1882.

11. Sargent report

12. 1937

1.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS


Aggarwal. J.C. (2005). Development of Educational System in India.
New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Aggarwal. J.C. (1984). Land marks in the History of Modern Indian
Education. New Delhi : Anmol Publications
Pvt. Ltd.
Singh, Y.K. and Nath, R. (2009). History of Indian Education System. New Delhi
:
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Sharma, Y.K. (2007), Sociological & Philosophy of Education New
Delhi : Kanishka Publishers.

24
LESSON 1.2

THE PROGRESS OF EDUCATION IN FREE INDIA

STRUCTURE

1.2.1 Introduction

1.2.2 Objectives

1.2.3 Educational Commissions and Committees appointed in Independent India

1.2.3.1 University Education Commission

1.2.3.2 Secondary Education Commission

1.2.3.3 Kothari Commission

1.2.3.4 National Policy on Education

1.2.4 Vocationalisation of Education

1.2.5 Socially Useful Productive Work

1.2.6 Community and Social Service

1.2.7 Let us sum up

1.2.8 Unit End Exercises

1.2.9 Answers to check your progress

1.2.10 Suggested Readings

1.2.1 INTRODUCTION

In free India that education has made rapid progress in beyond doubt.
There had been quantitative expansion of education in an unprecendented
manner. Efforts for the qualitative improvement were also made in great
measure by the Government of India and the State Government in well designed
and desired manner through proper planning of educational development. The

25
welfare services of students and teachers have been laudably provided. There
had been vast institutional expansion, explosion of enrolment, diversification of
courses of studies, expansion of vocational, technical, technological
engineering, medical and legal education, girls and women education besides
primary, secondary and higher education.

1.2.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. analyse the progress of education in free India.
2. understand the appointment of various commission and committees on
education in Independent India.

1.2.3 EDUCATIONAL COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES


APPOINTED IN INDEPENDENT INDIA

The following are some of the important Educational Commissions and


Committees appointed in Independent India:
1. The University Education Commission under the chairmanship of
Dr. S. Radhakrishnan (1948-49)
2. The Secondary Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr.
Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar (1952-53)
3. The University Grants Commission (1952) (UGC)
4. National Council for Women’s Education
5. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
6. National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
7. Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Kothari (1964-66)
8. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
9. National Board of Teacher Education
10. The Education Review Committee of 1977 and
11. New Educational Policy, 1986

1.2.3.1 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1948-49)

After independence the Union Government appointed University


Commission under the chairmanship of eminent scholar and philosopher Dr.
Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan. The Commission was to study various aspects of
university education in India and suggest means for its re-organisation and
improvement. Apparently the Commission’s field was limited to university
education but university education was so closely related to secondary education
that the Commission had to study certain aspects of secondary education.

The Commission made important recommendations regarding various


aspects of education such as – service- conditions of the teachers, vocational
education, examination system, curriculum, standard of teaching, Post-graduate

26
teaching, research et.

1.2.3.2 SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION (1952-53)


On September 23, 1952, the Government of India appointed Secondary
Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. A. Lakshmana Swami
Mudaliar, the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The Commission is also
known as Mudaliar Commission. It was to study the present position of
secondary education and recommend suitable measures for its improvement and
re-organisation.

1.2.3.3 KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66)

In 1964, the Government of India appointed Indian education


Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S. Kothari, the chairman of
University Grants commission. The Commission’s main purpose was “to advise
government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles
and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects”.
This Commission is also popularly known as Kothari Commission. The
Commission studied to problems pertaining to different aspects of Indian
education and submitted its valuable report on June 29, 1966.

1.2.3.4 NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION (1986)

Since the adoption of the policy on education in 1986 there had been
considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.
However, the general formulations incorporated in the 1968 policy were not
translated into a detailed study of implementation. Problems of access, quality,
quantity, utility and financial outlay, accumulated over the years, assumed such
massive proportions that they must be talked with the utmost urgency.
Therefore, in January 1985, the Government of India announced that a New
Education Policy would be formulated in the country. A status Paper Challenge
of Education – A Policy perspective was issued by the Ministry of Education,
Government of India. This document included a comprehensive appraisal of the
existing system of education. There was a country – wide debate on educational
reforms in the country. Finally, the New National Policy on Education, 1986,
was approved by the Parliament in May 1986.

Provision of the National Policy of Education


1. The Essence and Role of Education. Education is the key to our all-
round development, material and spiritual.
2. National System of Education. The national system of education
envisages common educational structure.
3. A meaningfully Partnership. There will be a meaningful partnership
between the Centre and the States.
4. Education for Equality. All possible efforts will be made on the removal

27
of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity by attending to the
specific needs of the women, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, the
minorities and the handicapped.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Who was the chairman of University Education Commission

2. Secondary Education Commission was appointed in the year

1.2.4 VOCATIONALISATION OF EDUCATION

Vocationalisation of education starting from the secondary stage would


facilitate the development of all round personality. By working with hands,
adolescents can learn dignity of labour and experience the joy of doing creative
work. It would educative as well as interesting to produce with efficiency and
integrity the things of utility and beauty. It can train practical aptitudes,
facilitates favourable attitudes and promote co-operative work towards better
life and happier world. Vocational education aims at laying the foundation for
the world of work. Vocational education is given by the +2 or higher secondary
stage.

Vocationalisation of secondary education is different from technical or


vocational education imparted in Technical Schools, Polytechnics or Industrial
Training Institutes. The UNESCO Report, 1974 pointed out that vocationalisation
of educat ion embraces all t ho se aspects o f the educat ional process “which
involve in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related
sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and
knowledge relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social
life.” Thus, the dichotomy between education and work should go through
vocationalisation. Vocational awareness and readiness should permeate the
entire school curriculum in order to relate education to life, needs and
aspirations of pupils and national productivity.

Work educat ion or SUPW programme will lay t he foundation and


vocationalisation of secondary education will prepare 50 per cent of the learners for
vocations, particularly for middle-level supervisory jobs. Thus, the concepts of work
experience, work education and SUPW are closely related to vocationalisation of
education. They contribute to the social and economic growth of the country and
earning ability of the child. Vocationalisation will prepare the child for some
skills and understanding of the processes and principles involved in production,

28
but no guarantee can be given for providing jobs to millions. As such, it will conduce
self- employment and promote economic independence of the youth.

The Radhakrishnan Commission, 1948 recommends that in order to direct


the students to vocations at the end of class-X, a large number of intermediate
colleges should be opened. “The aim of these colleges, would be to meet a
var iet y o f needs of our yo ung men and women by a vocational bias to their
courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education
as preparation for university courses.”

The Mudaliar Commission, 1952-53 reiterated that “the secondary education


is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage that at the end of
this period the student should be in a position, if he wishes, to enter into
responsibilities of life and take up some vocations." It also suggested for
diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. This resulted in the creation of
multipurpose Schools which were reduced to shadows of what were intended to
develop.

In 1955, the All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) was set-up to


advise the Union Government on all aspects of technical education. It was about
the same t ime that a network of Industrial Training Institutes to train the base-
level industrial workers was started. Besides, a number of polytechnics and junior or
technical schools were stated with a view to continuing technical education for
certain types of operational jobs in industries.

The Education Commission, 1964-66 observed that activities in Basic


Education provided work-experience that should form an integral part of general
education. The Co mmissio n also clar ified t hat wo rk-exper ience was
essentially akin to the philosophy of Basic Education which was based on
indigenous crafts of the village employment patterns forging a link between
education and productivity. “It may be described,” the Kothari Commission
mentioned, “as a redefinition of his (Gandhiji's) educational thinking in terms of a
society launched on the road to industrialisation.”

T he Co mmis s io n su g g est ed t hat at t he h igher secondary stage there


need be two distinctive streams: one preparing students for advanced education in the
universities and the professional colleges and the other preparing for a variety of
occupations immediately after completion of vocational studies which fit
them into these vocations. According to, the Commission, the duration for college
preparatory general education courses may be two years and the duration for the
vocational stream may range from one to three years or more.

With adequate planning, co-ordinations, co-operation and implementation


of the scheme, the Commission felt that it would be possible to divert at least 50 per
cent of the student s to the vocat ional stream after t he successful completion
of 10-years schooling. This could also reduce the pressure on the Universities on the
one hand and preparing students for employment including self-employment on the

29
ot her. It would be a t erminal st age for a major it y o f vocational higher
secondary students.

The Central Advisory Board of Education, the, highest body concerned with
educational policy in the country in 1974 pleaded for augmentation of funds for
introduction of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage and in 1975 adopted
the educational pattern of 10+2+3 at the national level with a greater emphasis on
Vocational education. The conference of Ministers of Education of the States and
Union Territories in 1977 recommended the adoption of the new p a t t e r n o f
E d u c a t i o n w i t h s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s o n vocationalisation by adequate
restructures.

With a view to relating education to the life, needs and aspirat ions o f the
societ y as suggested by the Kothari Commission, the NCERT (1975) in “The
Curriculum for the Ten-Year School—A Framework” has enunciated,. “For
harmonious development of the child’s personality, it is necessary not only to
expose him to scholastic areas for intellectual development but also to put him in
situations where he may get opportunities to work with his hands and develop proper
attitude towards manual labour. In addition, there is an urgent need to bridge the
gap between the work of school and world of work.”

It was apprehended that this gap will widen further, if no t co nt ro lle d


ear ly, du e t o mo der n t echno lo g ica l development and increasingly
technology-based society of the future. Therefore, work experience was expected to
constitute an essent ial component o f general educat ion and t his approach
should permeate the entire school curriculum, but it was criticized that work
experience which was intended to be an integral feature of the curriculum at all
stages, did not find a proper place in the teaching-learning process that
followed the introduction of the new pattern, giving the impression that curriculum
developed by NCERT would perpetuate the same old system of bookish education.

As per the decision of the Central Advisory Board of Education, the NCERT
published a document on “Higher Secondary Education and its Vocationalisation”
resulted from wide-r ang ing discuss io n, cu lminat ing in a Nat io nal
Conference in 1976. This document contained many important and forward-looking
features such as flexibility in the choice of vocations, determining vocations
with reference to a district or a group of districts, need for district-wise survey of
eco nomic act ivit ies and potent ialit ies and consequent opportunities of work,
micro-planning at the district level and assessment of manpower needs, raising the
special facilities, for quality of life in the rural areas, etc. Its proposals also
raised questions on such matters as the nature and scope of vocationalisation, the rigid
streaming of courses, the semester and credit system, admission requirements to
vocational courses, lack of adequate vertical mobility in the Vocational Courses.

Subsequently, the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee (1977) substituted work-


experience by “Socially Useful Productive Wo rk ” ( SUP W). T h is Co mmit t ee

30
defined S UP W as “purposive, meaningful, manual work resulting in either
goods or services which are useful to the community”. Such productive work
related to the needs of the child and community will prove mechanically
sound and its process must be educational in essence. In short, its social usefulness
was emphasized as in the Basic Education philosophy was propounded by Gandhiji.

NPE 1986 proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of higher


secondary students by 1990 and 25 percent by 1995. Steps will be taken to see that a
substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or become
self-employed.

Revised NPE (1992) proposed that vocational courses cover 10 percent of


higher secondary students by 1995 and 25 percent by 2000. Steps will be taken to see
that a substantial majority of the products of vocational courses are employed or
become self-employed. Review of the courses offered would be regularly undertaken.
Government will also review its recruitment policy to encourage diversification at the
secondary level.

1.2.5 SOCIALLY USEFUL PRODUCTIVE WORK

There is obvious gulf between the world of education- and the world of work.
It is because of this that students of today are not able to adjust to the world
outside amicably after they leave their educational institutions. Many educational
commissions appointed in India and many educationists have felt it a dire need to
bridge the gulf. For this many suggestions and recommendations have been
offered in the past.

The Gandhian Scheme of Education was craft-centred. The Father of


Nation, who conceived the System of Basic Education, felt that education
should be centred around a craft, preferably spinning and weaving. The wave of
Basic Education, which swept the country for over two decades, aimed at this
goal. The Secondary Education Commission wanted rather the Basic approach to
be retained. It wished that a craft should be insisted in school curriculum. But
it gave a technological and scientific slant to the system of education of the
country by recommending Multi-Purpose Educational Institutions, which offer
scientific, technological courses including Agriculture, Commerce, etc., under the
diversified curricula of seven streams. The Education Commission of 1964-66 had
recommended for the introduction of Work Experience at all levels of
education, giving importance to productivity in the national development.

The Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977 recommended


Socially Useful Productive Work to be introduced in the school curriculum as a
compulsory subject. According to committee, Socially Useful Productive Work
(SUPW) is purposive, meaningful, manual work resulting in either goods or services,
which are useful to the community.

31
The aim of SUPW according to the committee, is to provide children with
opportunities of participating in social and economic activities inside and outside the
classroom, enabling them to understand scientific principles and process involved in
different types of work and in the setting in which they are found in the physical and
social environment.

Work areas in SUPW

In order to achieve the required educational objectives six important areas


have been suggested by the Ishwarbhai Patel committee of SUPW programme. From
these areas we can elicit production of goods and social services and can create
productive manual work situations at home, in the school and also in the community
the area are:
1. Health and Hygiene
2. Food
3. Shelter
4. Clothing
5. Culture and recreation
6. Community work and social service.
This programme has two important components viz a common core programme
and work practice. The common programme helps to bring about attitudinal changes
and prepares for work practice.

Planning and criteria of Selection


The committee stresses that this work must be performed mechanically but
must include planning, analysis and detailed preparation at every stage, so that it is
educational in essence. The criterion for selection of activities should thus, be that the
work involved is:
1. Productive
2. Educative and
3. Socially useful

Three phases : The review committee has stated the three phases of the SUPW
1. Study of the world of work through observation and enquiry
2. Experimentation with materials, tools and techniques and
3. Work practice.

Some Hints to Teachers


1. The teachers should make use of, as far as possible, locally available
materials and tools.
2. The activities should be closely related to the environmental needs and
facilities.
3. The tools selected should be so that the manual work is minimised.
4. The activities selected should be suitable to the age-group for which they
are meant.

32
5. The programme need not be confined to the four walls of the classroom or the
school.
6. It is not the sole responsibility of the teacher alone to teach the subject, the
local community should be actively associated.

Merits of the Programme


1. Reduction of gap in work and education
2. Bridging gulf between rural and urban
3. Check on educated unemployed
4. Education through work
The SUPW should, as far as possible, be allied to the elective chosen by the
students, allowing also for any other kind of work depending upon the facilities
available in the neighbourhood.

1.2.6 COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL SERVICE

The importance of community service also has been recognized in the recent
past. To make education more realistic, functional life oriented and to bring the
school and community more closer to one another, the concept of Community Service
has been visualised. It also enables bridging the gulf between the school life and the
community life by actively associating the school children with the community
services according to the abilities and the needs of the latter.

Community Work and Social Service

Kothari Commission (1964-66) recommended and that some form of social


and national service should be made obligatory for all students and should form an
integral part of education at all stages. It can become an instrument to build character,
improve discipline, inculcate a faith, in the dignity of manual labour and develop a
sense of social responsibility.

Community Service

In-1972, this concept was recommended by The Central Advisory Board


of Education in the following terms

The schools may undertake suitable activities of community service in lieu


of or in addit ion to work experience. Such activities may include projects of
village uplift, slum clearance, adoption of a a locality for its improvement, work
in hospitals to help and nurse the sick and poor, attending to the families of a group
of workers of a factory, removal of illiteracy, etc. Schemes on this behalf may be
submit-ted to the Board by the schools for consideration.

The Eswar Bhai Patel Review Committee (1977) has added a new dimen-
sion by changing the concept of work experience introduced by the Kothari
Education Commission by redesignating it as the Socially useful. Productive Work

33
and adding the Sixth Area : “Community Work and Social Service”.

Items of work under this area are suggested as follows :-


Cleaning the neighbourhood, helping the adults-in productive work, offering
first aid, helping the adults in festivals and Functions, traffic control, etc.
Thus Communit y Work and Social Work is also accorded due recognition as
socially useful work, if not productive. In this manner social service is added in
addition to production of socially useful goods.

National Policy on Education and Community

The Policy Statement observes : “The educational institutions and the


community should help each other - the teachers and parents cooperating in
providing knowledge, skills and better future for the children. The school should be
closely associated with the developmental activities of the area.
It further stated “The school should function as a focal centre for the
development of the neighbourhood. The community, in turn, should involve itself
in the educational effort.”

On the involvement of the community in the educational endeavour, the Policy


stresses in the following way: “Involvement of the community in identifying the kinds
of programmes and courses, and provision of facilities by them in the enterprises
and establishment will ensure success of the programme.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

3. AICTE was set up in year

4. Which Commission recommended SUPW

5. What are the work areas in SUPW

6. Define SUPW

34
1.2.7 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson you have learnt the rapid progress of education in Independent
India in all directions speaks well of the efforts made by the government of India in
order to expand education and to make it more diversified and multi-dimensional to
meet the needs of a developing nation.

1.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Briefly discuss the various Commission appointed in the free India.


2. Explain vocationalisation of secondary education.
3. Write short note on SUPW.

1.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Dr. Radhakrishnan

2. 1952

3. 1955

4. Eswar Bhai Patel Education Review Committee of 1977

5. a. Health and Hygiene


b. Food
c. Shelter
d. Clothing
e. Culture and recreation
f. Community work and social service.

6. Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) is purposive, meaningful, manual


work resulting in either goods or services, which are useful to the community.

35
1.2.10 SUGGESTED READINGS

Aggarwal. J.C. (2005). Development of Educational System in India.


New Delhi : Shipra Publications.
Rao, V.K.(2005). History of Education. New Delhi: A.P.H.
Publishing Corporation.
Singh, Y.K. and Nath, R. (2009). History of Indian Education System. New Delhi
: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Sharma, Y.K. (2007). History and Problems of Indian Education.
New Delhi : Kanishka Publishers
Amala, A.P., Anupama, P. and
Rao, B.D. (2007). History of Education. New Delhi : Discovery
Publishing House.

36
LESSON 3
EDUCATION IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION

STRUCTURE

1.3.1 Introduction

1.3.2 Objectives

1.3.3 Directive principles of state policy

1.3.3.1 Significance of DPSP

1.3.4 Important articles in the constitution and their educational implications

1.3.5 Responsibilities of central government of Education

1.3.6 Functions of the state government on Education

1.3.7 Let us sum up

1.3.8 Unit End Exercises

1.3.9 Answers to check your progress

1.3.10 Suggested Readings

1.3.1 INTRODUCTION

The constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the
framework defining the fundamental political principles, establishing the structure,
procedures, powers and duties of the government and spells out the fundamental
rights, directive principles and duties of citizens. Passed by the Constituent Assembly
on November 26, 1949, it came into effect on January 26, 1950. It declares The Union
of India to be a sovereign, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice,
equality, and liberty; the words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition
in 1976 by constitutional amendment India celebrates the adoption of the constitution
on January 26 of each year as Republic Day. It is the longest written constitution of
any independent nation in the world, containing 395 articles, 12 schedules and 83
amendments, for a total of 117,369 words in the English language version. Besides
the English version, there is an official Hindi translation. Being the supreme law of the
country, every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.

37
In the August 14, 1947 meeting of the Assembly, a proposal for forming
various committees-was presented. Such committees include Committee on
Fundamental Rights, the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee.
On August 29, 1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed, with Dr. Ambedkar as the
Chairman along with six other members. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the
committee and submitted to the Assembly on November 4, 1947.

The Assembly met, in sessions open to public, for 166 days, spread over a
period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. After
many deliberations and some modifications, the 308 members of the Assembly signed
two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the
January 24, 1950. Two days later, the Constitution of India became the law of all the
Indian lands. Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman of the Constitution Drafting
Committee, was o n of Const it ut io n's chief archit ects.

1.3.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. understand our Indian constitution.
2. analyse the significance of Directive principles of State Policy.
3. describe the important constitutional articles related to education.
4. learn the role of central and state government on education.

1.3.3 DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (DPSP)

The Directive Principles of State Policy, embodied in Part IV of the


constitution, are directions given to the central and state governments to guide the
establishment of a just society in the country. According to the constitution, the
government should keep them in mind while framing laws, even though they are non-
justifiable in nature. Directive Principles are classified under the following categories:
Gandhian, social, economic, political, administrative, legal and environmental.

1.3.3.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE


POLICY

The Directive Principles constitute an operative part of the Constitution.


Through them, it is envisaged that the ideals of a democratic welfare state would be
achieved. The founding fathers of our republic considered the Directive Principles of
State Policy as instruments to bring about a silent economic and social revolution.

“The purpose of the Directive Principles is to fix certain social and economic
goals for immediate attainment by bringing about a non-violent social revolution.
Through such a revolution the Constitution seeks to fulfill the basic needs of the
common man and to change the structure of our society. It aims at making the Indian
masses free in the positive sense”.

38
The following points bring out the importance of the directive Principles of State
Policy:
Achievement of the objectives of economic democracy. The Directive
Principles guide the Central and State Government in the following dimensions of the
welfare programmes:

 Minimising inequalities in incomes.


 Minimising inequalities of opportunities.
 Minimising inequalities in status.
 Protecting health of the workers.
 Protecting children from exploitation.

Appropriate concentration of wealth. That the operation of the


economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of'
production to the common detriment;

Equal pay for both sex. That there is equal pay for equal work for both men
and women;
No abuse of children. That the health and strength of workers, men and
women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced
by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength;

Condition for dignity of children. That children are given opportunities and
facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and
that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and
material abandonment.

Article 39A. Equal justice and free legal aid. The State shall secure that the
operation of the legal system promotes justice, on the basis of equal opportunity, and shall,
in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other
way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by
reason of economic or other disabilities.

Article 40. Organisation of village panchayat. The State shall take steps to
organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as
may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self- government.

Article 41. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain


cases. The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development,
make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public
assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other
cases of undeserved want.

Article 42. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity
relief. The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work
and for maternity relief.

Article 43. Liking wage etc. for workers. The State shall endeavour to secure,
39
by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers,
agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring
a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural
opportunities and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to promote cottage
industries on an individual or cooperative basis in rural areas.

Article 43A. Participation of workers in management of industries. The


State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the
participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other
organisations engaged in any industry.
Article 44. Uniform civil code for the citizens. The State shall endeavour to
secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.

Article 45. Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education to


Children below the age of six years. The State shall endeavour to provide Early
Childhood Care and Education for all Children until they complete the age of six
years. Note: Subs. By the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 for
“45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. The State shall
endeavour to provide, wit hin a period of ten years fro m the commencement
of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they
complete the age of fourteen years”. (Original Article 45. See also Article 21A).

Article 46. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled


Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. The State shall promote with
special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the
people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall
protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.

Article 47. Duty of the State to raise the level ofnutrition and the standard
of living and to improve public health. The State shall regard the raising of the
level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement
of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall
endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal
purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.

Article 48. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. The State


shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific
lines and shall, in particular take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and
prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other much and draught cattle.

Article 48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding


of forests and wild life. The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the
environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country.

Article 49. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national


importance. It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place
or object of artistic or historic interest, [declared by or under law made by

40
Parliament] to be of national importance, from spoliation, disfigurement,
destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be.

Article 50. Separation of judiciary from executive. The State shall take
steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.

Article 51. Promotion of international peace and security. The State shall
endeavour to promote international peace and security; maintain just and honourable
relations between nations; foster respect for international law and treaty
obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another; and encourage
settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. The chief Architecture of our Indian Constitution was

2. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy?

1.3.4 IMPORTANT ARTICLES IN THE CONSTITUTION AND THEIR


EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

Provision of Free and Universal Compulsory Elementary Education


After independence the Government of India realized the significance of
elementary education as it is the base of progress and accordingly incorporated Article
45 in the Constitution. Since the progress in the field was not in accordance with the
provisions of this Article, it was considered necessary to amend it to give more
impetus.

Following amendments in the Constitution were made in 2002.


1. Article-21A Right to Education. “The State shall provide free and
compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen
years in such manner as the State, may be law determine”. (This Article was
inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002.

2. Article 45 - Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the
children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early Childhood

41
Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”. (Substituted by
the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act, 2002.

3. Article 350 A Facilities for Instruction in Mother Tongue at Primary Stage


it shall be endeavour of every State and every local authority within the State
to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the
primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority
groups; and the President may issue any such direction to any state as he
considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities.

4. Article 29 (i) Protection of Interest of Minorities “No citizen shall be


denied. admission into any educational institution maintained by the State
or receiving aid out of the State funds only of religion, race, caste, language or
any of them”.

5. Article 30 (1) Right of Minorities to Establish, and Administer Educational


Institution “All minorities whether based on religion or language, shall have
the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice”.

6. Article 30 (ii) lays down “The state shall not, in granting aid to educational
institutions discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is
under the management of a minority whether based on religion or language”,

7. Article 28 Freedom to Attendance at Religious Instruction or Religious


Worship in Certain Educational Institutions
i. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution
wholly maintained out of State funds.
ii. Nothing in clause (i) shall apply to any educational institution which
is administered by the State but has been established under any
endowment or trust which required that religious instruction shall be
imparted in such institutions.
iii. No person –attending any educational institution recognized by the
State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part
in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution
or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such
institution or any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if
such person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto,

8. Article 46 Promotion of Educational and Economic Interests of Sche-


duled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other Weaker Sections, “The State
shall promote with care the educational and economic interests of the
weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled castes
and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them, from justice and all forms of
exploitations.”

42
9. Article 351 Directive for Development of Hindi Language, “It shall be the
duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it
so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the
composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment-by assimilating without
interfering with its genuis, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani
and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by
drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily in
Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages”.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

3. Write Article 21 A and Article 45?

4. Provision for Education for weaker section is given in

5. Article 351 gives importance to

6. Provision for Education for minorities is given in &


.

1.3.5 RESPONSIBILITIES OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ON


EDUCATION

1. Planning
Educational planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country.
The central government determines targets and promotes education. The
MHRD prepares educational plans for me whole country. It also formulates
broad based policy regarding education.
2. Educational Reforms
From time to time, the government of India has set up commissions which had
gone into various aspects of education at different levels and have provided
valuable recommendations and suggestions. These recommendations have
further been considered by the experts and the states are requested to
implement the recommendations of the expert bodies.

43
3. Organisation
For carrying out educational plans, government of India has set up institutions
like All India Council of Technical Education, and the National Council of
Educational Research and Training. All India Council of Medical Science,
etc., which provide guidance to the status in the field of education.
4. Direction
To give direction to the State Government is another important function of the
Ministry. The Central Government directs and guides the State Government,
Local bodies and private enterprise. So as to encourage education on right
lines, standards of education are fixed up by it which are to be followed by the
different states. This is being done by the Ministry through the Central
Advisory Board of Education.
5. Control
The central government provides finances to the different central educational
organizations the universities, the state governments, private agencies etc. It
gives grant of different types to the static (recurring as well as non-recurring).
So that they may work well, to achieve the desired ends.
6. Equalisation of Educational opportunities
Government of India is wedded to the establishment of an egalitariau society
and therefore has taken many steps to provide equal educational opportunities
to the weaker sections of the society. It has initiated a larger number of
programme in this direction.
7. Pilot Project
The MHRD has undertaken a larger number of pilot projects like rural
universities, regional institute curriculum reform and text-books etc. By
starting these projects, the MHRD aims at providing enlightened leadership all
over the country.

The following pilot projects, were started in the field of education by the Ministry of
Education
a. Intensive educational development in some selected areas
b. Merit scholarships in the public schools
c. Promoting research projects in the secondary schools
d. Training some experts in the field of AV Education
e. Production of suitable for children and adults
f. Promoting Inter-state understanding
g. Promoting Hindi in non-Hindi speaking areas etc.

8. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally


Administered areas

44
Centre is directly responsible for education in various Union Territories and
other centrally administered areas.
9. Clearing House
The MHRD serve as a depository of information and ideas of education,
research, training and statistics. From time to time it brings out useful
information on various aspects of education. The MHRD also publishes a few
educational journals which provided to be very helpful in disseminating
information in the country. Material concerning nation-wide interests, books,
reports etc. are published by it.
10. Liason with UNESCO
The MHRD carries some programmes in co-operation with UNESCO.
The Indian National Commission for co-operation with UNESCO is the essay
through which these programmes are organized.
11. Promotion of Cultural contact
The MHRD also takes efforts for the promotion of and preparation of
cultural contacts not only within the country but also outside. It makes efforts
for the revival of old culture of the country. Indian council for cultural
relations has been set up for this purpose. Cultural programmes are organized
and cultural terms and sent to the other countries. It helps in the rerival of old
culture and at the same time transmit culture to the other nations of the world.
12. Opening Central Institutes
The MHRD is directly responsible for the running of a few universities.
Art gallaries and Central schools and Navodaya schools.

Thus we find out that although education is not a central subject yet it is
expected to play a major role in the field of education for its promotion and reforms.

1.3.6 FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT ON EDUCATION


State governments have the following functions as far as education is
concerned;

1. Finance : The most important function of State Government is to find out all the
resources needed for elementary and secondary education
2. Legislation : To pass laws for different types of education is the second major
function of the state. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary
education, education for women, handicapped, etc. is the state responsibility.
3. Supervision and Inspection : Since the State provides the vast bulk of the funds
required for education and is responsible to account for it to the state legislature,
it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases.
4. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers,
for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. The

45
recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and
sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.
5. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or
for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed. The product on
and easy supply of text-books is one of the major responsibilities of the state.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

7. Which Central Ministry is responsible for Education in India?

8. List any two educational responsibilities of Central Government?

9. Write any two functions of State Government of Education?

1.3.7 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson you have learnt the Directive Principles, articles in the Directive
principles, important articles related to education especially Article 21A and Article
45, and Educational responsibilities of State and Central Government.

1.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Explain Directive principles


2. Discuss the important articles that are related to education
3. Write short notes on
a. Article 45
b. Article 21A
c. Article 46
4. Enumerate the responsibilities of Central Government on education.

46
5. Describe the educational role of State Government.

1.3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Dr. Ambedkar

2. The Directive Principles of State Policy, embodied in Part IV of the


constitution, are directions given to the central and state governments to guide
the establishment of a just society in the country.
3. a. Article-21A Right to Education. “The State shall provide free and
compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen
years in such manner as the State, may be law determine”. (This Article was
inserted by the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002.

b. Article 45 - Provision for Early Childhood Care and Education for the
children below 6 years – The State shall endeavour to provide Early
Childhood Care And Education for all children under the age of six years”.
(Substituted by the Constitution (Eighty – sixth Amendment) Act, 2002.

4. Article 46

5. Development of Hindi Language

6. Article 29 and 30

7. Ministry of Human Resource Development

8. a. Administration of Education in the Union Territories and Centrally


Administered areas
b. Clearing House function

9. a. Recruitment of teachers : The states are responsible for recruitment of


teachers, for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of
teachers. The recruitment of teachers is sometimes done by the Public
Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state.
b. Prescription of Curricula : State prescribes the text-books for the entire
state or for different zones or regions in line with the curricular framed.
The product on and easy supply of text-books is one of the major
responsibilities of the state.

47
1.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS

Gupta, S. (2008). Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: Shipra

Publications.

Ghosh, S. (2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI


Learning Pvt Ltd.

Dash, B. N. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging Indian


society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and Distributors.

Bhatia, K. K and
Narang C. L. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education.
Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

48
LESSON 4

INDIA’S SECULAR POLICY – RELIGIOUS AND MORAL


EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 Objectives

1.4.3 Religion and Education

1.4.3.1 Position of religious education in a secular state like India

1.4.3.2 Aims of Religious Education

1.4.3.3 Precautions while introducing

1.4.4 Moral education

1.4.4.1 Why Moral Education

1.4.4.2 What Constitutes Moral Education

1.4.5 Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Education

1.4.6 Let us sum up

1.4.7 Unit End Exercises

1.4.8 Answers to check your progress

1.4.9 Suggested Readings

1.4.1 INTRODUCTION

In a secular country like India, religious education should be broad based. The
textbooks on religious education should contain materials from all the great religions of
the world—Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Jainism, Buddhism etc. Students should be

49
encouraged to develop good conduct from the teaching of all great religions. The
teacher of high learning and prestige should be asked to impart religious instructions. As
result of which, India' can produce men of character, integrity, duty-consciousness.,and
dedication. In the words of the Education Commission (1964-66), "In A multi-
religious society like ours, it is necessary to define the attitude of the state to religion,
religious education and the concept of secularism.

1.4.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. understand the relationship between religion and education
2. know the position of religious education in our country
3. enumerate the aims of religious education
4. state meaning and need for moral education

1.4.3 RELIGION AND EDUCATION

There is a very intimate relation between religion and education. An effective


educational system inculcates only those values in human beings which are valued
and recognised by all the philosophies of the world. According to E.D. Burton—
“Religion and education are close and real friends. Both are related to spiritualism in
contrast to physical and material phenomenon. Both try to free the human being not
from his physical surroundings but try to free him from the slavery to physical
environment.” Education broadens human outlook. It tries to modify human
behaviour according to those ideals and values which are recognised by religion as of
worth and importance. Thus, proper placing of religion in the system of education
gives us those powers and capacities which develops human beings and the society to
which they belong.

Religion inculcates those moral qualities which mould the educational system
on democratic lines. The democratic and secular policy which aims at providing equal
opportunities for all the citizens of our country is rightly based on true religion. It is
why we inculcate in our children a spirit of self-discipline, sense of duty and
responsibility so that they are able to rise above their selfish motives and work for the
welfare of others with a spirit of devotion and dedication.

Education is intimately related also to culture which is an inseparable part of


religion. The curriculum which incorporates cultural values and ideals in the
educational system naturally gives due place to religious values and ideals.

In the complicated and complex society of today, naturalism and pragmatism


cannot preserve the moral and spiritual values of life. Both these philosophies advocate
material values and prosperity quite unrelated to the values of human life. The need of
the day is that education and philosophy should lead man to higher, and higher
towards achieving the noble and immortal ideals of truth, beauty and goodness so that

50
he leads a peaceful life and ultimately, realizes God in himself. The philosophy of
idealism serves as a sound basis for noble ideals and value which an educational
system should incorporate. Thus, idealism is an integral part of religion and as
such idealistic values are the real religious values.

1.4.3.1 POSITION OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN A SECULAR STATE


LIKE INDIA

On 15th August, 1947 we achieved our freedom. As our country is a country of


diverse religions, castes and creeds, our leaders adopted the ideal of secular education.
They thought that any kind of narrow, bigoted and communal education would create
divisions and dissensions in the nation due to which our very independence would be
in jeopardy.

Hence, they separated religious education of any sort from the national pattern
and propagate the ideal of secular liberal education. Viewing the defects of religious
education, our Indian Constitution also emphasizes the secular ideal. According to
Article 19, all citizens are free to follow any creed. No religious tax can be imposed
on them.

According to Article 22, no religious education can be imparted in any


Government school. Only those institutions can impart religious education which are
found by some Trusts for this purpose. Even in such schools there is no compulsion
on any child who does not like to opt for that education. In short, our country is
committed to the ideal of secularism.
The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) also opines, "In view of the
provision in the Constitution, religious instruction cannot be given in schools except
on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours: such instructions should be
given to children of a particular faith and with the consent of the parents and
management concerned In making this recommendation we wish to emphasise that all
unhealthy trends or disunity, rancour, religious hatred and bigotry should be
discouraged.”

From the above, it is clear that the State has no religion. It is committed to
democratic ideals and beliefs. As a matter of fact, religion and democracy are same.
Both strive to develop the innate tendencies and capacities of the child to the full.
This is true of the religion and democracy all-over the world. Both are committed to
foster individual good and the good of the society.

1.4.3.2 AIMS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION

Development of Moral and Spiritual Values

Apart from the nature of the religious association or organization it works as


an agency of education. Children attend these organizations, if not regularly, at least
occasionally. They imbibe certain beliefs and attitudes, through religious practices and

51
teachings. They learn certain moral principles and moral behavior from the religious
organizations and instructions. All the religions have a well defined code of moral and
spiritual values—what is good, and what is evil; what is done and what is not done etc.
Children show unquestionable loyalty to the values and follow them in practice.
Through the knowledge of these value they try to pursue higher and higher ideals-in life
and enjoy eternal peace and happiness in their time

Training of Character

“Religious education” provides the child with certain models from the history
of religion, which help him for the development of his character. He also learns about
social, moral and spiritual values. “Re lig io u s st rengt h o f char act er inc lud es
humility, which recognizes one’s inventive fallibility and submits to the correct
process of group thinking and co-operative action.” Thus religious education helps for
the development of character of the child.

Preservation and Promotion of Culture

The literary, historical and musical aspects of religious observances are of


cultural importance. From these activities the ‘child learns’ about his own culture and
try for its preservation and promotion, when he becomes an adult. As a result of which,
he is able to meet the overgrowing needs of the present society.
Development of Personality of the Child

The creation of a new personality consists in the building of character. In the


centers of learning character building should be the fundamental enterprise. Education
should took upon the development of personality as far more significant than the
accumulation of intellectual tools and academic knowledge. Good education, according
to Gandhiji is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual, intellectual and
physical faculties of children. Religious education can create an ideal man of the
“Bhagavat Gita” (Sthitaprajna), one fully developed.

Redirection and Sublimation of Instincts

Because of their social implications sexual, aggressive, and other impulses are
often denied direct expression. If unreleased, the energy associate with these repressed
impulses may produce tension and personal maladjustment. Sublimation is the device
for draining of these thwarted energy into socially approved channels. It is religious
education, which can mould, purify and sublimate the instincts of an individual in a
socially desirable way. It helps to modify habits attitudes, temperament etc., for the
development of the individual and the society.

To Introduce a Democratic Way of Life in the School

The most significant feature of religious educations is to teach the people

52
about the concept of the world as a movement of “Samsara”. Life soul and action
(Karma) are indestructible. Immortality of the soul is connected not only with the final
end but also with a new beginning. Hence the relation of man to God and relation of
man to the world and other human beings is eternal. It further preaches the idea of
fatherhood of god and brotherhood of man, which is the basic need of a democratic
life. Thus religious education can help for teaching people about the values of a
democratic way of life.

Development of Wide Attitude

According to Russel, “Religions based on faith—a firm belief in something for


which there is no evidence?” Therefore, one does not support a religious belief by
reason or argument. All religious beliefs are based on relational grounds. But they
differ from place to place and from culture to culture. They aim at teaching people
how to develop a wider attitude towards life and, towards the society.

Religious Education alone can set High Ideals

The greatest malady affecting the modern world is the crisis of character. The
present day youth is loosing his idealism and is living in a spiritual vacuum. If we open
the pages of history, we will find that religion alone set up high ideals and tried to plant
seeds of nobility and virtue in the hearts of the people. Sometimes the sentimental and
emotional appeal provided by religion gave a new direction to the entire course of the
life of an individual. Therefore, religion as an agency of education can help to set up
high ideals in the life of the educand.

1.4.3.3 PRECAUTIONS WHILE INTRODUCING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION


IN SCHOOLS

Following precautions should be taken while introducing religious education in


schools
1. Narrow religious education prepares the child for the other world. It neglects
the needs of individual and demands of society. This should not be allowed to
happen.
2. In the garb of religious education narrow communal or sectarian education is
provided. This spoils the natural development of the child Thus healthy
principles and virtues of all religions should be incorporated in the education so
that fanaticism bigotry and blind beliefs are-avoided.
3. To impart the education of all the virtues of all the religions of the world the
school environment should be so congenial and conducive that children receive
virtuous education in a natural way. No compulsory indoctrination of dogmatic
education should be allowed at all
4. No child should be compelled to receive any kind of religious education
directly or indirectly.

53
5. Life of teacher should be so ideal that children are inspired to imbibe the
ideals of good conduct and character in natural way:
6. Religious education should not receive so much emphasis that schools become
temples, Gurudwara as, churches and mosques
7. Religious education should be imparted only to those children who wish to opt
it after receiving the permission of their parents or guardians
8. Life histories of great persons of the world, stories of moral greatness, examples of
patriotism, fellow-feeling, service and sacrifice should find place in the educational
system as the same naturally and imperceptibly inculcate religious and moral values.
9. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid
blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.
10. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way. For
this, the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and values.
11. Unity of all religions should be emphasised in the education of the school. Since all
religions have virtues, therefore, they should be discussed in the right earnest.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Write Article 22

2. List out any two aims of religious education?

3. Enlist any two precautions to be taken while introducing religious education in


schools?

1.4.4 MORAL EDUCATION

The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction appointed by the Ministry


54
of Education and headed by Sri Prakasa (1959) defined Moral Value as anything that
helps us to behave properly towards others. Moral education, therefore, is that which
develops moral values. Moral education particularly refers to the development of the
conduct of man towards man in which human beings come together, in the home, the
neighbourhood the educational institutions and in all the social and economic feels.

1.4.5 WHY MORAL EDUCATION?

Moral education is ingrained in the very tradition of Indian culture. Yet it is a matter
of great regret that gradually we are losing our moral values with the result that we tend to
become corrupt and hypocrite. This trend must be checked urgently if we are to restructure
our society on solid foundations. Perhaps a major responsibility lies on our leaders
indifferent walks of life and whom we usually emulate. Nevertheless educational
institutions can also play a significant role in the promotion of moral values in our, students.
It is the students of to-day who are to be in charge of various departments of life
tomorrow. It they learn what morality is in their early years, they are likely to grow into
individuals who are conscious keepers of the society. They will play their role
effectively. Without moral values, an individual will be no more than a “Rakhshash”.
Education is considered to be an important instrument of moulding the innate tendencies and
instincts of the children according to moral standards accepted by the society. The content
of the curriculum, the methods of teaching, the school activities and above all the
teachers can play a prominent role in developing a ‘moral person’.

1.4.6 WHAT CONSTITUTES MORAL EDUCATION?

The ultimate goal of human society is the good of all. Very beautifully expressed
in one of our ancient prayers.
“Let all be happy and free from disease, let men see well of one another, let
there be no unhappiness”

Swami Vivekananda has mentioned the following moral values:


1. Self sacrifice, 2. Service to others, 3. Sincere performance of our duties in
whatever position, 4. Non-injury, 5. Purity, personal as well as social such as no
yielding to corruption, 6. Fearlessness, 7. Cultivation of emotions, 8. Patriotism.

Gandhiji mention 11 vows or moral values


1. Ahimsa (Non-violence),
2. Satyam (truth),
3. Brahmacharya (celebacy),
4. Aparigarha (Non- acquisitiveness),
5. Asvada (Control of palate),
6. Sarvatra Bhayarjana (fearlessness),
7. Sarva Dharma Sambhava (Looking up all religions equally—toleration),
8. Swadeshi (Patriotism),

55
9. Sparsha Bhavana (Abolition of untouchability),
10. Sharivashram (Physical work),
11. Asatyam (Non-thieving).

The University Education Commission 1948-49 mentioned these moral values:


courage, discipline, loyalty and self-sacrifice.
The Secondary Education Commission 1952-53 laid stress on the following moral values
needed in the formation of character of the students: Co-operation, Discipline, Efficiency,
Integrity, Good temper.

The Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction (1959) made special mention of:
Dignity of labour, Good manners, Love for humanity and Self-discipline.

The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961) referred to the following values


Mutual appreciation of various religions, Unity of mankind, National unity and
Spiritual values.

1.4.7 SRI PRAKASA COMMITTEE ON RELIGIOUS AND MORAL


EDUCATION (1959)

Sri Prakasa Committee, 1959 constituted for this purpose and gave the following
suggestions:

Elementary Stage

1 . The School Assembly should be held for a few, minutes in the morning for
group singing.
2. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets, saints
and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for language teaching.
3. Audio-visual material connected with the main living religions of the world
should be included especially in the teaching of Geography.
4. In the school programme, two periods a week should be set aside for moral
instruction. Dogmas and rituals should be excluded from moral instruction.
Kothari Education Commission has also made similar recommendations
5. Physical education and all forms of play in the school should contribute to the
building of character and the inculcation of the spirit of true sportsmanship.
Secondary Stage

1. The Morning Assembly should observe two minutes’s silence followed by


readings from the scriptures and classics. Community singing should also be
encouraged
2. The essential teachings of the great world religions should be studied as part
of the curriculum pertaining to Social Studies and History. Simple texts and
stories concerning different, religions may be included in the syllabus.
3. One hour a week should be assigned to moral instruction Suitable speakers
may be invited.

56
4. Organised social service during holidays and outside class hours should be an
essential part of school programme. This is very helpful in teaching the dignity
of manual labour, love of humanity, patriotism and self-discipline.
Participation in games and sports should be compulsory and physical
education including sex education, should form a normal part of school
programme.
5. Qualities of character and behaviour of students should form an essential part
of the overall assessment of a student's performance at school.

University Stage

1. Silent meditation should be encouraged.


2. General study of different religions should be an essential part of the general
education course in degree classes. In this connection, the recommendations
made by the University Education Commission should also be incorporated.
3. A Course in Comparative Religions may be introduced. In other words, there
should be University Department in the comparative study of religion.
4. A fairly long period of social service should be introduced by all
universities.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. The committee on religious and Moral instruction was appointed in the year
.

5. Who was the chairman of the committee on Religious and Moral Instruction?

6. List any two recommendation made by Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and
Moral Instruction at the elementary stage.

57
1.4.8 LET US SUM UP

From the above discussion, it becomes clear that both religious and moral education
aim at the wholesome and fullest development of human personality which includes
mental as well as spiritual development. To achieve this aim religion and education are
closely related from ancient times. We see that in ancient times religious persons were
teachers also. They taught children to discharge their duties to self and society
both and thus developed their personalities to the full so that they were able to
lead their lives happily and peacefully. In short, the, aim of religion and education
being the same both are very intimately related to each other.

1.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Discuss the aims of Religious education.


2. Explain the need for moral education in schools?
3. What are the recommendation made by the Committee on Religious and
Moral education (1959) at different stages of education.

1.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. According to Article 22 no religious education can be imparted in any


Government school.

2. a. Development of Moral and Spiritual Values


b. Training of Character

3. a. Critical outlook of adolescents should be developed so that they themselves avoid


blind beliefs and rationalize their faith and action.
b. The ideals and values of true religion should be imbibed by children in a natural way.
For this, the activities of the school should reflect all the higher moral ideals and
values.

4. 1959

5. Sri Prakasa

6 . a. The School Assembly should be held for a few, minutes in the morning
for group singing.
b. Simple and interesting stories about the lives and teachings of prophets,
saints and religious leaders should be included in the syllabus for
language teaching.

58
1.4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi :
Shipra Publications.

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of


Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Dash, B. N. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging


Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and
Distributors.

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi :


Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Bhatia, K. K and
Narang C. L. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of
Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

59
LESSON 5

REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

STRUCTURE

1.5.1 Introduction

1.5.2 Objectives

1.5.3 Impact of Regional imbalance on Polity

1.5.4 Important reasons for regional imbalance

1.5.5 Positive and Negative impact of Regionalism

1.5.6 Regional imbalances

1.5.7 Educational Development in North Eastern Region

1.5.8 Educational Development in North Region

1.5.9 Education suited to different environment

1.5.10 Let us sum up

1.5.11 Unit End Exercises

1.5.12 Answers to check your progress

1.5.13 Suggested Readings

1.5.1 INTRODUCTION

Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in


different regions of the country. Although, there are regional imbalances in an
individual state also, but in general we refer to regional imbalance in a broad context,
i.e., disparities between provinces/States. States like Punjab and Haryana have the
lowest incident of poverty of about 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively as
against Orissa and Bihar with 45 per cent and 41 per cent respectively. Literacy rate
in Kerala is about 90 per cent whereas it is as low as about 39 per cent in Bihar and
Rajasthan.

60
1.5.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. state the meaning of regional imbalance
2. understand the regional educational development in India
3. know the education suited to different environments.

1.5.3 IMPACT OF REGIONAL IMBALANCE ON INDIAN POLITY

• Growth of narrow loyalties


• Emergence of regional parties
• Discontentment and tensions
• Adverse effect on Centre-State relations
• Border disputes and political agitations
• Setback to national integration
• Domination of one or two regions in national politics, for example, Uttar
Pradesh (Before its bifurcation) having 85 members in the Lok Sabha has
been able to hold the office of the Prime Minister for a large number of
times.

1.5.4 IMPORTANT REASONS FOR REGIONAL IMBALANCE

1. Non-availability of natural resources


2. Lack of educational facilities
3. Lack of economic opportunities
4. Lack of strong will among. The people for improvement and development
5. Non-utilization of resources.
6. Shortage of infrastructure facilities like communication, energy, roads, waters,
etc.
7. Neglect of the region by the Central Government.
8. Selfishness of the regional political leaders.

1.5.5 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE (DANGEROUS) IMPACT OF


REGIONALISM

Positive Impact: People of a region have a legitimate desire to be concerned about


the development of their region. They therefore, work hard towards this end. The
people of the region have the best possible knowledge regarding the assets and
liabilities of their region. Accordingly, they take appropriate measures.

Negative Impact: Regional aspirations sometimes tend to develop separatist


tendencies. This leads to separatist movements. Some sections of Jammu and Kashmir
State have developed such negative feelings that they resort to acts of terrorism and
violence.

61
Measures for Removing Disparities

Following measures are suggested:


• The Central Government should pay special attention to backward regions.
• Separate States (of course viable States), on the basis of regional development
may be formed.
• Terrorist organisations indulging in separatist tendencies may be banned.
• All efforts should be made to maintain the cultural identity of a region.
• The country’s borders should be suitably protected. Tight security
arrangements should be made.

The Government of India has taken the following measures for the removal of
disparities:
1. The Planning Commission assesses the needs of various regions and allocates
funds accordingly.
2. The Planning Commission has identified industrially-backward regions and focus
has been on the dispersal of industry among different regions.
3. The Finance Commission takes into consideration the needs of various regions
while recommending funds.
4. The Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers of States make all possible efforts to
give due place to the leaders of different regions in their Cabinets.
Secularism, Gender Equality and Social Cohesion

1.5.6 REGIONAL IMBALANCES IN EDUCATION

Even though planned development was taken up since the attainment of


independence, it is observed that wide regional imbalances exist in the matter of
educational development still.
There are many reasons for this
 during the British rule, some States have become more developed than others
 some of areas which were under the native rulers, remained undeveloped
 there was no national planning for development of the country during the
pre-independent period
 the British educational efforts have been meager and lob-sided, which were
made only to produce personnel needed to satisfy their administrative
requirements
 national education movement was initiated very late during the close of the
last century only ; and,
 education as a fundamental human right was recognized, and clamor for
education of the public as a whole was started after the World War II.

Therefore, some States became educationally far advanced; some average, while
others remained educationally backward.

62
After the Planning Process has originated, efforts for the removal of regional
disparities in educational development- came to be undertaken in a planned and
phased manner. Kerala and some other States have highest rate of literacy, while
some States like Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, etc., remained under developed. Even
in each State, certain areas are found to be under-developed in the matter of
education e.g. in Andhra Pradesh --Mahboobnagar District and Adilabad District.

After the attainment of independence, the Union Government, the State


Governments, through their Departments of Education and Planning were
making laudible efforts to remove these regional imbalances in education
through the Five Year Plans.

One of the main thrust in educational planning has been “ensuring equal
educational opportunities, as a part of the overall plan of ensuring social justice.”

The draft Fifth Five Year Plan observed:

To promote social justice, the emphasis is being considerably increased on


primary education and adult education; incentives to help the enrolment and retention
of the weaker sections in schools; scholarships, freeships and remedial coaching for
the disadvantaged; residential (Ashram) schools for the Scheduled Tribes; the
improvement of schools in the rural areas and urban slums; and provision of informal
education to enable those, who are found to enter life early to improve their prospects.

1.5.7 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH EASTERN REGION

The NE Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in
ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. However, the region lacks
infrastructure and facilities in educational institutions across sectors and there is a
need to improve the quality of education imparted. The NE States have been provided
grants under the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their
infrastructure facilities. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has, since
its inception in 1998-99, approved proposals worth Rs.480.68 crore for the
development of educational infrastructure in the NER. Funds amounting to Rs.392.81
crore have also been released as on 30 November 2005. Out of this, Rs.14.84 crore
was released in 2005-06.

In the Central sector, the proposals mainly relate to infrastructure development


of Central Institutions like the five central universities in the North East which include
construction of staff quarters, academic buildings, library buildings, administrative
buildings and purchase of lab equipments, books, etc. These projects are in various
stages of implementation. The important Central Sector Institutions in the North East
Region are IIT, Guwahati; NERIST, Itanagar; NIT, Silchar; Regional Centres of
IGNOU; Central Universities of Assam, Tezpur, Mizoram, Nagaland and NEHU.

63
In addition to the funds released under NLCPR, the Department of Secondary
and Higher Education also released Rs.40.42 crore during 2003-04 from its own
budget for meeting the committed liability under NLCPR for infrastructure projects of
Assam University, Tezpur University, NEHU and JNU (for NER students' hostel).
A provision of Rs.261.05 crore and Rs.1053 crore has been kept for NER under BE
2005-06 for the Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary
Education and Literacy respectively. Out of this an amount of Rs.187.57 crore and
Rs.501.60 crore has been certified for expenditure on various schemes of the
Department of Secondary and Higher Education and Elementary Education and
Literacy till 31 January 2006.

The Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan is running 86 schools in the North East


Region.

The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is trying to achieve their goal of opening one
JNV in each of the 78 districts of the North Eastern States. Presently 76 JNVs have
been sanctioned for the NE Region.

During 2003-04, the Department of Secondary and Higher Education was able
to spend over 10 per cent of its RE in the North Eastern States.
Source: National Portal Content Management Team, Reviewed on: 07-04-2010

1.5.8 EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN REGION

The Northern region also lags the western and southern regions of the country
significantly in education and skill development. With an overall literacy rate of 60
per cent as against 69 per cent and 71 per cent in the South and the West, it is clear
that the education and skill infrastructure in the Northern region needs to address
certain critical issues – both on the supply side and the demand side.
Government expenditure on education, too, is declining in North Indian states
as compared to southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The study notes that over
the five-year period 2001-06, Punjab has spent less of its GDP (2.40 per cent in FY
05) on education compared to the India average (3.8 per cent in 05).
Moreover, there are fewer engineering and technical institutes in the northern
region. Although the number of engineering institutions in India is more than 1,500,
the region-wise distribution of institutions and sanctioned intake of students shows
significant regional disparity. Around 50 per cent of the engineering institutions are in
the southern region (including South-west), while the northern region has only 20
per cent.

64
A similar trend is seen for medical institutions. A large number of medical
colleges are concentrated in six states (Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,
Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Gujarat. These states account for about 63 per cent of the
total number of medical colleges and 67 per cent of the number of seats. Medical
education, notes the study, is a crucial knowledge infrastructure necessary to ensure
human development, health services and welfare of the citizen population. North
India has to enhance its medical education infrastructure to match that of the Western
and Southern states.

Penetration of public Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and privately-owned


Industrial Training Centers (ITCs) —which impart vocational training — too appears
to be low in North India as compared to South. Maharashtra and Southern states like
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh focus on vocational training at school
levels itself unlike northern states of Punjab, Bihar and Haryana where vocational
education penetration is very low at the school level.

The number of teachers in most of the Northern states, too, is not adequate to
meet the needs of the bourgeoning student population in the states. The pupil–teacher
ratio in states like UP (54) and Delhi (52) is very high compared to the Southern states
of Kerala (18), Karnataka (16) and Tamil Nadu (21). Teachers’ enrollment in the
training programmes in the Northern region, too, is very low compared to Southern
and western parts.

Moreover, preference for science and math education is declining in North


India which can hamber demands in field of IT, telecom, pharma, engineering and
R&D. English, too, is not enforced as a medium of instruction from the primary level.
To add to the woes, there's a urban-rural disparity in the northern region itself. And
lower female literacy in North India further multiplies the issue of low access to
education in north India.

Listing the positives, the study notes that some steps have been taken in this
direction. The Chandigarh Administration, for instance, is setting up a multi-
institutional Education City at Sarangpur, for which 16 sites, measuring 6 acres each
on long lease have been set aside. And the once agrarian state of Haryana is also
transforming itself into an education hub.

1.5.9 EDUCATION SUITED TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

It is a point for discussion whether education should be uniform to all

65
people living under different environments or it should be varied according to the
environmental needs. Providing uniform education for all people living under
different environmental condit ions enough justice may not be done to uplift
them.

There are the following variations in environments


 the hilly versus the plain
 rural versus urban
 posh versus slum
 industrial versus agricultural
 tribal versus non-tribal, and so on.

The living conditions, the needs, the interests, the vocations, the socio-physical
conditions, the economic situations and the cultural backgrounds of these people
living in different environments vary widely.

Hence modern education takes rightly into cognizance all these factors.
Hence it is called as need-based; life-oriented and environment slanted. Uniformity
of educational programmes may be ignore the realities of life.

The working hours of educational institutions, the working days: an academic


.year, the curricular subjects, the teaching methods, etc should take note of the
environmental conditions to make education endeavours more fruitful and
rewarding. Then education become realistic and idealistic.

Of course, there are no discernible inborn individual differences terms of


educabilit y and intellectual abilit y as such. They will appropriately distributed
according to the normal distribution curve only, taking the average in the middle,
and the low and high achievers to the extreme ends. But environment does play a
big part in deciding the attainments of learners. Hence it should be given its due
weight age in the educational programmes. Local environments may prove to be
conducive to better learning or act as deterrents even. For a learner living in a
rural area, the concept of a steam engine or an aeroplane may be difficult to be
developed, which an urban learner understands quite easily because he might see
them in everyday life, while the former does not. Similarly for an urban learner
telling the time of the day looking at the Sun may not be possible, when he will not
be sure of time, even actually looking at the watch, which a rural learner can do
without any difficulty and much hesitation. In the same manner, a tribal learner
may quickly identify different plants and flowers; which a non-tribal person
cannot do.

Hence educational programmes and courses should invariably be planned taking


into consideration the environments, in which the learners live. They should be
suitable to the local environments and cater to the needs of the local learners to be of
great avail.

66
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. What do you meant by regional imbalance?

2. Write any two reasons for regional imbalance in education?

3. What is the overall literacy rate of Northern region?

1.5.10 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson you have learnt the regional imbalances in the matter of
educational development in India. Our plans are being conceived and implemented to
remove them. There is also need to plan our educational programmes to suit different
environments of the country.

1.5.11 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. How can you say that there are regional imbalances in educational
development in India.
2. How can educational programmes be planned to remove the regional
imbalances, to suit education to different environments?

1.5.12 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Regional imbalance implies disparities in the standard of living of the people in


different regions of the country.

67
2. a. during the British rule, some States have become more developed than
others
b. some of areas which were under the native rulers, remained undeveloped
3. 60%

1.5.13 SUGGESTED READINGS

Murthy, S.K. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana :


Tandon Publication.
Dubey, S.N. (2001). Education Scenario in India. New Delhi: Authors press.
Salim, A. and
Nair, R.G. (2002). Educational Development in India. New Delhi: Anmol
Publications.
Giridhar, C.H. (2008). Education in Developmental Arena. New Delhi:
Common Wealth Publishers.

68
UNIT – II

69
70
ROLE OF TEACHERS AND SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION
Of all the human factors in the school system, the teachers occupy the key
position because it is only through them that the ultimate process of education takes
place. Without the man-power of teachers no educational system can be conceived.
The roles and statuses of school teachers are taking new dimensions with the growing
complexity of the school life and societal life.

Lesson 1 is about the inculcation of socialism, secularism and democracy


through Indian education.

Lesson 2 will tell you about the teacher’s role towards pupil’s development,
community development, National Integration, International understanding and
elimination of social tensions and conflicts.

Lesson 3 deals with educational role of home, school community and mass
media.

Lesson 4 will familiarize you with and concept, characteristics and difference
between formal and non formal education.

Lesson 5 deals with the continuing education for various categories like
working people, semi literate and illiterates. You will also learn about the concept
and characteristics of open university.

71
LESSON 2.1

IMPLICATIONS OF DEMOCRACY, SOCIALISM AND


SECULARISM THROUGH INDIAN EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

2.1.1 Introduction

2.1.2 Objectives

2.1.3 Democracy

2.1.4 Methods of educating the students in a Democratic way of life

2.1.5 Socialism

2.1.5.1 Main features of Socialism

2.1.5.2 Implications of Socialism in Education

2.1.6 Education for Secularism

2.1.6.1 Characteristics of Secular Outlook

2.1.6.2 Present situation of Secularism in India

2.1.6.3 Role of educational institutions in promoting Secularism

2.1.7 Let us sum up

2.1.8 Unit End Exercises

2.1.9 Answers to check your progress

2.1.10 Suggested Readings

72
2.1.1 INTRODUCTION

It is the responsibility of the educational institution to bring about adequate


awareness regarding the concepts of democracy, socialism and secularism among
teachers and pupils. They should know their right and responsibilities in a
democratic, socialistic and secular state. The extent to which the capacity to
understand these concepts is inculcated at the school level will largely determine the
efforts of the Indian people to achieve it.

2.1.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. understand the concept of democracy, socialism and secularism
2. analyse the role of educational institutions in promoting democracy, socialism
and secularism

2.1.3 DEMOCRACY

Education in a democracy has a very exacting and challenging responsibility.


Students of today are the citizens of tomorrow. So they are to be trained in
citizenship which involves many moral, social and intellectual qualities that cannot
grow automatically.

The word democracy is derived from the Greek word Demos meaning people and.
‘kratos’ meaning ‘power’. Democracy thus means power of the people.
Abraham Lincoln, the American President defined it as “Democracy is the
government of the people, for the people by the people”. This is the political aspect
of democracy.

2.1.4 METHODS OF EDUCATING THE STUDENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC


WAY OF LIFE

1) Respect of Individual Personality, The school administrators should show


regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the students,
2) Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The students may be associated
with the management of the school.
3) Provision of Manual Work. Manual work goes a long way in making the
students realise the dignity of labour.
4) Equal Opportunities for Admission. In the matter of admitting students in
schools, there should be made no distinction of caste, creed, colour or
wealth. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.
5) Encouragement to Group Work. Group activities should be encouraged to
provide opportunities to the students to participate in the affairs of the group.

73
6) Democratic Methods of Teaching. ‘Learning’ by ‘Doing’ rather than by ‘rote
learning’ should be aimed at.
7) Promotion of Self-Expression. With a view to promoting self-expression among
the students, debates, declamation contest etc., may be planned.
8) Opportunities for Social Service. Social work will bring the students into
direct contact with the community and enable them to understand its
problems.
9) Work Experience and Socially Useful Productive Work. These activities
should form an integral part of curriculum.
10) Hostel Life Wherever possible, hostel opportunities should be provided to the
students in the art of living together.
11) Student Parliament. Students’ Unions may be constituted in schools to
provide experience in the working of institutions.
12) Visits to Legislatures. Such visits provide the students first hand
experiences to observe the working of democratic institutions.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Democracy means

2. What is the concept of democracy according to Abraham Lincoln?

3. Write any four methods of educating students in a democratic way of life.

2.1.5 SOCIALISM

S t ar t ed i n E ur o p e as a r e vo lt ag a inst c a p it a l is m in the nineteenth


century, it soon spread all over the world. There are different brands of socialism,
especially those shaped by Karl Marx and Lenin in Russia, Mao in China and
Gandhiji in India.

74
Gandhiji like Marx aimed at the establishment of classless society, but on
the path of non-violence, service and cooperation. In an editorial in 1947
under the caption ‘Who is a socialist?’ Gandhiji wrote, “Under socialism all
the members of society are equal -none low, none high”. Under it, the prince
and the peasant, the wealthy and the poor, the employer and the employee are all
on the same level.

2.1.5.1 MAIN FEATURES OF SOCIALISM

1) Socialism aims at social justice.


2) Socialism aims at equality.
3) Socialism aims at establishing a classless society, free from exploitation,
oppression and disparity.
4) Socialism aims at establishing a society based on mutual cooperation and
fellow feeling.
5) Socialism pre-supposes public ownership of the means of production.
6) Socialism aims at abolishing the capitalist system.
7) Socialism aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive
process of society.
8) Socialism aims at developing necessary skills and favourable attitudes
towards work.

2.1.5.2 IMPLICATIONS OF SOCIALISM IN EDUCATION

Following measures should be adopted towards this end


1) Common school system and suitable checks on public schools.
2) Tuition free education
3) Provision of facilities like free books, stationary and uniforms to the needy
students.
4) Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.
5) Establishment of day-study centres and lodging houses.
6) 'Earn and Learn' facilities.
7) Special facilities for girls.
8) Special facilities for the education of the economically weaker sections.

75
9) Special assistance to backwards areas and States.
10) Meeting the special needs of slow learners and the gifted children.
11) State schools.
12) Involvement of students in running various activities in the schools.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. Write any two main features of socialism.

5. Mention any two ways to promote socialism among students.

2.1.6 SECULARISM

Ever since India got freedom in 1947 the word ‘secular’ has been used
very often by the national leaders. Everyone says, “India is a secular-country.” In
every political and educational corner, secularism is being propagated. Let us now
acquaint ourselves with the word ‘secular’. The word ‘secular’ has been derived
from the Latin word “Seculum” which means ‘this present age’ or ‘generation’.

The term 'secularism' was first used by George Jacob Holydake in the
nineteenth century He used this word in the context of social and ethical values.
According to Holydake, the concept of socialism may be defined as a system, "which
seeks the development of physical, moral and intellectual nature of man to the highest
possible point as the immediate duty of life which inculcates the practical sufficiency
of natural morality apart from Atheism, Theism or Bible which selects as its
methods of procedure of promotion of human improvement by material means”

As per Oxford Dictionary, the word secular means sceptical of religious truth,

76
opposed to religious education. It does not mean irreligion or anti-religion or
irreligiousness In fact, the word secularism shows our broad mindedness.

According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is, the belief that the state
morals, education etc. should be independent of religion.”

Webster’s Dictionary states that secularism is, “the belief that religion and
ecclesiastical affairs should not enter into the functions of the state. “Webster
further says, “A system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious
faith and worship”

2.1.6.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SECULAR OUTLOOK

Secular outlook implies the following:


1) It treats all religions on an equal footing.
2) It permits freedom of religion.
3) It permits freedom of worship.
4) It views all individuals as citizens with equal rights.
5) It implies tolerance.
6) It has faith in rational thinking.
7) It encourages moral and spiritual values.
8) It believes in co-existence.
9) It stress free inquiry.
10) It implies freedom of our mind from dogmatic ideas.

2.1.6.2 PRESENT SITUATION IN INDIA

India is a multi religious and culturally varied society. People have


different religions and they have different beliefs. A large number of people is
uneducated. That is why, people have narrow mindedness. Value crises have also
deteriorated the social set up of life. Fanaticism and communalism are on the increase.
During the recent past, people started believing in regionalism. Ram Janam
Bhumi and Babri Masjid became the issues of great struggle between the different
communities. In this type of prevailing situations, there is great need of educating the
people on the right lines. That way only selfishness and narrow mindedness of the
people can be ended. And they can be made to realize the importance of national unity
and emotional integrity.

There is need of making the people open minded. Only a broad minded person
is able to make adjustment in any and every type of situation. Equality, liberty,
fraternity, national outlook and international understanding need be propagated. Moral
values have to be imbibed. Scientific attitude in order to have rationality and
objectivity need be developed in the fast growing and developing generations.

In the present set up of life where there is erosion of values, narrow


mindedness and selfishness spreading, trifles over petty religious matters are caused.

77
Corruption and disbelief are rampant. How can all this be improved? Who can be
entrusted with the job of shouldering the whole responsibility? The only suitable
weapon for this is Education.

2.1.6.3 ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN PROMOTING


SECULARISM

In the schools, the teachers and the headmasters can play significant roles. No
doubt, the higher authorities can prescribe certain things but it is the teachers
community that can actually put those things in practical shape. Without their whole
hearted co-operation nothing in this regard can be achieved. Now let us see how
the schools can help in imparting secular based, education.

1) Moral Education, Religious Education, Comparative Religious Studies


should be entrusted to the matured teachers. In the hands of such teachers,
there will be no misunderstanding and no basic misrepresentation of facts and
figures. The personalities of such teachers in themselves will be good
examples for the students to follow.
2) Every school should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different
religions. At least one function of each religion must be celebrated in the
institution. Efforts should be made that festivals of all religions should be
celebrated with equal pomp and show. In the celebration of each such
function, students belonging to different religions should be associated. The
school authorities should ensure that all religious festivals are given equal
importance.
3) The school authorities should organise declamation contests on topics related
to all religions. While doing so, it must be ascertained that nothing happens
which injures the feelings of one religious group or the other. There should be
some internal checking of the material being- presented by the students in
the gathering. The teachers incharge of declamation contest should make
all efforts to maintain, that the central string of all religions is one.
4) Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be
organised in the schools. Eminent scholars of different religions may be
invited for giving lectures to the students. Only those persons should be
invited who have made comparative study of different religions
5) In the institutions, tours and trips may be organized. The students may be
taken to different centers of religions. Thus the students may be taken to
see Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan in the Punjabi University, Patiala. The
very sight of the building, showing the studies of different religions and all
ultimately uniting and showing oneness will have deep impact on the
personalities of the children. Just possible some students may take up
comparative religious studies for their post-graduate degree
6) In different religions, many things are common such as social service at the
time of celebrations, service to humanity etc may be highlighted in the schools
The students may be encouraged to take up such activities. Once the dignity of
social service is realized by the students, it has then everlasting impact on their

78
personalities
7) The institutions should lay greater emphasis upon teaching religious studies
through informal type of instructions. The students can be encouraged to think
of points common in different religions. Those thoughts/ideas may be
highlighted in the morning assembly or at some other occasion when there is a
gathering.

No doubt, our country is secular and we are expected to believe in secularism For,
this we shall have to make efforts in different ways Only then people will become
fully conscious of it and the goals behind would be achieved.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. The word “Seculum” means

7. The term secularism was first used by

8. Define Secularism

9. List any two characteristics of Secular Outlook

10. Write any two role of educational institutions in promoting secularism among
students.

2.1.7 LET US SUM UP

79
In this lesson we have discussed the concept and role educations institutional
in promoting democratic, secularist and socialistic attitude among students. In a vital
sense the ends of socialism and secularism are complementary. The two can move
only in the consonance with each other. Since socialism stands for equality, it takes
help of secularism to create an attitude among the people to accept all religions.

2.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. How can a secondary school teacher prepare his students for democratic
living?
2. Explain the concept of Democracy in education.
3. Give an outline of an educational programme for developing in the children a
feeling of secularism.
4. Discuss the importance of secular education in the context of present Indian
society.
5. What are the implications of socialism on education

2.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Power of the people

2. Abraham Lincoln, the American President defined it as “Democracy is


the government of the people, for the people and the people”.

3. a. Respect of Individual Personality, The school administrators should show


regard to the individuality of the members of the staff and the
students,
b. Introduction of Self-Government in Schools. The students may be
associated with the management of the school.
c. Provision of Manual Work. Manual work goes a long way in making the
students realise the dignity of labour.
d. Equal Opportunities for Admission. In the matter of admitting students in
schools, there should be made no distinction of caste, creed, colour or
wealth. This is very essential for promoting the cause of social justice.

4. a. Socialism aims at social justice.


b. Socialism aims at equality.

5. a. Tuition free education


b. Grant of Scholarships on a liberal scale.

6. This present age

7. George Jacob Holydake

80
8. According to Chambers Dictionary “secularism is, the belief that the state
morals, education etc. should be independent of religion.”

9. a. It treats all religions on an equal footing.


b. It permits freedom of religion.

10. a. School should celebrate religious festivals pertaining to different


religions.
b. Extension lectures on topics of comparative religious study may be
organised in the schools

2.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi :
Shipra Publications.
Mohanty, J, (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi :
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Dash, B. N. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging
Indian society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and
Distributors.

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi :


Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological


Foundations of Education. Ludhiana :
Parkash Brothers.

81
LESSON 2.2

ROLE OF TEACHER IN EMERGING INDIAN SOCIETY

STRUCTURE

2.2.1 Introduction

2.2.2 Objectives

2.2.3 Teacher’s role towards pupils development

2.2.4 Teacher’s role towards community development

2.2.5 Teacher’s role towards National integration and reconstruction

2.2.5.1 Role of education in developing National Integration

2.2.5.2 Role of Teacher in promoting National Integration

2.2.6 Teacher’s role towards International understanding

2.2.6.1 International understanding in the school

2.2.6.2 Role of Teachers in International understanding

2.2.7 Elimination of social tensions and conflicts

2.2.8 Let us sum up

2.2.9 Unit End Exercises

2.2.10 Answers to check your progress

2.2.11 Suggested Readings

2.2.1 INTRODUCTION

The teacher in the emerging Indian society has a very pirotal role in the social
reconstruction and in the transmission of wisdom, knowledge and experience of one

82
generation to another. Children are the potential wealth of a nation. They are always
exposed to the influence of the teacher it is, therefore, necessary to realize that the
emerging Indian society can achieve all round development by the help of the teacher
who acts as powerful agency in transmitting its cherished values. A teacher is not
only a custodian of national values but is also an architect par excellence of new
values. A teacher can help our county in the process of reconstruction. But so far we
have not been able to harness this extremely useful manpower.

The teacher is to be considered as the ultimate instrument for the realization


of ideals, aims and objectives of the school. 'He should help the students develop
suitable roles to be played by them in the class-room and in the school.

2.2.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. understand the role of teachers towards pupils and community development
2. know the meaning of National integration and the ways and means of
developing National Integration
3. explain the meaning of International understanding and role of teacher towards
it
4. describe the role of teachers towards eliminations of social conflicts and
tension.

2.2.3 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN PUPIL DEVELOPMENT

It is the primary responsibilit y of the teachers to help for the all


round development of his pupils, as it is t he aim o f modern education.

It involves physical, mental, emotional, social, moral, esthetic and


linguistic aspects of pupils, development.

A teacher is first and foremost- an instructor of school children. It is his first


task to provide instruction depending upon the developmental level of the
children, who are placed in his custody. For this he must have a clear
understanding of the educational objectives from the developmental approach. The
developmental roles of children, a r e
1. as learners,
2. as persons,
3. as citizens, and
4. as workers.

They are to be analysed in terms of knowledge, understandings, application, skills,


attitudes and behaviours in respect of different school subjects in their mental,
social and moral aspects. The teaching-learning strategies should be planned
accordingly to be implemented within and outside the classrooms.

83
All education should lead to better behavioural development. Hence teachers
should help their children to develop physically, mentally, emotionally, socially,
morally, and aesthetically to become, physically fit for socially efficient, culturally
confident, intellectually; inquisitive, economically effective, morally, motivated,
vocationally virtuous and aesthetically appreciative.

2.2.4 TEACHERS TOWARDS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

a. Pupils development and Community development

The roles of teachers “in the communit y should not be under estimated
as any teacher is a, member of his community at the outset. The interdependence
of the teacher and the community is quite obvious in a democratic world where
democratization of education and democratic decentralization of educational
administration are the progressive concepts of education. Community maintains
the educational institutions and the teacher with the specific purpose of creating
future adult citizens. Hence the teachers have many social obligations to be fulfilled
with respect to the community to which they belong. There are different roles
they have to play in relation to community. The following are some of such
roles described in brief.

1. Teacher as a Parent

Teacher has to play the role of a parent in the society. He has certain
functions to perform as the head of his family. He has to strive to see that his
familial Status is raised to the required level commensurate with this position and
status in the society. As a parent he has to look after the welfare of his children
and provide them with all the amenities and requirements to satisfy their basic
needs. He has to shoulder the parental responsibility of bringing up his children
through approval and disapproval as conforming individuals with the social,
experiences and acceptance. He has to look after their physical, mental, social
and emotional health.

2. Teacher as a Citizen

Next, teacher has to play the role of a citizen. As a citizen and as a


member of the community into which he is born, any teacher has to fulfill
certain social obligations. As a citizen he has to play his due role in exercising
adult franchise and discharging his duties as a faithful and honest citizen.

3. Teacher as a Member of the Parent-Teacher Association

Teacher has to act as a liason official between the parents and teachers.
He is to become an active member, of the Parent-Teacher Association and try to
solve their common problems in an amicable and' cooperative manner. Now-a-days
the parent-teacher associations are coming into prominence, as they are
becoming the instrument that bridges the increasing gulf between the teaching
profession and parental communit y. The students live, a part of their day in

84
the school being under the custody of teachers, and most of hours. They will be
spending with their parents. Hence the responsibility of helping the students to
grow and develop in the varied facets of development vests in both partly. Unless,
there is a common forum for them to meet together and talk out all their problems
in a common endeavour to, solve them, it is likely that the isolation of parents
and schools become widened. Hence the teacher has act as a coordinating agency
between the community of parents and the school, helping them to solve their
problems and breaking the growing isolation between them.

4. Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs

In addition to the above cited roles in the community, the teacher has to
play varied roles such as a member of the social clubs, photographic clubs,
science club, fine art associations, games clubs and the like in order to be a social
being and to share with the social and cultural, activities of the society into which he
is born.

This could be possible if teacher’s role is properly recognized and he is in


proper frame of mind to understand the problems of the country and make a sincere
effort to create a climate in which society can move forward. Dr. Radhakrishnan has
aptly remarked : “The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance, the acts as the
point for the transmission of intellectual tradition and technical skill from generations
to generations and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning.”

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. List out the role of teachers towards community development

2.2.5 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS NATIONAL INTEGRATION AND


RECONSTRUCTION

Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness


and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or
purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.

India is a land of many castes, creeds, faiths, languages and religions. It

85
is, therefore, very important that the people of India think in terms of wider
loyalties to the nation. Nehruji has explained this as, ‘We should not become
parochial, narrow-minded provincial, communal and caste-minded because we
have a great mission to perform. Let us, the citizens of the Republic of India,
stand up straight, with straight backs and look up at the skies, keeping our feet
firmly planted on the ground and bring about this synthesis, this integration of
the Indian people. Political integration has already taken place to some extent,
but what 1 am after is something much deeper than that - emotional integration of
the Indian people so that we might be welded into one, and make into one
strong national unit, maintaining at the same time all our wonderful
diversity.”

2.2.5.1 ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING NATIONAL


INTEGRATION

In the words of Dr. Radhakrishnan, “National integration cannot be


built by brick and mortar, it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. It has to grow
silently in the minds and hearts of man. The only process is the process of
education.”

Regarding the role of education, the Emotional Integration Committee (1961)


under the chairmanship of Dr. Sampurnanand remarked, “Education can play a vital
role in strengthening emotional integration. It is felt that education should not only
aim at imparting knowledge but should develop all aspects of a student’s
personality. It should broaden the outlook, foster a feeling of oneness and
nationalism and a spirit of sacrifice, and tolerance so that narrow group interests
are sub-merged in the larger interests of the country.”

Ways and Means of Developing National Integration.

The recommendations of the Emotional Integration Committee are as valid to-day as


when these were made in 1961.

1. Re-orientation of the Curriculum. It is felt that the school and college


curriculum should be re-oriented to suit the needs of a secular state.

a. At the primary stage the importance of stories, poems, folklore and


teaching of social studies, national anthem and other national
songs, should be emphasised. Daily morning prayer should be
considered as an integral part of school programme.

b. At the secondary stage the curriculum should include among other


things, the study of language and literature, social studies, moral
and religious instruction and co-curricular activities.

c. At the University level the curriculum should include the study of

86
different social sciences, languages and literature, culture and art
and also the exchange of teachers and students.

2. Co-Curricular Activities. The place of these activities in the curriculum is


considered to be very important. These activities include commo n
observance and celebration of fest ivals and events of national
importance, sports, educational excursions, tours, and picnics, militar y
training like the NCC, ACC, Scouts and Guides, Student Camps,
debates, symposia, dramatics and youth festivals.

3. Special Stress on the Teaching of Social Studies. Books on social studies


should include reference to the lives and works of the great men of India
and of the world and also stories from ancient books like the Ramayana and
the Mahabharata.

4. Textbooks. In order that the textbooks play their legitimate role in


strengthening emotional integration, it is necessary that they be oriented and
improved. In the preparation of history textbooks special care needs
to be taken to see t hat fact s are not misrepresented, distorted or
exaggerated to create prejudice.

5. Uniform for School Children. It is desirable to have a uniform for


school children; one commo n uniform for the whole of India is not
necessary; schools may have their own preference in regard to colour
and pattern.

6. Singing of National Anthem. Children should be taught to sing the


National Anthem in unison and behave in a disciplined way when it is
sung. They should also be the taught meaning of the verses.

7. Reverence of National Flag. Students should be told the history of the


National Flag and taught at the very earliest stage to show reverence for
the National Flag.

8. Celebrations of National Days. National Days—January 26, August 15


and October 2—should be celebrated in schools with t he fu l l
part ic ipat io n o f t he t eacher s, t he st udent s and t he community.

9. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country. Special meetings
of the school assembly should be held from time to time and the
speakers speak to the children on topics dealing with the unity and oneness
of the country.

10. Taking Pledge. Students may be asked to repeat a pledge t w ice a year
ded icat ing t he mse lv e s t o t he ser vice t o t he ir countrymen.

87
11. Open-Air Dramas. Open-air dramas may be staged four times a year
by every school. At least one play should be based upon themes derived
from the classics or from the history of ancient India. In predominant
Hindu areas there should be some plays dealing with non-Hindu lives
and vice versa.

12. Students Exchange and Tours. Such tours should be conducted from one
State to another. The inter-state visits if properly organised should do
much to acquaint both teachers and children with different parts of
the country. A network of youth hostels should be set up by all the States
in selected places.

13. Admissions. Admissions to schools, colleges and other educational


institutions should not be given on the basis of caste but on the basis of
means and .

14. Recognition of Institutions. Recognition should not be given to


institutions where divisive tendencies are encouraged.

15. Educational and Travel Documentaries. Educational and travel


documentaries with particular emphasis on various aspects of Indian scenery,
flora and fauna, on various developmental and reconstruction programmes
should be produced for use in schools and these should form a regular
feature of the schools.
16. School Projects. School may conduct several projects which improve
students’ general knowledge of the country. For instance a ‘know your
country’ project can be undertaken during which children may share in
the collection of information about a State in the Indian Union other than
their own.

2.2.5. 2 ROLE OF THE TEACHERS IN PROMOTING


NATIONAL INTEGRATION

Teachers can play an important role in developing values of national integration


among the students. Following are the important measures which can prove very
helpful in this regard:

i. Teachers should set ideal examples of national integration through their


democratic behaviour, ways of thinking and doing things.
ii. Teachers should present historical facts in an impartial and objective manner.
iii. They should not discriminate students on the basis of caste, colour, language,
region or religion.
iv. They should lay balanced stress on the achievements of great leaders belonging
to different communities and regions etc.
v. In Geography and 'Ind ian Eco no mics, t he import ance o f
interdependence of different regions and States should be highlighted.

88
vi. All possible efforts should be made to inculcate an attitude of rational thinking
in the students.
vii. Community dinners, camps, educational excursions and tours may be organised
so that students get opportunities to appreciate the concept of unity and
diversity.
viii. Deeds of patriotism of great persons belonging to all communities should be
suitably explained.
ix. Students should be involved in organising various school programmes.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. Define National Integration

3. Emotional Integration Committee was set up in the year


4. Who was the Chairman of Emotional Integration Committee?

5. Write any two way and means to develop national integration among students?

2.2.6 TEACHER’S ROLE TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL


UNDERSTANDING

International understanding is the ability to detach oneself from one's


particular culture and national prejudices. It is the abilit y to observe men of
all nationalities, cultures and races on equal bases. It is the ability to work for
the happiness of all human beings, irrespective of national boundaries.

The Secondary Education Commission Report observes, "There is no more


dangerous maxim in the world o f today than ‘My country right or wrong’.
The whole world is now so intimately interrelated that no nation can or dare
live alone and the development of a sense of world citizenship has become just

89
as important as that of a national citizenship. In a very real sense, therefore,
patriotism is not enough, and it must be supplemented by a lively realisation of
the fact that we are all members of one world and must be prepared mentally
and emotionally to discharge the respo nsibilit ies which such membership
implies.” Nat io nalism should not degenerate into nationalistic jingoism.
Dr. Radhakrishnan states, “We need today an adjustment of the human
consciousness of the nuclear age in which we live. It is now conceivable that
the human race may put an end to itself by nuclear warfare or preparations for
it. This, if it happens, will be the result of the failure of man's consciousness to
adjust itself to the technological revolution and culture in a world that i.e., either
plunged in or overshadowed by war.”

2.2.6.1 INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING IN THE SCHOOL

Students should organise the following types of activities in the school for developing
an international outlook in the students-

1. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs.


2. Celebration of social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.
3. Displaying of dramas showing the horrors of war.
4. Encouraging students to collect stamps and develop pen- friendships between
children of different countries.
5. Organising of debates and, lectures on the working of UNO and other agencies.
6. Suggesting reading material based on: (a) folk tales of different part of
India and of other countries; (b) stories of children of other lands; (c)
fairly tales; (d) simple stories based on epics and mytho logies of the
other countries; and (e) telling about famous men and women of India
and of other countries, often in connection with anniversaries. the
international level, exchange of delegations of teachers and students may
be encouraged.

2.2.6.2 ROLE OF TEACHERS IN INTERNATIONAL UNDERSTANDING

Regarding the role of the teacher, C.F. Strong has observed, “He and the
curriculum represent two vital formative factors for translating the aims and ideas
of education into practice”.

A UNESCO publication reads as follows : “We hold that in a very real


sense : wars begin in the minds of men” ; that war. is a mental disorder strictly
analogous with the psychological disease it sometimes causes. Therefore, we
regard it as a matter of first importance for social and international living that
educators should be more concerned with the child, and the healthy development,
of his body and mind, than with the contents of the various subjects which go to
make a school curriculum.”

Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding. Teachers

90
should have faith and enthusiasm for the value of international understanding and co-
operation and should possess the competeney to infuse this spirit in the minds of their
students.

Interpretation of the Value of International Understanding in the Curriculum.


While teaching various subjects the teachers should concentrate in helping students
build up proper behaviour patterns and psychological dispositions impressing
upon their minds that barnes of race, colour and distance do not stand in the way
of uniting peoples of different countries.

Impartial in their Treatment. They should avoid indoctrinating the minds


of pupils. They should be impartial and highly objective in interpreting or
describing facts. They should not be propagandists.

They should impress upon the students that ‘man’ remains ‘man’ first
and then he can be called a Jew, an Englishman, a German, Russian, Indian
and American.
They should impress upon the student that “there is no special merit or value is
being born in one part or other.”

Well Informed About World Situations. They should be well informed about
the contemporary world scene and its historical background, and concerned about
improving the conditions of people everywhere and try to make students well
informed.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. Mention any two school activities to promote International Understanding

7. List any two role of teacher in promoting International Understanding among


students

91
2.2.7 ELIMINATION OF SOCIAL TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS

People in the society are subjected to numerous tensions and conflicts


constantly. These result in unrest and indiscipline in the society. As the school is
but a miniature society, they are duly reflected in the school society too-in
teachers as well as in students.

It is the duty of the teachers to resolve the tensions and conflicts that arise
among teachers on one band, and help the students to over - come them adopting
rational thinking and reasonable solutions. If this is done, the education function
can be carried, out smoothly in peaceful and calm atmosphere so that the pre-
determined educational objectives might be achieved fully.

Factors Causing Social Tensions and Conflicts in Society and in Schools

The following factors cause conflicts and tensions in the society and in the schools
as well, leading to, understand and indiscipline:

1. Wide Spread Frustration - Due to the ever-Increasing economic


difficulties, there is wide spread frustration among all people, which results in
agitation and aggression language.

2. Chronic Poverty - Even though more than three decades have lapsed since
the attainment of freedom, majority of people are, living in the depressing
conditions of chronic poverty.

3. Lack of Future Occupational Guarantee - For the lakhs and lakhs of


students that are coming out of colleges and universities the future is
quite gloomy as there is no occupational guarantee for them. Soon after
they leave their educational institutions, they are adding themselves to the
educated unemployed population only.

4. Devaluation of Values - Devaluation of our values is yet another major cause


for the development of unrest among students.

5. Defects of the educational System - Another major, factor for the growing
indiscipline and unrest in schools its in schools themselves. A major
criticism has been leveled the system of education itself. The following
are some of the is defects of the existing system of education as mentioned
by educationists and experts
 It does not reflect the national goals and ideals;
 It lays overwhelming emphasis on academic and literary studies;
 It does not prepare students for life; students are tending to be certificate
conscious rather than knowledgeous;
 It is reflecting more of authoritarian character rather than

92
democratic nature;
 It lays on stress on memorization rather than application knowledge and
information
 Its is on final examination; etc.

Since the modern shrinking world is often threatened with catastrophic events all
efforts are to be made for promoting mutual trust, co-operation, fellow feeling, love,
sympathy and good will among the nations.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

8. List out the factors causing social tension in schools

2.2.8 LET US SUM UP

Man is a social being. He has to contribute to his society in his own way and
has to enjoy the benefits of the society that are conferred on him. Schools have been
created by the society for carrying out the transmission of cultural and social heritage
and help for the continuation of the society in a desirable manner. In this unit
different roles of the teachers role towards pupils development, community
development, National integration and International understanding and elimination of
social tension and conflicts have been discussed in their different roles.

2.2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. List out six characteristics of a good teacher.


2. How would you develop National integration among your students?
3. What is the role of the teacher in pupil development.
4. Discuss briefly how the school curriculum should be developed to promote
International Understanding.
5. Describe the factors causing social tensions and conflicts among the students.

93
2.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Teacher as a Parent, Teacher as a Citizen, Teacher as a Member of the Parent-


Teacher Association, Teacher as a member of the Social Clubs

2. Emotional and national integration may be defined as a feeling of oneness


and a feeling among people to share certain common ideas, objectives or
purposes and giving them high place over smaller or sectional loyalties.
3. 1961

4. Dr. Sampurnanand

5. Special Talks on the Unity and Oneness of the Country and Celebrations of
National Days

6. Organisation of UN Societies and international clubs and Celebration of


social days for heroes of peace and great men of all nations.

7. Faith and Enthusiasm for the Value of International Understanding and


Impartial in their Treatment.

8. Wide Spread Frustration, Chronic Poverty, Lack of Future Occupational


Guarantee, Devaluation of Values and Defects of the educational System

2.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Siddiqui, M.H. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of


Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
Ghosh, S. (2009). Education in Emerging Indian Society, New Delhi: PHI
Learning Pvt Ltd.
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi :
Shipra Publications.
Dash, B. N. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging
Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and
Distributors.
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi :
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Bhatia, K. K and
Narang C. L. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of
Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.

94
LESSON 2.3

EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF HOME, SCHOOL,


COMMUNITY AND MASS MEDIA

STRUCTURE

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Objectives

2.3.3 Home as an agency

2.3.3.1 Important educational functions of Home

2.3.4 School as an agency

2.3.4.1 Functions and role of schools in the society

2.3.4.2 Measures to be taken by the school to perform its functions

2.3.5 Community as an agency of education

2.3.5.1 Responsibility of the community in education

2.3.6 Mass media as an agency

2.3.6.1 Radio as an agency of education

2.3.6.2 Television as an agency of education

2.3.6.3 Press as a medium of education

2.3.6.4 Motion Pictures

2.3.7 Let us sum up

2.3.8 Unit – End Exercises

2.3.9 Answers to check your progress

2.3.10 Suggested Readings

95
2.3.1 INTRODUCTION

The whole of the environment is the instrument of man’s education in the


widest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as being
more particularly concerned. Society has, therefore, developed number of specialized
institutions to carry out these functions. These institutions are called the agencies of
education and are instrumental, in their own characteristic manner, in transmitting
information and in controlling the behavior of the child on his way to growth and
development.

2.3.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. Explain the educational functions of Home school, community
2. Discuss the educational role mass media – Radio, Television, Press and
Motion Picture.

2.3.3 HOME AS AN AGENCY

It is simply the home more than the school that determines the quality and direction of any
child’s life, and that the teacher’s work is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill, of
this major factor in the education of any child. In the home, the child is provided with security or
denied it; here his emotional needs are satisfied or starved, his waywardness corrected or
neglected; here he is cherished with the creative discipline or spoiled as a parent’s plaything; here
are standards learned and values slowly appreciated. The teacher soon knows what has happened
in the home; the attitudes of the parents are as quickly divulged by the child as the politics of his
father's breakfast table. And do what he may, the teacher will seldom win the battle between
bad home influence and good living unless as by divine providence often happens, the innate
goodness of the child eventually overcomes shortcomings of its home”.

2.3.3.1 IMPORTANT EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS OF THE HOME / FAMILY

1. Providing environment and necessary facilities for proper physical


development of the child.
2. Providing suitable moral environment for the moral development of the
child.
3. Exploring and developing aesthetic and intellectual interests in the child.
4. Providing opportunities to the child for participation in routine household
responsibilities.
5. Understanding the nature of the child and acting accordingly.
6. Understanding the importance of the individual differences of their children
and treating accordingly.
7. Providing opportunities for self-expression.
8. Following a proper code of discipline.
96
9. Providing learning equipment at the proper time.
10. Providing cooperation of the school.
11. Providing vocational experiences,

In spite of the limitations of the role of the family, it can still play a prominent role in
providing proper care, guidance and learning experiences to the child. There is no doubt that
home can do a lot in 'making the man'. As the popular saying goes, “A wise father is more
than a hundred school masters. The mother's face is the child’s first lesson-book”.

2.3.4 SCHOOL AS AN AGENCY

School has been in existence as formal institution of education since the time
immemorial, not only in our country but also, all over the world. The word ‘school’
is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘Leisure’. It plays an important role in
imparting knowledge and ideas, developing skills and interests, mould attitudes and
inculcating values of children. It is a social organization for catering to the need of
the society and for serving the ends of the people. The school trains the citizens of
tomorrow and prepares them for the future life.

P.C. Nunn describes the role of the school in these words, “A nation’s school
are an organ of its life, whose special function is to consolidate its spiritual strength,
to maintain its historical continuity, to secure its past achievements, to guarantee its
future. Through its schools a nation should become conscious of the abiding
sources from which the best movements in its life have always taken their
aspiration, should come to share the dreams of its nobler sons, should constantly
submit itself to self-criticism, should purge its ideals, should reform and redirect
impulses”.

2.3.4.1 FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL IN THE SOCIETY

The school is expected to perform the following functions and roles as the:
1. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society.
2. Conserver of cultural heritage of the society.
3. Promoter of cultural heritage of the society.
4. Connecting link between home and the community.
5. Provider of special environment for the all-round development of the child.
6. Provider of a planned scheme of things for the child.
7. Promoter of cultural pluralism, i.e., tolerance of all cultures.
8. Promoter of ideals of the State.
9. Promoter of social development of the child.
10. Promoter of democratic values in the child.
11. Promoter of secular values in the child.
12. Promoter of ethical, moral and spiritual values of the child.
13. Promoter of professional and vocational skills and values in the child.
14. Promoter of egalitarian values in the child.
15. Promoter of innate abilities of the child.

97
16. Promoter of values of international understanding and peace.
17. Centre of community.
18. Trainer in the art of living together.

2.3.4.2 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN BY THE SCHOOL


TO PERFORM ITS FUNCTIONS

1. Balanced and simplified environment: The school discharges its several


functions through curriculum. The school is envisaged to become an idealised
miniature community.
2. Art of living together: The school provides a number of group activities
through which students get a lot of training in the art of living together.
3. Training in democratic living: School incorporates activities like student self-
government.
4. Opportunities for Vocational Training: School includes several
programmes and activities like work experience and vocational subjects.
5. Development of Child’s entire personality: The school makes all possible
efforts to provide a pleasant and stimulating intellectual, physical and spiritual
environment which will evoke the manifold interests of the students and
develop them creatively and constructively. It formulates a programme of
hobbies, occupations and projects that cater to the varying aptitudes and
temperaments of the students. The school library, laboratory and workshop
become the humble of stimulating activities.
6. Spirit of cooperation: The head of school should develop an environment of
cooperation and harmony among staff members so that the students alsó
imbibe this attitude.
7. Cooperation with Several Agencies of Education: School enlists the
cooperation of the various formal, non-formal and informal agencies wherever
considered necessary.
8. School as a Centre of Community Service: School can organize adult
education classes. It can take up community service programmes.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. List any two education functions of Home.

2. Mention any two role of school in the society

98
2.3.5 COMMUNITY AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION

In simple words, a community may be defined as a cluster of people living


within a small area and sharing a common way of life to a considerable extent.
According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living marked by
some degree of social coherence. The bases of community are locality and common
sentiment”.

2.3.5.1 RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COMMUNITY IN EDUCATION

A community has a very grave responsibility in matters of education.


According to crow and Crow, “A community cannot expect something for nothing.
If it wishes its young people to serve their community well, it must provide
whatever educational advantages are needed by the young people, individually
and collectively, to prepare themselves for that service.” Although, the Indian
community has accepted its financial responsibility for the furthering of
education, there is still much that can be and should be done for education by
adopting the following methods:

Control of Education

Indian leaders are agreed that Indian schools should reflect democratic ideals
in their objectives and practice. It is therefore, necessary that the community,
which finances its schools should direct that kind of education that shall be
provided by the administrators and teachers of that schools. Hence, it is the
responsibilit y of communit y leaders to determine what shall constitute the
basic curriculum and the general organization of the school system.

Control of Schools

The influence of administrators and teachers upon the life and progress of
a community is tremendous. Over a quarter of a century ago, it was stated by
Howerth that, “the school is an instrument for modifying the character of society.
Whether this modification is in the direction of social improvement depends upon the
ideas and ideals of those who handle the instrument.”

On the basis of Howerth’s view we can say that it is not enough that
community should finance education and maintain high standards of education
philosophy. It also must select as its school personnel those men and women who are
well qualified to administer the practical details of school keeping in such a way
that the ideals and the behaviour standards of the community may rise, through
education; to progressively greater heights.

99
Co-operation between Citizens and School Leaders

Financing education and controlling schools alone will not do. To make them
achieve their aim, citizens and school leaders must co-operate. Emphasising this
thing, Crow and Crow write, “All the citizens of the community, whether or not
they are parents of school children should co-operate intelligently with the school
leaders whom they have delegated specific educational responsibilities.”

Provision of Informal Agencies of Education

An individual, education is as much achieved outside the walls of a school building


as in the regular class-room. Hence, it is the responsibility of the community to
provide for its children whatever is financially possible in the way of out of school
educational stimulation.
Museums, art galleries, libraries and music and drama centers are some of the
educational media that should be made available to children. Educational programmes
should be put into operation by community health centres and other departments and
organizations. Moreover, books, periodicals, magazines and daily newspapers should
be provided, because they wield a powerful influence over the attitudes and
ideals of children who are stimulated by them. In fact, the power of the press is
rivaled only by the power of the radio. Local newspapers reflect not only the
educational level of the mass of the people who read them but also the ideals of
communit y leaders.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

3. Define community.

2.3.6 MASS MEDIA AS AN AGENCY

In early times, the teacher was the only medium of communication for
children. He taught his students orally. During the course of time, the invention of the
printing press, led to the printing of books. Then came newspapers. NOW for quite
sometime new mass media like radio and T.V. are increasingly used in education. They
reach large numbers and also help in improving the quality of education. Now internet
is being used.

Sometimes it is felt that the mass media tend to diminish the importance of the
teacher. It is also claimed in certain circles that they are likely to replace the

100
classroom teachers. A close look at the use of these media of education indicates that
they are supplementary media. A lot of work by way of pre- telecast, during telecast
and post-telecast remains to be done by the teachers. Many gaps are to be filled up by
them. In spite of the explosion of technological media in the developed countries, the
teacher still occupies, the place of importance. Fears about the replacement of
teachers are unfounded.

2.3.6.1 RADIO AS AN AGENCY

In the words of R.G. Reynolds, “Radio is the most significant medium of


education in its broadest sense. As a supplement to classroom teaching its possibilities
are almost unlimited”.

Radio is used mainly to broadcast events to far and wide places of the world.
Radio acts as the medium of mass-communication. It is also an important source of
entertainment. Students listen various talks, discussions and debates from radio which
are extremely important and useful for them.

Many programmes are broadcast over the radio especially for t he purpose o f
teaching. Thus, radio acts as a great recreational and educational force. It
broadcasts scientific and cultural facts. It enlightens public opinion. It stimulates
curiosity and interests.

The radio is a valuable supplement to class teaching and learning.


Educational broadcasting is a new experiment which is catching on well. Expert
teaching in such diverse fields of science, social studies, art, music, languages,
politics, current affairs and other areas, can provide information and enrichment for
pupils and, for the teacher through school broadcasts.

Educational programmes broadcast by expert teachers with effective methods


demonstrate new ideas and approaches to classroom procedures. In collaboration
with the experts, programmes are especially designed for different age groups
in the schools.

Advantages
Following are the advantages of using radio as mass-media education:
1. “Listening participation” in current history. In the emphasis is on sound,
rather than on picture. There many programmes are broadcast over the radio
especially the purpose of teaching. Special events and occurrences ii world are
immediately brought from the source into classroom.
An educational programme may be preceded b introduction by the class teacher
and followed by long discussion among students on the subject-matter under the
guidance of the teacher. Thus, the teacher requires having pre-broad and post-
broadcast discussion. Through radio a talented teacher may teach the students.
Important happening inventions, political developments in other countries and
current topics may be heard and discussed in the classroom.
2. Effective means of presenting music, dram appreciation. Various talks,

101
debates and discussions heic the radio are extremely informative and useful for the
children. Different items of the school subjects can be pre in the form of dramatised
programmes. Educational radio excels through dramatisation, dia musical features
and other creative programmes not p in day-to-day classroom teaching. School
concerts, fol classical music, drama and discussion programmes of s local or from
other states are broadcast for listening in schools in India.
3. Team-teaching demonstrations. The radio opportunity for student
participation in various programme such as quiz compet it ions, travel talks,
plays, development of lessons, projects and work programmes form of team
teaching demonstrations arranged by the cor efforts of the best resources in
consultation with the special and some other subject experts. While accomplishing
the programmes subject c curriculum validity, suitability for age groups and the
methods are kept in mind.
4. Participation of local teachers and pupils. Well-planned radio broadcasts are
presented to engage the active participation of the local teachers and pupils. Before
broadcast time there should be preliminary study and discussion on the topic.
Through broadcast suggestions the class may be encouraged to carry on follow-up
discussion, projects or creative activities. Before presenting the programme, the
teachers and the pupils should prepare material thoroughly. They should utilise all
possible resources make a very high quality programme from the point of view of
content, speech, style, audibility and presentability.
5. Making learning an open system. Educational radio can offer corrective
programmes for self-learning by the individuals. Breaking all boundaries and
constraints of formal education it can reach the participants while at work, at play,
at drawing room, at recreational centers. It has reached villages and is now
available in every corner of the society.
There is more emphasis on learning through various mass media, since learning
directly from the teacher is minimal and there is increasing stress on a system of open
learning to overcome the rigidities of formal education. Educational radio broadcasts
play an important role towards a system of open learning.

The non-formal approaches of educational radio supplement the movement for de-
schooling society. Its programmes lead to a learning society where everybody can
learn at any time, at any place.

At present, radio is not only one of the popular mass-media, but also a potential
instructional tool in the formal, informal and non-formal education. It is laying more
emphasis on the planning and production of science programmes in both the formal
and non-formal spheres of educational broadcasts.

In most of the stations there are special programmes for teacher and teacher
educators intended to familiarise methods of teaching on account of large changes in
school curriculum and methodology particularly in subjects like science,
mathematics. These services have been more necessitated in recent years in Social
studies and English.

102
Secondary School Broadcasts help students and teachers by giving up-to-date
content knowledge and providing new approaches and methods of teaching. However,
a few no syllabus programmes are broadcast in order to break away far the stereotyped
formal education, for doing away with monotony in the curricular topics and to stimulate
awareness and curiosity in order to reduce wastage and stagnation-at the primary school
stage.

Primary school programmes have recently assumed great importance by making the
school situation more attractive and interesting. With its vast resources, the radio can
organise series of programmes to bring universalization of prima education and
promote adult literacy. These programmes are related to education, health, hygiene,
nutrition etc. bringing the audience into, the mainstream national life. As an effective
medium radio has occupied a significance place in communication. It is also playing
an important r in education. It informs, as well as inspires. It inculcates values and
virtues and creates attitudes, interests and appreciation

Merits of School Broadcasts

1. They enrich the school programmes.


2. They provide latest information on a variety of topics of interests to students.
3. They bring the school into contact with the world around.
4. They develop leisure time interests among students.
5. They provide opportunities for student participation.
6. They impart vocational skills.
7. They develop scientific temper of mind.
8. They promote educational and national integration.
9. They provide useful information on population education, energy
conservation, preservation of wild life, etc
10. They serve as instruments of teacher training.
11. They reach the masses, conquering the barriers of space and time.
12. They are very helpful in adult education programmes.
13. Various radio programmes like ‘Children’s Programme’, ‘University
Broadcast’, ‘Youth Programme’, etc. reach varied sections of society and
provide informal but effective and meaningful education.

Deficiencies and Limitations of Radio Broadcasts

 Broadcast exposition leaves some gaps.


 Broadcast time may not be suitable.
 Radio sets may develop defects and need immediate repairs.
 There is one-way communication.
 Individual differences are ignored.
 There is no provision for the preview of the lesson.

103
Types of Programmes

 At present, following types of programmes are produced by Akashvani


Stations:
 Programmes for children of primary classes.
 Programmes for children of secondary and higher secondary classes.
 Review lessons for secondary and higher secondary classes on the eve of
annual examinations.
 Programmes for teachers.
 General enrichment programmes for children.

Suggestions for the Improvement of School Broadcast Programmes

 The broadcasts should have a wider horizon of application in day-to- day life.
 The school broadcasts should also be designed according to the needs of the
syllabus.
 Teachers should be actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts meant
for the students.
For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, different climatic
conditions, large and ever growing population, T.V. can be an important central media in
providing functional, formal and non-formal education to the masses. It can also help in
bringing about social and cultural changes bearing on art, music, drama and literature. It is
through television that stimulating and thought - provoking views of renowned
statesmen, scientists, educationists, artists and teachers can be shared by all. Television
helps in enforcing the public understanding of social, political and scientific advancement
of a country.

2.3.6.2 TELEVISION AS AN AGENCY OF EDUCATION

For a country like India which has vast and inaccessible areas, T.V. can serve as
one of the important media of educating the masses. It can be used as formal, non-formal
and informal agency of education. It attracts attention which is essential for learning.
Following are the important merits of T.V.:

1. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the


remote areas.
2. It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available in normal
classroom for demonstration or illustration.
3. It makes possible close-up magnification of small objects, components, intricate
mechanisms, diagrams, etc. by providing students a 'front-rowseat' automatically.
4. It makes quick and lasting visual and aural impressions.
5. It makes possible to bring large, scarce or new equipment into the classroom
electronically.
6. It saves time, effort and cost of setting up classroom projection equipment.
7. It brings into the classroom demonstration, videotape presentations at the instant or
immediately after they occur.

104
8. It allows relationship between two illustrations or time lapse between two stages of a
process by dissolving one picture into another.
9. T.V. comes to the assistance of those persons who are unable to acquire education through
the traditional system.
10. It directs the attention of the student to the exact details of an object.
11. It permits inclusion of up-to-the-moment information, modifications, new equipment or
techniques into classroom instruction.
12. It permits the use of the services of the best available teachers to teach a subject to a
large member of viewer students.
13. It permits to preserve the expert teaching skills on video tape or film for later use.
14. It provides a uniform experience to all students when they see the basic ideas or
techniques on television.
15. It provides classroom teachers the opportunity to observe the teaching process of the best
teachers and to increase their skills of teaching.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four merits of school broadcasts.

5. Enlist any two importance role of educational television

2.3.6.3 PRESS AS MEDIUM OF EDUCATION

The press is an informal but very influential agency of education. The press
includes newspapers and magazines. They provide a variety of information. They
cover almost all areas of -knowledge. They keep us well- informed. They are very useful in the
teaching of various subjects. Instruction through newspapers introduces variety and an element
of ‘play-way’. The newspapers are very useful for the study of languages. Pupils learn many
new words and many new expressions. They learn how to express themselves and how to
follow the expression of others. As regards social studies they learn how the society is
developing day-by-day. They learn a lot about the society. There is much geographical and
scientific information also in daily papers and magazines.

105
For international understanding the study of newspapers is essential. Children come
to know how the world is progressing, how we are woven internationally, how the events
occurring in one country affect all the other countries of the world and how we shall have to
suffer if the Third World War breaks out. For educated people reading a newspaper is an
essential morning routine. Even in villages the craze for news of the illiterate populace is
satisfied by somebody reading the newspaper to them.

During the freedom struggle of India, the newspapers played a very important role in
spreading national consciousness. Many freedom fighters started printing and distributing
newspapers of their own for boosting the courage and spirit of their countrymen by reporting
the truth about their conditions under the British rule and preparing and exhorting them to
make the freedom struggle a success. Many were arrested and deported and their newspapers
were banned.

Newspapers have certain advantages over the radio and TV as they cover more news
and in much greater details than the other media. News stories cover the latest developments
in such fields as government, politics, sports, science, business and the arts. The editorials offer
critical comments on national problems, political events and the performance of the government.
Sometimes, the government respecting the public opinion makes changes in its policy.
Sometimes, the newspapers become the first to point out to the government about undesirable
or corrupt practices being carried out under their very nose in their own departments before
any action is initiated.

Teachers can make use of newspapers in a number of ways:


 Students read important daily news in the morning assembly.
 Clippings of important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board.
 Students can study weather reports.
 Important articles on current topics increase the knowledge of the students.
 Special issues on examinations prove very useful.
 Students get important information about courses available in different
institutions.

2.3.6.4 THE MOTION PICTURES

Motion pictures exercise great influence on human mind. They create lasting
values in the pupils. Educational films meet the challenge of commercial pictures,
supplement them and explore new avenues of educating children and adults. They
provide reality, influence attitudes, show cause effect relation and motivate the
students. Thus, they exercise -great instructional force to be used intelligently in the
class-room.

Many areas of learning can be wisely dealt with the help of films. One can
use these motion-pictures in teaching of geography or science. Topic such as rivers of
India, climate of India etc. can be taught effectively with the help of the motion
pictures.

106
Advantages of Motion Pictures
1. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic.
2. They arouse interest in pupils and satisfy their emotions.
3. They present abstract, and abstruse problems of life and nature in concrete
reality, illuminate the hidden meanings of events and mysteries of nature,
reconstruct history in a short, mirror of life.
4. They bring the past, the distant to the class room. They bring the whole world
to the classroom.
5. Events occurring over-days appear in seconds.
6. Through them they can be replayed many number of times when and where
required.
7. They can be used for demonstration of skills and experiments.
8. They can serve the purpose better, if they are made for specific age and ability
groups.
9. They can be fitted into the school syllabus, if the commentary is simple and
straight forward.
They can be of great service in teaching the backward children, because they act on
their imagination.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. As a teacher, how will you use newspaper in classroom teaching?

.
7. List any two advantages of using motion pictures?

2.3.7 LET US SUM UP

Education has been a social function throughout the ages. Society organizes a
number of specialized institutions to carry out the function of education. We call
these institutions as agencies of education. People receive education throughout their
life, both formally and informally by the help of these agencies. The different
agencies of education discussed in this unit, however, do not influence the child in a
separate and distinct manner, but rather supplement each other to go on and reinforce
his knowledge, skills, understanding or attitudes in a holistic integrated form.

107
2.3.8 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Discuss the functions of home.


2. In what way do society and school influence each other.
3. “Schools are the transmitters of our cultural heritage” – Comment
4. Discuss the role of community in the education of the child.
5. Explain the impact of mass media.
2.3.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Providing opportunities for self-expression and following a proper code of


discipline.

2. Transmitter of cultural heritage of the society and Conserver of cultural


heritage of the society.

3. According to Mac Iver and Page, “Community is an area of social living


marked by some degree of social coherence.

4. They enrich the school programmes, they provide latest information on a


variety of topics of interests to students, they bring the school into contact with
the world around and they develop leisure time interests among students.

5. It promotes the goal of equalization of educational opportunity by reaching the


remote areas and It provides technical advantages which normally are not readily available
in normal classroom for demonstration or illustration.
6. Students read important daily news in the morning assembly, clippings of
important events can be displayed on the school bulletin board, students can
study weather reports, important articles on current topics increase the
knowledge of the students, special issues on examinations prove very useful
and Students get important information about courses available in different
institutions.
7. They make a concept more clear, durable and realistic and They arouse interest
in pupils and satisfy their emotions.

2.3.10 SUGGESTED READINGS

Panigrahi, M. (2007). New Directions in Education. Chandigar:Abhishek


Publications.
Mohanty, J, (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi :
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Dash, B. N. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging
Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and
Distributors.
Dhiman, O. P. (2007). Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H.
Publishing Corporation.

108
LESSON 2.4

FORMAL AND NON FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

2.4.1 Introduction

2.4.2 Objectives

2.4.3 Formal system of education

2.4.3.1 Characteristics of formal education

2.4.3.2 Levels of formal education system

2.4.3.3 Advantages of formal education

2.4.3.4 Limitations of formal education

2.4.4 Non formal educational system

2.4.4.1 Characteristics of Non formal educational

2.4.4.2 Aims of Non formal education

2.4.4.3 Academic objectives of Non formal education

2.4.4.4 Advantages of Non formal education

2.4.4.5 Agencies of Non formal education

2.4.5 Broad comparison between formal and non formal education

2.4.6 Let us sum up

2.4.7 Unit – End Exercises

2.4.8 Answers to check your progress

2.4.9 Suggested Readings

109
2.4.1 INTRODUCTION

It has been generally recognized that education is concerned itself with the
development of the ‘whole man’ – his physical fitness, his mental alertness, his moral
excellence and his social adjustment. To realize this objective of education, society
has developed a number of specialized institutions like the school, the community, the
family, the temple, open university, open school, the mass media et.

2.4.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. compare formal and non formal system of education.
2. know the characteristics of formal and non formal education.
3. understand the agencies which impart formal and non formal education
system.
4. enumerate the advantages of both formal and non formal education.

2.4.3 FORMAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION

There are some institutions and organizations which are set up by the
community more or less deliberately with the explicit object of imparting education to
the individuals according to a consciously prepared plan. Such institution and
organization are described as ‘formal agencies of education’. Formal education is
imparted in an educational institution a school or college. In ancient time in India,, it
was mostly, imparted at the residence of the teacher. It is consciously and deliberately
planned to bring about specific changes in the educand or the learner. As such it is
synonymous with educational institutions. School is, the most important agency of
formal education.

2.4.3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL EDUCATION

Important characteristics of formal Education are:


1. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.
2. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.
3. Education having a definite: course to be covered during a definite period.
4. A teaching-learning process with which the teacher and, the learner are
acquainted.
5. Education organised by some agency, say the Government or the private enterprise.
6. Education imparted in an institution having building/premises.
7. Education, starting and ending at -a particular age.
8. Education associated with a degree or certificate.
9. Education usually associated with some sort of mental strain on the teacher and
the taught.

110
2.4.3.2 LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

Preschool Education: Preschool education or Infant education is the provision of


education for children before the commencement of statutory and obligatory education,
usually between the ages of zero or three and five, depending on the jurisdiction.

Primary Education: Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5-


8 years of formal, structured education. In general, main education consists of five or
eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. Some education systems
have separate middle schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary
education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary
education are mostly referred to as primary schools.

Secondary Education: In most contemporary educational systems of the


world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during
adolescence. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also
varies from country to country and even within them. But it is generally ninth and
tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years.

Higher Education: Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, or post
secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the
completion of a school providing .a secondary education, such as a high school or
secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and
postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and
universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Higher education
generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees.

2.4.3.3 ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL EDUCATION

 Formal education is central to the development of a nation. It is only through


the implementation of a formal system of learning that any country can hope
to develop a knowledgeable society and progress towards the achievement of
societal goals.
 Governments became heavily involved in efforts to formalize a system that
would not only equip citizens with basic functional skills, but it would also train
them to become responsible and capable members of society.
 Through early formal education, the elements of language are first learned.
Concepts of proportion, capacity, and relations are formed and developed through
normal play, and a whole range of physical and motor skills are practiced to
perfection.
 A formal education system is accessible to all children in their locality.
 Even at an elementary school level the idea of responsible citizenship and love
of country were instilled from the start.
 Making formal education at elementary and secondary stages free of charge
and compulsory to all citizens will help for attaining cent percent literacy rate

111
which will help for nation's development.

2.4.3.4 LIMITATIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION

 Formal education incurs high cost for infrastructure facilities and man power
facilities.
 It is a controlled environment whereby some children get frustrated by the
method of teaching and atmosphere.
 Formal education is unreachable for the poor and needy people, and remote
dwellers.
 Some formal education institutions are poorly equipped.
 Formal education is unreachable to some kinds of children such as illegitimate
children, children with disabilities, late beginners etc.
 The present formal system of education is not in a position to meet the growing
needs.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Agencies can be classified as &

2. is an important agency of formal education.

3. Write any two characteristics of formal education?

4. What are levels of formal educational system?

2.4.4 NON-FORMAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

Non-formal education refers to any organized educational system activity


outside the established formal system. Whether operating separately or as an
important features of some broader activity, that is intended to serve identifiable

112
learning client take some learning objectives. Non-formal education includes adult
education, continuing education and on the job oriented education, etc. This is an
arrangement wherein flexibility is the key word. The system is an open one with
regards to various aspects of education, i.e., admissions, curriculum, place of
instruction, mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Open
university, open learning, the correspondence courses and distant education are the
various examples of such a system.

Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. However, until 1970 it had not been
defined. Non-formal education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Some of
its definitions are as follows:

Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized, systematic, educational activity carried
on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to
particular sub-groups in the population, adults as well as children.”
La Bella (1975): Non-formal education refers to organized out-of-school educational
programmes designed to provide specific target population.
Illich and Freire: “Non-formal education is anti-formal education is anti- formal
education.”
Moti Lal Sharma: “In brief, one could say that non-formal education is an active,
critical dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn, to help
themselves, to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. To
develop integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of
the society is the aim of Non-formal education. In this not only the individuals but also
the total social system learns, adding up to a true learning society.”
Bremwork: “Non-formal education differs from formal education from the point of
proximity to immediate action, work and the opportunity to put learning to use.”
Harbison: “Non-formal education is the only means of filling the gap between the
‘Schooled’ and ‘Unschooled population’.”
Henderson: “Non-formal education is far wider and more inclusive than schooling
which imparts wider experience out of school.”
Mc-Call: “Non-formal education is the entire range of learning experience outside the
regular graded school system.”
Paulson: “Non-formal education includes any structured, systematic, non school
educational and training activities of relatively short duration in which sponsoring
agencies seek concrete behavioural changes in fairly distinct target population.”

Non-formal education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and


economic development schemes that do not work. Therefore, it has its own valid
claim to reality. It is deliberate, planned, staffed, financially supported life formal
education. It is functional, unrestricted as to time and place and in general
responsive to needs like informal education. It is much more responsive to
needs and change.

Thus, it is a more effective tool for rural development. It unlocks the doors of
development plans. According to Malcolm A. Adiseshiah, “Non-formal education should

113
be marketable and vocationalised. It should lay emphasis on the self- learning pattern.”
According to H.S.S. Lawrence, "Non-formal education system was not rival to the
formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. The common
ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system to be evolved.”

2.4.4.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

1. Flexibility in various aspects of education, i.e. admissions, place of education,


curriculum, age, co-curricular activities, modes of teaching, evaluation etc.
2. Covering life span of an individual.
3. Guided by motivation of the individual for self-growth, self- renewal.
4. Diversified curriculum responsive to learner and environmental needs.
5. Process of sharing, exploring, analysing and judging with maximum
participation of the learner.
6. Preparation for future needs.
7. Part-time education.

2.4.4.2 AIMS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

Following may be generally considered as aims of non-formal education:


• Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary
education classes I to V, are to be helped to complete primary education and
also help them to continue education further.
• To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or even
without that to learn outside.
• To help industrial workers to better their skills. Every individual can be helped to
improve his capabilities in different fields and improve his economic status.
• Even the educated can pursue further learning or learn many new things. They can
equip themselves to move along the rapidly changing scientific and technological
knowledge.
• To help the student to acquire languages skills.
• To help the student to acquire the necessary skills in numeracy required to meet his
daily needs.
• To help the student to acquire knowledge about scientific facts he comes across in his
daily life and equip him with necessary skills to handle them.
• To develop in the student, the Ideas of citizenship, national integration,
international understanding, socialism, secularism and a clear understanding
of all of them.

The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has
mentioned the following as aims of non-formal education.
• To develop an understanding that only through education it is possible
for an individual as well as for a State to progress in this world.
• To create equal opportunities to all citizens in the matter of education and
through that to create equal opportunities of employment and also equality in all
other fields.
• To satisfy the human resource needs required for the development of the nation.
114
• To develop in the individuals self-confidence and to make them partners in
preparing national plans and take part in implementing the said plans.
• To extend the benefit of new scientific and technological knowledge to the
backward in the society.
• To help to identify the available national resources and help to make use of them.
• To mould the educational system to meet the needs of the countries getting
rapidly industrialized.
• To develop non-formal education programmes keeping in view the
productivity and considerable profit aspects.
The aims could also be classified under different kinds of objectives.

2.4.4.3 ACADEMIC OBJECTIVES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

1. To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to a formal schooling


2. To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners, school drop-
outs, working adults, housewives and learners from disadvantaged section of
society living in remote areas of the country.
3. To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary
level country.
4. To offer Secondary, Senior Secondary, Technical, Vocational and Life
enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.
5. To promote an open distance-learning system of education through research,
publication and information dissemination.

2.4.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

1. Universalisation of primary education.


2. Eradication of adult literacy.
3. Meeting the omissions of formal education.
4. Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set up.
5. Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.
6. Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal
education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.
7. Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get education because
the formal education cannot be within their easy reach.
8. Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.
9. Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live. in villages and
those who live in towns.
10. Providing educational facilities to social and economically neglected sectors
of society.

115
2.4.4.5 AGENCIES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

The various agencies for organizing programmes for non-formal education are
as follow:
1. Institutions for formal education.
2. Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak
Kendras, training centres in factories,, public libraries, centres of
correspondence education, etc.
3. Voluntary non-governmental organizations like club and societies.
4. Radio and television.
Non-formal education is one of the modes of education, others are formal and
informal. Therefore, non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in
coordination with formal and informal systems. It will prove an insufficient and an
ineffective mechanism for solving the complex problems or for achieving concrete
goals, if organised in isolation. Again, it must not be limited to the imparting of basic
skills only. It must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It must be
designed as an integrated systems in the context of the total socio-economic
environment. To make if, effective in modern societal context, a more integrated
community based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various
forms of education may contribute. This requires filling the gaps between the learning
systems and the community needs.

2.4.5 BROAD COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL


EDUCATION

Area Formal Education Non-Formal Education


1 Aims 1. All-round development i. To increase knowledge and
2. To get a certificate or skills
degree needed for a job or ii. To better qualifications,
self-employment iii. To pursue studies for self-
satisfaction
2 Place An educational institution No specific place is important
school or college - full time to learners – can be home,
factory, farm, library, open
space, etc.
3 Learners It caters to learners who are in It caters to learners who cannot
a position to attend full times go to school or have dropped.
It also includes learners who
want to improve their
qualifications by studying at
home.
4 Age Usually prescribed ages Any age
5 Grade Students are grouped into Usually no grouping
classes

116
6 Curriculum Rigid and fixed Curriculum not fixed
7 Textbooks Prescribed textbooks Usually no prescribed
textbooks
8 Examination Examination at regular Normally no examination
intervals. Written tests. Essay Assignments
and short answer questions.
9 Teachers Several teachers on full time Usually part time teachers
basis
10 Methods of Direct teaching methods, Face Contact programmes, radio,
Teaching to face teaching, Lecturing T.V. Correspondence lesson,
very little face to face teaching
11 Status Usually high status Usually not considered at par
with formal education
12 Period It is limited to a period of It is lifelong with learning
‘being taught’ as against a integrated with life and work.
period of ‘life’ and ‘work’ It is Life is upgraded and enriched
imparted in educational by learning.
institution.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

5. Define non formal education.

6. List out any two aims of non formal education.

7. Give examples of non formal education?

117
2.4.6 LET US SUM UP

Education both formal and non formal, is used by societies for preserving the
values of the past and for proceeding on the path of progress. The formal agencies of
education are pre-conceived and preplanned. They are developed as a result of some
of the needs of the society. The school, the college and the university come under this
category. The non formal agencies are simply out of-school-institution.

2.4.7 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Formal system of education Vs Non formal system of education – discuss.


2. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of formal education.
3. Explain the different levels of formal system of education.
4. Discuss the aims and objectives of Non formal education.

2.4.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Formal and Non Formal

2. School

3. a. Planned education keeping in view some definite aim.


b. Education imparted through well planned means or formal lessons.

4. Pre-school level, Primary level, Secondary level, Higher Secondary level and
University level.

5. Coombs and Ahmed (1974): “Any organized, systematic, educational activity


carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected
types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population, adults as well as
children.”

6. a. Literacy or primary education Those who have not completed primary


education classes I to V, are to be helped to complete primary education and
also help them to continue education further.
b. To help the student to educate himself either by enrolling himself in a school or
even without that to learn outside.

7. Open School, Open University, Open learning and Correspondence Courses.

118
2.4.9 SUGGESTED READINGS

Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi :
Shipra Publications.
Mohanty, J, (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi :
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Dash, B. N. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging
Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and
Distributors.
Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi :
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Bhatia, K. K and
Narang C. L. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of
Education. Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
Gupta, S. (2008). Education in Emerging India. New Delhi : Shipra
Publications.

119
LESSON 2.5

CONTINUING EDUCATION AND THE CONCEPTS OF OPEN


UNIVERSITY

STRUCTURE

2.5.1 Introduction

2.5.2 Objectives

2.5.3 Continuing education

2.5.3.1 Continuing education for persons in service or business

2.5.3.2 Continuing education for illiterate and semi literate persons

2.5.3.3 Continuing education for literate adults

2.5.3.4 Agencies of continuing education

2.5.4 Open University

2.5.4.1 Characteristic features of open University

2.5.4.2 Philosophy of Open University

2.5.4.3 Objectives of Open University

2.5.4.4 Need for Open University

2.5.4.5 Methods of teaching in Open University System

2.5.5 Let us sum up

2.5.6 Unit End Exercises

2.5.7 Answers to check your progress

2.5.8 Suggested Readings

120
2.5.1 INTRODUCTION

Education is the all round development of a person. It is a lifelong process.


Education is for refinement and enlightenment. It is a continuous process. No one
becomes educated by nearly receiving some literacy. An educated person is one
who can utilise his education for solving his different problems and who can benefit
others by the same. It is the education which develops one's intellectual and cultural
horizon.

2.5.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. understand the meaning of continuing education
2. explain the continuing education for various categories of people
3. give the meaning, characteristics of open university
4. know the need and objectives of open university.

2.5.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION

In India, people are generally not so keen to obtain knowledge as people are in
developed nations. Many people in our country take admissions in Schools, Colleges
and Universities but drop-out in the middle of the session without completing the
prescribed course of studies. Some do so due to their adverse circumstances arid
some due to their bad companies. Thus, there is a large number of persons who are
not able to complete their formal education. However, their desire to acquire further
knowledge is not killed after some times they may like to continue their education. For
them, continuing education is a boon. Under these circumstances, it is the duty of the
government and social leaders to provide facilities of continuing education to drop-
outs, farmers, labourers and half educated individuals.

2.5.3.1 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR PERSONS IN SERVICE OR


BUSINESS

Persons engage in agriculture, industries, sciences and different services are all
contributing in the national development in one form or the other. All the people
employed in service or business have the great importance in the field of development
of the nation. All these persons on the basis of their varying experiences learn many
things automatically. But in addition to their particular skills and experiences they
need to acquire some such knowledge which may enable them to become
enlightened. This knowledge may be in political field, economic field or such other
fields. It is only through the continuing education that this knowledge may be
imparted to them.

Any person, engaged in any job may have many such interests which are not
121
directly related to his job. These interest gradually fade away when he does not get
opportunity to develop them further. On the other hand, if he gets opportunity to
develop them, he may sharpen his interest to such an extent that he may be able to
produce some striking things in the area of his interest. If a person is provided with
the facility to use his leisure in workshop of his interest he may contribute a lot to the
society. It is only through continuing education one may utilize his leisure in a
creative manner. On the other hand, if he has nothing to do during his leisure time he
will waste it in reading some cheap literature, deteriorating to his character and
personality. Thus, continuing education is helpful in checking his deterioration and to
put him on right path of further progress.

Persons engaged in one or the other industries drift away from the latest
developments taking place in the world in other areas than their own due to their
environment in their jobs. For them too continuing education is essential. Persons
engaged in health services, family welfare enterprises and other types of social
services can also be benefited by continuing education. They can be imparted
knowledge about the latest development with the help of books or public lectures.
Provisions should be made for continuing education for Gram Sewaks, Block
Development Officers, Doctors, Lawyers and Engineers and others busy in their
specialized areas. For these persons libraries and study centres should be opened
where they may get the opportunity to increase their knowledge. Cinema,
Radio, T.V. and other audio-visual aids also play the vital role in the field of
continuing education. Continuing education should be planned for literate and
illiterate farmers and labourers of rural areas and urban areas. Through the
continuing education we can make our citizens engaged in services and business more
enlightened, cultured and progressive.

2.5.3.2 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR ILLITERATE AND SEMI


LITERATE PERSONS

As we have already said that continuing education is not only helpful for those
who are engaged in some jobs or business but it also helps the illiterates and semi-
literates to achieve knowledge and contribute their might in the development of
the nation. After the achievement of independence, our government have started
many schemes for spreading literacy among to illiterate persons. Throughout the
country, thousands of centres for adult and social education have been opened and
crores of rupees have been spent for the purpose in different Five Year Plans. A large
number of libraries have been opened for the semi- literate person. Radio and T.V. are
also contributing their might for the purpose. A large number of programmes are
relayed for the education of these persons. Many primary schools run the classes of
adult and social education in the evening.

In accordance with the directives of National Policy on Education, 1986 (NPE)


and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme Action, the
Government has formulated a comprehensive programme known as National Literacy
Mission in the field of adult education. The objectives of National Literacy Mission

122
are to impart functional literacy to 15-36 age group. Voluntary agencies have
been playing an important role in the Adult Education Programme.

Inspite of the great efforts, we have not been able to achieve our targets.
Investigations have revealed that illiterates and semi-literate adults have special
interests in such subjects as, (1) ancient history, (2) basic religious matters, (3)
the diseases which generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening,
(4) the fundamentals of economics, (5) short but healthy novels and interesting
stories, (6) folk stories, (7) folk songs, (8) psychology of adults, (9)
fundamentals of philosophy, (10) first aid, (11) prevention of ordinary diseases,
(12) matters regarding health and sanitation. (13) psychology of child behaviour,
(14) information about bringing up young children. (15) music, (16) liking,
habits of people of other lands, (17) modern international and national events, (18) the
modem history of the country and (19) modern scientific achievements. This list of
subjects reveal that an adult wants to understand many things about life. It is through
continuing adult education we may be able to satisfy his lust for knowledge.

2.5.3.3 CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR LITERATE ADULTS

In our country' hectic endeavours have been made for adult education but
very little work has been done for those adults who had to leave primary school
studies prematurely. In a report of UNESCO about 60% children of Asian countries
happen to abandon their primary education before successfully competing it. In our
country no adequate facilities are available to retain literacy. Of course, there are
some books for their continuing education but they too are not made available to all
the persons. These books are not very useful. The result is that there is quite a
large number of persons, especially women, who are keen for their education but
they have no opportunities. It is the duty of the government and social workers to
come forward for their continuing education. The government and the educational
agencies should not only publish the good books for their continuing education
but also made them available to needy persons.

2.5.3.4 AGENCIES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION

1. A network of Non formal centres of education


2. Open schools and colleges
3. Open Universities
4. Distance learning
5. District and mobile libraries
6. Training – cum – production centres
7. Mass media like T.V., and Radio.

123
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. NLM was launched in the year

2. What is the objectives of NLM?

3. List out any four interested subjects of study of Semi literate and illiterate?

2.5.4 O PE N U N I V E R S IT Y S Y S TE M

Open university provides education for those who have not g ot t h e


op p or t u nit y of ent er i n g t h e p or t a ls of a n educational institution due to poor
economic background, lack of time etc. It also attempts to pr ovide equality, of
educational opportunities.

Open univer sity system is getting wide acceptance in our countr y. T he


fir st open univer sity in India came into being is the Andhra Pradesh Open
University. Later more State open universities were established-Kotta Open
University and Maharashtra Open University. The idea of National Open
University initiated in 1970 became a reality by establishing the-Indira Gandhi
National Open University (IGNOU) by an Act of Parliament in 1985.

2.5.4.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY

Open system is a “system of educat io n that does not o perat e


t hrough t he t rad it io nal co nvent io ns whic h are essentially restrictive in
nature admission restriction, attendance restrict ion, restrict io n o n t he
candidature for examinat io ns, r est r ict io ns on t he p er io d o f t ime t o be
d e vo t e d t o a c o u r s e , r e s t r i c t io n o n t h e n u m b e r o f examinat io n s
given and t ak en in a year, r est r ict io n on subject combination for a
particular degree, restrict ion on t he mo des o f d idact ic co mmu nicat io n
and t he didact ic tasks etc. The larger the number o f such restrict io ns left

124
unobserved, the higher the degree of openness.”

Some of t he common charact erist ics are t hat t hey have an open
system of education which implies:

a. it d o es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt la ck o f formal qualification;


b. its education is not class room based but home based;
c. its students can study according to their own pace and convenience;
d. there are very few rigidit ies in the choice of course; and
e. in teaching, it makes use of educational techno logy, instead of
depending mainly on the teacher lecturing.

An important feature of open University System is t he no ve lt y o f it s


co ur se st r uct ur e. T he co ur se structure designed is to suit the individual
student’s aspirations and requirements.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. Which was the first open university in India?


.

5. IGNOU was established in the year

6. Mention any two characteristics of Open University?

2.5.4.2 PHILOSOPHY OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM

1. Education is not a once for-all process. No one is too old or too late to
learn. Inabilit y to be in full t ime residence at the campus is no bar to
learning. The open university has been built on the principle that
education should keep people abreast with the latest to be able to cape with
the changing world.
2. It helps democrat izat io n o f educat io n which sho uld help in making
education relevant to national needs.
3. The society has a responsibilit y to provide educational opportunit ies to
those who for some reason or other cannot go to the conventional system.
4. It is t he r espo nsib il it y o f t he so ciet y t o pro vide educat io n fo r
t housands of peop1e who were fu lly capable of higher education, but

125
who did not get it, or who realised too late that they need it.
5. It is the moral obligation of the society to provide
a) Systematic reading of correspondence texts and text books.
b) regular viewing and listening of Television and Radio programmes.
c) Contact with teachers and counsellors by writing or at local centres and
during contact programmes
d) Wr it t en assignment s, annu al wr it t en examinat io n, assessment
t est s and o t her fo r ms o f pract ical and project work
e) get a chance to continue their studies.
6. Open universit y is not simp ly an educat ional rescue miss io n; it a ims
at wider and hig her. Mo re o ver, t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r n e e d f o r
h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , supplementing the existing provision.

2.5.4.3 OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM

The open universities have the following objectives:


1. They provid e educat io nal oppo rt unit ies t o a larger number of
people, who were deprived of t he same earlier.
2. To r ealise eq ua lit y o f ed u cat io na l o p po rt un it ie s fo r large
number of people including those in employment, ho use wives and
ot her adult s who wish t o upgrade their education.
3. To provide flexibilit y wit h regard t o elig ibilit y fo r ad m is s io n,
cho ice o f co ur ses, met ho d o f lear n ing age of entry etc.
4. To provide educat ional opportunit ies for those who
disco nt inued t heir st udies wit hout ach ieving t heir goals.

2.5.4.4 NEED FOR OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM

1. D u e t o v a s t e x p l o s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h e h o p e o f providing
public educat ion to all through the Formal education agencies is
reduced. The government cannot h e lp t o co p e u p w it h t he
s it u at io n b y e xp a nd i ng educational institutions to meet the
increasing demand fo r ed u cat io n. T he o nly so lu t io n t o t his
pr o ble m is opening more open universities.
2. In a democrat ic societ y educat io n is being recognised a s t he r ig ht
o f ind iv idua l. T he e xist ing s yst e m is unable to provide education to
all.
3. 1n modern technological society higher education is a necessar y
co nd it io n. It is “e sse nt ia l fo r secur in g n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c
v i a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d productivity and efficient management”.
4. He a lt h o f p eo p le t o a gr e at e xt e nt is d ep e nd ing o n ed ucat io n.
Open Univer sit y is an e ffect ive mea ns t o spread t his idea to t he
people scattered t hrougho ut the country.

126
2.5.4.5 METHODS OF TEACHING IN OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM

The methods of teaching in open Universities include the following.


1. Pr int media
2. Broad casting lectures
3. Television Lessons.
4. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.
5. Laboratory works.
6. Correspondence tuition.
7. Self instructional materials.
8. Tutor Comments.

B o t h t he ha v e s a nd t he ha ve - no t s o f h i g he r educat io n welcome
t he idea of o pen Universit y. They are hap py o ver t his new v ist a whic h
will, cha ng e t heir life compet ence. The need y groups will sat isfy t heir
hu nger for learning at a lower cost. Success o f open u niversit y w i l l
d e p e n d u p o n s e l f m o t i v a t i o n , s e l f s t u d y a n d independent thinking.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

7. Enlist any two objectives of Open University?

8. List out any four methods of Open University?

2.5.5 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson, you have learnt the concept, beneficiaries and agencies of
continuing education and characteristics need and methods of teaching of Open
University. Continuing education is an integral part of the scheme of development of
an individual, a society, a state or nation. Every day, new avenues surrounding and
pervading this world are getting explored. Therefore, learning about anything at a
particular time needs to be continuously up – dated. In the present day world, a
systematic and purposeful learning throughout individual’s life has become a
necessity for effective living. The cherished aim of continuing education can be
achieved if alternative avenues to formal system of education are explored and
opportunities provided to millions of illiterates, semi – literates, school drop outs,

127
ambitious learners, aspirants for continuing education, which may include house
wives, youth, agricultural and industrial workers, unskilled workers and other
professionals.

2.5.6 UNIT END EXERCISES

6. Discuss the continuing education for persons in service and business


7. Describe the need for continuing education for semi illiterates.
8. Explain the objectives, need and characteristics of Open University.
9. Write about the philosophy of Open University

2.5.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. 1988.

2. The objectives of National Literacy Mission are to impart functional literacy


to 15-36 age group.

3. (1) ancient history, (2) basic religious matters, (3) the diseases which
generally attack animals and destroy agriculture and gardening, (4) the
fundamentals of economics.

4. Andhra Pradesh Open University

5. 1985.

6. a. it do es not debar a st u dent o n acco u nt lack o f formal


qualification;
b. its education is not class room based but home based;

7. a. To provide flexib ilit y wit h regard to eligibilit y fo r


admis s io n, cho ic e o f co u r ses, met ho d o f le ar n ing age of
entry etc.
b. To provide educat io nal opportunit ies for those who
disco nt inued t heir st ud ies wit ho ut achiev ing t heir goals.

8. a. P r int med ia
b. Broad casting lectures
c. Television Lessons.
d. Teaching in Personal contact Programmes.

128
2.5.8 SUGGESTED READINGS

Murthy, S.K. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana


Tandon publication
Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological
Foundations of Education.
Ludhiana : Parkash Brothers.
Udaiveer, (2004). Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Anmol
Publications Pvt. Ltd.,
Reddy, R.S. (2007). Recent trends in Non Formal Education. New Delhi:
Rajat Publication.

129
130
UNIT – III

131
132
CURRENT PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION
It is quite conceivable that with the advancement of education in India some
problems should have arisen, which may claim the attention of those concerned. In
fact some of the problems are as old as the modern system of education itself. The
problems pertaining to the aim of education, examination, wastage and stagnation, the
education of women, and teacher education.

Lesson 1 deals with the problems of primary education with special reference
to wastage and stagnation, its causes and remedial measures. We have discussed the
strategies to achieve Education For, All which is the need of the hour.

In Lesson 2, the focus is on the problems of secondary education-co-


education, Examination reform, New evaluation procedures and Inspection and
supervision.

Lesson 3 deals with Higher Secondary education its curricular and vocational
needs of rural India.

Lesson 4 of this block will give you an idea about Women’s education
especially the status of women in Higher education.

Lesson 5 deals with the problems of teacher education, Training teachers for
all levels of education, pre service and in service facilities and code of conduct for
teacher.

133
134
LESSON 3.1

PRIMARY EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Objectives

3.1.3 Education for all

3.1.3.1 EFA – For whom?

3.1.3.2 EFA – How?

3.1.3.3 New initiatives, schemes and projects undertaken towards EFA

3.1.4 Nature and causes of wastage and its remedial measures

3.1.5 Nature and causes of stagnation and its remedial measures

3.1.6 Let us sum up

3.1.7 Unit – End Exercise

3.1.8 Answers to check your progress

3.1.9 Suggested readings

3.1.1 INTRODUCTION

Primary education in the country is facing many problems. The student


teachers should be given complete knowledge about these problems so that they
would be able to face them in the professional life boldly. Wastage and stagnation are
the two prominent evils that are prevalent in educational systems of all countries
which prevent smooth and normal quantitative expansion of primary education. They
have a staggering effect still more on the educational development of the developing
countries it is said that school efficiency can be enhanced by minimizing wastage and
stagnation.

135
3.1.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. know the concept and purpose of Education For All
2. describe the strategies for the implementation of Education For All
3. understand the nature and causes of wastage and stagnation and its remedial
measures.

3.1.3 EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA)

In recent years, the Concept of Education For All originated out of the
combined meeting of the Tenth Regional Consultative meeting of Asia Pacific
Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the Regional
Experts Meeting on Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and
Education of Illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific held in Bangkok from 20th to 27th May
1986. “This programme indicated new direction of APEID for the fourth programming
cycle (1987-1991) and is to be known as ASIA PACIFIC PROGRAMME of
Education for All (APPEAL).” This new programme “Education For All” is related
to the following three broad areas:

1. Eradication of Illiteracy. (EOI)


2. Universalization of primary Education (UPE)
3. Continuing Education (CE)

1. Eradication of illiteracy (EDI). In spite of best efforts by the Government of


India to remove illiteracy, the literacy rate has not gone up to the expectation.
The Central and State Government are spending huge amounts for reducing
illiteracy rate. It has been realized that low rate of literacy is the root cause of
all backwardness, may be political, social, economic or cultural. All the
progressive national policies and programmes will not show the desired
results unless the masses are educated in the country. There is much of
exploitation where ignorance prevails and ignorance has its roots in
illiteracy. Nation will make an all round progress and era of Prosperity
blooms when everybody is educated in the country, understands the country,
understands the problems of the country and shows the courage to face them
boldly. On the other hand, if the people are illiterate there will be much of
backwardness in every sphere that be considered a barrier in the cause of
our national development.
2. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE). When the new Constitution
of India came into force on 26th January 1950, education received added
importance and significance. The education of the people of this country
became the responsibility of the people. Therefore, high priority was given to
the programme of universalization of primary education, so that every boy
and girl in this country can receive a minimum standard of education. Article
45 of the Indian Constitution, therefore, directed that, “The State shall

136
endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the
commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education
for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” Since then
constant efforts have been made for the realization of this goal set before our
country by the Constitution.

Three Stages for Universalization. From a study of the development of universal


primary education in progressive countries of the world. it has been realized that the
goal can be achieved through the following three stages:

Universalization of Provision. It means that primary schooling is to be


provided to all children between the age group 6-14 in the country and that a school
should be within walking distance from the home of every child. It enables the parents
to send their children to School. This is o n l y w h e n w e o p e n mo r e sc ho o ls .

Universalization of Enrolment. After looking to the provision of school


facilities in rural and urban areas the next step the universalization of enrolment. This
means that all between the age group 6-14 be enrolled by the primary school.

Universalization of Retention. After the enrolment of the students in school is


over, it is essential to see that they progress regularly from year to year. In other words we
must see that there is no stagnation in the school. Again we must see that the child
does not leave the school before the completion of a prescribed course so that there is
no wastage.

Problems of Universal Compulsory Education. After the attainment of


independence, the administration of the country came in the hands of the people
themselves. Due to the adoption of democratic system, the responsibility of reconstruction
and all round development of the country came in the hands of the new administration.
The leaders of the nation realized that the success of democracy was only possible when
the entire population was educated and understood their duties, rights and responsibilities.
Therefore, the national Government under. Article 45 of the Co n st it u t io n
dec lar ed t he p r inc ip le s o f pr imar y education. Even then we have not yet
achieved the target.

3. Continuing Education (CE). The programme o f cont inuing


education has two-fold Purposes
a) not to allow the new learners to relapse into illiteracy and
b) to revise the quality of life of the people.

The ultimate goal of Education for All is to establish a full learning environment by the help
of the above three areas. As a result of this India will emerge into a learning society.

137
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. What are the stages of Universalisation of Primary Education?

2. Write Article 45.

3.1.3.1 EDUCATION FOR ALL—FOR WHOM?

Education is a human need. Therefore, all the human resource utilised for the
progress of the country through education. UNESCO Bulletin states, “Education has the
dual function of transmitting the new generation the heritage of the past with its
accumulated wisdom in the history of mankind, and preparing it for the present and
future that the emergent needs of society and individuals hold before us. While
recognising that the enhancement of the happiness and well being of all individuals with
due regard to their environment, inclusive of both the material world and all forms of
life should be our goal. It is safe to assure, that we should increasingly expect the
unexpected in every facet of existence, educational enterprise, present and future, for
successful function from the point of view of both the individual and the society.”

Now it is realized that the number of children outside the school is increasing
as also the number of children inside the schools. “Disparities between the education of
the well-to-do and that of the children of the downtrodden are increasing. So also the
gender disparities are widening the developing countries are grouping in dark about
finding ways and means of coping with the situation so to India. We made a
Constitutional Commitment to achieve the goal of Universalization of Elementary
Education by 1960. This target had to be revised to 1970, then to 1976, later to 1988,
1990, 1995 (for upper primary stage), we are not ashamed to continuously shift this
target. We have accorded high priority to UEE in programmes of educational
development. We are fighting even now on more than one front to provide good primary
education to the children in the country.

138
The programme of Education for All includes categories of human being-
children, adolescent and adult. By the scheme of Universalization of Primary Education
children irrespective of their caste, creed, sex, colour and status must be enrolled to
become literate. Apart from primary education, we have to develop the programme of
Adult education. The Social Education, FELF, Polyvalent Adult Education Centre,
NAEP, etc. were the fore-runners of Adult Education Programme in our country. This
programme also includes Early Childhood Education, Education of Girls, Education of
the Impaired, Disabled, Handicapped Children and Other Exceptional Children. The
programme of Education for All covers primary schools age children, girls who have
remained out of the reach of all efforts to literate them, their enrolment and retention.

3.1.3.2 EDUCATION FOR ALL – HOW ?

So far we discussed the concept and purposes of Education For All. Now we
shall discuss how this program can be implemented
1. The programme of education for all should be introduced in the hilly areas, rural
areas, slum areas, where the rate of drop out among girls is high
2. A survey program should be undertaken to collect information about the drop
outs and non school attending children, their social economic status and
occupations, problem of literacy, educational facilities available in the area
and their cultural patterns.
3. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in
consultation with the members of the community
4. By undertaking survey, we can identify human as well as material resources and
can utilize them for implementing programme of education for all.
5. Attempts must be made to encourage the involvement of the community both in
survey and in the implementation of the entire programme of education for all.
Members of the community can give constructive suggestions for the improvement
of the programme.
6. In order to make the programme of education for all community, the
community members should be encouraged to hold all their celebrations and other
programmes in the education center
7. Experts of home science should help the village girls and women, the art of
preparing fruit-juice, Jams and Jellies.
8. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for the
centres of education for all.
9. To implement the programme of education for all UEE, Early Childhood Care
and Education (ECCE), Minimum Level of Learning (MLL), and Women’s
education programme should be improved.
10. Emphasis must be given on health education, nutrition education and sports
and games.
11. Early childhood education should be streamlined.
12. Teachers of regular schools should be encouraged to work on part time basis
in the education for all centres.

139
3.1.3.3 NEW INITIATIVES, SCHEMES AND PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN
TOWARDS EFA

1. District Primary Education Programme (DPEP)


2. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) – A programme of reform in evaluation
and examination at the Elementary Stage
3. Non Formal Education Programme for those who cannot attend regular
schools.
4. Operation Black Board (OBB) – To provide accommodation and teachers
5. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)
 Providing access to all children in the age group of 6-14 by 2003.
 Completion of Five Years of Primary Education by all children by
2007.
 Completion of Eight Years of Elementary Education by all children by
2010.
 Provision of Elementary Education of satisfactory quality for all
children by 2010.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

3. Write any two implementation strategies to achieve the goal of EFA?

4. Expand MLL and SSA

3.1.4 NATURE AND CAUS ES OF W AS TAG E AND ITS


REM EDIAL MEASURES

The Hartog Committee (1929) pointed out one of the major defects of Primary
Education i.e. Wastage and Stagnation. According to this Committee ‘Wastage meant
the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any stage before the completion
of the Primary course’. If any child drops out from the school before completing the

140
first stage of education, it is considered as wastage. Wastage is more in girls
than that in boys.

(a) Causes
The Causes of wastage refer to the following areas
1. Personal Factors - The personal factors responsible for wastage are
 Physical handicaps
 Emotional difficulties
 Social mal-adjustment
 Educational backwardness
 dissatisfaction at school
 lower achievement
 fear of punishments
 lack of positive motivation and
 lack of proper attitude towards education
2. Familial Factors - The fo llowing factors from the side of home of the
child cause wastage :
 unfavourable attitudes of parents
 social backwardness of home
 migration of parents
 economic backwardness of family
 illness of parents
 dissatisfaction of parents with schools
 parental opposition to education of their children
 low educational level of home
 non-recognition of value of education by home
 low cultural background of home
 over-crowding in the home
 loss of parents
 less facilities at home and
 excessive involvement of children in domestic work
3. School Factors - The following factors are responsible for wastage from
the side of the school
 poor standard of institutions
 higher pupil-teacher ratio
 inadequate physical facilities
 distance of school from the residence of pupils
 non-provision of mid-day meals
 non-provision of books and uniforms
 collection of more fees
 improper school - community relationships and
 lack of relationship of educational system with the economic needs of
country
4. Social Factors - The following community factors may be considered as
causing wastage
 caste structure
 economic status of the community
 class and caste consciousness

141
 occupational patterns
 educational status of the community
 its material culture
 its provision for social participation
 its level of aspiration and
 early marriages

Remedial Measures

Efforts to minimise wastage may be made on the fo llowing lines —


1) reducing of school hours to three hours duration
2) using of activity methods of instruction in Grades I and II
3) recruiting well-qualified teachers to primary schools
4) making experienced and highly qualified teachers handle primary
classes
5) securing parental cooperation and
6) enforcing of programmes of nutrition and health

The goal of universalisation of primary education; can only be attained


by making adequate efforts to maximise universal retention of children in the first
level of education otherwise the problem of dropouts will be great resulting in sheer
natural wastage.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

5. Which Commission pointed out the problem of Wastage and Stagnation?

6. Define Wastage.

7. Enumerate the causes of Wastage.

142
3.1.5 NATURE AND CAUSES OF STAGNATION AND ITS
REMEDIAL MEASURES

Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his


failure for more than one year. It is due to detention of students because of low
achievements.

a) Causes
The causes for stagnation may also be found in the person himself, in his home, school or
society. They are described hereunder :-
1. Personal Factors - The following are the factors resident in the pupil that
are responsible for stagnation
 low inte lligence
 physical handicaps
 irregularity of attendance
 lack of earnestness for learning
 illness or ill health
 unfavourable conditions for learning
 lack of proper guidance at home or in the school
 influence of undesirable associates and
 non-inculcation of love for learning
2. Family Factors - The following factors, relating to home, are also
responsible for stagnation
 non-provision of educational aids
 absence of guidance
 unfavourable home environment
 over-crowding in home
 occupational status of the family and
 residential status of family, rural or urban
3. School Factors - The educational factors that result in stagnation are as
given below
 poor quality of teaching
 inefficient instruction
 indifferent attitude of teachers
 defective curriculum
 lack of graded curriculum
 defective examination system
 over-crowdedness in classes and schools
 heterogenity of age-composition of students
 poor school environment
 faulty admission policies
 making admission throughout the year
 lack of play-way techniques and
 adoption of non-promotion policy
4. Societal Factors - The following factors of society are also responsible for the
evil of stagnation

143
 discouragement of education by parents engaged in agriculture
 artisanship, casual labour
 absence of proper relationship between educational system and economic
needs of proper relationship between educational system and economic needs
of the society
 education backwardness of the society
 existence of incomplete schools
 dull character of schools
 lack of capacity to attract and retain students and
 absence of ancillary services like mid-day meals

Remedial Measures

The following remedial measures may be undertaken to minimise stagnation


in the primary stage of education
 the Education Departments should effect qualitative improvement of schools
 take up intensive programme of parental education, —provide remedial
instructional services
 introduce graded curriculum
 improve examination system
 organise parallel classes
 treat primary level as an ungraded unit
 provide intensive incentive motivation through supply of free text books,
uniforms, stationary, mid-day meals, etc.
 appoint school mothers
 give financial assistance to parents and
 develop proper articulation between life and the school system

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

8. Define Stagnation?

9. List out any two remedial measures to over come the problem of stagnation?

.
144
3.1.6 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson, you have learnt the concept and purposes of EFA, and the
implementation strategies to achieve EFA. The state and central governments have
taken a number of measures like providing better staff and equipment, improvement
of curriculum, developing text books dynamic methods of teaching etc., to reduce the
problem of wastage and stagnation in order to achieve the goal of EFA.

3.1.7 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Explain the concept and purposes of EFA.


2. Write a short note on Universalization of Primary Education.
3. Discuss the strategies for the implementation of EFA.
4. Enumerate the causes for wastage and stagnation.

3.1.8 ANSWERS TO CHEK YOUR PROGRESS

1. a. Universalization of Provision
b. Universalization of Enrolment

c. Universalization of Retention

2. Article 45 of the Indian Constitution, therefore, directed that, “The State shall
endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the
commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education
for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.”

3. a. The teachers should remain in charge of undertaking the survey in


consultation with the members of the community.
b. Teacher training will remain in charge of the preparation of teachers for
the centres of education for all.

4. a. Minimum Levels of Learning


b. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

5. Hartog Committee.

6. ‘Wastage meant the premature withdrawal of children from schools at any


stage before the completion of the Primary course’.

145
7. a. Personal Factor
b. Familial Factors

c. School Factors

d. Social Factors

8. Stagnation refers to retention of a student in the same class due to his


failure for more than one year.
9. a. introduce graded curriculum,
b. improve examination system,

3.1.9 SUGGESTED READINGS

Murthy, S.K. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana :


Tandon Publication.
Hemchand, T.K. (2008). Problems of Elementary Education. New Delhi:
Crescent Publishing Corporation.
Sharma, S.N. (2007). Elementary Education Experiences and Expectations.
New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers.

146
LESSON 3.2

SECONDARY EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

3.2.1 Introduction

3.2.2 Objectives

3.2.3 The problem of Co-education

3.2.3.1 Advantages of Co-education

3.2.3.2 Disadvantages of Co-education

3.2.4 The problem of reform of Examination

3.2.4.1 Problems of examination

3.2.4.2 Merits and demerits of examination

3.2.4.3 Modern reforms of examination

3.2.5 New evaluation procedures

3.2.5.1 Choice Based Credit System

3.2.5.2 Grade System

3.2.5.3 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation

3.2.5.4 Question banks

3.2.5.5 Re-evaluation and returning of marked answer scripts

3.2.5.6 Multiple sets of question paper

3.2.5.7 Open book examination

3.2.6 Inspection and Supervision

3.2.6.1 New trends in Supervision & Inspection

3.2.7 Let us sum up

147
3.2.8 Unit – End Exercise

3.2.9 Answers to check your progress

3.2.10 Suggested readings

3.2.1 INTRODUCTION

Secondary education is the period of education in between Primary and Higher


Education. It has a vital role to play in any programme of education for the
community. It prepares pupils for the universities and other institution of higher
education. Besides, it is the stage which in all countries marks the completion of
education for the vast majority. Even the minority which goes for higher education
cannot take full advantage of the under opportunities by the universities unless they
have received their grounding in a system of Secondary Education.

3.2.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. analyze the problems of Co-education and its advantages and disadvantages
2. understand the problem of examinations and modern reforms in the field of
examination.
3. suggest the new evaluation procedures.
4. discuss the problems of supervision and inspection.

3.2.3 THE PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION

One of the problems relating to Secondary Education is co-education. The


question pertains to establishment of separate schools for the fair sex or whether
they should be educated in the mixed schools. Establishment of special secondary
schools for girls may be against the principle of providing equal opportunity for all to
education without any kind of discrimin9tion on one side, but on the other, it
may be necessary due to many psychological and sociological factors. Girls and
women come under the under-privileged classes just as other weaker sections and
they do need some special facilities in order to liberate them from the down-trodden
condition in which they lived not possessing equal right to education along with men in
this man-made world
.
3.2.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION

There are many advantages in running co-educational institutions. They may be


enumerated as hereunder
1) The courses of studies being common to a large extent in Secondary
Education, managing of co-educational schools is

148
2) Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving
expenditure on staff.
3) All the existing facilities provided by the different education it managements can
be appropriately used for the education of boys girls alike without additional
involvement.
4) Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated
5) It provides opportunity for the children of both sexes to come together and
understand each, other directly and have emotional purgation of sex impulses
indirectly by sublimation in an accepted manner.
6) Co-education is in tune with the equalisation of educational opportunity and helps
for avoiding discriminating on the basis of sex.

3.2.3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF CO-EDUCATION

Co-education is not without disadvantages and limitations. They may be


described as follows
1) Since the girls of secondary educational age reach the stage of puberty, many
of the parents in India dislike to send children to the Coeducational
institutions, thereby the plan for providing equal educational opportunities
to girls may be defeated.
2) The students of these schools--both girls and boys—are either in the pre-
adolescent stage or adolescent stage. They develop secondary sex
characteristics, which lead to some kind of awkward movements and
behaviours and also to some emotional imbalances. Romantic themes will
dominate their mental life. The need to associate with the opposite sex is
strongly felt. Such psychological factors may lead to behavioural problems
in schools and outside the schools like eve-teasing, roadside Romeoism, etc.
They may cause problems relating to discipline, which the educational
authorities have to face.
3) The existing social taboos against sex education, about free mingling of boys
and girls of adolescent age, etc., also act as handicaps for co-educational
programmes, specially in tropical countries and closed societies like ours.
schools for them wherever necessary, by providing free education and
liberal scholarships, hostel facilities, etc.

The following steps should be taken up, if co-education is to be encouraged

 More women teachers should be appointed in the secondary schools,


 waiting rooms for girl students, separate hostels and transport facilities
should be provided,
 If the students are in sufficient number, separate sections for girl students in
different classes may be opened,
 boys and girls should be educated to behave in proper manner to
 tone of the schools must be maintained to have good and disciplined behaviour
of students and teachers.

149
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Write any two advantages of Co-education?

3.2.4 THE PROBLEM OF REFORM OF EXAMINATIONS

In the system of education in any country, the examination system has an


important role to play. It is considered as a major sub-system. With the mass
growth of educational enterprise, the net-work of examination system has also
become vast. The expansion of educational institutions at a very rapid rate and
the explosions' of student population in unprecedented manner have brought the
problem of 'numbers to the forefront in the field of examinations too. This is
because of the acceptance of the national government throughout the world of
the direct responsibility of educating their peoples.

Examinations are considered now-a-days as a world-wide problem


concerning not only pupils, teachers, school organizers and educational
administrators but also parents, public interested in education, public administrators
and statesmen.
The latest trend in the field is not to abolish examinations and testing
programmes but to reform them, so that they become more functional and
serviceable activities in the service of mankind.

3.2.4.1 PROBLEMS OF EXAMINATIONS

The problems of examinations are to be looked into from various angles as such
 Administration,
 Instruction,
 assessment and
 Finance.

The problems of administration are


 conduct of public examinations;
 conduct of internal examinations,
 appointment of paper-setters,

150
 printing and distribution of question papers,
 appointment of-examiners
 organisation of valuation and tabulation,
 announcement of results, etc.

The Problems of instruction are


 avoiding examination-oriented instruction,
 pursuing objective-oriented instruction, etc.

The problems of assessment are


 training of paper-setters,
 training of examiners,
 reducing the domination of knowledge objective,
 establishing reliability, validity and practicability,
 introducing objective-based testing,
 maintaining the process of continuous evaluation, etc. (d) The problems of
finance are collection of examination fees,
 payment of remuneration to paper-setters, examiners, scrutinizers, tabulators,
invigilators, values, etc.
 Cost of printing and distributing question papers and collecting back
answer-scripts, etc.

3.2.4.2 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF EXAMINATIONS

In the fields of education in any country the system of examinations occupies


a predominant position as assessment of educational outcomes Important to
determine the individual’s standing in relation to their own group or in relation to
other individual members.

Merits
Educational measurement is important from different angles-

1) It is essential to know the level of pupils’ attainments to give further


instruction or guidance.
2) It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of
teachers in the classroom.
3) It is needed to enable the teachers to know the success or otherwise of
the teaching which they adopted.
4) it enables the public to know the quality of work turned out by the
educational instructions comparatively.
5) it enables the educational reformers to modify the curricula and the content
learning.
6) It enables the pupils to know their own strength and weakness.

Demerits
The demerits of the existing examination system can be accounted in different

151
ways from different angles
1) From the view point of aims of education, it can be said that they don't help
us in measuring the attainment of aims of education. They do not take into
consideration the new conceptualizations that have developed in the field of
education. The overemphasis on examinations is only helping to defeat the
real aim and purpose of education.
2) From the angle of content of education, it has been noticed that examinations
have come to dictate the content of education, instead of being satisfied
with measuring the content learnt by the pupils. Subjects, not meant to be
assessed in the examinations, do not appeal to the students and parents. Such
subject teachers are also being looked down by the students and public.
3) With respect to method of teaching, it can be said that they become
examination-oriented. Teaching is mainly carried out keeping the
examinations that the children have to face in purview. Dynamic
teaching techniques are neglected and preparation for the examinations is
only aimed.
4) With regard to study habits also similar observations are made, as
examinations have come to influence them abnormally. The students are
mostly guided by the cheap notes and guides that are examination oriented and
are neglecting actual text books, which they are expected to study. Rote
memorisation, takes the place of comprehensive learning.
5) Also the areas of testing it are evident that the traditional examinations only
test the academic progress or the intellectual of the pupils and not other
aspects of pupils' development: Even the intellectual achievements are also
unsatisfactorily tested.
6) With reference to scoring procedure, it s a common experience that
subjectivity, halo-effect, inter-examiner variability and intra examiner
variability etc., make the traditional examinations quite unreliable. Vagaries
in making, lack of objectivity etc., may also discredit them.
7) In connection with the question papers, it is noted that ambiguity
8) Of wording, stereotyped questions, lack of clear-cut limitation as to the
scope of answers etc., also forbid the reliability of these examinations.

3.2.4.3 MODERN REFORMS OF EXAMINATION

Some of the modern reforms in the field of examinations are described below

(a) Improvement of External Examinations

The following steps are but suggestive to improve the external examinations

 Only one terminal public examination may be insisted upon at the end of
school education.
 The School Record may be considered side by side along with the external
evaluation.

152
 Paper-setters should be adequately trained in the technique of preparing
improved question papers.
 Quest io ns used in the quest ion papers, and quest io n papers used in
the external examinations should be improved appropriately.
 Spot valuation, revaluation, re-numbering of answer scripts, etc., may be
introduced.
 Administration of examination may be improved by appointing one invigilator
for each batch of 20 students.

(b) Improvement of Internal Examinations

The internal examinations may be improved by taking up some of the following


steps :—
 Teachers should be trained adequately in the new evaluation procedures
and techniques.
 Objective-based teaching and testing procedures should be insisted upon in
schools.
 Class record should be considered side by side along with the school record in
deciding annual promotions.
 Oral and practical tests may be taken as .a part of internal assessment.
 Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal
assessment.
 Question Books may be developed in all schools.
 Administration of Psychological Tests and Standardised tests may be
insisted upon.
 Units tests may be introduced in lieu of the usual monthly tests.
 Emphasis on learning should be given more than the emphasis on passing the
examinations.
 Fear of examinations may be removed by abolishing detentions purely
based on the results of the annual examinations in order t- develop true love
for education.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. What are the major areas of problems of examination?

3. List any two merits of examination.

.
4. Enlist any two steps to improve internal examination.

153
3.2.5 NEW EVALUATION PROCEDURES

The new system of evaluation reflects the needs of a fast changing society. To
declare a pupil as a failure in any class at so early an age will give him an inferiority
complex for life and stunt his growth. Educationists all over the world are unanimous
on the inherent drawbacks in the prevailing system of assessment through
examination. In actual practice, the entire system of examination tends to focus on the
score in the examination. The new scheme of assessment, therefore aims at
rationalization and imbibes the following features:

3.2.5.1 CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS)

 Students have the good deal of freedom in designing their own


curriculum to suite their needs for better success.
 The students can take any course offered in any department.
 In this system, we divide the papers into core and elective groups and
ask students to choose, say 60% of their papers from core group and
40% from electives
 The electives could ideally come their or other department also
 Ensures interdisciplinary teaching and learning.
 This system is complicated in view of shortage and also infrastructures. Bu t
t he s yst e m is fa ir t o t he st ud ent . Permitting to seek knowledge that
suits her varied interests, aptitude and also ensures the interdisciplinary
knowledge requirements of the present times.
 Every paper is treated equal.
 A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week is full paper. Which has
2 credits is like a half paper.

Advantages
 More autonomy is given to students.
 Their interests, attitudes, skills are given importance.
 When a person chooses to work extra, he is given extra credit points.

Disadvantages
 Practical limitations are there.
 It is complicated, especially in the view of shortage of teachers or
infrastructure.

3.2.5.2 GRADE SYSTEM

 Grade system was introduced by UGC in the year 1970.


 Reasons for introducing grading system:
• Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.
• To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the

154
discipline.
• To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.
 The marking of alphabets or adjectives such as v.good, poor, v.poor.
 The human error of evaluation is ± 10.
 This system reduces comparison of marks.
 One of the major features of the new system is that not every paper is treated
equal. While designing syllabus, courses can have weightages defined. These
weightages are called credits.
 A paper/course which has 4 contact hours per week per semester is taken s a
full paper/course and is considered as having a weightage of 4, or as a 4 credit
course,
 A paper with 2-credits is like a half paper.
 An example is a seminar, dissertation projects typically carry higher credits,
this is indirectly equivalent to giving more marks for more important papers or
for activities such as dissertation projects.
 In the new system, instead of specifying number of paper/courses, only the
total credits to be earned is specified.
 If a 6-semester UG program specifies credit requirement as 120.
 Credits it means that an average 20 credits need to be earned each semester,
which can be earned in different ways such as
• Five-4-credit courses.
• Four-4-credit courses and two 2-credit courses.
• Five 3-credit courses and one 2-credit course.

FIVE POINT SCALE


100-90 0
90-80 A
80-70 B
70-60 C
60-50 D

Advantages
 Avoids or less comparison.
 Qualitative way of communicating results
 Students are motivated towards learning.
 Groupism is encouraged.

Disadvantages
 Less understanding by the parents.

3.2.5.3 CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION (CCE)

The present mode of assessment does not take into account the assessment of both
cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes and this encourages lop-sided
personality development. The one shot written examination is not an effective

155
measure for gauging all the abilities nor does it promote the application of multiple
techniques of assessment. The scheme of CCE is inspired by the idea that it is the
teacher who knows the pupil best, and it is through the teacher that we would get to
know how the learner is progressing with reference to his/her own earlier
achievements, with reference to his/her peer group as also with reference to the
expected levels of attainments set by the teachers.

3.2.5.4 QUESTION BANKS

In order to improve the quality of the question paper, there is a need to


generate quality questions of different types measuring various objectives, of varying
difficulty levels and for all stages of education. The facilities of the question banks
should be made accessible to the teachers who can use them for making various test
and to students who can use them for there own drill and practice.

3.2.5.5 RE-EVALUATION AND RETURNING OF MARKED ANSWER


SCRIPTS

There has been an appreciable movement in the direction of returning the


marked answer scripts to the examinees in the interest of accountability, credibility
and transparency in the evaluation process. The greatest dilemma is whether such a
scheme would be administratively feasible especially in Boards which handle and
process the results of hundreds of thousands of students.

It is the right of every student to be evaluated as accurately as possible. With a


view to ensuring objectivity and transparency, most of the Boards prepare and supply
the detailed marking scheme for the guidance of the examiners. If the answer scripts
are marked conscientiously and the Boards ensure the adherence of the examiners to
the marking scheme, the need for re-evaluation should not arise. However, in some
cases lapses may occur and ideally any request for re-evaluation of such students
should be acceded to for not only providing natural justice but to make the process
more transparent and tangible. Re-evaluation is different from rechecking and
retotalling. It is reassessment in curbing malpractices and unfair means in the
examinations. Some State Boards like the one in Punjab have also adopted this
measure.

3.2.5.6 MULTIPLE SETS OF QUESTION PAPER

In order to combat the menace of mass copying the CBSE introduced the
system of multiple sets of question paper in the year 1992. This has resulted in curbing
malpractices and unfair means in the examinations. Some State Boards like the one in
Punjab have also adopted this measure.

156
3.2.5.7 OPEN BOOK EXAMINATIONS

This is another innovation that has been conceived of in order to make


examinations more reliable and valid as also to make them a real test of ability
and not mere memorization. However, setting a question paper for open Book
examinations is a very difficult task. Therefore, this innovation has remained a
theoretical possibility in India.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

5. List any four new evaluation procedures.

.
6. What is the reason for introducing grade system?

3.2.6 INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION

Supervision and inspection in India till recent years suffered from many
handicaps in spite of the recommendations made by numerous Commissions. Even
now in some States the distressing conditions prevail in this regard. The defects in the
pattern of supervision and inspection in our country can be summarized as below:

• Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly


distinguished, and the persons were required to carry out both the functions
which tended to make the work as an arduous one.
• In the hierarchy, there are no cadres for supervision and inspection separately.
• Educational authorities are not able to wield full control over educational
institutions that do not receive grants-in-aid.
• Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.
• There are no proper procedures for selection, recruitment, and professional
education of educational inspectors and supervisors.
• Cleavages seemed to develop between teachers and supervisors due to the
development of the concept of ‘manager worker’ relationships.
• Individual inspectors used to carry out both academic inspection and
157
administrative supervision without having any specialization in the subjects to
be inspected.
• Usually inspectors are not possessing higher qualifications and experience
than the teachers whose work they are expected to supervise or inspect.
• There has been dearth of properly trained and well- qualified personnel.
• There are no objective procedures for evaluating teachers’ work or the
functioning of the schools : no emphasis was given on academic guidance or
administrative functioning.
• Periodicity of inspection is also less in number.
• No adequate research has been done on inspection and supervision to evaluate
the effectiveness of existing procedures.
• The educational inspectors are overloaded with more of routine administrative
work.

3.2.6.1 NEW TRENDS IN SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION

According to the Report of the Education Commission 1964-66 Supervision is, in a


sense, the backbone of educational improvement One of the main characteristics of
the new supervision will be its flexibility in the treatment of different schools. It
will have to provide support and guidance to the weaker schools, lay down guide-
lines of progress for the average schools, and give the freedom to experiment to
the good schools.

Latest developments in the field of supervision and inspection are mentioned below
which are still in the state of making. When they are fully realised, it may be
hoped that the lot of the educational field would be far better than what it is now.

1. Separation of Inspection and Supervision. There has been growing recognition


for separating academic inspection from administrative supervision. They are, of
late, being realised as two different functions. Administrative supervision
involves checking of pupil enrolment and attendance, finding out the adequacy of,
school buildings, playgrounds, laboratory equipment, library books, etc., looking
into the accounts of fees and other funds provided for the schools, complaints and
compliments, staff, requirements, qualifications, disciplinary problems, inter-
personal relationships and so on. Academic inspection, in contrast, is related to
finding out of educational standards of the schools, inspecting the class-room
teaching, assisting the schools in their qualitative development, finding out
whether the prescribed text- . books are followed, whether the syllabus has been
covered, whether proper teaching methods have been followed, helping to
promote curricular activities of the schools in the desired manner, taking up the
follow-up programmes, submitting of the inspection reports, providing
necessary guidance to the individual teachers and schools, wherever necessary, etc.
Hence in view of these varied functions which are quite unrelated to each
other there is a growing realisation of separating the instructional functions
from those of supervisory duties.

158
2. Changing Conceptualisation of Supervision and Inspection. There has been a
revolution in the conceptualisation of supervision and inspection and consequently in
the varied roles the supervisors and inspectors have to play in their professional lives.

Educational supervision is conceived as democratic activity involving group


discussions and decisions, and not authoritarian or bureaucratic approach 'as
was previously thought. Similarly, modern educational inspection is considered
as methodological guidance services and expert advising with respect to
classroom teaching and curricular problems the teachers may be facing in day-to-
day life. In the light of these conceptualisation, modern, educational supervisors are
considered as Social Statesmen and the school inspectors as philosophers and
guides of the teaching populace.

3. Improving Professional Competence of Educational Supervisors and


Inspectors. Being a special category of educational administrative officers,
educational inspectors and supervisors are to be given adequate training to improve
their professional competence in the relevant areas to play the varied roles
described above more efficiently and effectively. Hence there are
contemplations going on to establish a special National Staff College of
Educational Administration in order to give specialized training to the educational
administrators of different types working at the national level and State level.

It is being increasingly emphasised that proper care should be taken in the


selection, recruitment and training of the personnel intended for educational
supervision and inspection. Insistence on specialisation in the B.Ed., or, M.Ed.,
course in either educational, administration or school administration or school
organisation should be made, when special recruitment is being made for the
purpose. In the case of departmental candidates, who are being promoted as
educational supervisors and inspectors, their professional knowledge, aptitude,
attitude and ability to carry out the task should be taken into consideration and
they should be given administrative training for over two months in the State
Institute of Education and for three months undo- a senior administrative officer
before independent charge is given to them. Similar training should be insisted
for six months for the direct recruits as well. Periodical in-service education
programmes should also be organised in the form of refresher, courses, at least,
once in five years, to acquaint the officers with the latest developments and
techniques of educational inspection and supervision.

Encouragement of formation of special professional organisations for school


inspectors and educational supervisors, bringing out special journals to disseminate
findings in the field, to afford a forum for discussing their problems and
difficulties, giving incentive-motivation for action-research or undertaking
experimental projects and such other steps as would enable them to have their
professional growth should be undertaken by the State Governments.

159
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

7. Write any two defects of Supervision and Inspection in our country.

3.2.7 LET US SUM UP

In this unit, our main focus was on the problems of secondary education like
co-education, examination reforms and supervision and inspection. Then we
discussed the new evaluation procedures like Choice Based Credit System, Grade
System, Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation multiple sets of question paper.

3.2.8 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Discuss in detail the problems of Secondary Education


2. What are the advantages of Co-education
3. Enumerate the problems of examination in India.
4. Briefly discuss the innovations in evaluation
5. Explain the defects of supervision and inspection.

3.2.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. a. Both men and women can be appointed in such institutions saving


expenditure on staff.
b. Educational supervision and inspection will also be well facilitated

2. a. Administration,
b. Instruction,
c. assessment and
d. Finance.

3. a. It is essential to know the level of pupils attainments to give further


instruction or guidance.
b. It is required to enable the administration to assess the quality of work of
teachers in the classroom.

160
4. a. Oral and practical tests may be taken as .a part of internal assessment.
b. Class and home assignments should be necessarily a part of internal
assessment.

5. Open book examinations, Multiple sets of question paper, Question banks,


Continuous and comprehensive evaluation

6. a. Uniform means of evaluation among different universities.


b. To have a greater comparability among discipline and also within the
discipline.
c. To remove hurdles in the free mobility of students.

7. a. Inspectors and supervisors have been bureaucratic minded.


b. Administrative supervision and instructional inspection are not clearly
distinguished, and the persons were required to carry out both the
functions which tended to make the work as an arduous one.

3.2.10 SUGGESTED READINGS

Sharma, R and Sharma, K. (2004). Problems of Education in India. New


Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.
Vaidya, S. (2005). Educational Reforms. New Delhi : Deep
and Deep Publications Private Ltd
Sharma, K. (2002). History and Problems of Education in
India. Agra : Lakshmi Narain Aggarwal
Publishers.

161
LESSON 3.3

HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

3.3.1 Introduction

3.3.2 Objectives

3.3.3 History of Higher Secondary Education

3.3.4 Objectives of Higher Secondary Education

3.3.5 General and Vocational Spectra

3.3.6 Needs of Rural India

3.3.7 Social Impact

3.3.8 Let us sum up

3.3.9 Unit – End Exercise

3.3.10 Answers to check your progress

3.3.11 Suggested readings

3.3.1 INTRODUCTION

Higher Secondary Education in India has a brief history in India education.


Yet it played some prominent role in the nation being in marginal course between the
school education and Higher education in Universities.

3.3.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. examine the history of Higher Secondary Education.
2. state the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.
3. analyze the general and vocational spectra.
4. identify the needs of rural India and social.
5. impact of Higher Secondary Education.

162
3.3.3 HISTORY OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION

Colleges were existing in India even before the establishment of the three
Universities as per the Wood’s Despatch by 1857. The Calcutta Madras, the
Banaras Sanskrit College, the Hindu Vidyalaya of Calcutta, etc., have been some
of the earliest Colleges on modern lines.
Int ermediat e Educat ion came into exist ence only aft er t he
recommendations of the Calcutta University Commission of 1917-1919. The
Commission said that the dividing line between the University and Secondary courses
was more appropriately drawn at the Intermediate Examination than at the
Matriculation Examination. Consequent on the recommendations, Intermediate
Colleges came to be established throughout the country and two years
Intermediate Education came to stay in the country. Also Boards of
Intermediate Education came to be founded in many States. The, University
Education, Commission emphasised to continue, 12 years schooling including two
year Intermediate Education

The Secondary Education Commission of 1952-53 recommended for


a new educational structure of 8+3+3 i.e., 8 years of general education, 3 years of
Higher Secondary Education, and 3 years of First Degree Course. For High School
students one Year Pre-University Course was recommended to enable them to enter
Higher Education. But the Education Commission of 1964-66 critically disagreed
with this recommendation and endorsed 10+2+3 pattern of Education, i.e., 10
years of general Secondary Education, 2 years of Higher Secondary Education and 3
years of First Degree Course.

The Higher Secondary Stage of Education is called +2 stage. Even today


different nomenclatures are used in different stages. e.g., in Andhra Pradesh,
the +2 Stage is called Intermediate Education and is provided in Junior Colleges,
which are under the Directorate of Higher Education. A Board of Intermediate
Education was established for looking after the academic matters and for conduct of
Intermediate Examinations and issue of the Certificates.

Similar is the case with some other States. This shows that there is a
variation in the implementation of the recommendation's of the Kothari
Education Commission, which was firm that Higher Secondary Stage should be
tagged on to School Education. Yet it may be stated that many of the States have
accepted the +2 year course of Higher Secondary Education. This pattern has
some obvious advantages as described below :-

1. Control undue expansion because of selective admission into these courses ;


2. Students of Class XI will be more mature than students of Class IX to
decide about their future careers and to choose some pre- specialisation
programmes
3. It is also possible to introduce vocationalization at this stage intensively
163
so that at least 50% of students can be diverted to different walks of life
4. It helps in a way to reduce pressure on Universities ;
5. Provision for transfer of credits to students, who desire to change from one
stream to another, is also a plus point ;
6. The standards of Higher Secondary Education will be improved ;
7. The work-centred education will develop self-reliance and self- confidence in
students;
8. It will instill dignity of labour usually found in all the developed countries
9. It will also produce the spirit of initiative and enterprise in the students,
and,
10. It will enable our young men and women to face the challenges of modern
life bravely and dedicate themselves to transform both the society and the
economy through innovations and adventures.

However, it has been realised that a good deal of preparatory work is


needed to identify the vocational courses appropriate to the stage, to prepare.
reliable estimates of man-power needs or employment opportunities, to prepare
curricula and to set up essential institutional structures for vocationalisation.

3.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION

The Objectives of the Higher Secondary Stage of' 'Education may be given
in the following way :-

a. Genera l Objectives are

1) to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country;


2) to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses or to
Higher Education,
3) to expand the period of school education to bring about a, general rise
in the standards of educational attainments
4) to vocationalize education to 50% of students;
5) to help for the social, cultural and economic development of the country;

b. The Specific Objectives are

 to provide suitable academic knowledge to enable pursuit of higher


education academic or vocational both through' formal and non-formal,
educational channels;
 to promote understanding of facts and appreciation of fundamental
concepts and app1iation of knowledge in day-to-day life in a scientific
manner
 to promote understanding of man and his environment—physical, historical,
social, economical and political;
 to imbibe, habits of hard work and develop .a sense of dignity of labour;
 to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and aptitudes

164
for themselves
 to promote knowledge of healthy living and physical wellbeing;
 to broaden outlook of students by modernising curriculum by incorporating
the developments taking place in other' parts of the world;
 to provide sufficient opportunities to students to become productive
and self-reliant by introducing work experience and community service
 to inculcate in: them' the nat ional goals such as- national integration,
international understanding, social justice, democratic living,
cooperativeness, cultural and' religious tolerance, etc., and,
 to develop national character.

3.3.5 GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SPECTRA

The newly visualized Higher Secondary Education has two distinct spectra namely
1) General Educational Spectrum and
2) Vocational Sepctrum.

1. The General Educational Spectrum. Provision of equal educational


opportunities to all does not mean that each future citizen should invariably enter
the gates of Universities. Philosophically it is not the conception.
Psychologically, it is not possible because of obvious individual differences
in students. Sociologically it is undesirable, because the nation does not need all
academically highly qualified individuals alone. There are different walks of life
into which people fit by virtue of their innate abilities and capabilities.
Education is to help in the actualisation and realisation of their potentialities to
the optimum possible level.

The Kothari Commission had rightly recommended ten-year school


course for majority of the people The rush into Universities is to be reduced by
introducing selective admissions into Higher Secondary Educational
Institutions. 50% of which is to be diverted to academic courses leading to
Higher Education and 50% to Vocational Courses enabling terminal studies or further
vocational studies.

This radical major reform in t he field of educat io n is to be


introduced after Class X only. A student of Class XI is conceived to be mature
enough to choose either academic courses or vocational st ud ies.

The academic stream may also be terminal at the end of Higher Secondary
Stage of Education, but it may also ‘serve a feeder for the tertiary level of
education Hence it is designed to match the educational achievement-expected at
the level of Class X, on one hand, and that required to enter the tertiary level,
at the other. Here the choice of subjects is provided for, not only in accordance
with the aptitudes and interests of the students but also in keeping with the admission
requirements of the tertiary level institutions into which some of the students may
desire to seek admission. Hence at the Higher Secondary level diversification of

165
courses—academic as well as vocational—has been effected. Such a flexibility in the
system is introduced.

2. The Vocational Spectrum 50% of the applicants who seek admission


into Higher Secondary Schools should be diverted to Vocational Courses, such as
Agriculture, Science, Commerce and other disciplines. It includes practical
training too to produce efficient vocational workers.

It is suggested that the courses are to be designed as semester courses in


each subject and since +2 is mostly terminal only sometimes a feeder, they
may have a ‘modular’ or add-on character. In the matter of language, it is
proposed that each school should provide for the study of two languages even
though a student may study any one of them. The general study is meant to
enlarge the awareness of the students regarding our culture and heritage, our
history and the problems of growth and development in our society.

In the vocational spectrum, the basic sciences that are related to a vocation are
necessarily introduced. Biology, chemistry, physics or mathematics, commerce,
economics concerning the vocation are to" be included to make the courses attractive
to more intelligent students.

3.3.6 NEEDS OF RURAL INDIA

In the curriculum of the Higher Secondary Education, the needs of rural India
are taken care of specially. Vocationalization of courses would be based on
survey of economic activities, potentialities and consequent opportunities of work or
assessment of man-power needs. Vocationalised higher secondary education is not to
be considered as technician training. In our country, industrial agricultural
production is growing; the application of science and technology is opening up
diverse fields of activity; commerce, trade and public services are expanding
rapidly. All these need for an. adequate supply of qualified personnel at the
administrative, professional, technological, technical, semi-skilled and unskilled
levels. Vocatonalisation of higher secondary education is to cater to the middle levels.

India is a land of villages. Agriculture is the main occupation. For


decades to come it will remain to be the mainstay of our economy. As our
education has been in the past urban-oriented and concentration has been on
industry-cum-city-oriented vocations, the rural areas have suffered very much.
Facilities and services in rural areas also remained backward. Now there is need to
pay special attention to the improvement of qualit y of life in rural areas.
Vocations that have better utilisation of rural resources should be given priority in
the vocationalization of higher secondary education in the rural areas.

Rural-oriented vocations such as servicing of tractors-,— tube-wells, or


other machinery, and vocations based on dairy-farming, fish culture, vegetable
growing, horticulture, medical plants, rural health, educational and cultural services,

166
etc., should find their due place in the vocational spectrum. In this way, the
national goals of equitable sharing of economic benefits, social justice, etc., can
be ensured.

3.3.7 SOCIAL IMPACT

The +2 pattern of higher secondary education has been accepted by almost


all the States of India. The diversified curricula into academic and vocational streams
is also being adopted in many States. Some States like Andhra Pradesh have already
begun to implement vocationalisation of higher secondary education. There
had been favourable reaction from the students. Many students are choosing the
vocational stream in preference to the academic stream. The NCERT at the Centre
and the SCERTS and State Institute of Education (SIE) at the State level are
struggling hard to develop and adopt suitable curricula for the vocational
courses keeping in view the needs of the society, the local resources available,
and the needs, interests and aptitudes of the students.

Many workshops and training programmes are being organised to -develop


the needed instructional material and to train the teachers of vocational courses.
The Regional Colleges of Education are coming forward to give professional
training specially designed to the teachers of selected vocational courses so that the
desired objectives of vocationalization at the stage of Higher Secondary
Education can ultimately be realised. In this it may be concluded, that the social
impact has been favourable and encouraging. In time, the scheme of
vocationalization of higher secondary education will become universally accepted
pal tern by one and all.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Which Commission recommended Intermediate education?

2. Write any two general objectives of Higher Secondary Education?

3. Mention any two specific objectives of Higher Secondary Education?

4. Higher Secondary Education has two distinct Spectra namely and


.

5. List out the vocational courses needed for rural population at the Higher Secondary
Stage?
167
3.3.8 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson, we studied the history, objectives, curriculum and need of


curriculum in rural areas at the Higher Secondary Stage.

3.3.9 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Briefly discuss the historical background of Higher Secondary Education.


2. Describe the objectives of Higher Secondary Education.
3. What is the need for diversification of courses at the Higher Secondary Stage?

3.3.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Calcutta University Commission


2. a. to introduce a uniform national pattern of education in the country;
b. to prepare students for the terminal courses or for vocational courses
or to Higher Education,

3. a. to imbibe, habits of hard work and develop .a sense of dignity of labour;


b. to develop capacity in the students for discovering their interests and
aptitudes for themselves
4. a. General Educational Spectrum and
b. Vocational Sepctrum.

3.3.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Murthy, S.K. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana :


Tandon Publication
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi :
Shipra Publications.
Mohanty, J, (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi :
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Dash, B. N. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging
Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and
Distributors.

168
LESSON 3.4

WOMEN EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Objectives

3.4.3 Women in higher education – Indian context

3.4.4 Enrolment of Female Students

3.4.4.1 Gender wise and class wise enrolment

3.4.4.2 Faculty wise enrolment

3.4.5 Hurdles in the Higher education of women

3.4.6 Suggestions of overcome the hurdles

3.4.7 Women and distance education

3.4.8 Empowerment of women through Higher Education

3.4.9 Strategies for the empowerment of women

3.4.10 Women in Higher Education – Global perspective

3.4.11 Let us sum up

3.4.12 Unit – End Exercise

3.4.13 Answers to check your progress

3.4.14 Suggested readings

3.4.1 INTRODUCTION

“Education is not the filling of a trail, but the lighting of a fire”. Education
contributes to human development. Education provides the individuals with
knowledge, skills and attitudes required to succeed in their personal, social and

169
economic roles and there by accelerates the process of national development.
Education - higher education in particular, can be termed as a catalyst that moves
individuals and communities out of a life of poverty and ignorance into a life of
prosperity and wisdom.

With this concept of higher education at the dawn of the 21st century, effective
participation of women is very vital at all levels of development. A recent World Bank
Study says that educating women is not a charity, it is a good economics and if
developing nations are to abolish poverty they should educate their women. It is
universally accepted that education is a significant instrument in improving the status of
women. There is a close connection between education and development. No society
can prosper without making women educated and empowered. The relevance of women’s
education to social, economic, cultural and political development of the individual,
family, community and nation is universally acknowledged.

3.4.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. understand the women in higher education – Indian context
2. compare the enrolment of female students – gender wise and class wise
3. state the hurdles in the higher education of women
4. suggest to overcome the hurdles
5. analyze the women and distance education.

3.4.3 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION - INDIAN CONTEXT

The first woman being admitted at the University of Calcutta in 1877, the
second in the University of Chennai in 1881 and the third in the University of Mumbai in
1883 were landmarks in the history of women's higher education. Since a woman first
entered the university we have come a long way, although we have miles to go. While
women constituted only 9.3 percent in higher education on the eve of independence,
the percentage has now risen to 43 in the course of five decades.

After the establishment of women’s university in Bombay in 1916, known as


Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey (SNDT) Women’s University, women’s
social status had begun to show an upward trend. During the year 1937, higher
education of girls developed immensely. Several education commissions and
committees were appointed in different states. In the post —independence period, Dr.
Radhakrishnan was (1948-49) appointed by the Government of India as the chairman
to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements suitable to the
future requirements of the country. The commission recommended some special
courses for girls in order to enable them to fit themselves well in their social set-up.
These courses were; Home Economics, Nursing, Teaching and Fine Arts. For the first
time in the history of India, a national system of education was established in 1986
through the National Policy of Education which laid emphasis on giving equal
opportunities of education to those who have been denied equality so far, particularly

170
women. The idea of women’s education for equality, participation and empowerment
was given top priority in the plan of action in 1992. In the ninth plan also emphasis was
given to women’s education and the setting up of Women’s Studies Centre was
encouraged. Today we have five women’s universities viz — S.N.D.T Women
University, Mumbai, Mother Teresa Women University, Kodaikanal; Avinashilingam
Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore; Sri
Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya, Tirupathy and Banasthali Vidhyapeeth, Rajasthan
and 1195 women’s colleges, in our country.
ENROLMENT OF WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION

Year Percentage of
enrolment
50-51 10.9
55-59 14.0
60-61 16.2
70-71 22.1
75-79 24.9
80-81 27.2
85-86 29.1
87-88 31.0
90-91 32.0
00-01 43.0

Today, we have more than 1200 institutions, out of 9200 and odd colleges,
meant exclusively for women in different disciplines, levels and professions. Yet, a
sizeable number of women are still to enter higher education.

3.4.4 ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS

In the post Independence period, the number of female students in higher


education has immensely increased. In 1950-51, the number was about 43000 which
increased to 20.65 lakhs in 1994-95.

Even today, there are large inter-state variations in the enrolment of women in
higher education. There are 15 states and union territories where the percentage of female
students is above 40. The highest percentage of enrolment is found in Kerala whereas the
lowest percentage of enrolment is in Bihar which also falls in the category of most
backward state and most populous state (83 millions). In the rest of the country,
women’s enrolment is still very low showing a great need for further improvement in
higher education.

3.4.4.1 GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT

At every stage of education, the enrolment of girls is significantly lower than

171
that of boys, particularly in the technical and industrial streams.
GENDER WISE AND CLASS WISE ENROLMENT

Category Male % Female %


UG 65.56 34.44
PG 64.66 35.34
Ph.D 66.17 33.83
Teacher Training 52.46 47.54
Polytechnic 82.27 12.73
Engineering 89.47 10.53
Medical 65.63 34.36

3.4.4.2 FACULTY WISE ENROLMENT OF FEMALE STUDENTS

The faculty wise classification of female students indicates that most female
students (54.4%) prefer Arts subjects. The percentage in Science and Commerce are
in 20.1 and 14.1 respectively.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Which was the first Women’s University in our country?

.
2. Name the existing Women’s Universities in India?

3. At present what is the percentage of enrolment in Higher Education?

3.4.5 HURDLES IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN

Economic reasons middle poverty is the pre dominant parents of factor that

172
hinders the girls from getting higher education. The major hurdles, which are the
common reasons for the early drop out of girls in higher education are, lower classes
think it is wise to save money for their dowry rather than their education. Whenever the
purse of the parents gets tight their first step is to stop the expenditure on education of
their daughters. Most of them consider it as an unnecessary expense as a girl has to go to
some other family. Also, higher education is so expensive that the parents of middle
class families cannot afford it. In every third family, we find girls who are not able to
get education due to the, financial difficulty of the parents.

Familial reasons

There are conservative parents who think that education spoils the character of
their daughters. If their loving daughter goes to college she will not be able to prove
herself to be a modest daughter-in-law. In college, she will only learn fashion, and co-
education may spoil her character. They argue that when their daughter need not earn,
what is the need for higher education for her. The parents discriminate between their male
and female off-springs in the matter of financing their education.

Educational reasons

The dearth of good colleges and universities and difficulty in getting admission are
also serious problems faced by girls who aspire for higher education. The educational
reasons which stand in the way of girls' higher education are inadequacy of facilities,
particularly, distance of the college or university from home, irrelevance of the content of
education, curriculum not suited to their requirements, etc.

Social reasons

It is felt that higher education for girls resulted in raising the number of spinsters it so,
most of the parents want their daughters to discontinue higher education. They think it will
lead to late marriage for their daughters if they continue in higher education. Thus, amongst the
hindrances to girls' higher education, marriage is a very common I factor. According to a
survey, 75 percent of girls who dropped out gave up their education due to marriage.
They gave up their studies to enter home life.

3.4.6 SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HURDLES

Gender sensitivity camps to develop the right attitude towards women should be
organized in backward and Gender remote areas. Incentives like scholarships and
freeships recommended by commissions and committees should be popularized,
promoted and increased. Provision for part time jobs should be ma d e in a
l a r g e n u m b e r o f organizations.

 Book banks should be established.


 Community colleges to be established for women in rural areas.
 Effective guidance and counseling services to be provided.

173
 Topics especially relevant to women's need maybe introduced as additional
curricular components in the existing regular courses.

3.4.7 WOMEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION

Distance education is seen as having a potentially important contribution to


make in overcoming barriers to women's participation in the developed and developing
world. It is well known that distance education plays an important role in women's
development. There are constraints of time, space, resources and socio - economic
disabilities faced by women. Distance education with its outreach to their homes can help
them to overcome these constraints. It enables to study, learn skills and take up vocations
for their economic and personal development in their own leisurely pace. It helps them to
earn and learn simultaneously.

Distance education is a boon to women; because it can be made use of by


women who could not avail the opportunity of getting educated through the
conventional system of education both due to the specific problems they face; and the
limitations of the conventional education system. Adult women face specific problems
like

 Domestic preoccupation,
 Full-time employment,
 Geographic distance of educational institutions,
 Social customs and cultures preventing them from attending schools and
colleges.

At present there are about 26 open universities and about 740 distance education
institutions throughout the world. Studies reveal that about 40 to 50 percent of distance
learners are women.

3.4.8 EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH HIGHER EDUCATION

Empowerment is a term widely used in the context of ‘development’ particularly


women’s development. Empowerment in a nutshell, is a way of defining challenging and
overcoming barriers in one's life through which the individual increases her ability to shape
her life and environment. Empowerment is an active process enabling women to realise
their full identity and power in all spheres of life.

Women’s empowerment can be achieved only through meeting the gender


needs and interests. Education, which is the most dynamic factor of development, is the
only tool for realising empowerment. It is a productive investment. It also brings about

174
conscientization which helps individuals to perceive their environment.

Women are partners in development. They can play a more positive and active
role in development if they are given relevant education and training to enable them to
use improved technology in their daily activities. As the National Policy on Education
(NPE) 1986 has indicated, for full development of our human resources, for the
improvement of human potential and for moulding the character of our children during
their most impressionable years, education of women is of paramount importance.
Because of it’s multiplier effect on posterity, education of women must be given
priority in national plans. The NPE has rightly envisaged that the national education
system should play a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women through the
following action strategies:
 Building a positive self image
 Developing the ability to think critically and fostering decision making and
action
 Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change
and
 Providing the where withal for economic independence.

Empowerment is an active, multi-dimensional process which should enable women


to realise their full identity and powers, and enable them to challenge and change not
just the hierarchical gender relation, but all hierarchical and inequitable relations in
society.

The major objectives of women's higher education, which lead to women


empowerment are to:

 create the right attitude towards life, individuals and society


 impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life
 give practical training to face the real life problems
 develop good personal habits
 inculcate a sense of social awareness and spirit of service to society and
 make a strong career for the future.

3.4.9 STRATEGIES FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

1) Personal

At the personal level, empowerment means being assertive, self-confident and


an ability to manage gender-relations. This can be achieved through reflection, higher
learning, legal awareness and economic independence. The economic and print media
should focus on the issues related to women. Instead of depicting them as secondary
citizens and the weaker sex, they should project them as self-confident individuals who
understand their own abilities and problems and who are capable of solving them, on
their own. The women who are already empowered should come forward to create
awareness among the less-fortunate majority using the mass-media

175
2) Local level

In gathering women to take up useful activities which will help them as individuals
and also the local community. Better opportunities, more organized activities and
better access to legal and monetary aid will lead to more meaningful contribution of
women to the local community. The educational institutions, through their NSS/
Community and Social Service (CSS) programmes can help in this regard. Each and
every individual woman in the adopted village should be personally approached and the
support extended should match their individual unique requirements. The local
administration, may help in monitoring this programme and also ensure that not a single
village is left out.

3) State / national level

Empowerment of women at the State and National levels should result in a larger
number of women participating in bureaucracy and governance. Scholarships and
concessions for women, who are eager to take up courses, which had been the sole
domain of men, will encourage them to venture new grounds. Reservation for women,
which is pending for a long time, has to be implemented at the earliest. Media support
will speed up this process if it adopts a positive approach to the cause of women in this
regard by highlighting their achievements rather than their failures. Universities and
NGOs can organize training courses in political leadership and governance for
aspiring women.

4) International/global level

We have had women who had risen to such high levels in their own fields to attain
international acclaim. But their number is small. The higher education institutions should
work towards establishing network with many international institutions. More
opportunities should be created for women to take up higher education and skill training in
institutions abroad. More funds should be made available for women to participate in
international conferences / seminars / workshops. Interaction with the global
community will result in a broader perspective of social issues and enhanced capacity of
problem solving. Enterprising women who have proved as successful entrepreneur at the
local level should be trained in the know-how of making it big in the international arena.

Contributions of women at the national and international levels should be given wide
publicity and the international organizations like WHO, UNICEF and UNESCO should
make special: efforts to involve a high proportion of women in all the programmes as
contributors as well as beneficiaries.

3.4.10 WOMEN IN HIGHER EDUCATION - GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

In the global scenario also, it has been a recognized fact that women have been more
limited access to education than men, especially so in the developing countries.

176
Hence it is felt that illiteracy is mainly a women’s problem. Though the global focus
is on increasing the access for girls to primary and secondary education with a view to
decrease illiteracy rates, the importance of tertiary education for women has also been
recognised as it will promote their employability. According to Lindy Hyam, Chief
Executive, IDP Education, Australia, participation rates for women in higher
education are alarmingly low, especially in developing countries like African
countries, where there are fewer than 200 women enrolled in tertiary education for
every 100,000 women in the country.- She also laments that even where there is near
equality in enrolments, they are concentrated in the so-called 'female disciplines' which
has resulted in the poor representation of women in key industries at all levels of
management. Even within Universities themselves women are poorly represented at
higher levels and management.
International education has the potential to remove the gender imbalance as it will
increase opportunities in the global workplace. But, it has been found that there are
low levels of female participation in international education, especially among students
from the middle-east where it is 2.3 percent, and India and Bangladesh where it is 10
percent.

Also, although female students feature prominently in the areas of health (72%) and
education (75%), there is a noticeable under representation in the fields of Information
Technology (25.9%), engineering and related technologies (16.1%) and architecture
and building (38.8%). The consequences are that women will continue to be under
represented in key occupations.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. Write any two major objectives of Women’s Higher Education?

3.4.11 LET US SUM UP

To meet the challenges of the twenty first century, women’s education should
aim at economic independence and self reliance. Their education should create such
confidence in them that they can excel even in the masculine jobs. It also must help
women to discover their latent abilities, talents, capacities etc. Women should be given
the choice and freedom to pursue and study the courses according to their interests. Such
educated and emancipated women have the potential to bring about prosperity and peace

177
to the family, community and the nation.

3.4.12 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Discuss the hurdles in the higher education of women and give your suggestions
2. Write a short note on women and distance education
3. Give an account of strategies for the empowerment of women.
4. Explain the global perspective of women in higher education.

3.4.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

3. SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai.

4. SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai, Mother Teresa Women University,


Kodaikanal; Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education
for Women, Coimbatore; Sri Padmavathy Mahila Viswavidyalaya, Tirupathy and
Banasthali Vidhyapeeth, Rajasthan

5. 43%

6. a. create the right attitude towards life, individuals and society


b. impart useful knowledge on various aspects of life

3.4.14 SUGGESTED READINGS

Meera, S. Annakodi, R. and


Suryalatha, A. (2005). “Women in Higher Education” in Text book on Women
and Development. Centre for Women’s Studies,
Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women,
Coimbatore.
Rao, R.K. (2000). Women and Education. New Delhi : Kalpaz
Publication.
Mishra, R.C. (2008). Women Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing
Corporation.
Pattanaikj, A. and
Swain, S.R. (2007). Women Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing
Corporation.

178
LESSON 3.5

TEACHER EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

3.5.1 Introduction

3.5.2 Objectives

3.5.3 Problems of teacher education

3.5.4 Classification of teacher education

3.5.5 Agencies of teacher education

3.5.6 Training teachers for Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary Courses

3.5.7 Pre service and in service training facilities

3.5.8 Code of conduct for teachers

3.5.9 Let us sum up

3.5.10 Unit – End Exercise

3.5.11 Answers to check your progress

3.5.12 Suggested readings

3.5.1 INTRODUCTION

Modern pedagogy is not mere imparting of knowledge and skills to pupils


but it takes into its domain the task of developing the, whole- personality of children
in and out of school. Teaching is considered to be an art as it involves the
subjective elements as insight and judgement on the part of teachers. As is the
case with others pursuing different arts, so is the case with those pursuing t he
teaching line. They should be educated in t he art o f teaching. Modern
teaching is a field of specialisation. Mere mastery of subject to be taught is
not sufficient to make the modern teachers efficient. There are certain areas of
professional competence in which the prospective teachers are to be given
specialised training or education, in order to make them as competent and
efficient teachers. They should be trained, so as to enable them to acquire
179
the required theoretical and practical professional knowledge and skills in the field
of teaching.
3.5.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. analyze the general problems of teacher education
2. list out the agencies of teachers education
3. understand the training teachers for Primary, Secondary and Higher
Secondary level.
4. know the pre service and in service training facilities.
5. enumerate the code of conduct for teachers.

3.5.3 PROBLEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION

To procure the required personnel suitable for the purpose and train
them in an adequate manner is the chief problem of teacher education. It is
the major task of the nation to be accomplished in a phased and planned
manner. It relates to human resource development in the work of teaching.
Elaborate teacher educational programmes have been envisaged in the five-year
plans to meet the growing demand for the qualified teachers by the different
types of schools at different levels.

After the attainment of independence the role of teachers has changed


very much in the sense they have to prepare future citizenry that has, national
consciousness, and national character, social and emotional integration,
international, understanding and strong desire for international peace, equality
and justice.

All this is possible when the teachers themselves are fully aware of these
things and when they act as the symbols of identification to the students.

Teachers are the instruments that can effectively bring about educational
reconstruction in the country. They can play their due roles when they are
professionally educated to do so. Hence teacher education has to be properly
planned to meet the desired goals of educational reconstruction. Educational
reconstruction forms the basis of social reconstruction, which in turn becomes the
basis for national reconstruction.
The importance of teacher-education in post-independent India in the matter of
educational reconstruction has to be recognised by the educational administrators
and teacher educators so that the planning and administration of teacher
education curriculum may include the related aspects to effect the desired changes
and attain the designed goals.

 Dearth of new technology of teaching.


 Shorter working hours.
 Lack of physical facilities.

180
 Less qualified teacher educators.
 Faculty methods of assessment of trainee’s work.
 Ineffective supervision of the teaching practice by supervisors.
 Meager training in the art of organizing co-curricular activities.
 Insufficient training in the art of communicating with the community.
 Isolation between the colleges of Education and the schools.
 Insufficient time and attention paid to the actual practice teaching.
 Inadequate training in practical skills.
 Lop-sided curriculum.
3.5.4 CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER EDUCATION

Teacher education can be classified in different ways depending on the types


of the student teachers, levels, etc. If the student teachers to be admitted into Teacher
Education Institutions are fresher’s from schools and colleges without having any
training earlier, it is called the Pre-service teacher Education. If the student
teachers are working teachers, who have not been trained earlier, it is called
the In-service teacher education. If the participants are trained earlier and if
refresher courses are organised for them, it is called the Extension teacher
Education. Depending on the levels, it is designated as the Pre-Primar y
teacher education, the primary teacher education, the secondary teacher education,
higher secondary teacher education, and the collegiate teacher education.
Depending on the certificates issued it is called a Certificate course, a Diploma
course and a Degree course.

Teacher-Education

Teacher Education is offered in the following ways:


1) Regular course for 1 or 2 Academic years,
2) Evening or Vacation courses for 2 Academic years ; and
3) Correspondence-cum contact courses for 2 Academic years.

3.5.5 AGENCIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION

All the educational authorities, the centre, the state Government, the
Private Agencies and the Universities are taking active part in providing
teacher Education at various levels. The Central Government has been evincing
keen interest in the in-service and extension education of the teachers and also
in educational research through the National Council of Educational Research and
Training, (NCERT) New Delhi. The State Governments through the Departments of
Education maintain some teacher educational institutions to provide pre-service, in-
service and extension education programmes. At the diploma level, teacher
Education Boards conduct examinations and issue certificate, Graduate Institutions
are affiliated to the respective Universities and they recognise, conduct
examinations and issue certificates for B.Ed., and M.Ed., students. Numerous
educational societies and missionaries also run teacher training Institutions and

181
Colleges of Education and prepare candidates for the examinations conducted
either by the teacher Education Boards or University Departments of Education. For
providing Extension Education Programmes and for encouraging education
research, state Governments are also establishing state councils of educational
research and training, state Institutes of Educat ion, extensio n service,
depart ments etc. Also Guidance Bureaux, Science Education units, Evaluation
unit, Educational teehnology cells, collegiate cells, non-formal. Education cells,
etc., are established.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Expand NCERT

2. Write any two problems of Teacher Education?

3.5.6 TRAINING TEACHERS FOR PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND


HIGHER SECONDARY COURSES

(A) Training of Primary Teachers

The following defects are found in 'respect of primary teacher training in our country
• no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to
teachers of pre-primary schools
• the conditions of primary teacher training institutions are depressing
• the standards of such institutions are unsatisfactory ;
• the teacher educators working in these institutions are not specially trained for
the purpose ;
• good and efficient secondary school teachers and inspecting officers are
not attracted towards these jobs ;
• the general education of primary teachers is far less than that of secondary
teachers

The following are some of the desirable measures to improve the primary teacher
training

• pre-primary teacher training should be organised by the State Governments to


facilitate free flow of qualified teachers to such institutions in an adequate

182
manner the staff of the primary teacher training institutions should be
adequately qualified ; for this the Kothari Education Commission has
recommended that the-staff-should be possessing a Master’s degree either in
Education or in an academic subject besides the B.Ed., degree;
• they should be trained in the work of preparing primary teachers, through
special orientation courses or introducing such courses in the B.Ed., which
should include experience in the primary schools too.
• material conditions relating to libraries, laboratories, audio visual aids,
should be improved on a top priority basis;
• every training institution should have an experimental school attached to
it
• the size of the primary teacher training institution offering a two year degree
course should be 240;
• a large number of such institutions should be located in rural areas;

(B) Training of Secondary School Teachers

The quality of professional education of teachers in the post-independent era is found to be either poor
or mediocre, despite its vast expansion. The following defects are note-worthy
• it has been traditional with respect to curriculum and programmes:
• set patterns of teacher training and practice teaching are followed ;
• the institutions are remaining isolated from the University life, schools and sister
institutions; and so on.

The following are some of the measures designed to bring about the desired changes in the fields of
secondary teacher training and its institutions as recommended by the Kothari Education Commission.
• Teacher education should be brought into the main stream of academic life of
universities by introducing pedagogy at the undergraduate and ,post-graduate
degree levels to break its isolation from the universities ;
• Every training institution should guide neighbourhood schools and their staff in planning
their work and in using improved methods of teaching which helps to break isolation from
schools
• Extension education programme should be organised instituting extension education
departments in each of the training institutions for training pre-primary., primary and
secondary school teachers, which would be duly co-ordinated by the National Council
of Educational Research and Training through its Field Services Department, the State
Institutes of Education or the
• State Councils of Educational Research and Training ; which help breaking
isolation from one another ;
• All teacher training institutions should be upgraded in a phased manner to the
collegiate standard to become comprehensive colleges of education providing
teacher training from pre-primary stage
• Establishment of State Boards of Teacher Education to prescribe standards,
to improve curricular programmes, to prescribe conditions for
recognition, to offer consultative services, to ensure teacher competence, and

183
to prepare immediate and long range plans for the development of Teacher
education qualitatively and quanitatively.

(C) Training of Higher Secondary School Teachers

As long as Intermediate Education was considered as a part of


University Education, no efforts were made to educate the lecturers working in
the Colleges professionally.

With the establishment of Higher Secondary Schools and Multi- Purpose


Schools after the recommendation of the Secondary Education Commission, it was
felt as a dire need to update and upgrade the know- ledge of teachers handling
Classes XI, and XII. There was also need for appointing teachers for technical
subjects such as Engineering, Agriculture, etc.

With the acceptance of 10+2+3 pattern of educational structure, the


requirements of Junior Lecturers have been enhanced and usually post-graduates in
the concerned subjects are being appointed. The problem, whether they should have
professional education or, not came up once again.

Meanwhile, it is generally felt that teachers of Collegiate Education should


also have some kind of professional education covering the Philosophy of
Higher Education, Psychology of Students, Modern Techniques of Teaching,
Modern Methods of Evaluation, etc.

Subsequently in some States in the State Councils of Educational Research


and Training, the Departments of Collegiate Education came to be started to give
the Collegiate Teachers Professional Education through organisation of In-
Service and Extension Education Programmes, Organisation of Content Courses,
Induction Courses, Workshops, Seminars and Conferences to high tight on the
problems of higher education and higher secondary education and to undertake
research and publications.

Hence, though no pre-service training, has yet been contemplated to


teachers of higher .secondary education, in-service and extension education
programmes have come to stay offering the required professional preparation in
content, methodology and evaluation.
With the introduction of vocationalization of Higher Secondary Education, the
problem of securing trained teachers in technical and vocational subjects has once
again arisen. To meet this exigency, efforts are going on to get technically trained
personnel to man the vocational courses in these inst itutions with the help of
Regional Colleges of Education, which are promising to meet the requirements of
the States in their jurisdictions by training personnel through suitable courses.

184
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

3. Point out two defects in primary teacher training

3.5.7 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING FACILITIES

The different types of professional education of teachers have been discussed earlier.
Hereunder some of the modern trends are presented.

Pre-service training is for those, who opt to take up the profession of


teaching as their career. There are varied levels of training facilities for different
qualifications. Matriculates and Intermediates get training leading to
certificates/diplomas Graduates seek admission into Colleges of Education
leading to B.Ed., Degree. Post-Graduates also undergo B.Ed., training. All B
Ed.’s are elig ible for M.Ed., courses and M.Ed.’s for Ph.D., in Education.
These facilities are available for regular students, and in-service candidates also of late
Correspondence cum-Contact Courses are being started by different universities
leading to B.Ed., Degree and M.Ed., Degree to both pre-service and inservice
candidates. Four year integrated courses are being conducted by the Regional
Colleges of Education, (RCE) wholly managed by the NCERT situated at Mysore,
Ajmer, Bhopal and Bhubhaneswar, for the respective States coming into their
jurisdictions.

For re-orienting the teachers, inservice and extension education programmes


are undertaken by the National Council of Educational Research and Training,
State Councils of Educational Research and Training, State Institutes of
Education, Extension Service Departments for the Primary and Secondary school
teachers throughout the country. In the field of educational research in Teacher
Education, the Centre for Advanced Study in Education, (CASE) attached to
the Facult y of Psychology and Education, M.S. University of Baroda and
Faculties of Education of other Universities are doing laudable work. The ERIC of
NCERT is also promoting research in education by providing the needed financial
assistance to the individuals and organisations.

Courses leading to B.A., (Education) and M.A., (Education) are organized by

185
some Faculties of Education of some Universities. However, this is considered
to be inter-disciplinary approach to education and not a kind of professional
preparation. Hence the employability of M.A., (Ed), and B.A., (Ed.), as teachers
directly without professional
preparation is being questioned. Hence they may have to undergo some kind of
professional training to be eligible to join the profession.

3.5.8 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR TEACHERS

Teaching is a profession and teachers have got world wide professional


organisations of their own. So it is high time they develop a sort of professional
ethics, code of conduct or certain pattern of etiquette to uphold the honour and
prestige of their profession. Some of the items are suggested below
1) They should do nothing that causes disgrace to them personally or to the
profession collectively.
2) They should adhere strictly to the rule; of conduct—written or unwritten,
established by tradition and teachers of the past.
3) They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and
purposes that are expected of them.
4) Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face, they should be
conscientious , and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are
concerned.
5) They should not make the students victims because of the injustice done to
them either by the school administrators or the authorities concerned.
6) They should respect their fellow teachers and should never speak ill or
evil of them.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. Regional Colleges of Education are situated at , ,


and .

5. What is the role of ERIC?

6.List any two code of conduct for teachers?

186
3.5.9 LET US SUM UP

The problems of teacher education which we have discussed above explicitly


indicate that the work of teacher education is not progressing properly in our country
and its utility is also doubtful. However, these problems are not as such cannot be
solved. The necessity is however this, that the educationists of the country should
compel the Government to remove the defects prevalent in the field of teacher
education within the shortest possible time. The role of teacher is most significant in
educational revival and he can perform his role properly only he is giving proper and
efficient training.

3.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Discuss the problems of teacher education.


2. Briefly give an account on training of teachers at different levels of education.
3. Write short notes on pre service and in service training facilities.
4. Explain code of conduct for teachers.

3.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. National Council of Educational Research and Training.

2. a. Dearth of new technology of teaching.


b. Shorter working hours.

3. a. no special efforts are made by the State Governments to give training to


teachers of pre-primary schools
b. the conditions of primary teacher training inst itutions are depressing

4. Mysore, Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubhaneshwar

5. The ERIC is promoting research in education by providing the needed financial


assistance to the individuals and the organizations.

6. a. They should serve truthfully and honestly to realise the objectives and
purposes that are expected of them.
b. Whatever may be the frustrations and difficulties they face, they should be
conscientious, and noble-minded as far as their professional activities are
concerned.

187
3.5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS

Panda, B.N. and Teacher Education. New Delhi : APH Publishing


Corporation.
Tewari, A.D. (2009).
Mohanty, J. (2003). Teacher Education. New Delhi : Deep and Deep
Publication Pvt. Ltd
Aggarwal, P. (2010). Teacher Education. New Delhi : Saurabh Publishing
House.

188
UNIT – IV

189
190
HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION
Nutrition is one of the major factors influencing the health of an individual.
Since food is the source of nutrients, consuming the right amounts becomes
important. If the diet is poor, ill health will result due to the deficiency or excess of
one or more nutrients. The food eaten must not only be nutritious but it must be clean
and free from harmful germs. The person’s environment is equally important.

In lesson 1, the focus is on the school health programmes, common ailments


of children, communicable diseases and their prevention, first aid and need for sex
education lesson 2 talks about food nutrients, nutritional deficiency diseases,
preservation of nutrients, balanced diet and formation of healthy food habits.

Lesson 3 discusses the meaning, objectives, need for population education and
impact of population growth on social, economic and educational developments.
Small family norm and family welfare programmes of government are also described
in this lesson. In lesson 4, our attention shifts to physical education – its need,
objectives and role of the physical education.

Lesson 5 explains the meaning, objectives, scope of environmental education


and the different types of environment and the role of teachers in environmental
conservation.

191
192
LESSON 4.1

SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES

STRUCTURE

4.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2 Objectives

4.1.3 General aims and objectives of Health education in schools

4.1.4 Responsibilities of schools with respect to Health education

4.1.5 Common ailments of Children

4.1.6 Communicable diseases and their prevention

4.1.7 First Aid

4.1.8 Sex Education

4.1.9 Let us sum up

4.1.10 Unit – End Exercises

4.1.11 Answers to check your progress

4.1.12 Suggested Readings

4.1.1 INTRODUCTION

The school is a powerful force of the community. It is a miniature society. It


is greatly concerned with both the health of school children and health of the
community. The programmes of school health education are quite important. They
have their impact on the lives of the members of the community at large.

A modern school is responsible for providing healthy conditions in its


premises, for giving health education to the children under its custody, for the
medical examination of the school children from time to time, for providing medical
and mechanical aids to them and for other school health services. It should take care
of all aspects of health of the students under its control i.e. physical, mental,
emotional and social.

193
School health education is very important for it goes to the individual
student, to his family and to the community at large. School health education has as
its scope under “instruction” the following: information of the needs of the
community, content of health education, training of teachers and evaluation.

Hence health education should be provided to the children in a graded manner.


Instruction, practice of control and preventive measures are obligatory on the part
of the schools.

4.1.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. understand school health programmes
2. list the common ailments of children
3. describe the different types of communicable diseases and their preventive
measures
4. explain the importance of First aid
5. know the need for sex education.

4.1.3 GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN


SCHOOLS

Following are the aims and objective of health education in schools:


1. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health,
2. To give information regarding health rules,
3. To develop healthy health habits among children,
4. To develop certain skills concerning health, e.g., training in first aid and etc,
5. To enable children to understand the educative value of sanitation, cleanliness
and healthful living,
6. To develop a will to listen to rules relating to health,
7. To develop better human relationship in matters concerning health,
8. to acquaint children with the causes and remedies of general diseases,
9. To influence parents and other adults to better habits and attitudes through the
health programme of school and to make the school and effective agency for
the promotion of the social aspects of health education in the family and
community as well as the school itself,
10. To take precautionary and corrective measures against contamination and
spread of diseases,
11. To take curative measures like medical check up of students and
12. To develop and promote emotional and mental health of the students.

194
4.1.4 RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOLS WITH RESPECT TO HEALTH
EDUCATION

A. Provide Healthful School Living Conditions


It is the primary responsibility of the school to provide healthful living
conditions in the school premises, as described below
1. The surroundings of schools should be clean. The schools should be
situated in a calm and peaceful surroundings. There should be good
drainage facilities. Toilet rooms should be amply provided.
2. The school buildings should be spacious. The rooms should also be
spacious with leak proof roofs, direct lighting, suitable furniture, proper doors
and windows. The flooring should not be damp. Proper ventilation and
lighting should be provided.
3. The play fields should be sufficient in one area to facilitate playing of
different games. It should be of gravel or chalk soil not to be damp.
4. There should be regular water supply. Spit bins and dustbins should be
provided.
5. First aid facilities should be made readily available.

B. Organisation of Activities and Instruction


1. Physical education activities should be organised in a planned manner so as
to involve all the students. “Play-for-all” programmes, play festivals;
organisation of school health days, cleanliness weeks, training in the
use of first aid boxes and giving first aid should be some of the activities
of school hygiene programmes.
2. Direct health instruction is also provided as a part of the curricular
programmes. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii)
communit y healt h, ( iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v)
safety education, (vi) nutrition education, (vii) physio logy o f
exercises, (viii) first aid, (ix) structure and funct ions o f t he human
body, (x) choice aid use of health services and products, (xl) mental
health, (xii) smoking education etc.,

The undermentioned are some of the school health programmes


• Control of Communicable Diseases
It is the responsibility of the schools to secure immunization of school
children against communicable diseases. Vaccination for small pox,
B.C.G. vaccination, Triple Antigen Vaccination, inoculation against
cholera, typhoid, etc., is imperative.
• Care programmes for the Handicapped
The schools should also undertake special care programmes for the
handicapped children and the crippled. Arranging better transportation
facilities, minimizing the travelling distance, arranging class rooms in
the ground floors, excusing late- coming or absence, permission to
retire from the classrooms early and avoidance of disciplinary
measures are some of the steps to be undertaken by the schools to

195
afford school adjustment for the children with heart troubles.
• Physical Education Programmes
The role of physical exercises in t he develo pment of normal healt h is
obvious. The schools should also co-operate in the National Fitness
Schemes, etc., Students should be encouraged to take active part in the
athletics, sports and games in the interest of their health.
• Emergency Services
Emergency services should be offered for such emergencies like sprains,
fainting (epileptic fit), bleeding, poisons, wounds, burns, scalds, cuts,
dislocations, fractures, insect stings, drowning, and other accidents.

C. Role of the Teachers and Schools

Teachers are concerned with the incubation period only during which
period symptoms show off themselves. They are also concerned with the
after-effects after the children return to school during the convalescent stage.
The schools are chiefly concerned with the immunisation programmes.

D. Measures for Lessening Mass Infections

The following are some useful measures for minimising the mass infections
• Use the handkerchief while coughing or sneezing.
• Have adequate ventilation for your living and bed-rooms.
• When sleeping in groups, alter the beds in such a way that the heads come
alternatively in a row.
• Keep all rooms clean.
• Take nutritious food.
• Have adequate rest and sleep.
• Don’t use articles used by the infected persons.
• Close the schools, if epidemic is wide-spread,
• Compel vaccination and immunization programmes.
• Find out the cases, isolate and notify.
• Re-admit when the child is free of the disease.

196
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. List any two aims and objectives of Health education in school.

2. List out the Health curriculum

3. Mention the school health programmes.

4.1.5 COMMON AILMENTS OF CHILDREN

• Children suffer from a number of illnesses during their early childhood years.
They have less resistence to diseases than adults. So they easily get illnesses.
The School children also suffer from some ilnesses, which are – cold,
headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio,
tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles etc.,

4.1.6 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR PREVENTION

• A large number of diseases children suffer from are due to infection. These
diseases are called communicable diseases. Another kind of diseases called
deficiency diseases are also common in children. Those diseases which spread
from one person to another are called communicable diseases. These are caused
by harmful germs which are not visible to the naked eye. The saliva and other
excretions of the infected person carry disease-producing germs. From the
infected person these germs are spread to others through air, water or bodily
contact. Flies and the other insects also pass on the germs to other people. Once
these germs get into the body, they multiply rapidly and cause the symptoms of
the particular disease.
• There are three stages in any communicable disease. They are: i) The
incubation stage, ii) the acute wage and iii) the convalescence stage. The
period from the time the germs enter the body to the time the symptoms appear is
called the incubation stage. During this stage the germs multiply rapidly and

197
start affecting the body systems. The period of actual suffering is called the acute
stage. In this stage symptoms appear and the individual suffers the maximum
discomfort. Good diet and rest are important for speedy recovery. The
duration of these three varies depending upon the illness. Some of the
communicable diseases are harmful enough to cause the death of children.
Others make the children very weak. The following are the common
communicable diseases.
• Common Cold - One of the frequent infections of the child is common cold. This
is caused by cold virus. Cold is usually accompanied by running nose, head-ache
and cough. Children catch cold from persons having cold. Some suffer cold due
to allergy. Children may suffer from stuffy nose when they have cold.
Applying camphor oil over chest may give relief to cough. There is no special
medicine for the common cold except to make the child comfortable by
keeping his nose open with nose drops.
• Diarrhoea - is passing three or more loose or watery stools in a day due to
infection of the digestive system. Important salts and water are lost in this
process. Excessive loss of water and salts leads to the death of the child.
Hence it is called a killer disease. The common causes of diarrhoea include
drinking impure water, unhygienic living conditions, eating food which is not
clean, unhygienic bottle feeding, etc.
• Oral rehydration solution can be easily prepared by mixing salt, sugar and
water. In a glass of boiled and cooled water one pinch of salt and four pinches
of sugar are added. This solution must be given little by little whenever the
child is willing to drink.
• Mumps - This is a condition where there is swelling of the glands in the neck
as a result of infection by virus. The child may have fever. He may not be able to
eat anything because of the enlargement of the salivary glands. Hence liquid
diet is recommended.
• Tonsilitis - This disease is caused by bacteria. Throat is affected. There may
also be fever accompanied by cough. Gargling with hot water containing salt
gives relief. Only liquid diet should be given as it is painful to swallow.
• Ear Infections - It is common for children to have mild infections of the ear.
Whenever there is ear-ache doctor must be consulted. Applying hot pad and
giving aspirin may give temporary relief.
• Scabies - When a child suffers from scabies, there is generalized
itching which results in ulceration and crusting. Treatment consists of applying
Benzyle benzoate emulsion as per doctor's advice t4 the whole body for three or
four days after a bath. Keeping the body clean a preventive measure. Children
should not be allowed to play in dirty soil.
• Measles - It is caused by measles virus. The virus is present in the secretions of
throat, nose and mouth and the disease is spread through air. Children who inhale
infected air will get it immediately. The symptoms include cold, cough and fever.
The child’s eyes become red and watery and become sensitive to light. After
three or four days of fever, rashes appear first behind the ears and then
slowly spread to the face and all over the body. One dose of measles
vaccine between 9 and 12 months may prevent this disease.

198
• Chicken Pox - It is caused by the germ called Variola minor. It begins with
fever. Shortly, separate, raised pink spots appear on head, face and waist. They
increase in number rapidly forming nodules and blisters and then a crust within
about seven days. The incubation period for the disease is 11-21 days. The pox
may cause intense itching that makes the child very restless. By scratching he
causes secondary infections. So the child's hands should be washed with soap
several times a day.
• Diphtheria - This is a fatal disease caused by an organism known as
Corynebacterium diphtheriae. These bacteria are usually present in the nose and
throat of the infected child. A child can get this disease by being close with the
patient or when the child uses the patient's belongings.
• The first symptom is that the child gets a sore throat with or without difficulty in
swallowing. The child suffers from mild fever and cannot breathe easily. As
the disease progresses, the child is not able to breathe. If proper treatment is
not given, the child may die. The disease can be prevented by giving three
doses of DPT before the baby’s first birth day.
• Typhoid - This disease is caused by the bacteria typhoid and is contracted by
eating food or drinking water infected organism. The disease is accompanied
by high fever and severe headache and can last for 3 weeks. The intestines are
inflamed and so only diet is advisable. The child may also have diarrhoea.
Nourishing so drinks and soft boiled food must be given. Typhoid has a tendency
to and so great care must be taken of the child.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. Enlist the common ailments of children.

5. What are communicable diseases?

6.Chicken pox is caused by the germ

7. Expand DPT .

199
4.1.7 FIRST AID

Students meet with some accidents either in the play field or on the roads e.g.
cuts; sprains; swelling; bruises; simple fractures; bleeding; drowning; fainting; snake-
bites; scorpion stings; dislocation; eye injury, head injury; sprains, wounds; etc. In
such cases, first aid is to be given before the medical help is rushed in. Hence
the student-leaders should be well aware of the contents of the First Aid Box and
how to give first aid to the needy in case of emergency.

The students are also taught about the use of First Aid Box and about
giving first aid to the sufferers as a part of the content under Health Education and
also under the area of Health and Hygiene included in the subject: “Socially Useful
Productive Work, and Community Work and Social Service.”

The first aid to be given depends on the nature of the accident some are indicated
below

1. Cuts and Bruises - Wash with a Carbolic soap or Dettol and apply Furacin
or Dettol Ointment.
2. Burns – Cover it with Vaseline gauze or apply Burnol or the Cream that comes
out by shaking a mixture of Coconut oil” and Water.
3. Sprains - Tincture Iodine may be applied Turperitine will be useful.
4. Wounds - Wash with dettol—sprinkle boric powder and bandage.
5. Drowning - Artificial respiration is to be given following First Aid Charts.

4.1.8 SEX EDUCATION

Now-a-days sex education is gaining importance in school education. It is


essential for ensuring better family life in future. Hitherto there existed a tab000 for
giving sex education to children. Sex was considered to be a secret affair of life
related to only adult generation. Young generation was deprived of getting direct
education on sex. Young people are left to acquire sex knowledge from varied
sources such as peer groups, so-called sex books and periodicals, and films, which
is not conducive for the normal sex growth to the individual. Sex is but an
integral part of human personality. It is both biological and psychological. It is
concerned with human relationships boy girl, man-woman behaviours.

Sex is popular, exciting and body-oriented; it is a subject of art, fiction, films and
jokes. It has its rightful place in education too.It is not desirable to leave children
completely to “sex literature” and other mass media to gain the knowledge
regarding sex; which is quite inscientitic and unpsychological.Reconciliation of
personal desires with social obligations is the fundamental problem of all human
cultures.

200
Education for sexuality and responsible family living is a dire need and it should be
given number one priority by the State anywhere in the world. The home, the school,
the religious organisations, the state and the private and public enterprises should
work together- co-operatively to give sex education to the young. Sex education
in schools has been approved by a large number of national organisations. In
secondary schools, male-female images and proper sex roles may be taught. Free-
dom of activity with a corresponding understanding of human sexuality will lessen
the problems.

Population education overlaps with sex education in the field of population control. And
here is where some protests would be inevitable. The modern age brought along with its
glittering advances some dark spots in our lives. We Lave inherited a world with a new
malady namely AIDS, and are trying desperately to prevent this scourge. This malady has
no cure but we can help prevent it. We can arm people with knowledge about sex, it is carried
through sexually transmitted disease.. Sex education has the major components as follows:

1. Human physiology and reproduction


2. Contraception
3. Social interaction associated with sex

A. Need for Sex Education

Sex education becomes inevitable for the school teenagers. In today's liberal and
interactive society, mixing of the sexes in their reproductive age is common. Should the
boys and girls, in their ignorance, try experimenting with their bodies, they would be treading
the path of sure doom. Hence, sex education is being recommended in schools. There is
another reason for making children aware of their bodies. We have mentioned in the chapter
on environmental education, that the

Sex education must be given judiciously according to the maturity level of the child. It
should not excite them to try out experimenting with this new found knowledge, but preserve
them from disaster and disease. Care should be taken in drafting a curriculum and adopting
teaching methods that will lead to positive attitude. The values of life, health, celibacy are
age- old values, have to be ingrained while teaching about how to maintain the sanctity of
life, and how limits may be drawn to not only self but a whole community.

The imparting of population education rests in the able hands of the teachers, who
again need training to carry out their heavy tasks. NCERT held several training programmes for
the in-service and pre-service teachers so that the country could depend on the able and
intelligent teachers to lead the children to the path of light and life.

B. Sex Education Programmes

The point for discussion at this juncture is “How to impart sex education?”
These are the following alternatives

201
1) as a separate course; and
2) as a part of health education: and
3) as an integrated approach.

It should be planned as part of health education only because we cannot


afford to introduce sex education as a separate course specially now, when the
courses are already overloaded. Otherwise it can be integrated with other
subjects, but this requires greater careful planning of curriculum. If the parents and
community members know of the nature and content of sex education, there will
no crisis in its implementation.

As each new generation is responsible for helping to build the future, it


will be imperative to teach youth in terms of moral and ethical values.
3 R’s are to be understood in t he modern connotat ions as Respect for others,
Reverance for Life and Responsibility for One’s Own Actions.

C. Sex Education and the Teachers

Some of the teachers feel shy of handling subjects on sex education. The is need
to impart proper knowledge to teachers so that they will be able to undertake the
programme. Teacher education institutions are, hence, offering sex education as a
part of their curricula. For the working teachers extension education programmes
will have to be organised.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

8. What are the major components of Sex Education.

4.1.9 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson you have read about the general aims and objective of health
education, the school health programmes, common ailments of children,
communicable diseases and their prevention, first aid and sex education.

202
4.1.10 UNIT END EXERCISES

5. Explain the responsibilities of school with respect to Health education


6. Discuss the various communicable diseases and their preventive measures
7. Why should sex education be introduced in schools?
8. What first aid do you suggest for burns and cuts?

4.1.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

8. a. To make the student realize the necessity of having good health,


b. To give information regarding health rules,

9. Health curricula consists of (i) personal hygiene, (ii) communit y healt h,


(iii) sanit at io n, (iv) co mmunicable diseases, (v) safety education,
(vi) nutrition education, (vii) physiology o f exercises, (viii) first aid,
(ix) structure and funct io ns o f t he human body, (x) choice aid use
of healt h services and products, (xl) mental health, (xii) smoking
education etc.,

10. a. Control of Communicable Diseases


b. Care programmes for the Handicapped.
c. Physical Education Programmes.
d. Emergency Services.

11. cold, headache, cough, fever, pain in the joints, backache, asthma, polio,
tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles

12. Those diseases which spread from one person to another are called communicable
diseases.

13. Variola minor

14. Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus

15. a. Human physiology and reproduction


b. Contraception
c. Social interaction associated with sex.

203
4.1.12 SUGGESTED READINGS

Murthy, S.K. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana :


Tandon Publication
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi :
Shipra Publications.
Begum, R.M. (2008). A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New
Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Henderson, L. (2001). Handbook of Health Education. New Delhi : Khel
Sahitya Kendra.
Mathews, G. (2009). Health and Physical Education, New Delhi : Crescent
Publishing Corporation.

204
LESSON 4.2

NUTRITION EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

4.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2 Objectives

4.2.3 Food Nutrients

4.2.4 Nutritional deficiency diseases

4.2.5 Preservation of Nutrients

4.2.6 Balanced diet

4.2.6.1 Planning balanced diets

4.2.7 Healthy Food Habits

4.2.8 Let us sum up

4.2.9 Unit – End Exercise

4.2.10 Answers to check your progress

4.2.11 Suggested readings

4.2.1 INTRODUCTION

Nutrition education assumes special significance in the Indian context because


the problem of malnutrition in India is mainly due to ignorance, poverty and lack of
knowledge regarding the value of foods. Nutrition education is the foundation for
improvement in the dietary habits of the people. Rigid dietary habits need correction
and only systematic nutrition education programmes can bring changes in dietary
habits and creating nutrition awareness entirely depend on education and training.

205
4.2.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will able to:


1. know about the food nutrients,
2. identify nutritional deficiencies
3. understand the preservation of nutrients
4. plan a balanced diet
5. list out the healthy habits.

4.2.3 THE FOOD NUTRIENTS

(i) Proteins : They are essential for repair and growth, and for preparing
digestive juices, enzymes and hormones of the endocrine glands. Shortage
of proteins results in stunted growth, and poor physique and lack of energy.
There are two classes of proteins: Class I contains amino-acids e.g. milk and
its products; egg, fish, soybean, nuts, etc.. Class II is of vegetable origin like
bread, maize, peas, beans, etc. They repair muscular waste.

(ii) Carbohydrates: Sugar and starch are examples. They are vegetable in origin.
They are easily digested.

(iii)Fats and Oils: These things supply heat and muscular energy. They are of
animal origin and vegetable origin too. They supply A and D vitamins. Fish
liver oils are good for health.

(iv) Inorganic Salts: These are mineral constituents of food. Calcium,


phosphates, iron, etc., in minute quantities are needed for the body to strengthen
bones and teeth and red corpuscles.

(v) Vitamins: Vitamin A is needed for promoting growth. It protects body


from infections and helps healing of wounds. Shortage of Vitamin A may lead to
night blindness due to hardening of cornea of the eye.

4.2. 4 NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES

The common nutrients needed for child growth and wellbeing include
carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. When these nutrients are not
present in adequate quantities in the diet of children, they suffer from deficiency
diseases. As the origin of these diseases is the inadequacy of nutrients, they are
both preventable and curable by diet alone. The common deficiency diseases found
among Indian students are discussed as follows:

206
Vitamin A deficiency. It results from deficient intake of green and yellow
vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. It is the commonest cause of
blindness among children. When there is deficiency, the child may suffer from night
blindness. The conjunctiva of eyes become dry, wrinkled and muddy resulting in
Xerosis. Bitot’s spots form on either side of cornea. The cornea becomes soft and
ulcerated leading to blindness. Xerosis can be treated by giving 5000 to 6000 units of
vitamin A daily for about a month. A diet containing plenty of vitamin A is the only
method of preventing vitamin A deficiency.

Thiamine deficiency. Thiamine is also called vitamin BI. Deficiency of this vitamin
in child's diet leads to Beriberi. The early symptoms include restlessness, loss of
appetite and sleeplessness. Death may occur if treatment is delayed. Giving whole
cereal food may prevent deficiency of Thiamine.

Vitamin C deficiency. Scurvy results from vitamin C deficiency. The symptoms


are marked irritability, tenderness of bones and spongy bleeding gums. Administration
of large doses of Vitamin C will help to cure this deficiency. Taking citrus fruits like
lemon, Amla, etc. will be of great help.

Vitamin D deficiency. This deficiency results in Rickets. There is enlargement of


the bones at wrists and ankle. The bones are soft and bend under pressure. The knees
touch each other whereas forelegs diverge from the knees. The muscle tone is reduced.
Fish liver oil must be given to cure this deficiency.

Iron deficiency. Anaemia results from iron deficiency. The child looks pale and
his conjunctiva, lips and tongue are pale. Deficiency may be due to poor absorption of
iron from the intestine or from hook-worm infestation. Treatment for hook-worm and
giving a suitable form of iron will help to cure iron deficiency.

207
Summary of Nutritional Deficiencies

S
um
ma
ry
of
Vit
am
in
Def
icie
ncy

208
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Mention the food nutrients

2. What are the symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency?

3. Deficiency of Thiamine leads to

4. Rickets is the deficiency of

5. List out any two symptoms of Iron deficiency Anaemia

6. Write any two ways to preserve the nutrients.

209
4.2.5 P R ES E RV A T I O N O F N U T R I EN TS

 C ut ve g et a ble s a s b ig a s p o s s ib le t o r e d u c e t h e co o k in g
lo s s .
 Do no t w a s h v e g et a b le s a ft e r cu t t ing
 Do no t w a s h r ic e t w ic e o r t hr ic e b e fo r e co o k in g . Wa s h i n g
o nc e a n d ut il i z i ng t h e r ic e w at er he lp t o r et a in nu t r ie n t s.
 U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r e p a r in g ve g et a b le s .
 C o o k ing t h e ve g et a b le s ju s t b e fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e
w a y o f pr e s er vi n g v it a m i n C co nt e n t in t h e fo o d s.
 E n co ur a g e t he st u d e nt s t o co ns u me r a w ve g et a ble s a nd
fr u it s.
 Avo id t he u s e o f b a k in g s o d a.
 Do no t o ve r he at o r o v er co o k t h e me a t p r ep ar at io n
 U s e p r e s s u r e co o k in g o r S t e a m co o k in g me t ho d

4.2.6 BALANCED DIET

A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods in such
quantities and proportions that the need for calories, minerals, vitamins and other
nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra nutrients to
withstand short durations of leanness.
If you look at the definition carefully, you would realize that a balanced diet
• meets the need for nutrients
• consists of different types of food items and
• provides for periods of leanness when the diet may possibly not
supply adequate amounts of all nutrients.

Let us talk about each of these aspects.


A balanced diet meets the nutrient needs: A balanced diet meets nutrient needs
because of the amounts and proportions of the foods selected. How much should a
person consume of individual foods to meet his needs? This would be based on the
recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) laid down for the individual for whom the
diet is planned. The RDI figures for each nutrient tell us how much of the -
nutrient should be consumed per day. These RDIs must be taken into consideration
so that each nutrient can be supplied in adequate amounts by the day's diet. A
balanced diet consists of different types of food items: A balanced diet includes a
variety of foods. But how do we select these foods? The major aim, is to ensure
that all nutrients are supplied. This can be achieved by first classifying food into
groups — each group supplying certain specific nutrients and then selecting items
from each food group to plan a balanced meal or diet. Including items from each
food group ensures that all the nutrients will be supplied.

210
Balanced diets provide for periods of leanness: We have now examined the first
two aspects of the definition of a balanced diet. Balanced diets also provide for
periods of leanness. This implies that there is a “safety margin” or a “little extra”
for those times when you do not meet your nutrient needs adequately. A normal
individual consumes a variety of foods. It is possible that on a given day he may
not consume foods in the amounts he requires. But such an individual would not
develop a deficiency if the diet meets the RDIs on most days. This is because RDIs
already include a margin of safety. Planning diets on the basis of RDIs would take
care of this aspect and minor variations in intake from day to day would not cause
problems.

4.2.6.1 PLANNING BALANCED DIETS

As we mentioned earlier, a balanced diet supplies all essential nutrients in the


amounts needed by the body. The nutrient needs vary according to factors such as
age, sex, activity level and physiological stress.

This is the reason why we cannot plan a general or a balanced diet common to or
suitable for all individuals. A balanced diet is specific firstly, to an individual of
a given age (age-range) and sex. In the case of adults, it is also specific to a
given activity level - sedentary, moderate or heavy work. A balanced diet for a
sedentary worker (e.g. typist or clerk) would differ from that of a heavy worker (e.g.
construction labourer). A balanced diet for an infant would be very different from
that of an adult (influence of age). A diet for an adolescent girl would be different
compared to one for an adolescent boy (influence of sex). A pregnant or lactating
woman's diet would differ from that of a woman who is not pregnant or lactating
(influence of physiological stress).

Two other points are of importance when we plan a balanced diet. These are:
region where the person resides and income. In other words, where does the
person whose diet we are planning stay and how much money is available to spend
on food? Let us talk about regional considerations first. The particular foods available
in a region should be used in planning. Using others would be impractical and
unsuitable. There is no point, for example, in including a cereal like ragi in a diet
meant for a North Indian because ragi is grown only in the south.
Preferences/customs are also important. The North Indian prefers wheat based
preparations such as chapati, paratha and poori. Rice or rice preparations such as
idli, dosa are typical of the south. People in the east of our country prefer rice.
Those in the west also tend to eat rice. Seasonal factors also come into play
especially in the case of fruits and vegetables.

A balanced diet for a particular region must reflect the characteristic meal patterns,
the social and religious practices of that region. In Bihar the traditional pattern is to
have two full meals - one in the morning and the other at night. In Andhra Pradesh
there is a morning meal followed by tiffin in the afternoon and then the night meal.
Even within given States there is considerable variation. So the meal pattern you
select would have to be one that is most suitable for the person for whom you are
211
planning the diet.

Among the social factors, taboos related to food may play an important role. A
pregnant woman may not be given papayas because the community/family
believes that this would result in an abortion. This is not scientifically proven
but you would have to keep the existing beliefs in mind unless you manage to
convince the individual. Another factor which influences avoidance of some food
items is religion. If you think of your own religious group, you would probably be
able to list specific foods which are forbidden totally or forbidden during periods of
fasting. You would be familiar with the fact that some people eat no meat or other
flesh foods. Even among flesh foods, eating of beef is forbidden in one community
and pork in another.

These examples would have given you an idea of the importance of being familiar
with the practices, customs, attitudes prevalent in a particular region. These determine
the acceptability of foods. They would also have helped you to appreciate the
importance of using locally available foods.

In addition to these, income plays a vital role. Balanced diets should also be
income-specific. Balanced diets for an individual of a given age and sex (and activity
level where relevant) vary depending on income. A balanced diet would imply the use
of all food groups — energy-giving, body-building and protective/regulatory in each
and every meal. However, the selection of foods and the amounts in which they
are consumed would vary depending on income. As income increases, consumption
of cereals reduces and consumption of milk and other animal protein foods,
vegetables and fruits, fat and sugar tend to increase. While planning balanced diets
for the affluent these trends are kept in mind but excessive amounts of fat and
sugar are not recommended. Having more money does not mean spending more on
fat, sugar and expensive foods like meat/cheese, nuts and dry fruits. It means
consuming the amounts absolutely necessary so as to maintain good health and
avoid putting on weight and developing other health problems. Having more
money, however, enables a person to add more variety to the diet. Unusual foods
or foods not locally available can be purchased or ordered from elsewhere. Judicious
selection of food is, however, as important for the rich as for the poor. The
ultimate aim is always to meet the nutritional requirements.

As you read this discussion, you would have realised the importance of both region
(and associated social factors) as well as income in planning balanced diets. Another
crucial factor we have to keep in mind is the individual's likes or dislikes — in other
words personal preferences. One person may be fond of milk products, for example,
while another may hate them. It is difficult to expect a person to follow a diet
which includes items or methods o f preparation which he or she does not
like. So it is best to emphasize foods which are liked. One must, however,
try to change the person's attitude if he/she tends to leave out nutritious foods such
as milk or milk products. Sometimes it may be just the form of a food that is a
problem. A person may dislike milk but may enjoy curd or paneer. Including these

212
milk products would make sure that essential nutrients are provided and would make
the diet acceptable too.

17.7 HEALTHY FOOD HABITS

Taking nutritious food is an important aspect. Following healthy food


habits is another equally important aspect.

Here under are given some of the healthy food habits


1) Hands, mouth, plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly
before taking food.
2) Food should be consumed after eating well;
3) Water should be taken only after eating is finished.
4) Steam-cooked materials are better than fried ones or roasted ones because
during frying some of the nutrients are lost.
5) Variety of materials should be taken like vegetables, green leaves, fruits,
meat, eggs ; etc.
6) One should not be conditioned to eating selected food stuffs only.
7) One should eat what is needed to live ; over-eating or under- eating is
hazardous.
8) Walk a while after eating; don’t go to sleep immediately after taking the
food.
9) Mouth should be washed clean after eating the food.
10) Spoilt or rotten materials should not be consumed ; but they should be
thrown away.

Parents hostel authorities and teachers should take care to see that the students
cultivate healthy food habits. For this, if the teachers have good food habits,
they can stand as symbols of identification to their students, which they will
imbibe into themselves by introjections.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

7. Define balanced diet.

8. List out any two healthy food habits.

213
4.2.8 LET US SUM UP

In this unit you have learnt about food nutrients some nutritional deficiencies,
preservation of nutrients, planning Balanced diet and Healthy food habits. Nutrition
is closely interlinked with health. In fact, good nutrition is essential for good health.
Eating the right kinds of foods in the required amount is very important for an
individual to develop normally and to remain healthy throughout life. When the diet
is inadequate, there are chances that individual’s health would suffer; the likelihood
that some of his body may start malfunctioning or that he may acquire some disease.
A glaring example is the fact that thousands of your children in our country go blind
every year because their diet does not provide them with sufficient Vitamin A.

4.2.9 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Why should nutrition education be introduced in school curriculum?

2. How will you plan a balanced diet?

3. Explain food nutrients

4. Briefly discuss the nutritional deficiency diseases among school children

5. Discuss good food habits.

4.2.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. a. Proteins
b. Carbohydrates
c. Fats and Oils
d. Inorganic Salts
e. Vitamins

2. Night blindness, Conjuctival xerosis, Bitot’s spots, Corneal xerosis,


Keratomalacia

3. Beri Beri

4. Vitamin D

5. Fatigue and Giddiness

214
6. a . U s e m in i m u m a mo u nt o f w at e r w h i le p r ep ar i n g ve g et a b le s .
b. C o o k in g t he ve g et a b le s ju s t be fo r e co n s u mp t io n is o n e
w a y o f pr e s er vi ng v it a m i n C co nt e nt in t h e fo o d s.

7. A balanced diet can be defined as one which contains different types of foods
in such quantities and proportions that the need for calories, minerals, vitamins
and other nutrients is adequately met and a small provision is made for extra
nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness.

8. a. Hands, mouth, plates and other vessels should be washed cleanly


before taking food.
b. Food should be consumed after eating well;

4.2.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Begum, R.M. (2008). A Text Book of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics. New
Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Sri Lakshmi B. (2004). Nutrition Science. New Delhi : Sterling Publishers.
Chopra, P. (2009). Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH
Publishing Corporation
Mishra, R.C. (2005). Health and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH
Publishing Corporation
Mahindru, S.N. (2008). Food and Nutrition Education. New Delhi : APH
Publishing Corporation

215
LESSON 4.3

POPULATION EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

4.3.1 Introduction

4.3.2 Objectives

4.3.3 Meaning of Population Education

4.3.4 Objectives of Population Education

4.3.5 Need for Population Education

4.3.6 Impact of Population growth

4.3.6.1 Impact on social development

4.3.6.2 Impact on economic development

4.3.6.3 Impact on Education

4.3.7 Correlating school subjects with population education programmes

4.3.8 Learning exercises for Population Education

4.3.9 Small Family Norm

4.3.10 Family welfare programmes

4.3.11 Let us sum up

4.3.12 Unit – End Exercises

4.3.13 Answers to check your progress

4.3.14 Suggested Readings.

216
4.3.1 INTRODUCTION

Population education is emphasized for enabling the younger generation to appreciate


the need for family planning, adopting it as a way of life and to develop in them
rational behaviour and an ardent desire for responsible parenthood. The growing
generation should be fully informed about and properly exposed to the imminent
dangers as a result of over population. Population Education, therefore, aims at
providing the younger generation, with factual knowledge about population dynamics
and at creating adequate awareness about the hazards of over population.

4.3.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. state the meaning, objectives and need for population education
2. describe the impact of population growth on social, economic and educational
development
3. correlate school subjects with population education programme
4. understand the importance of small family norm
5. explain family welfare measures taken by the Government of India.

4.3.3 MEANING OF POPULATION EDUCATION

The term population education is not to be used interchangeably with birth


control, family planning and sex education etc. It is a much wider co ncept. A
UNESCO Regio nal Seminar o n Population and Family Life Education, held
at Bangkok in 1970 defined population education as, “It is an educational
programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family,
community, nation and the world with the purpose of developing ii the students
rational and responsible attitudes and behavior towards that situation.”

Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the


student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population process,
population characteristics, the causes of population change, and the consequences of
these processes, characteristics and changes for himself, his family, his societ y
and the world.”

“Population education may be seen as the development of proper attitude


towards population problems and the capacity to take rational decisions in this
regard

Population Education is neither Family Planning nor Sex Education. It is


not sex education. There is some difference. Whenever we talk of sex
education, the stress is, on prevention of sexual disease and on family planning.

217
4.3.4 OBJECTIVES OF POPULATION EDUCATION

1) To develop among the students a keen insight into the inter-relationship


between population change and the process of socio-economic development
vis-a-vis the individual, the family, the society, the nation and the world.
2) To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the
population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet
this critical situation.
3) To create an awareness among children that the present population explosion
in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly death rate
over the past few decades.
4) To develop desirable attitudes and behaviour in the students and the
teachers as well as in the communit y at large towards the population
issue s)o as to enable them to arrive at rational decision about the quality of
life that suits them best.
5) To impress upon the children that the use of sciences and technology has
helped us in bringing down the death rate and that the same can help us in
bringing down the birth rate as well.
6) To help children realise the socio-economic burden involved in
bringing their families usually resulting in deterioration in quality of
living.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Define Population Education

2. List out any two objectives of Population Education.

4.3.5 NEED FOR POPULATION EDUCATION

The need for population education may be stressed from the following view points:

218
 Population explosion is presently plaguing the world and our country.
 Strenuous efforts are being made by the nation to tackle the grave issue
of population control. An addition of more than one million to our legion is
nullifying our efforts for planned progress.
 The younger generation should be fully informed and exposed to hazards of
future.
 They should be equipped through proper education for a planned living in
their adulthood.
 They must be trained to face the greatest challenge of times and avoid facing
doom.
 Population education is a common cause of all mankind belonging to
either developed or developing countries.
 About 50% of our population is below 18 years of age. If they enter into
reproductive stage without sufficient orientation on population problems it
will be hazardous.
 The marriageable age in India is lower t han that in other countries.
Hence some understandings about population-problems should include into
the school curriculum.
 Any modern state is responsible for the welfare, health and happiness of its
citizens, which will not be possible without population control.

4.3.6 THE IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH

Population growth is taking place at enormous speed. Every second two


thousand children are being born. Perhaps our country will be one of the worst
afflicted countries to this colossal dragon of population explosion. This global
catastrophe is threatening the whole of human race.

Population growth has obviously its impact on the social, economic and
educational development of the country.

4.3.6.1 IMPACT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

There is intricate relationship between population dynamics and social


development. The rapid population growth leads to many social problems.

Social development of a nation depends on the national planning for it.


Social welfare schemes are conceived to bring welfare to the citizens of the
nation specially to those who are living in poverty. With the enormous and
unhindered growth of population, the social welfare schemes fail to attain the
desired goals in the designed manner. Family is considered as a social unit. When
the family is small, social welfare schemes can be implemented well. With the
larger families, the family programmes are also handicapped. No social welfare can
be conceived without family welfare.

219
The population pressure is felt everywhere now—in streets, in buses and trains,
in cinema halls and theatres, in parks and other places of public gatherings.
Swollen cities, unemployment, heavy intern I migration etc. are the results of
demographic pressures on social life.

4.3.6.2 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The impact of population growth on economic development is too obvious.


The many present day economic evils that our country is facing today can be
rightly attributed to population.
It is impossible to think of the solutions to the major problems confronting
the world economic development, pollution of the environment, improvement in the
quality of lire even disarmament without some reference to population trends.”

Economic development depends on planning for economic growth. huge


problem of numbers affects economic planning too. The world is divided between
‘haves’ and ‘havenots’. The gulf between them is widening further. The rate
of material productivity is not commensurate with the rate of population
production. Hence the gains of economic planning are not felt. The economic
upliftment of the country can only take place when population control is more
effective.

4.3.6.3 IMPACT ON EDUCATION

A developing country which is bursting at its seams with bulging


population can hardly look forward to a prosperous economy. But a developed
country's economy could be robust if it has a huge manpower. In developing countries,
there is an inverse relationship between population and development.

Why should we gear up to provide population education to school children?


We may go straight to the question of what will be the result of population explosion in
simple educational terms? The impact of population growth on education can be
measured by four indices such as student index, teacher index, organization index and
material index. We summarize he problems arising out of over-population in the
mentioned areas as follows: -

1) There will be a very high gap in teacher—pupil ratio, i.e., more than 50 pupils to 1
teacher, leading to less attention to individual pupils while teaching; possibility of
sickness and poor health among the pupils; lack of proper health care, facility for
drinking water, toilets, and so on. Many students herded in a small room, will have
scant motivation to stay in the classroom. This will be one of the reasons for steady
dropout of the pupils.
2) Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. They will have meagre
motivation on their part and get less social recognition.

220
3) Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff, less space facilities,
less budget for education, less administrative initiative and leadership talents.
4) Material index will reflect the deficits in many aspects. There would be poor library
facilities, and laboratory equipments, even text books would be in short supply.
There would be very few audiovisual aids. Buildings will be inadequate for the huge
numbers; thus, there will be lacuna in many other spheres.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

3. Write any two impact of Population growth on Education

4.3.7 CORRELATING SCHOOL SUBJECTS WITH POPULATION EDUCATION


PROGRAMME

Population education is not to be introduced as a separate subject. It has


got to be integrated with other subjects; all teachers are expected to be involved
in the population programme. Already a good deal of material exists in various
school subjects. The only need is to focus attention at the existing material and to
present it in such a manner that it attracts the attention of the learners. A large
number of activities and projects can also be undertaken in the population
education programme. The following examples will illustrate the scope of
population education in different subject are as:

Languages Material in the form of stories, essays, blank verses etc. can be
incorporated in the language textbooks in mother tongue, Regional Language, Hindi
and English.

Social Studies Statistics on population education, material on the impact of


population explosion on socio-economic development of the nation should find place
in the social studies.

Mathematics Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages, bar


graphs etc., can be taken up.

Science and Health Education Problems relating to fertility, reproduction, family


planning etc. can be studied in science and health education.

221
4.3.8 LEARNING EXERCISES FOR POPULATION EDUCATION

1. Children with the help of parents, grand-parents and old persons or


relations in t he family may prepare “family-tree” depict ing
informat ion of t he past three generations about the members in the family-
births, deaths, causes of deaths etc. They may help them to draw some
inferences about population trends.
2. Children may also find out what medicine is or treatment available for
certain diseases during their times, the childhood of their parents and
those of grand-parents. They may discuss this the class and arrive at their
inferences.
3. Children may compare the health and medical facilities available in big
towns and small villages. They may draw inferences after discussing
the facts among themselves.
4. Children may collect census figures for their village or town for the past few
decades and draw a graph showing increase or decrease in population.
5. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years to
draw their inferences
6. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like Soviet
Union, Canada, China, United States of America, Brazil, Australia and India
and compare them in terms of population, area and average density of
population.
7. Similar exercises can be done for a few States in India such as Kerala, West
Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. They may
arrange them as per average density of population.
8. They may draw pictures o f average Japanese and Indian family and
compare them in terms of their size and living conditions or standards of
living.
9. Children may compare two families; one with one earning member and five
dependants and other with two earning members and only two dependant
young children.
10. Budgeting one’s pocket expenditure (perhaps may be more relevant in urban
situation.
11. Presenting two or three imaginary monthly budgets of people drawn from
lower middle class families with somewhat equal incomes but with varying
family size (children can also be asked to collect data).
12. Working out per head income of families with equal income but varying
sizes.
13. Finding out broadly the food requirements of our country after 30 years when
its population is likely to be doubled. Holding debate and discussion on how
and at what cost can this be achieved.
14. Finding out how many additional primary teachers would be required if
every year additional 10 million students join the primary school.
15. Finding out if population remains steady and no new class is required to

222
be opened in their schools, how can the amount which was otherwise spent on
new classes but spent under the new situation could he utilised.
16. Finding out total number of doctors we need in a district if there would be
one doctor for every 500 people.
17. Finding out what happens when one new job is created in the school or a
village. Also finding out what happens when a person loses job against his
wish.
18. Comparing life in various respects in two families, one with a working
woman and the other only a house wife.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. How will you correlate Population Education?

5. Give any two learning exercises for Population Education?

4.3.9 SMALL FAMILY NORM

It is universally concepted that the progress of a nation and that of the


family depends upon small families. The question, how many children a
couple should have? is most vital for the existence and continuation of every
family and the society as a whole. Every society therefore should develop
definite behavioural patterns to ensure a certain norm of family size. These
behavioural patterns in the form of emphasis on marriage, age at marriage,
preferences for sex, values and role children etc. automatically result in
ensuring the normatively desired family size. The present slogan regarding
norm is “We are two and we should have two children”. The importance of
inculcating positive attitudes towards the norm of small family from the age of
primary is very important. It may be considered as the chief objective of population
education in the school education. Also negative attitudes towards such
superstitious beliefs like : “If God gives children, we have no right to stop

223
their entry into the world”; “He who is responsible for population growth, is
also responsible for feeding the mouths” etc., should be overcome at the intellec-
tual levels, which education can only do. The socio-economic and cultural
advantages one has when one adopts a small family norm should also be
inducted into the minds of school children.

4.3.10 FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMMES

The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in
fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health and care
for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning measures.
The various services provided under the family welfare programmes include
• Provision of contraceptive measures
• Medical Termination of pregnancy
• Maternal and Child Health
• Education and Motivation
• Research and Trainee

The scheme to provide services under Reproductive and Child Health


Programme for reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases was not
implemented in some States and in general the facilities provided are still at the initial
stages and are not upto the required level. For Medical Termination of Pregnancy, need based
training programme was envisaged to ensure initially at least one trained team medical
officer and nurse for every hospital at district! sub-district level and provision for
Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) equipments and kits.

Papanicolaous (PAP) smear test facility for early detection of cervical cancer
among women started in 1977 and extended to 105 medical colleges / institutions in a
phased manner by 1998-2000. The Primary Health Care System developed on a three-
tier structure of Sub centers (SCs), Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and Community
Health Centers (CHCs) in rural areas to provide the basic minimum needs of family
welfare to the targeted population which failed to deliver quality services and attain
desired coverage.

More than 45 years ago, India became the first country in the developing world
to initiate a state - sponsored family planning program with the goal of lowering fertility
and slowing the population growth rate. Since the program's inception, fertility levels have
declined throughout the country, at varying places in different regions; on an overall
basis, the total fertility rate decreased from 6.4-6.6 lifetime births per woman in the
early 1970s to 3.4 births per woman in mid-1990s.

In the eighth five year plan the Government launched the Child Survival and Safe
Motherhood Program to enhance the health of women and children and further reduce
maternal and child mortality. The Family Welfare Program, however, continued - to
emphasize family planning services, and the child survival components of the news:
program, especially the expansion of child immunization services - were implemented

224
earlier than the safe motherhood components. Therefore, the overall national program still
offered little to improve the quality or availability of reproductive health services for
women.

Since the mid 1970s when the Indian government vigorously promoted
sterilization as a means of population control, various stakeholders have voiced concern
about the National Family Planning Program.

The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in


Cairo in 1994, and the World Conference on Women, which took place in Beijing
generated additional pressure from the global community for changes in the focus and
approach of the Indian family planning program. At these meetings, women’s groups
from around the world shared their experiences and developed a solidarity that
empowered them to successfully petition their own governments to better address women's
needs better.

In April 1996, the government of India took an even bolder step: It announced that
the National Family Planning Program would become target-free. This decision also was
made without adequate discussion about what would replace the old system and without
assessing the experience of several districts that had become target free in 1995.

Few models exist that can serve as guides for the provision of comprehend
reproductive health services. Local programs vary in their approaches, but they are
similar in their emphasis on comprehensive services for women and children and in their
focus on women’s rights and choice. These programmes include attention to clinical
services and counseling; a focus on health promotion; expansion of services to
unmarried women, men, adolescent girls and boys and postmenopausal women;
reliance on local women as community health workers; innovative and repeated training of
workers using folk and other media; and nominal fees for services.

The evidence also suggests that contraceptive prevalence has increased among
women and condom use has risen among men. Moreover, the community appears
willing to pay for services, allowing for a greater range of service to be provided without
costs becoming prohibitive. However programs run by local non-governmental
organizations continue to depend quite heavily on external funding.

In October 1997, the government launched the Reproductive and Child


Health (RCH) program. The RCH program entails a change not only in program policy but
in management and implementation as well. The goals of the RCH program include:
phasing out incentive payments to both providers and acceptors of family planning
methods; increasing utilization of existing facilities rather than creating new structures;
and using the voluntary and private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left
by public-sector providers.

The RCH program utilizes district-level planning and monitoring to make it more
responsive to local needs, and it focuses on improving the quality of care by

225
emphasizing the needs of the client, involving the community, improving the client-
referral system and providing local oversight for female health workers. The programme
strives to revitalize the existing network of rural health facilities by improving supplies of
drugs and equipment and enhancing training, so that workers can provide better
information and counselling to clients and communities (World Bank, 1997).

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. What is the main objective of The National Family Welfare Programme?

7. What are the goals of RCH?

4.3.11 LET US SUM UP

The above discussion clearly indicates that population education is an


educational process, which helps students to learn about population and particularly
the effects of population dynamics and the related problems on the individual, family,
community, nation and the world. Its main purposes are to create awareness, to
provide knowledge and to develop responsible attitude and behaviour as well as
improving the population situation to ensure a better life now and in the future.

4.3.12 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. What are the objectives of introducing population education in schools? How


should it be correlated with different school subjects?
2. Explain the need for introducing population education in school curriculum.
3. Describe the impact of population growth on social, economic and educational
development
4. What are the measures taken by government to control population explosion.

226
4.3.13 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Stephen Videeman defines population education as “the process by which the


student investigates and explores the nature and meaning of population
process, population characteristics, the causes of population change, and the
consequences of these processes, characteristics and changes for himself,
his family, his society and the world.”

2. a. To create among the students and the teachers awareness about the
population situation in the country and the strategies adopted to meet
this critical situation.
b. To create an awareness among children that the present population
explosion in our country is due to steady birth rate as against rapidly
death rate over the past few decades.

3. a. Teachers will be paid less and will be less qualified. They will have meagre
motivation on their part and get less social recognition.
b. Organization index will show inadequate supervisory staff, less space
facilities, less budget for education, less administrative initiative and
leadership talents.

4. Problems relating to population growth in cities under percentages, bar graphs.

5. a. Children may also collect figures of school enrolment for the past few years
to draw their inferences
b. Children may collect figures about area and population of countries like
Soviet Union, Canada, China, United States of America, Brazil, Australia
and India and compare them in terms of population, area and average
density of population.

6. The main objective of the National Family Welfare Programme was reduction in
fertility rate thereby stabilizing the population by ensuring reproductive health
and care for the mother and the child and greater acceptance of family planning
measures.

7. The goals of the RCH program include: phasing out incentive payments to both
providers and acceptors of family planning methods; increasing utilization of
existing facilities rather than creating new structures; and using the voluntary and
private sectors to increase access to services and fill gaps left by public-sector
providers.

227
4.3.14 SUGGESTED READING

Mohanty, J, (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi :


Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Udaiveer, (2004). Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi : Anmol
Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Jayapoorni, N. (2005). “Population Education” in Text book on Women and


Development. Centre for Women’s Studies,
Avinashilingam Deemed University For Women,
Coimbatore.

Reddy, V.K. (2002). Changing attitudes to Education in India. New Delhi :


Atlantic Publishers.

Bhende, A. Kantikar, T. (1992). Principles of Population Studies. New Delhi :


Himalaya Publishing House.

228
LESSON 4.4

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

4.4.1 Introduction

4.4.2 Objectives

4.4.3 Meanings of Physical Education

4.4.4 Importance of Physical Education

4.4.5 Aims and Objectives of Physical Education

4.4.6 Functions of Physical Education Teachers

4.4.7 Hints to Physical Education Teachers

4.4.8 Games

4.4.8.1 Minor games

4.4.8.2 Major games

4.4.8.3 Indigenous games

4.4.8.4 Lead up games

4.4.9 Let us sum up

4.4.10 Unit End Exercises

4.4.11 Answers to check your progress

19.12 Suggested readings

229
4.4.1 INTRODUCTION

Physical fitness is a prerequisite for development of the individual as well as


of the country. Physical education aims at improving the physical fitness of
individuals and also increasing their physical efficiency, mental alertness,
perseverance, team spirit, leadership and balance in defect. Physical Education is
education through Physical activity. It contributes to the development of
physical fit ness, social fitness, moral fitness and emotional fitness. A balanced
Physical Education programme enables an individual to develop not only a good
physique but also helps in developing desirable social qualities. Physical education
is a judicious blending of the education of body and mind-a sound mind in a sound
body.

4.4.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. state the meaning of Physical Education
2. list out the aims and objective of Physical Education
3. understand the importance of Physical Education
4. explain the functions of Physical Education teacher
5. classify the different types of games.

4.4.3 MEANING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

The old concept of physical education as mere drill or a series of regulated


exercises has been rejected. “It includes all forms of physical activities and games
which promote the development of the body and mind.” The Commission
recommended that physical education should be comprehensive enough to include all
aspects of health education; full records of physical activities should be maintained;
teachers of physical education should be given the same status as other teachers of
similar qualifications; and other teachers of the school along with the physical
instructor should actively participate in the physical activities of students.

The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) made it clear “that unless


physical education is accepted as an integral part of education, and the educational
authorities recognize its need in all schools, the youth of the country, which forms its
most valuable assets, will never be able to pull their full weight in national welfare”.

The Education Commission (1964-66) points out: There has been a


tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasize only the
physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational value.
The concept of physical education has been made broader, as it should

230
contribute not only to physical fitness but also to physical efficiency, mental
alertness and the development of certain qualities—perseverance, team spirit,
leadership, obedience to rules, moderation in victory and balance in defeat.

Physical Education is different from Physical culture

Physical culture is a terminology wrongly used in the place to physical


Education. Physical culture confines itself to the development of physique
only. Developing the Physique is only one aspect of the total programme of
Physical Education. Physical Education is a much broader and meaningful term.

Physical Education is different from Physical Training:

Likewise, Physical training should not be confused with Physical


Education. Physical training is limited in its scope and meaning and refers to
the training aspect of the body. It is proverbially regimental in its scope and
enables an individual to gain Physical fitness through certain conditioning.
Physical training does not contribute to mental and moral development and as
such it should not be confused with Physical Education which is both modern and
scientific.

Education and Physical Education:

Education is a continuous and lifelong process dealing with the all round
development o f man. It is int erpreted in terms o f knowledge. To be more
precise, education develops the abilities of the individual and the growth of
culture and morality. Education is defined as a series of experiences which
enables one to better understand new experiences’. Every individual is a part of
society. Hence education must be broad enough to include the individual and
good of the society,

Education should aim at the development of an integrated and


controlled personality. The educational efforts at home, school and in society
are invariably judged by the personality which is the result of the education in
thought and practice. It should also help the individual to adjust himself to the
group, develop right habits of thought and action and to be contractive member of
the society.

Physical Educat ion is an integral part of Educat ion. They are


inseparably united together. They go hand in hand. “Education without
Physical Education is a bottomless vase end. Physical Education without
Education is a trunkated cone”

Acquisition of knowledge alone is not sufficient for the growth of the total
personality of the child. Physical Education must plays a significant role in the
development of the individual. Therefore, g en er a l ed ucat io n in c lu de s

231
P h ys ic a l E ducat io n as par t and parcel of it.

A proper and wise use of leisure enables one to attend one’s work
with a high degree of efficiency. Physical exercises, game and sports, recreative
activities and other big muscle activities involving individual and group
practices enable one to gain efficiency in action, a sound health, pleasing
manners, pleasant character and such other desirable qualities that in turn aids to
develop a sound mind.

Just like Education, physical education also is mainly responsible fo r


t he attainment of physical, ment al, mo ral, social and emotional benefits for
the development of a well-balanced personality. Both Education and Physical
Education more or less tend towards the same goal.

4.4.4 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Importance of physical education for the all round development of an


individual is recognised by all thinkers. Here we quote the views of some prominent
thinkers including educators and philosophers.

Rousseau states, “It is the sound constitution of the body that makes the
operation of the mind easy and certain.”

Montaigue writes, “Physical education does neither train up the soul, nor body
but the whole man.”

The Secondary Education Commission. “The physical welfare of the youth of


the country should be one of the main concerns of the State and any departure from the
normal standards of physical well-being at this period of life may have serious
consequences,” observed:

The great saint Swami Vivekananda has also stressed the importance of well-
built bodies when he remarks, “What India needs today is not the Bhagwad Gita but
the football field.”

Our Indian schools must give due importance to this aspect of education.
There is a great need of a general philosophy of physical education in India, though it
appears to be very strange in a country famous for ancient Yogic system. There is no
denying the fact that of late we have been ignoring this side.

Regarding the significance of physical education, H. C. Buck has observed that

232
a properly directed physical education should result in health, happiness, efficiency
and character.

Froebel says, “If we wish to develop the whole being, we must exercise the
whole human being.”
In brief, physical education is important on account of the following benefits:
 It helps in building individual and national character and strength.
 It helps to develop desirable qualities and values like agility, elegance,
endurance, initiative, resourcefulness and smartness.
 It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.
 It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.

“Physical education is that part of the educational programme in which the child is
not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively. Through physical
education we make sure that a child's movements are the most suitable ones for stages
of developments.”

4.4.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

The General objectives of physical education are given in brief.

Physical well-being: This implies providing physical education to students for normal
physical growth and development, in developing endurance and strength to do normal
tasks of life as well as to meet the demands of the stress of life, without feeling undue
strain and in maintaining and developing proper and sound functioning of organs and
organic systems.

Development of Motor Qualities: Physical education aims at developing motor


qualities such as endurance, strength, speed, coordinative abilities, flexibility and
power, etc.These qualities are essential for participating effectively in sports and games
as well as for leading a healthy and productive life in society.

Development of Neuro-muscular Coordination: Neuro-muscular coordination is


essential in order to accomplish a work gracefully. Such activities are developed only
through physical exercises and that too at the younger age to a considerable extent.

Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a large


measure to slow down the degenerative process.

Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at providing


opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health procedure related to
physical exercises.

233
Cultural Pursuits: As observed by Cozens and Stempt, “Sports and physical
activities belong to the ‘arts’ of humanity. Such activities have formed a basic part of
all cultures, including all racial groups and historical ages, because they are as
fundamental a form of human experience as music, poetry and painting. Every age has
its artists, its adherents and its enemies. While wars, systems of government, plagues
and famines, have come and gone in the long record of mankind, these fundamental
things have always been present, in greater or lesser degree.”

Sublimation of Emotions: Gregarious instinct in the adolescent is very predominant.


This expresses the desire of the growing boys to form groups. If no opportunity is
provided to the students, they may form gangs. Physical activities enable them to
work in appropriate groups.

Social and Civic Training Aim: By participating in a variety of physical activities,


students learn valuable lessons of cooperative and team work.

Aim of Development of Worthy Recreational Interests: Recreational interests


developed through physical activities prove to be very beneficial in the leisure hours
of adult life and make life fuller and richer.

Aim of Development of Sentiment of Loyalty: Physical education aims at


developing the sense of loyalty among the students. Tournaments foster this
sentiment.

Vocational Aim of Physical Education: Physical education aims at developing skills


which prepare students for a vocation.

Spiritual Development Aim of Physical Education: Physical education being an


integral part of the total educational processes, should help in the spiritual
development of the student.

Objectives of Physical Education

The objectives of Physical, Education may be classified to be belonging to two


areas:

Physical and Social

A. Physical objectives

These may be described as follows


(i) to secure physical health
(ii) to develop physical stamina;
234
(iii) to develop rhythmic bodily movements;
(iv) to ensure neuro-muscular coordination ;
(v) to promote better functioning of circulatory and respiratory systems.

B. Social Objectives

These can be narrated in the following way


(i) to develop social virtues such as discipline, obedience, self- sacrifice,
respect for rules, etc.
(ii) to inculcate patriotic spirit
(iii) to train in leadership qualities
(iv) to promote the attitude of viewing success or failure with the same spirit;
(v) to develop socially acceptable behaviour
(vi) to develop judicious behaviour, bravery and interest in games and sports;
(vii) to inculcate the habit of doing physical exercises regularly;\
(viii) to develop perseverance;
(ix) to develop tolerance; and
(x) to develop good qualities of a worthy citizen

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Write any two importance of Physical Education.

2. List out any two aims and objectives of Physical Education.

3. Mention any two Physical objectives of Physical Education.

235
4.4.6 FUNCTIONS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

Some of the functions of Physical Education Teachers in respect of school


health programme as suggested by J.H. Haag, are indicated as below
 Observation of signs of possible diseases, defects, injuries among pupils
should be made.
 Exclusion of pupils with communicable diseases. and readmission after they
have recovered, is essential.
 Emergency care procedures should be followed,
 Adaptation of physical education activities according to health grade
classification is needed.
 Prevention of injuries in physical education activities should be taken care of.
 Cooperation with other agencies in field is needed.
 Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential.
 Posture screening should be done.
 Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged.
 Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must, and
 Recognition of fatigue and adjustment of activities to health needs of
pupils should be ensured.

4.4.7 HINTS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

The following are the useful hints to teachers of physical education


1. Bear in mind the educational objectives for planning lessons
2. Go to the field before the students assemble there;
3. Keep the field ready for the activities;
4. Be in the uniform;
5. Always keep the whistle ready;
6. Minimize explanation and maximize demonstration;
7. Act as a leader;
8. Pay individual attention to backward children:
9. Enquire about their health;
10. Inform health principles;
11. Be self-confident;
12. Be well-prepared;
13. Be punctual;
14. Observe weather conditions and in bad weather organize door games or
cultural activities;
15. Be sportive, and,
16. Serve as a symbol of identification for the students.

Usually parents, students, teachers and administrators give undue


prominence to academic education and ignore physical education. At least
now its importance should be duly recognized. Perhaps parental education
in this matter is also essential.

236
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. Enlist any four functions of Physical Education Teachers.

4.4.8 GAMES

Games form a very important part of physical training-being the natural


provision for the overflow of surplus nervous energy. Moreover, the play, instinct
is the natural method for developing coordination and character. Such
inst incts as imitation, chasing, fighting and catching make their appearance
at different age and unless the children are allowed to rehearse these primitive
impulses by the gratification of the natural desires to play, their development is
handicapped.
Free unrestricted play is necessary to : the child: Children should be
allowed to play freely. Practically no differentiation is needed in the games of
boys and girls before the age of ten.

Types of Games

Games may be classified into the following categories:


1. Minor games
2. Major games.
3. Indigenous games.
4. Lead up games.

4.4.8.1 MINOR GAMES

All minor games are suit able for young bo ys and girls. The term
minor is applied to all games o f low organisat ion wit h less: rules, less
equipment and less expense. They are purely recreational games and provide a
lot of fun, frolic and jo y. As such they are well enjoyed by children. They
are simple games that can be conducted in the play fields and also indoors.

237
With a very few rules, the games can be modified according to convenience.
They are played for a shorter duration. On lawns, on sea-shore, on hard
courts, on mountain tops and on river beds, wherever the kids assemble, the
games of low organisation can be conducted to engage the children.

They are classified under games because all the movements involved are
natural movements and unrestricted free expression of the big muscles receive the
richest, benefit in playing minor games.

These games are taught invariably at the elementary school level. They are tag
games and relay games such as simple tag, couple tag, snatching the kerchief,
finding the partner, zig zag relay, over ball pass Relay, under ball pass Relay,
Jump the stick clay and so on. -
Almost every game involves chasing and tagging. Hopping, Jumping,
skipping, leaping and running are the movements insisted on each game and the
effect of these exercises are well seen flowing through the muscles. Imitative
activities in the form of minor games are totally enjoyed by the children. Most of
the activity programmes of the Kindergarten schools, Nursery schools and
Elementary schools are nothing but minor games.

4.4.8.2 MAJOR GAMES

Major games are games of higher organisation. For each game the
rules are many. They are rules approved by the International Associations.
Each game is played for a specific duration on a ground of approved dimensions
with markings and equipment as per international specifications.

The dimension of the posts and nets, the play equipment, the number of
players and substitutes, the duration and extension times are all approved
internationally.
Major games are suit able fo r pupils at Hig h schools and college levels
and also for grown up people.

Major games include almost all games such as Foot-ball, Volley Ball, Basket
Ball, Cricket, Hockey, Ball Badminton, Shuttle Badminton, Tennikoit, Tennis,
Khokho, Soft Ball, Kabaddy etc.,

While many of them are played in the open playfields, some of them are
played indoors. Except a few games, women take part most of the games.

These games require varied skills such as running, Dodging, Throwing,


catching, dribbling, pitching, hitting, spiking, boosting, heading, trapping,
stopping, driving, muffling, bowling etc, with implements or without implements.
These are the games most suited to give exercise to the grownup muscles of the
boys and girls of high schools and Colleges.

238
4.4.8.3 INDIGENOUS GAMES

Chedu gudu, Kho-kho, Kummi and Kolattam are indigenous games. They
are of Indian origin and are native to ones own soil. They appeal to our taste
and from times immemorial, they are in existence. On occasions like marriage,
birth, death, festivals connected with religion and public functions, these games
being popular, village folk take a very keen interest and participate, in these
games with zeal and enthusiasm. They have an abundant social value. These games
find their places in the high school activity programmes.

4.4.8.4 LEAD UP GAMES

Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the skills
of major games. All the fundamental tactics, skills and stunts are put together
to gain practice of major games. For example, the captain ball is a lead up
game for Basket Ball. Devised games enable the participants to gain mastery
over certain skills and lead up games are usually played repeatedly. Novices and
beginners in any game are made to play lead up games so that they can master
the skills required for any particular game. While observing the players in
action, the coaches can easily spot out the defects and correct them on the spot
by tentatively stopping and starting the game. Each lead up game of any
particular major game is so designed that it invo lves all t he finer skills o f
that part icular major game for which it is a lead up one.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

5. Games may be classified as and .

6. List out some major games.

7. An example for indigenous game is

8. What do you mean by lead up games?

239
4.4.9 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson we have discusses the concept, aims and objectives and need of
physical education, the role of physical education teachers and types of games.
Physical education is closely correlated with mental and social development of the
individual. The traditional practice of preparing selected students for sports and
games competitions should be replaced by mass participation of pupils in physical
education activities. Schools should help students to keep them mentally, physically
and emotionally fit and alert. Hence all efforts should be made to develop desirable
health practices in them and provide necessary facilities for the purpose.

4.4.10 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Discuss the need and importance of Physical Education.


2. Explain the role of Physical Education Teachers.
3. Briefly discuss the different types of games.
4. Explain the physical and social objectives of Physical Education.

4.4.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. a. It makes a significant contribution to the social adjustment of an individual.


b. It helps in the spiritual development of an individual.

2. a. Maintenance of Health and Fitness: Physical activities aim at helping in a


large measure to slow down the degenerative process.
b. Development of Functional Knowledge: Physical education aims at
providing opportunities to acquire knowledge of first-aid and proper health
procedure related to physical exercises.

3. a. to secure physical health


b. to develop physical stamina;

4. a. Promotion of sanitation procedures is essential,


b. Posture screening should be done,
c. Promotion of safety practices should be encouraged,
d. Cooperation with nutrition programmes is a must.

5. Minor and Major

240
6. Foot-ball, Volley Ball, Basket Ball, Cricket, Hockey, Ball Badminton,
Shuttle Badminton, Tennikoit, Tennis, Khokho, Soft Ball, Kabaddy

7. Khokho

8. Lead up games are games but mostly modified and devised for mastering the
skills of major games.

4.4.12 SUGGESTED READING

Mathews, G.K. (2009). Health, Physical Education and Sports. New Delhi :
Crescent Publishing Corporation.
Aggarwal. J.C. (2008). Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi :
Shipra Publications.
Mohanty, J, (2005). Modern Trends in Indian Education. New Delhi :
Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Krishna murthy, J. (2008). Handbook of Physical Education. New Delhi : Common
Wealth Publishers.

241
LESSON 4.5
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

4.5.1 Introduction

4.5.2 Objectives

4.5.3 Meanings and Objectives of Environmental Education

4.5.4 Scope of Environmental Education

4.5.5 Kinds of Environment

4.5.5.1 Natural Environment

4.5.5.2 Manmade Environment

4.5.6 Correlation of Environmental Education with the regular school subjects

4.5.7 School programmes for the conservation and protection of Environment

4.5.8 Role of Teacher in Environmental Conservation

4.5.9 Let us sum up

4.5.10 Unit End Exercises

4.5.11 Answers to check your progress

4.5.12 Suggested Readings

4.5.1 INTRODUCTION

Environment al educat io n implies est ablishing ecological equ ili-


brium which implies proper use and conservation of resources and also
control of environment pollution. Environmental education is a process of
recognising values and clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s
problems. The aim is to develop skills and att it udes necessary t o
underst and enviro nment . Enviro nment al educat ion has been described as

242
educat ion for the environment, education about the environment and
education through the environment. Environmental educat ion will enable the
pupil to learn how hazardous environmental pollution, population explosion
and resource depletion could be. The best place to start such learning is school.

4.5.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will able to:


1. explain the meaning and objectives of teaching environmental education
2. list out the types of environment
3. correlate environmental education with school subjects
4. role of teacher in environmental conservation.

4.5.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

1. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness of


and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.
2. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic
understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.
3. Attitude. To help individuals and social groups acquire social values,
strong feelings of concern for the environment and the motivat ion for actively
participat ing in its protection and improvement.
4. Skills. To help individuals and social groups acquire the skills for solving
environment problems.
5. Evaluation Ability. To help individuals and social groups evaluate
environmental measures and education programmes in terms of ecological,
political, economic, social, aesthetic and educational factors.
6. Participation. To help individuals and social groups develop a sense
of responsibility and urgency regarding environmental problems to ensure
appropriate action to solve those problems

4.5.4 SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

The scope of environmental education is very vast. Broadly, it covers the following
elements:
1. Essential knowledge about the Environment.
2. Essential knowledge about the Problems of Environment.
3. Broad based measures towards the Solution of Environment Problems.

Details are given below:


I. Essential Knowledge About the Environment
A. Structure and Functions of an Eco-system
• Types of Eco-system
• Concept of limiting factors.

243
B. Energy Flow in the Abiotic Component of the Earth Eco-system
• The earth’s ultimate source of energy
• Factors affecting energy flow in the earth eco-system
• Water cycle, its role in energy flow
• Energy transformations and eventual “lost”
• Energy from the earth’s interior
C. Energy Flow in the Biotic Component of the Earth Eco-system
• Photosynthesis
• Respiration
• Food chain and food web
• Tropic levels
• The ten percent law.
D. Materials Flow in the Biochemical Cycles
• Earth processes, their role in nutrients flow
• Water cycle, its role in nutrient flow
• The gaseous cycle:
 Carbon cycle
 Nitrogen cycle
 Oxygen cycle.
• Sedimentary cycles
 Phosphorus -
 Sulphur.
• Biological magnification
E. Population Dynamics
• Population density
• Natality, mortality and dispersal
• Age structure
• Population growth form
• Regulation of population size
• Natural selection and evaluation.
F. Human Intervention in Natural Processes
1. Human activities that affect energy flow in the earth eco-system:
• Increased combustion and carbon dioxide production Smog, soot
and other particulate matter
• Ozone
• Concentration of human population, heat sink and wind flow in
cities.
2. Human activities that affect materials flow in the earth eco system.
a. Air pollution
 Carbon monoxide
 Hydrocarbons
 Oxides of sulphur
 Oxides of nitrogen.
 Oxidants
 Other pollutants.

244
3. The human ecosystem

II. Essential Knowledge about Problems of the Environment


A. Four Major Dimensions of Environmental Problem
 The physical, economic, and social consequences of environmental
problems
 The graphical scale of environmental problems
 The time scale of environmental problems
 The socio-economic systems affected by environmental problems.
B. Major Causes of Environment Problems
1. Rapid population growth
 Food shortage
 Decreasing surface area
 Water shortage
 Energy crisis
 Scarcity of the earth's material.
2. New problems from science and technology
 Medical technology
 Agricultural technology
 Energy technology
 Food technology
 Materials substitution technology.
3. New problems from development and industrialisation
 Cost of development
 Development in developing countries
 Increased waste production and pollution
 Cost of pollution.
4. Concentration of human population (urbanisation)
 Unemployment and poverty
 Concentration of wastes
 High incidence of diseases
 Conflicting land uses.

III. Broad-Based Measures toward the Solution of Environment Problem


1. Control of population growth
a. Birth control through education
b. Persuasion:
i. Family planning
ii. Socio-economic measures.
c. Use of medical science
i. The pill
ii. Intrauterine device
iii. Abortion
iv. Sterilisation.
2. Using science and technology to solve environmental problems
a) Expanding and improving traditional food sources

245
b) Developing new and unconventional food sources
c) Treatment of malnutrition
d) Pollution abatement:
i. Air pollution abatement
ii. Water pollution abatement.
e) Recycling.
3. Planning human intervention on the natural processes. Broadly speaking
following may be the major topics of environmental education:
• Purpose and Role of the Biosphere
• The Environment and its Elements
• Reserve of Natural Resources
• Man and Ecological Balance
• Atmospheric Exploitation
• Conservation and Exploitation of Sand Resources
• Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources
• Population Problem
• The Environment, Public HealthCare and The Food Problem
• Environmental and Economic Development
• Environmental Management Control
• International Cooperation and Environmental Protection. (UNESCO, 1983).

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Define Environmental Education.

2. Write any two objectives of Environmental Education.

3. List out the major causes of Environmental problems.

246
4.5.5 KI N D S / TYPES OR CATEGORIES OF ENVIRONMENT
Environment can be divided into two categories
4.5.5.1 Natural environment
The environment that comes into existence without the interference of man is
called natural environment. It operates through self-regulat ing mechanism
called homoeostat ic environment mechanism, any change in the natural ecosystem
brought about by natural process is counter-balanced by changes in other components
of the environment. Under this type of environment any change in the system caused
due to natural processing is counter balanced by the change in the - other components
of the environment. This type of environment is called homeostatic environment
mechanism. Environment may also be classified into following two kinds.

a. Physical environment

Physical environment consists of: (1) forces of nature like wind (2) Gravity
conditions like temperature and light, (3) time and (4) non-living materials: like soil
and water. These are biotic components.

b. Biological environment

The biological environment, includes the plants, animals and other organisms
(biotic). The biotic environment is made of all living beings including t heir
react ions int eract ions and int errelated act ions. Any constituent or condition
of the environment, which affects directly or indirectly-the form of functioning of the
organism in any specific. way is called environmental or ecological factor.

Thus environment is classified into two components: a biotic (non-living)and


biotic (living) environment. They interact with each. -other. A change in one brings
about a change in the other.

4.5.5.2 MAN MADE ENVIRONMENT (NON-LIVING COMPONENT OR A


BIOTIC COMPONENT)

The environment which is modified by human activities is called


anthropogenic environment Man is modifying the environment through
scientific technology which is the product of human brain. He modifies according”, to
his needs. This type of environment created by men such as industrial revolution
communication networks like telephone, telex, fax agricultural apparatus, satellite and
energy sources like thermal hydro energy and atomic energy etc

4.5.6 CORRELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION


W I T H T H E R EG U LA R S CH O O L SUBJECTS

The objectives of Environmental Education can be achieved by the following


247
either of the two alternatives: (i) By treating environmental education as an approach
and teaching it as a part of science, social studies, languages and other subjects (ii) By
t r eat ing it as a separ at e su b ject . At t he sc ho o l st ag e environmental
education can be taught effectively with the integration of school subjects. The
integration of Environmental Education with other school subject is discussed below:

Botany

Here topics like impo rtance o f t rees, t heir role in preventing


pollution, ozone depletion, noise control, role of trees in building economy, use of
medicinal plants, role of trees in prevent ing soil erosion,, use of pesticides,
natural way of controlling pests, maintaining the ecological diversity, preserving the
watersheds, preventing siltation of dams, supplying timber for various uses, excellent
recreation sites, change in climate may be added.

Chemistry

Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion, sources of pollut ion,
reasons, population, explosion deforestation, over exploitation of ground
water, water scarcity, (ii) Air pollution, sources, effects, importance of trees in
the production of oxygen, ozone layer deplet ion, acid rain, greenhouse
effect, relation between population and pollution, importance of nitrogen
cycle, air pollutants from industries.

Zoology

Protection and preservation of wildlife, evolution, extinction of species,


need for conservation, food chain and food-web, need for bio-diversity, balance
of nature, etc. are the topics which may find place in Zoology.

Physics

Topics like conservation of energy, alternate sources of energy, solar


cookers, biogas plants, windmills, noise pollution, trees reducing noise pollution,
nuclear energy, harmful effects of radiation may be taught in Physics.

History

The rise and fall, of civilizations, wars and hazards of war, nuclear warfare,
etc. are the topics which may be taught in History.

Geography

Topics like importance of forest areas, mineral survey, industrial


survey, industrial pollut io n, effects o f CFC, river systems, desertification

248
may be inc ded in Geography.

Health and Hygiene Education

Meaning of health and hygiene, aims and scope, role of plants and
animals to make the healthy environment. Role of p lant s t o pro vid e
valuable herbs and medicines should be integrated with Health and Hygiene
Education.

Sociology

It sho u ld e xp la in var io us so c ia l r e lat io ns hip s a nd


interdependence of man, animal and plants, need of social life to live in co-
operation with vegetation and animals. Social norms and traditions which help
in conservation of environment like-worship of trees like Banyan, Peepal and
Tulsi, treating cow as mother and worshipping it should be highlighted under
Sociology.

4.5.7 SCHOOL PROGRAMMES FOR THE CONSERVATION AND


P R O T E C T I O N O F E N V I R O N M ENT O R CHECKING
ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION

The school is expected to discharge the following functions in relation to


the conservation issues and sustainable development:
1. Developing awareness about environmental issues.
2. Providing, specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.
3. Organising conferences, group discussions and seminars.
4. Organising community surveys on issues relating to conservation and
protection of environment.
5. Organising Social Service and Community service programmes.
6. Organising ‘Population Days’ and ‘Environmental Days’.
7. Organising ‘Awareness campaigns’.
8. Organising visits to pollution Control Centres.
9. Organising exhibitions on Environmental pollution and control.
10. Organising tree plantation or Vanmahotsavs.
11. Organising lectures and workshops for the benefit of the community.
12. Developing habits of cleanliness among students.
13. Ensuring cleanliness of the school plant.
14. Arranging lectures of experts on environmental issues.

Impressing upon students to adopt the following ways of protecting and


improving the environment.
 Dispose the wastes after separating them into bio degradable and non-
biodegradable waste material.
 Start a compost heap or use a compost bin. This can be used to recycle
waste food and other biodegradable materials.

249
 Send their waste oil, old batteries and used tyres to a garage for
recycling or safe disposal; all these can cause serious pollution.
 Never put any left over chemicals, used oils down the drain, toilet or
dump them on the ground or in water or burn them in the garden. If it is
done, it will cause pollution.
 Don’t burn any waste, especially plastics, as the smoke may contain
polluting gases.
 Reuse carrier bags.
 Use unleaded petrol and alternate sources of energy, and keep the
engine properly tuned and serviced and the tyres inflated to the right
pressure, so that vehicle runs efficiently braking of automobiles.
 Walk or cycle where it is safe to do so. Walking and cycling can help to
keep you fit.
 Use public transport wherever it is possible, or form a car pool for
everyday travel.
 Avoid unnecessary or wasteful packaging of products.
 Plants and trees will help to absorb excess carbon dioxide.
 Observe World Environment Day on 5th June.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out Environmental aspects to be included in Chemistry.

5. Mention any two school programs for the conservation and protection of
Environment.

6. World Environmental falls on

250
4.5.8 R O L E O F T E A C H E R

The Object ive o f Environmental Educat ion is to learn the skills o f


gathering information, developing desirable attitudes, values and habits.
Hence t he t eacher has t o act as a guide and st imu lat e t he children to use
their abilities to acquire information.

The teacher may structure the learning experiences and activities and
prepare the points of enquiry. The students can be divided into small groups
to conduct the invest igat ion. The groups may exchange, their experiences in
the general class and enter into discussions. The funct ions o f the teacher
may be summarized as:

 To arouse the children's interest in the environment and to raise


challenging problems;
 To discuss the approach to problems or topics;
 To organize working groups and to provide with the help of work cards
the lines of enquiry;
 To arrange visits or expeditions;
 To provide reference materials for children’s use;
 To provide materials needed for practical work;
 To arrange for visiting speakers;
 To initiate and develop discussion and debate; and
 To provide facilities for displays and exhibitions.

According to Talisayon (1990) a teacher can teach many relevant values


related to environment like:
 Interrelatedness of nature;
 Systematic and holistic thinking about nature;
 Global and international values to mitigate common threat to mankind
posed by harming the biosphere, viz, deforestation, depletion of ozone,
CFCs, nuclear wars, loss of bio-diversity;
 Man as a part of nature to avoid dist urbances of ecosystem;
 Harmony with the nature , (cleanliness, orderliness and beauty);
 Social responsibilit y (common good, concern for others);
 Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection;
 Att itudes of balance towards nature, rather than conquest and mastery;
 Concern for species, diversity and stability, prevention of irretrievable loss of
species;
 Conservation of natural resources, concern for physical limits of non-
renewable and slowly renewable natural resources, minimizing loss of natural
capital (topsoil, potable water, etc.);
 Minimizing t he stress in ecosyst em by avoiding dumping of
industrial wastes, disrupting natural flows o f energ y and bio - mat erials,
dest roying nat ural habitats, etc.; and

251
 Maintenance of productivity of an ecosystem avoiding harvesting more than
sustainable yield, preserving natural cycles.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

7. Enlist any two role of the teacher in imparting Environmental Education.

8. List any two values that can be teach to the students on Environmental conservation.

4.5.9 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson you have learnt that Environment Education as the process of
recognizing values clarifying concepts related to environment and its problems for
developing skills, interest and attitudes necessary to comprehend our surrounding or
ecology. It also involves decision making and developing strategies for promoting
environment protection.

4.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. Discuss the meaning objectives and scope of environmental education


2. Enumerate the school programmes for the conservation and protection of
environment
3. Describe the role of the teachers in environmental conservation.

4.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Environmental education is a process of recognising values and


clarifying concepts relating to enviro nment and it s pro blems.
252
2. a. Awareness. To help individuals and social groups acquire an awareness
of and sensitivity to the total environment and its allied problems.
b. Knowledge. To help individuals and social groups acquire basic
understanding of the total environment and its associated problems.

3. Rapid population growth, new problems from science and technology, new
problems from development and industrialization and concentration of human
population.\

4. Chemistry may include: (i) water pollut ion, sources of pollution,


reasons, population, explosion deforestation, over exploitation of
ground water, water scarcity, (ii) Air pollution, sources, effects,
importance of trees in the production of oxygen, ozone layer deplet ion,
acid rain, greenhouse effect, relat ion between population and
pollution, importance of nitrogen cycle, air pollutants from industries.

5. a. Providing, specific and scientific knowledge topic-wise.


b. Organising conferences, group discussions and seminars.

6. June 5

7. a. To provide reference materials for children’s use;


b. To provide materials needed for practical work;

8. a. Social responsibilit y (common good, concern for others);


b. Respect for nature and responsibility for its protection;

4.5.12 SUGGESTED READING

Chitrabhanu, T.K. (2007). Environmental Education. New Delhi : Authors Press.

Udaiveer, (2004). Modern Problems of Education. New Delhi :


Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Sharma, Y.K., Kuldeep, S.K. (2007). Education for values, Environment and
Human Rights. New Delhi : Deep & Deep
Publications.

Nanda, S.K. (1997). Environmental Education. New Delhi : Anmol


Publications Pvt. Ltd.

253
254
UNIT – V

255
256
PHILOSPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION
Unit 5 comprises five lessons which deal with western schools of philosophy,
educational philosophies of Indian thinkers, curriculum construction, promotion of
scientific outlook and attitude and institutional planning.

In the lesson 1 we have discussed the various western schools of philosophy


with reference to aims of education, curriculum and role of teacher.

Lesson 2 deals with the educational philosophies of Indian thinkers like


Gandhiji, Tagore and Swami Vivekananda.

The main focus on Lesson 3 is on the curriculum construction – its principles,


flexibility. Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation is
also discussed.

Lesson 4 discusses the promotion of scientific outlook and attitude among


students.

Lesson 5 deals with the characteristics and areas of institutional planning and
application of modern management techniques in educational institutions.

257
258
LESSON 5.1

DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION

STRUCTURE

5.1.1 Introduction

5.1.2 Objectives

5.1.3 Idealism

5.1.3.1 Idealism and aims of Education

5.1.3.2 Idealism and Curriculum

5.1.3.3 Idealism and methods of teaching

5.1.3.4 Idealism and the teacher

5.1.4 Naturalism

5.1.4.1 Naturalism and aims of Education

5.1.4.2 Naturalism and Curriculum

5.1.4.3 Naturalism and methods of teaching

5.1.4.4 Naturalism and the teacher

5.1.5 Pragmatism

5.1. 5.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education

5.1. 5.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum

5.1. 5.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching

5.1.5.4 Pragmatism and the teacher

5.1.6 Realism

259
5.1.6.1 Pragmatism and aims of Education

5.1. 6.2 Pragmatism and Curriculum

5.1. 6.3 Pragmatism and methods of teaching

5.1. 6.4 Pragmatism and the teacher

5.1.7 Let us sum up

5.1.8 Unit – End Exercises

5.1.9 Answers to check your progress

5.1.10 Suggested Readings

5.1.1 INTRODUCTION

From our inquiry into the meaning of the words ‘philosophy’ and ‘education’,
it is clear that the two notions, like two sides of a coin, present different views of the
same thing, and that one is implied by the other. The art of education can never be
completed without philosophy and philosophy cannot convert others to its aims and
values without education.

5.1.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will able to:


1. describe the main philosophical propositions of different schools of thought
like Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism and Realism
2. relate them with the elements of the educative process – aims, curriculum,
methods, and teacher.

5.1.3 IDEALISM

The credit of introducing idealism in education goes to Plato. Education


according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity. Idealists
believe that man's nature is spiritual and divine. He can realise this through education.

5.1.3.1 IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION

Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly


influenced by the aims and principles of life In this context Ross puts forth the
view, "The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate
universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to
260
our life.” Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are
given below:

Self realisation According to idealism, man is the most beautiful creation of


God-His grandest work It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality. It is
self-realisation. The aim of education is to develop the 'self of the 'individual's higher
till self-realisation is achieved It is, in fact, making actual or real the highest
potentialities of the self.

Universal Education. Education according to idealism, should be universal in


nature. The universe is regarded as a thought process. Education should be based on
the teaching of universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the universe.

Spiritual Development. Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in


comparison with material attainments. According to Rusk', "Education/must enable
mankind through its culture to enter more and more( fully into the spiritual realm,
and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm."

Transmission and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The aim of idealistic


education is the preservation, enrichment and transmission of culture. Education must
contribute to development of culture. It should help in enlarging the boundaries of
spiritual realm. The child has to be introduced to his cultural heritage so as to enable
him to conserve, promote and transmit it to rising generation.

Cultivation of Moral Values According to idealism, man is essentially a


moral being. Therefore, moral, intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality
should be promoted.

Preparation for a Holy Life Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life
Froebel says, “The object of education is the realization of a faithful pure, inviolable
and hence holy life”
In short, the idealists believe that education must help in the full evolution of mind, the
emancipation of spirit, self-realisation and the realisation of higher values of life and to
train “the whole man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.”

5.1.3.2 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM

While developing curriculum, idealists give more importance to thought


feelings ideals and values than to the child and his activities They firmly hold that
curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences It
must consist of humanities

261
The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types. So cognition
(knowing), affecting (feeling), and collation (striving) should find due place. Sciences
and arts should be taught as fully integrated Since the main aim of education
according to the philosophy of idealism is to preserve and advance the culture of
human race, so subjects like Religion, Ethics, Philosophy, History, Literature etc
should be provided in the curriculum Healthy mind is found in healthy body only. So
health, hygiene, games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.
For intellectual development, subjects like Languages, Science, Mathematics etc.
should be there.

5.1.3.3 IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING

Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. According to


idealism, class-room is a temple of spiritual teaming, a meeting place of human minds-
a place for self education. For this no particular method has been suggested. However,
the following methods have been advocated by different idealists
1. Learning through reading,
2. Learning through lecturing,
3. Learning through discussion,
4. Learning through imitation,
5. Learning through questioning.

Herbert advocated instruction method, while Froebel insisted upon Play way
method In all, Socrates Method and Discussion Method form the basis of idealism
Butlei4rightly remarked, “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of
methods not devotees of some one method.”

5.1.3.4 IDEALISM AND THE TEACHER

Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. It considers teacher as. a spiritual
guide for the child. The teacher serves as a living model for the students. He sets the
environment in which education takes place. He carries the child from darkness to
light. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection.

Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man's spiritual heritage. He is a


co-worker with God in perfecting man. An idealist teacher is a philosopher, friend and
guide. According to Gentile A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.” He is
thus, an indispensable necessity. The teacher is to be an ideal person-personification of
reality. He is to be a source of inspiration for the students. So he should embody- the
spiritual qualities of mankind.

According to Frobel, the school is a garden, the teacher is a cautious gardener


and the child is a tender plant. The plant can grow, no doubt, without help but the good
gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Through teacher's
guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to

262
perfection and beauty. Ross explains, “The naturalist may be patient but the idealist
wants fine roses.”

Thus we find that the philosophy of idealism has contributed richly to the field of
education.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. List any two aims of Education according to Idealism.

2. Enlist the Methods of teaching in Idealism.

5.1.4 NATURALISM

Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in 18th century. It


exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. In the naturalistic
system of educatin there is no place for class rooms, text books, time tables, curricula,
formal lessons or examinations. Naturalism believes that formal education was the
invention of society which was artificial good education can be had only by a direct
contact with nature.

5.1.4.1 NATURALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION

The main aims of education as advocated by Naturalism are as under:

• Self-Expression Idealism gives importance to self-realisation, whereas the


main aim of naturalism is self-expression and self- preservation.

• Perfection of Human Machine. In the words of Ross, "Education should make

263
the human machine as good a machine as possible by attending to its
constitution, by elaborating it and making it capable of more and more
complicated tasks

• Re-direction and Human instincts. Me Dougall regards the instincts of man


as the prime movers of his behaviour. Education should, therefore, aim at the
re-direction and sublimation of these instincts

• Struggle for Existence The evolutionists consider education to equip the


individual for struggle of his existence and thus to ensure his survival

• Education for Adjustment. Education also aims at helping the individual t,o
secure his adjustment-physical as well as mental Education) regarded as the
process of adjustment to environment.

• Autonomous Development of Individuality. The aim of Naturalistic


education is to ensure complete development of individuality without any
interference by the society.

• Education According to the Nature of the Child It has been rightly said that,
“Education finds its purpose, its process and its means within the child-life
and child-experience.” Nature of the child should be first understood for this
purpose. In all, education should develop the child into Joyous, rational
harmoniously balanced, useful and mature child.

5.1.4.2 NATURALISM AND CURRICULUM

Naturalism does not advocate any rigid or fixed curriculum. Its firm belief is
that child teams best in natural settings:
1. It is based on the psychology of the child. Naturalistic curriculum, is based on
the nature of the child, his interests and inborn tendencies
2. It lays stress on subjects that are helpful in self-preservation. Spencer contends
that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which help in self-
preservation
3. It stresses basic sciences. Naturalists lay emphasis on science subjects such as
Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Arithmetic, Zoology, Botany etc Language,
Literature, Art etc are subsidiary subjects.
4. It emphasises physical and health education
5. It lays stress on the study of past experiences of the race. The past experiences
explain the origin of the present ones. Therefore, subjects like history,
geography should also be included in the curriculum.
There is no place for religious and moral education. Such education is a matter of
experiences rather than of instruction. Punishment is given by nature in its own way.

264
5.1.4.3 NATURALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING

In the field of methodology, Naturalism has made very significant contribution.


It discards all rigid, uniform and traditional techniques of teaching. Teaching in class-
rooms does not find favour with the naturalists. Here the emphasis is on the individual
method. Rousseau says, “Give your scholar no verbal lesson, he should be taught by
experience alone.”

Naturalism lays stress on:


1. Learning by doing.
2. Learning through experience.
3. Learning through observation.
4. Heuristic method.

Other methods of teaching recommended by Naturalism are play way method,


Dalton Plan, Direct study of natural phenomena and Experimentation.

5.1.4.4 NATURALISM AND TEACHER

Nature is a great teacher. Naturalists consider Nature as the only supreme teacher in
whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. Naturalists do not like that
children should be taught in classes by teachers. In the .naturalistic scheme of education
the teacher plays the role of an observer. His job is to facilitate the process of child's
growth as well as Learning. Ross says that "The teacher is only a setter o. the stage, a
supplier of materials and opportunities, a provider of an ideal environment, a creator
of conditions under which natural development takes place. The teacher is only a
means to assist child's full and free development.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

3. The main aim of Naturalism is &

4. “Give your scholar no verbal lesson, he should be taught by experience alone”


– said by .

5.1.5 PRAGMATISM

Pragmatism is a typical American school of philosophy. Pragmatism is a mid-


way between naturalism and idealism. It citicises the impersonal interpretation of
existence as forwarded by naturalism, and rebels against the academic and orthodox

265
absolutism of idealism. Pragmatism holds that whatever fulfills one’s purpose and
develops his life, is true. According to pragmatism education is not the dynamic side
of philosophy as it is advocated by idealism. It is philosophy which emerges from
educational practices.

5.1.5.1 PRAGMATISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION

Pragmatists do not believe in any preconceived aims of education Aims are not
fixed, immutable or final They arise out of the ongoing experience and should be
wholly within the child’s experience. Some of the aims suggested in pragmatism are
given below:

The Aim of Education is More Education. Education leads to more


education Every learning experience results into more experience and is means
of new learning.

All Round Development of an Individual. The aim of educational


development, of human personality is in terms of his physical, intellectual, social
and moral aspects. Thus the essential aim of education is to direct the impulses,
interests and abilities towards the satisfaction of the felt needs of the child in
his environment.

Continuous reconstruction of Experience. Education is a process of living


through continuous reconstruction of experiences. Learning takes place through
experiences transmitted as well as shared.

Social Efficiency. Another am of education is to produce socially efficient


persons. It is in fact socialisation of an individual Social efficiency includes economic
and cultural efficiency.

Continuous Growth. The aim of pragmatic education is to enable an


individual to grow continuously. This growth takes place through mutual interactions
and changing social order.

Personal Social Adjustment. The most important aim of education according


to pragmatism is the problem of adjustment. The individual has not only to adjust
himself, but also to improve upon it He must also cope with life situations and
problems.

5.1.5.2 PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM

Curriculum in the pragmatic scheme of education is broad based, diversified and


flexible. Subjects, Activities and Experiences be included in the curriculum which are
useful for the present needs of the child and also for the future requirements. In the
over-all plan of curriculum subjects like Languages, Physical training,
Geography, History, Agriculture, Sciences, Social Science, Vocational and

266
Technical Education, Mathematics for boys and Home science for girls, should find
proper place.

5.1.5.3 PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING

Pragmatism has contributed greatly in the field of methods of teaching.


Methods of teaching should not be fixed. Methods must be useful and related to the
interest of the child. They must involve practical work activities and productive
experiences. Pragmatism lays emphasis on the following principles.

Learning by Doing. According to this principle education should be imparted


through activities and practical experiences. Pragmatism believes in action and actual
participation of the child in life situations This principle stresses the fact that a child
should be put into real situations and problems of life and should be enabled to study
the situations intelligently and to solve them absolutely. The child gains insight and
capacities to face and solve the problems of life.

Integration This principle lays stress on correlated teaching of all subjects. It


seeks to maintain unity in diversity. The subjects, activities and experience should be
integrated properly.

On the basis of these principles of pragmatism John Dewey and others


developed Project Method Kilpatrick defines a project as “a whole hearted
purposeful activit y proceeding in a social environment.”

5.1.5.4 PRAGMATISM AND TEACHER

In a pragmatic system of education, a teacher occupies an important position.


He has to be active, alert and resourceful. He must be trained, efficient and a man of
foresight He has to create learning situations for the child. In different situations he
remains a friend and helper. Naturalism does not allow the teacher to interfere in the
education of the child Idealism makes the teacher indispensable In pragmatism, a
teacher adopts 'hand off' policy. The teacher is a man of superior wisdom, a senior
partner and a sincere guide. Pragmatism puts heavy demands on the teacher.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

5. Write the curriculum advocated by pragmatism

267
5.1.6 REALISM

Realism is not a philosophy of life like Idealism or Naturalism, but like


pragmatism it is an attitude of mind, a mode of thinking and an attempt to explain the
nature of things. It is the doctrine that the objects of our senses exist independently of
their being known or perceived by mind.

Today realism is a reaction against the book centered academic, intellectual,


liberal, literary or humanistic education. It favours child-centered, practical, specific,
scientific and psychological education.

Realism is the philosophy which considers a thing real if it is relevant to the


conditions that are existing. A realist is one who takes into account and is guided by
the facts of life as they exist.

The basic tenets of realism are

1. Material world or objective world is real


2. Nature existed before we find it will continue to exist
3. Experience is the touch stone of what is real. “Seeing is believing”
4. Philosophy of education should be based on the realities of life.

5.1.6.1 REALISM AIMS OF EDUCATION

1. Preparation for a happy and successful life – ultimate aim of education is to


make human life comfortable, rich and happy. Education must enable man to
adjust with social environment and lead a happy life. Education is preparation
for a complete living.
2. Satisfaction of individual and social needs.
3. All round knowledge – Education must enable the child to acquire
knowledge of definite and real objects. The child should be provided
complete knowledge of society.
4. Development of Scientific outlook – science is the basis of education
according to realism. Education must cultivate scientific outlook.
5. Preparation for adult life (vocational development) –Education enables an
individual to earn his livelihood.

5.1.6.2 REALISM AND CURRICULUM

This assumes a central part of their education. This should consist of


instruments of knowledge like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Astrology, Mathematics,
Literature, Biography Philosophy, Psychology, Crafts, Sex Education, Population
Education. Study of Subjects like Language, Art, Music and Dance, History,
Geography are unnecessary

268
5.1.6.3 REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING

What ever is taught must be taught surely and thoroughly, certainly and
clearly, easily and pleasantly. They recommended
• Learning through experience
• Child centered
• Experimentation
• Tours / Excursion
• Demonstration and Observation

5.1.6.4 REALISM AND ROLE OF TEACHER

• Teacher must be a scholar


• Teacher must know the child
• Teacher must show sympathy towards the child
• Teacher should have an integrated personality
• Teacher must be an trained or experienced person
• Teacher should have firm faith in science.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. List out the methods of teaching in realism

269
5.1.7 LET US SUM UP

We have, in this lesson, discussed the philosophical concepts of four major


schools of philosophy – idealism, naturalism, pragmatism and realism. We have seen
that the ultimate aim of education according to idealism is self realization, for
naturalists it is self preservation and self expression. Education according to
pragmatism, has no end other than growth; whereas according to realism it is
preparation for a happy life.

5.1.8 UNIT END EXERCISES

1. What are the salient features of idealism as a philosophy of education


2. Discuss briefly the contribution of Naturalism to educational theory and
practice
3. Compare and contrast the aims and methods of pragmatism and naturalism
4. Pragmatism is midway between Idealism and Naturalism – Discuss.
5. Critically evaluate pragmatic philosophy of education with reference to
aim, & curriculum.

5.1.9 ANSWERS TO CHECH YOUR PROGRESS

1. a. Self Realisation
b. Universal Education

2. a. Learning through reading,


b. Learning through lecturing,
c. Learning through discussion,
d. Learning through imitation,
e. Learning through questioning.
3. Self preservation & Self expression
4. Rousseau
5. Languages, Physical training, Geography, History, Agriculture, Sciences,
Social Science, Vocational and Technical Education, Mathematics for boys
and Home science for girls.
6. a. Learning through experience
b. Child centered
c. Experimentation
d. Tours / Excursion
e. Demonstration and Observation

270
5.1.10 SUGGESTED READINGS

Dhiman, O. P. (2007). Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H.


Publishing corporation.

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi :


Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Bhatia, K. K and Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of


Education. Narang C. L. (2004). Ludhiana :Parkash
Brothers.

Pathak, R.P. (2007). Philosophical and Sociological Perspective of


Education. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers.

271
LESSON 5.2

EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI, TAGORE AND


SWAMI VIVEKANANDA

STRUCTURE

5.2.1 Introduction

5.2.2 Objectives

5.2.3 Educational philosophy of Gandhiji

5.2.3.1 Aims of Education

5.2.3.2 Gandhiji and Curriculum

5.2.3.3 Methods of Teaching

5.2.3.4 Views about teacher

5.2.3.5 Gandhiji as Naturalist, Idealist and Pragmatist

5.2.3.6 Mahatma Gandhi and Basic Education

5.2.4 Educational Philosophy of Tagore

5.2.4.1 Aims of Education

5.2.4.2 Curriculum

5.2.4.3 Methods of teaching

5.2.4.4 Views about teacher

5.2.4.5 Shanthiniketan or Vishwa Bharathi

5.2.5 Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda

5.2.5.1 Aims of Education

5.2.5.2 Curriculum

5.2.5.3 Methods of teaching

272
5.2.5.4 Role of the teacher

5.2.6 Let us sum up

5.2.7 Unit End Exercises

5.2.8 Answers to check your progress

5.2.9 Suggested Readings

5.2.1 INTRODUCTION

In this lesson, we are more concerned with the extrinsic contributions of


certain selected educational philosophers from our country. The doctrines of Great
Educators may help you in developing your own philosophy of education. Gandhiji
was primarily a social, political leader who planned a system of National Education
intended for the masses in rural areas. His philosophy of Basic Education scheme
was the result of his thinking in the lines of social, economic and political
reconstruction in our country. Tagore was a poet, an artist, a painter and a
philosopher who founded the institution – Shanti Niketan incorporating his ideas.
Vivekananda was primarily a religious reformer giving vent to his educational
thoughts as glimpses.

5.2.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will able to:


1. explain the educational ideas of selected Indian thinkers with reference to
educational aims, content and methods.
2. examine their educational proposals in the context of their philosophical and
social ideas.
3. understand the relevance of their educational vision in the contemporary
context.

5.2.3 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF GANDHIJI

Gandhiji evolved a philosophy of education as the dynamic side of his


philosophy of life. He viewed education as a potent instrument of social reconstruction.
On account of his new scheme of education known as Basic Education, Gandhiji is
considered as the starting point of modern educational theory and practice of the East
Gandhiji observes, “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child
and man-body, mind and spirit. Literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of
education. This is only a means through which man and woman can be educated.”
This is how Gandhiji summed up his idea of true education accordingly. According
to Gandhiji “true education is that which draws out and stimulates the spiritual,
273
intellectual and physical faculties of the children.”
The salient features of Gandhian Educational philosophy are given below:

A new concept of education. Gandhiji interpreted education as the development


of human personality. This can be matched with any modern concept of education. His
scheme of education is life centred, it is education of life, through life and for life. It
really provides opportunity for character building, development of all round
personality and prepares for effective and successful living through life problems and
real life situations.

5.2.3.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION

Gandhiji divided educational aims into two categories such as Immediate


aims of Education and Ultimate aims of Education.

 Immediate Aims

Vocational Aim. It is also Known as self-supporting aim of education.


Gandhiji wanted that each child should be able to learn a productive craft to meet his
future needs of life and become self- supporting. He advocated education for self-
reliance and capacity to earn one's livelihood In his own words, "Education ought to
be for them (children) a kind of insurance against unemployment

Cultural Aim. He advocated that vocational education and cultural


advancement should go side by side. He considered the cultural aspect of education
as more essential than its academic aspect. Culture is the main foundation and an
essential part of education. In the words of Gandhiji, "I attach more, importance to
cultural factor of education than its literary factor. Culture Is primary and basic thing
which the girls should receive from school

Character Aim According to Gandhiji, the end of all knowledge should be the
building up of character. Character building implies cultivation of moral values such
as courage, strength of mind, righteousness, self-restraint and service of humanity.

Perfect Development Aim Gandhiji once wrote, 'The real education is that
which fully develops the body, mind and soul of children He further observed, 'Man
is neither mere intellect, nor the gross animals body, nor heart or soul alone A
proper and harmonious contribution of all the three is required for the making of the
whole man and constitutes the true economics of education."

Dignity of Labour. Gandhiji wished that all individuals especially the learners
should do some manual work Studies are important at their own place The students
must learn the dignity of labour. They should not feel shy while doing some work
with their hands.

274
Training for Leadership. Gandhiji believed that for successful democracy,
good leaders are needed Education should imbibe the education of good leaders. That
way only the students will be able to shoulder the responsibilties in a satisfactory
manner.

Individual and Social Aims. Gandhiji stressed that education should equip
the learner for individual and social aims Both these aims should be synthesised That
way only the individual becomes better and the society is enriched. Only good
individual forms a better society.

 Ultimate Aim of Education

Spiritual Development - Self-realisat io n and spirit ual development find


perfect support in Gandhian scheme. According to Gandhi, "Development of the moral
character, development of the whole all were directed: towards, the realization of the
ultimate reality- the merger of the finite being into the infinite "It is realizing
Godliness in his self.

5.2.3.2 GANDHIJI AND CURRICULUM

Gandhiji devised a scheme of education which is known as Basic Educat io n


or NaiTalim or Wardha Scheme o f Educat io n Its curriculum is activity
centered. He suggested the following subjects to be included in the curriculum

Basic Craft Gandhi prescribed productive craft as the medium of education.


A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving, wood work, metal
work, gardening, leather work have been suggested.

Mother-tongue. Gandhiji stressed that all elementary education must be


imparted through the medium of the mother-tongue. The proper teaching of mother-
tongue is the foundation of all education.

Arithmetic To be correlated with life situations, other subjects to be included


in the curriculum are Social Studies, General Sciences, Art, Music, Drawing and
Hindustani. He suggested Home-Science for girls

275
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Gandhiji’s scheme of education is known as

2. The ultimate aim of education according to Gandhiji is

3. Basic education is other wise known as

4. What is the craft work suggested by Gandhiji

5.2.3.3 METHODS OF TEACHING

Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching

Education Through Craft Education through productive craft is the basic of


Gandhian scheme of education. It is around this craft that all other subjects in the
school will be taught.

Mother Tongue to be the Medium of Instruction According to Gandhiji, all


education should take place through the medium of mother-tongue It makes the
process of education natural and meaningful

Emphasis on Activity Method Gandhian education is not bookish in nature


Education is imparted through creative and productive activities

Learning by Doing Learning by doing is the watch word of Gandhian system


of education. Thus the child participates in some activity and learns through
experiences

Technique of Correlation Basic education envisages that the whole


instruction should be imparted through the medium of some activity, expenence or
craft This technique or procedure is known as the technique of correlation

5.2.3.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER

Gandhiji wanted right type of teachers dedicated to their profession and


ready to serve the masses Teachers must be well- trained, proficient, men of

276
knowledge, faith and enthusiasm They must be patriots, men of character and
nationalists

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

5. Mention the methods of teaching advocated by Gandhiji.

5.2.3.5 GANDHI AS NATURALIST, PRAGMATIST AND IDEALIST

On the basis of Gandhian approach to education, Gandhi has been described as


a naturalist Idealist and pragmatist.

Gandhi as Naturalist

Like Rousseau Gandhi also believed that natural and rural environments were
important educative agencies. He also agreed with Rousseau that the child is good
by nature. Education must be child centered. He also advocates freedom for the child.
That is why, he greatly emphasised the importance of educating the child in
natural surroundings He equally decried book learning

Gandhiji as Pragmatist

Gandhiji's educational philosophy is pragmatic due to the following reasons:


1. He has an experimental approach towards life
2. He advocates like a pragmatist that a child should learn from the real
experiments of life and through life problems and situations.
3. The project method of the pragmatist and the basic scheme of Gandhi have
many common points

Gandhiji as an Idealist

Gandhiji is an idealist to the core Idealism is ingrained deeply in his nature as


can be seen from his upbringing and early education. Gandhiji attached great
importance to the training of spirit He says, “To develop the spirit is to build character

277
and to enable one to work towards a knowledge of God and self-realization all
training without culture of the spirit was no use and might be even harmuful,” Like all
other ideals, Gandhiji believes in the harmonious development of human personality.

5.2.3.6 MAHATMA GANDHI AND BASIC EDUCATION

Basic education was advocated by M.K. Gandhi in 1937.


The recommendations of the Zakir Hussain Committee on basic education are listed
here
• Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.
• Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.
• Education should involve manual work, productive work or vocational work
through art and craft methods of teaching.
• Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.
• Cult of non-violence.
• Ideal of citizenship.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

6. Basic education was advocated by Gandhiji in the year

7. Mention the recommendation of Zakir Hussian Committee on Basic education.

5.2.4 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF RABINDRA NATH TAGORE

Rabindra Nath Tagore has been one of the topmost educationists of India. His
name will ever shine like a star in the galaxy of educationists who contributed
handsomely to the cause of education His thoughts on education are worth studying.
He believed in the oneness of humanity. He was deadly against untouchability. He
was a true patriot. He had all regards for all the religions of the world Besides, he
believed in the harmony between the East and the West and above all, he was a true
Vedantist

5.2.4.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION

Aims of Education, as per the philosophy of Tagore are as under:

278
Physical Development Tagore strongly believed that good health is a must for
the learner, a sound mind is present in a hale and healthy learner. Education must help
the learner to grow and develop fully. It should help the learner have good physique.
Physical development leads to all round development of the personality.

Moral and Spiritual Development Moral and spiritual development is


another important aim of education Some types of moral training must be given to the
learners. Education should enable a person to work with self-determination. The
more a person is morally and spiritually sounds, the more dedicated and devoted. He
becomes mental satisfaction and peace of soul should be embedded in the education.

Intellectual Development The great Indian saint was against bookish


knowledge. He did not like the schooling process as it was traditional one laying stress
on cramming by the learners. He advocated that type of education which would help
the-individual. To have free thinking It should develop the imagination power of the
students.

Harmonious Development Education should help the individual to have all


round development He did not like that education which developed one aspect of
personality fully and ignored the others His firm faith was that education should help
the individual have harmonious development of personality. That way only, complete
manhood could be attained.

Purposeful and Meaningful Education. Education which is imparted to the


students should be meaningful in the context of their existence It should always have a
useful purpose to serve It should help them grow well and come out successful in the
situation they are ever placed in. It should help, them solve problems of day to day life.

International Understanding. Tagore believed in universal brotherhood and


oneness of all human beings On this earth. International understanding, he said, could
help in forging unity among all. Therefore, he advocated that education should help in
more and more international understanding. Tagore said, "Mankind must realise a
unity, wider in range, deeper in. sentiment, stronger in power than ever before." The
main aims of Vishwabharti are to "Establish intimate relationship between the East and
West to promote inter-cultural and inter-social understanding and to strive for the
unification of mankind”

5.2.4.2 CURRICULUM

Subject of Study - Language and Literature - Mother tongue and other Indian
languages, English and other foreign languages (ii) Mathematics (in) Natural Sciences
like Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, General Science and Health Education (iv)
Social sciences like History, Civics, Geography, Economics and Sociology (v)
Agriculture and Technical subjects (vi) Arts, Music, Dance, etc. (vi) Philosophy,
Religion and Psychology.

279
Activities and Occupations (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games
and Sports (v) Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii)
Excursions (viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi)
Self-Government

Actual Living and Community Service. The curriculum revolves round actual
living and Communit y Service Life at Shantiniketan is a living example of this
everybody there is an active member of the community and he/ she has to render
social service. Manual labour and participation in community activities is a must for
everyone there. Department of Rural Reconstruction is a centre of attraction for all
this.

5.2.4.3 METHODS OF TEACHING

Tagore was dissatisfied with the methods of teaching which were used in
the institutions He called those traditional methods as lifeless and unsuitable ones.
His preaching was that the method/ methods should be in accordance with the needs
of the individuals. Let individualised methods be used for teaching. That helps in
proper growth and development of each individual. The following methods of teaching
were recommended

• Teaching while Walking


• Debate and Discussion Method.
• Activity Method
• Heuristic Method.

5.2.4.4 VIEWS ABOUT TEACHER

The teacher plays a very significant role in the education of the child. He is a
Guru and he is expected to understand fully his disciples the learners. Only a good
learner can be a good teacher. A real teacher is able to inspire and is ever ready to
guide his students. Tagore rightly says, “He who has lost the child in himself is
absolutely unfit for the great work of educating the children.” He further says, A
teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. A lamp can never
light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame."

5.2.4.5 SHANTHINIKETAN OR VISHWA BHARATI

Tagore's Vishwa Bharati at Shanthiniketan is a living symbol of his


philosophy of life and education In this educational institution he gave practical shape
to his ideas In 1901, Tagore set up a school at Shantiniketan which was two miles
from Bolpur in Bengal. In 1921, it developed into Vishwa Bharati an international
Unviersity. It is an abode of peace where teachers and students live together in a spirit
of perfect comradeship. The motto of this institution is “Where the whole world forms
its one single nest”.

280
Shanthiniketan has open spaces, atmosphere of freedom surrounded by natural
environment. It is open to all irrespective of country, race, religion and politics It is
a self-governing institution Size of the classes is small and so individual attention is
paid to every learner They believe in simple living and high thinking All around there
pervades spiritual and religious atmosphere.

Constituent Units of Vishvabharati

A few names of the constituent units of Vishvabharati are liked below:


1. Sisu Bhavan (Nursery School)
2. Path Bhavan (School Section Matriculation Examination)
3. Siksha Bhavan (Higher Education)
4. Vidya-Bhavan (College of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies and
Research)
5. Vinaya Bhavan (College of Teaching)
6. Kala Bhavan (College of Fine Arts and Dance)
7. Sangit Bhavan (College of Music and Dance)
8. Sri Niketan (Department of Rural Reconstruction)
9. Sika Satra (Rural High School)
10. Silpa Sadan (College of industrial Training)
11. Cheena Bhavan (School of Languages e.g. Chinese Tibetan etc)
12. Hindi Bhavan

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

8. Mention the activities and occupations suggested by Tagore.

9. Enlist the methods of teaching recommended by Tagore.

10. What is the motto of Vishwa Bharathi.

281
5.2.5 EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF SWAMI VIVEKANADA

Narendra Nath Dutt was born at Calcutta jn1 863 He belonged to a kshatriya
family of Calcutt Iis father hri Vishnu Nath Dutt was an advocate in Calcutta High
Court.

Concept of Education. Swami Vivekananda defined Education as “the


manifestation of divine perfection already in man. He believed in to learning or self-
learning. The role of the teacher is only that of a facilitator or a guide only. The teacher
only motivates or encourages the student and thus he helps him in finding out the
hidden treasure of knowledge already present within him. Book learning, rote
learning or filling the mind of the students with lot of information is not education at
all. According to him, “Education is not the amount of information one gets but it is
life building, man making, character forming and assimilation of ideas." He was
against the theoretical type of education.”

5.2.5.1 AIMS OF EDUCATION

According to Swami Vivekananda “The end of all training should be man-


making.” Education should help in bringing about all round development of an
individual Further he rightly says, “Blessed are the men and women whose minds are
centered on the acquisition of knowledge, who possess sweet and amicable tempers,
who cultivate truthfulness and other similar virtues, who are engaged in altruistic work
as prescribed by the Vedas

The different aims of education as advocated by Swami Vivekananda are as under

1. Education for strong Moral Character. Education should develop strong


moral character of the individual. It should not be just filling in the mind of
the learner with all type of so called knowledge only. The whole beauty of life
is linked with it. Purity of thought, work and deeds come out of it.

2. Education for Self-realization. Education should help an individual so that


he/she is to realise about himself. Freedom, liberty and salvation are the hall
marks of life. Education should help in the attainment of the said ideals of life.

3. Education for Self-reliance. Self reliance is the most important thing for
everybody on this earth Self dependent finds ecstasy everywhere and in every
way within his ownself. Education should make a person self-reliant.

4. Education for Promoting Universal Brotherhood Universal brotherhood is


very essential for peace, prosperity and progress of an individual Education
should help in promoting universal brotherhood According to Vivekananda'
Through education, we should gradually reach the idea of universal
brotherhood by flinging down the walls of separation and inequality

282
5. Education for Physical Development. A physically strong person is the need
of the society. Brahamcharya helps in becoming physically strong and stout.
Education should help in the physical development of an individual.

6. Education for Religious Development ‘Humanity and your service to if


should be the religion of all individuals on this earth. That education is
worthwhile develops such feelings in the learners.

5.2.5.2 CURRUCULUM

Vivekananda was in favour of study of Vedanta, Religion, Philosophy and


Theology. Secondly he wanted Science, engineering and technical subjects. Thirdly
he wished that games, sports and physical exercises should be the integral part of the
curriculum. And above all, he wanted that the curriculum should suit the needs and
requirements of the masses.

5.2.5.3 METHODS OF TEACHING

The following methods were recommended by Swami Ji

Self-Study. The teacher should be the facilitator. He should help in creating the
environment which will help the student do self study. The real example of the teacher
with this regard will also do

Meditation and concentration are very near to each other. Every individual
should be trained for concentration. Of course, concentration depends upon
Brahamcharya. Practice of concentrating will help the student learn more and more.

Discussion Method. Swami. Ji advocted discussion method of teaching. The


teacher should involve all the students in the discussion. There should be free and frank
discussion between the teacher and ,the learners on different students in the discussion.
There should be free and frank discussion between the teacher and the learners on
different topics of study. That will serve the purpose of education fully. Thus we find
that Swami Ji was in favour of practical methods that helps the individuals to learn
tilings interestingly and also with their self efforts. There the teacher provided just
guidance to them.

5.2.5.4 ROLE OF THE TEACHER

The teacher is a friend, philosopher and guide to the students He. with his Own
example imbibes in the students all good things. The personal life of the teacher is of
much more importance than the knowledge he possesses. Only a selfless person can be
good teacher. The teacher should be pure at heart and he should be a dedicated one.

283
Swami Ji wanted that the teacher preaches religion and be should impart secular
education to the people. Swami Vivekanada believed in self-teaching He said that
every one was his own teacher. In this regard Swami Ji's words are worth quoting He
says “As is the plant so is the child The growth and development of plant and child
takes place according to their nature.

The role of external teacher lies in helping the pupils so that they may learn
to apply their own intellect to the proper use of their hands, legs, ears and eyes.”

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

11. What is concept of education according to Swami Vivekananda.

12. List out the methods of teaching suggested by Swami Vivekananda.

5.2.6 LET US SUM UP

We have, in this lesson, broadly surveyed the educational ideas of Modern


Indian educational thinkers. We have seen that Tagore, Vivekananda and Gandhiji
not only articulated their views on the aims, curriculum and methods of teaching but
also inspired establishment of institution to translate their ideas into practical action.
If we scan through the ideas of there thinkers we find common ideas on basic issues
of education and life. Their educational ideas, of course, begin with a critique of the
existing educational system and practice. They were concerned with total education
and the full development of man.

5.2.7 UINT END EXERCISES

1. Gandhiji as a Idealist, naturalist, and pragmatist - Substantiate your answer.


2. Write short notes on Basic education.
3. Discuss the educational philosophy of Tagore.

284
4. Explain Vishwabharathi.
5. Bring out the educational philosophy of Swami Vivekananda.

5.2.8 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. Basic education.
2. Self realization.
3. Nai Talim
4. A number of crafts such as agriculture spinning and weaving, wood work,
metal work, gardening, leather work have been suggested.

5. a. Activity Method
b. Learning by Doing
c. Technique of Correlation

6. 1937

7. a. Provision of free and compulsory education for seven years to all children.
b. Mother-tongue as the medium of instruction.
c. Education should involve manual work, productive work or vocational
work through art and craft methods of teaching.
d. Self-reliant/self-supporting aspect/concept must be kept in view.
e. Cult of non-violence.
f. Ideal of citizenship.

8. (i) Dancing (ii) Dramatics (iii) Music (iv) Games and Sports (v)
Drawing and Painting (vi) Agriculture and Gardening (vii) Excursions
(viii) Regional Study (ix) Laboratory Work (x) Social Service and (xi) Self-
Government.

9. a. Teaching while Walking


b. Debate and Discussion Method.
c. Activity Method
d. Heuristic Method.

10. Where the whole world forms its one single nest.

11. Education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already in man

12. a. Self-Study
b. Meditation and concentration

c. Discussion Method

285
5.2.9 SUGGESTED READINGS

Dash, B. N. (2007). Theories of education and Education in the emerging


Indian Society. New Delhi : Dominant Publishers and
Distributors.

Dhiman, O. P. (2007). Foundations of Education. New Delhi : A.P.H.


Publishing Corporation.

Pahuja, N. P. (2003). Theory and Principles of Education. New Delhi :


Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Aggarwal, J. C. (2002). Philosophical and Sociological perspectives on


Education. New Delhi : Shipra Publications.

Bhatia, K. K and Narang C. L. (2004). Philosophical and Sociological


Foundations of Education. Ludhiana :
Parkash Brothers.

286
LESSON 5.3

CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION

STRUCTURE

5.3.1 Introduction

5.3.2 Objectives

5.3.3 Curriculum and education

5.3.4 Flexibility of the curriculum

5.3.5 Curriculum Reconstruction in India

5.3.6 Curriculum and National goals

5.3.7 Principles of curriculum construction

5.3.8 Involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and implementation

5.3.9 Let us sum up

5.3.10 Unit – End Exercises

5.3.11 Answers to check your progress

5.3.12 Suggested Readings

5.3.1 INTRODUCTION

Teaching-learning process does not operate in a vacuum. Certain


planned experiences have to be provided in schools so that optimum human
development suited to the needs of a particular country is possible. In this
lesson, we shall discuss about these planned experiences styled as curriculum in
recent educational terminology.

Etymologically the term “Curriculum” is derived from the Latin


word ‘Currere’ which means ‘run’. Thus curriculum means ‘a course to be run
for reaching a certain goal’. The term curriculum in recent years has come to
mean all the planned activities and experiences which are available to students

287
under the direction of the school. In the words of Kerney and Cook, “It is a
complex of more or less planned or controlled conditions under which students
learn to behave and to behave in their various ways. In it, new behaviour may
be acquired, present behaviour may be modified, maintained or eliminated;
and desirable behaviour may become both persistent and viable”. The
functions of curriculum are pointed towards the realizat ion of the object ives
of educat ion. Curriculum includes b o t h t he c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o -
c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v it i e s . A g o o d curricu lu m, in fact , is t he su m t ot al o f
goo d lear ning exper iences that the students have in order to achieve the
goals of education which determine the direction of these experiences.

5.3.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. state the meaning of curriculum
2. understand the curriculum reconstruction in India
3. analyse the curriculum and national goals
4. enumerate the principles of curriculum construction
5. explain the involvement of teacher in curriculum planning and implementation

5.3.3 CURRICULUM AND EDUCATION

Education has to integrate the two processes. One is the individual process
and the other is the social process. In the former sense, it is identical with
individual growth and the development of latent power in the child. From the
latter point of view, it is identical wit h socializat ion, adjust ment to
environment and imbibing o f culture. Both the processes are integrated.
Curriculum is intimately related to education. While education is a process,
curriculum, in the form of new experience, is a means to the process. While
education is learning, curriculum signifies situations for learning. Educatio n
deals with ‘how’ and ‘when’ but curriculum deals with ‘what’. Education is the
product and curriculum is the plan.

5.3.4 FLEXIBILITY OF THE CURRICULUM

Curriculum is not rigid and static. It is dynamic and flexible and changes
constantly with the changing needs and ideals of society. Curriculum in schools in
Independent India can never remain the same as it used, to be in schools
during the British regime or in Gurukula in ancient India. Similarly
curriculum in elementary and secondary schools in England is not the same
as in India, in the U.S.A., in Russia or in Japan. Since the demands, ideals
and aspirations of these different social groups differ widely, curriculum also
offers a wide contrast.

Then in a big country like India, there is a large number of communities,


living in the hilly area, the plain area, the desert area, the plateau area and
288
coastal area-all having their own peculiar individuality, environment, customs
and needs, it is, therefore, that the same curriculum cannot be forced upon all,
irrespective of their needs and environment. It must differ from locality and
from society to society.

Again, the learning capacity of children, too, differs from individual


to individual. And the activities through which knowledge is expected to be
gained, also differ according to the resources of different schools and the
characteristics of pupils, studying therein. So the curriculum may also vary from
school to school, from and even fro m scho lar to scholar. In fact , according
to modern trends in the educational process, the curriculum “can be
outlined only in a general way, allo wing enough scope for variat io n
wit hin the general frame work”.

5.3.5 CURRICULUM RECONSTRUCTION IN INDIA

The school curriculum is under fire since the times we threw away the
shackles of slavery. From a slave-country we became secular, democratic and
socialistic country. We need a curriculum that would reflect the ethos of our
country and also its pressing needs. We also need a curriculum which could
help the country to supplant the unsuited educational system bequeathed by
the British by one geared to the needs of a developing economy. A balanced
and dynamic curriculum is the need of the hour. A number of attempts were made
to renovate and revamp the curriculum to make it suitable to the growing needs,
aspirations and demands of a modernizing egalitarain society.

The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was


made in 1937 when Gandhiji propounded the idea of Basic Education and
Dr. Zakir Hussain Committee elaborated the scheme of studies of Basic
Education. However, much work in this direction could not be done as India
was under the British rule. After independence the Basic System of education
was accepted as the National system of education at the primary stage. The
entire instructional programme was to centre round a craft. Besides craft,
physical and social environment were also considered to be important factors
in the curriculum. Correlation of various subjects was to be achieved through
craft and social and physical environment.
The following are the main defects of the curriculum according to the Secondary
Education Commission.
(i) the present curriculum is narrowly conceived
(ii) it is bookish and theoretical
(iii) it is overcrowded, without providing rich and significant contents
(iv) it makes inadequate Provision for practical and other kinds of activities
which should reasonably find room in it, if it is to educate the whole of the
personality.
(v) it does not cater to the various needs and capacities of the adolescents
(vi) it is dominated too much by examinations, and

289
(vii) it does not include technical and vocational subjects which are so
necessary training the students to take part in the industrial and economic
development of the country.
The above defects point out that tradit ional curriculum is ‘narrowly
conceived, unpsychologically planned and ineffectively executed;. It leads
only to intellectual development at the cost of physical, social, moral,
emotional, aesthetic and spiritual development. So it is inadequate, unsatisfactory,
uninspiring and unscientific.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. The word “Curere” means

2. What is the meaning of curriculum ?

3. The first major attempt in curriculum reconstruction in India was made .

5.3.6 CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL GOALS

At this juncture, there is need to comprehend the subtle distinction between ideals,
aims, objectives and goals of education to have a clear-cut insight into the national
goals.
1. Educational Ideals : These are broad-based and, they depend on the political,
social, and economic ideologies of a country at a given time of bistery. They
speak of perfect goals, which may or may not be attained. They are visionary
goals e.g., Self Realisation,
2. Educational Aims : They are the foreseen ends Of education. They are
achievable through better organisation of educational process. They speak of
immediate purposes of education. They may be ultimate or proximate, general or
specific, remote or immediate, individual or Social and so on. Every nation
develops its own aims of education at a point of history to suit its requirements and
demands. e.g., Vocational Efficiency, National Integration, etc.
3. Educational Goals : They represent the objects of an educational stage or a
level of education. They reflect the ambitions and aspirations of the nation. eg.,
Goals of Primary Education, Goals of Secondary Education, etc.,
4. Educational Objectives : They denote the narrow conception, of classroom, in
instructional objectives. They form the basis of instruction a nd evaluat ion of
lear ning outcomes, T hey ar e pr edet er mined behavioural changes, which
the instruction is likely to bring about in the students. They are achievable,
specific, tangible, unambiguous and functional. e.g, Knowledge Objective,
Understanding Objective, Application Objective, etc.

290
5.3.7 PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION

Child Centred Education


Curriculum should be child centred. The interests, needs, capacities, abilities,
age and the level of intelligence of children should be kept in full view and close
attention while constructing a suitable curriculum.

Relation with Life


Only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which are directly
relevant to actual living because of its irrelevance to the actual living conditions of
children. The old and prevalent curriculum is under, heavy fire.

Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers


Those subjects should be assigned prominent place in the curriculum which
develop the creative and constructive capacities and abilities of children.
Raymont rightly says, “In a curriculum that is suited to the needs of today and of the
future, there must be a definite bias towards definite creative subjects.”

Interrelation of Play and Work Activities


The learning activities and experiences. should be made so much interesting
while constructing a curriculum that a child gains knowledge and learning from them
in the play way spirit, finding them very interesting and captivating.
According to Crow and Crow, “The aim of those who guide the learning process should
be so, as to plan learning activities that the play attitude is introduced.”

Knowledge of Culture and Civilization


Those subjects, activities and experiences should be included in the
curriculum which convey to the children the knowledge and understanding of their
cultural values and civilization. The curriculum should preserve and develop culture and
civilization.

Totality of Experience
The integrated whole of human experiences should be included in the
curriculum as one unit. The curriculum should include both the literary and
academic subjects as well as the sum total of varied human experiences which a
child receives in the school campus, in the class rooms, on the playing fields, in the
libraries and laboratories and through the various informal contacts with the teachers
and other. educationists.
The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down, “Curriculum does not
mean only the academic subjects, but it includes the totality of experiences.”

Achievement of Wholesome Behaviour Pattern


Curriculum subjects, activities and experiences should inculcate in the children
social and moral qualities which shape courteous behaviour towards others. Crow and
Crow remarks, “The curriculum should be so framed that it may help the children in
the achievement of wholesome behaviour patterns.”

291
Utility
Curriculum should include those subjects, activities and experiences which are
useful to the present as well as the future life of children. Irrelevant and useless
material should find no place in the curriculum. The dead wood in the present
curriculum should be removed and replaced by needful and relevant materials.

Forward Look
Curriculum subjects and materials should be forward looking so that the child
is able to solve the various problems coming before him in the immediate as well
as remote future, and also to find out suitable solutions and achieve harmonious
adjustment with the changing conditions and situations of life in a progressive ways.
This capacity for adjustment should also enable the child to modify the environment
according to his needs

Variety and Flexibility


Different children have different inherent interests, aptitudes, urges, tendencies,
capacities and abilities. Due to these variations and differences, there should be enough
flexibility and elasticity in the curriculum to suit the varieties.
The Secondary Education Commission Report (1952-53) says, “There should be
enough variety and elasticity in the curriculum to allow for individual differences and
adaptation to individual needs and interests.”

Education for Leisure


The problem of utilizing leisure time gainfully is of considerable magnitude in
modern times It is generally noticed that people have no plan to spend this time
effectively. They often waste it or rather kill it. A good curriculum should develop
capacities in the children to spend their leisure, time in a useful manner.

Inclusion of All Life Activities


According to Herbert Spencer, the prime aim of education is to achieve
complete development of individuality. Hence all those activities and subjects should
be included in the curriculum which promote physical, mental, moral, social and
political development of a child in a harmonious manner,

Relationship with Community Life


Full consideration of local needs and situations should be kept in mind while
constructing curriculum All those social beliefs attitudes traditions and problems of
community life should be given due place to make children understand them well
and realize their responsibility towards them.
The Secondary Education Commission Report lays down, “The curriculum should
be vitally and organially related to community life.”

Developing Democratic Spirit


As India has accepted the ideal of a democratic republic, curriculum should
contain and emphasize those activities and experiences which promote democratic
spirit feelings and everyday experiences of all children. This integrated curriculum is
made compulsory for all children.

Improvement of Teachers in curriculum planning and implementation

The teacher has to play a pivotal role in implementing the new


292
curricular. H has to know and understand the content and process of learning,
elaborate and interpret the syllabi and text books, analysis and concretise the
curricular elements, provide relevant learning experiences adopting various
teaching learning strategies in realization of objectives, produce teaching aids
from locally available low cost materials, make effective utilization of various
mass media and evaluate the learning outcomes of students systematically and
continuously.

With a view to ensuring the effectiveness of curriculum reconstruction it


is imperative to develop professional support for inservice training of teachers
and supervisors.

Implementation Strategies

Educational technology support for communication efficacy,


infrastructure for teaching of work experience / SUPW and institutional and
organistational reform for increasing knowledge and skills. According to POA
(1986) the reorientation of content is proposed to be brought about by
simultaneously launching three programmes. The approach to be followed in
the preparation of instructional package is linked with the method of teaching,
learning and evaluation recommended under the national curriculum
framework. Similarly, there is a need to reorient the educational personnel
responsible for management, supervision and for provision of technical and
logistical support.:

The strategies for implementing the national curriculum are linked with
1. reorientation of teachers and other educational personnel,
2. development of professional capability at all levels,
3. phased preparation, production and distribution of textbooks and other
instructional materials.

In order to achieve these objective it would be necessary to decentralize the


technical support system and to standardize the methodology for diffusion of
the programmes with reasonable flexibility. To ensure success of the process, a
good number of curricular / learning materials have to be brought out by the
NCERT and other organizations.

The implementation of the national curriculum in a systematic manner


by the educational authorities would be to a great extent depend on the creation
of a favourable climate both within the education system and at the societal
levels. The present organization structure should be made more efficient
through suitable measures administrative as well as academic. In order to
provide professional guidance at different stages of implementation,
administrative programme need be planned, organized, evaluated and
coordinated “by dedicated groups responsible for providing professional
guidance at different level of implementation”.

293
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question


b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List out any four principles to be considered while framing curriculum?

5.3.9 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson you have learnt the meaning of curriculum, principles of


curriculum construction, curriculum and National goals and involvement of teachers
in curriculum planning. It is clear that curriculum includes the totality of experience
that pupil receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school, in the class
room, library, laboratory, workshop, playground and in the numerous informal
contacts between teachers and pupils. The curriculum of a country like its
constitution reflects the ethos of the nation and its chief concerns and commitments.
It prepares individuals of the country to be useful and productive citizens.

5.3.10 UNIT END EXERCISES

9. What are the defects in curriculum pointed out by secondary education


committee.
10. Explain the principles to be considered while constructing curriculum.
11. Write short notes on curriculum and national goals.
12. Discuss the involvement of teachers in curriculum planning and its
implementation.

5.3.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

16. Run.

17. Curriculum means ‘a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.

18. 1937

19. a. Child Centred Education


b. Relation with Life
c. Utilizing Creative and Constructive Powers
d. Interrelation of Play and Work Activities

294
5.3.12 SUGGESTED READINGS

Murthy, S.K. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana :


Tandon Publication
Srivastava, D.S. and Curriculum and Instruction. New Delhi : Isha Books.
Sarita Kumari, P. (2007).
Lakshmi, S. (2007). Innovations in Education. New Delhi : Sterling
Publishers Private Limited.
Bhalla, N. (2007). Curriculum Development. New Delhi : Authorspress.

295
LESSON 5.4

PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK AND ATTITUDE


AMONG STUDENTS

STRUCTURE

5.4.1 Introduction

5.4.2 Objectives

5.4.3 Importance of science education

5.4.4 Advantages of science education

5.4.5 Schemes for improvement of science

5.4.6 Scientific outlook

5.4.6.1 Developing scientific outlook

5.4.6.2 Role of the teacher in developing scientific outlook

5.4.7 Scientific Attitude

5.4.7.1 Importance of developing scientific attitude

5.4.7.2 Characteristics of persons with scientific attitude

5.4.7.3 Techniques for developing scientific attitude

5.4.7.4 Role of teacher in developing scientific attitude

5.4.8 Let us sum up

5.4.9 Unit – End Exercises

5.4.10 Answers to check your progress

5.4.11 Suggested Readings

296
5.4.1 INTRODUCTION

Ours is an age of science. It is essential for every individual to have a correct


knowledge of this scientific age. Education should be organized in such a way that
each child is inspired to participate actively, in the economic reconstruction of society.
They should understand that development of modem society depends upon the
development of science and technology. They should try to develop themselves
technologically so that technological efficiency and high level competence is developed
in them and they are able to enjoy maximum advantages of science in their daily life.
Though scientific education in India started in the beginning of 20th century, yet real
advancement in this area was achieved .during the second half of this century.
Gradually, newer and newer industries started growing. When India attained
independence in 1947 national leaders thought of industrial growth .side by side with
the growth of agriculture and allied vocations.

5.4.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:

1. know the importance of science education.


2. understand the meaning and developing scientific outlook among student.
3. explain the concept of scientific attitude, importance and techniques of
developing scientific attitude.
4. enumerate the role of teacher in developing scientific outlook and scientific
attitude among students.

5.4.3 IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE EDUCATION

Whether we like it or not, we have to live in a scientific civilization to a few


seriously devoted persons. Living in the present world invariably warrants the
knowledge of scientific facts and law to variable degrees. By process of science we
mean the patterns of thinking, which we sometimes call scientific attitudes. We mean
curiosity, honesty, tolerance for the opinions of others, open-mindedness, willingness
to admit when one is wrong and inclination to make decisions on the basis of
evidence rather than tradition, superstition or emotion.

Science education aims to bring rationality in thinking and power of


judgement among human beings. All our educational endeavor eventually are
concerned with the inculcation of an ability to think logically and develop skills
desirable to make scientific observation and analysis in life among the young learners.

297
So that, they may be able to avoid ragged traditions and use scientific deduction to
solve the various problems of their own life, as well as of the society.

5.4.4 ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE EDUCATION

Following are the advantages of scientific education:


1. Thinking and memory develops.
2. Principles are formulated.
3. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.
4. Love for truth enhances.
5. Confidence regarding unity in diversity increases.
6. Devotion towards nature increases.
7. Avenues open for newer and newer vocations.

5.4.5 SCHEMES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF SCIENCE EDUCATION

NCERT launched various schemes through its extension services for the
improvement of scientific education at all levels and in all fields of human work. Some
of its working schemes are as follows:

1. Schemes of teaching science. Various schemes have been launched to stimulate the
urge for scientific education among school children. Class-room teaching is
augmented with independent investigations and research at all levels of school
and college teaching by providing guidance and equipment for experimental
work.
2. Promotion of science clubs. Establishment of science clubs is promoted to
popularise scientific education among common people. These clubs are
provided with adequate equipment and facilities for experimental and practical
work.
3. Organisation of science fairs, seminars and symposiums. Through newspapers,
teachers of science are encouraged more and more to develop their knowledge
of the subject matter and adopt the most up-to-date devices and techniques of
teaching.
4. Selection for science education. Through examinations, talented and gifted
children in the field of science are selected and encouraged by the award of
scholarships, stipends and appreciations in various ways.
5. Central science workshop. On the advice and under the guidance of talented
and learned members of UNESCO, science council has established a central
science workshop for imparting effective instruction to science teachers in
practical investigations, workshop methods together with techniques of work
and instruction.
6. After such experience and training, teachers as well as students are
encouraged to prepare designs, models and scientific instruments for
laboratories. The central workshop also tries to improve models and designs
prepared by Indian schools besides modifying foreign equipments to suit Indian

298
needs and conditions.
7. Training of science teachers. For laboratory and workshop techniques, a part time
curriculum for teacher training has been organized at various important places in
the country to prepare
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Write any two advantages of Science Education.

5.4.6 SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK

Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as


spirit of inquiry creativity, objectivity, the courage to question and aesthetic
sensibility. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire problem solving
and discovering skills.

Scientific outlook should enable an individual to question on the existing


beliefs, prejudices and practices and act as a liberating force.

• Scientific outlook helps the learner to search for truth and harmony in
different aspects of life.
• Scient ific out look imp lies a rat ional out look. It helps to reduce
obscurantism and prejudices based on narrow considerations of caste, sex or
religion.

5.4.6.1 DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK

Children are curious by nature. They ask many questions about the objects they
see. They encounter many social events as they grow. They experience natural
phenomenon. They ask questions to understand all these events and
phenomenon. At the root of this lies an enquiring mind. It is, therefore,
essential that teachers, should provide opportunities to. each child to “enquiry
skill building”, which is essential for developing scientific outlook. Enquiry
teaching is, based on the assumption that all knowledge is tentative. In the inquiry
approach, learners are presented with problem or puzzling situations. After
presenting the problem, the pupils are encouraged to ask questions. Practice
develops inquiry skills in the pupils. The pupils can be allowed to consult each
other. The pupils can be allowed to work with an experiment kit or resource

299
books, if they like. The teacher helps them in selecting relevant information by
providing cues. Inquiry training is closely related to scientific outlook. Scientific
outlook is not confined to the natural sciences. Social sciences, offer numerous
possibilities for developing scientific outlook.
5.4.6.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC
OUTLOOK

1. Appreciating pupils ideas.


2. Giving less directions, commands or orders.
3. Asking more questions while guiding the content-oriented part of classroom
discussions.
4. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.
5. Adopting creative models of teaching.
6. Providing adequate opportunities to pupils to observe, to ask questions and
experience things.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

2. What do you mean by Scientific Outlook?

3. Write any two role of teacher in developing scientific outlook.

5.4.7 SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE

A scientific attitude is many things in many situation. It requires consistent


thinking, stern pursuit of accurate data, stubborn determination of analyze one’s own
system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Evidence, test, proof are the pillars
of stern court of “evidential confrontation”. - Herma Wouk.

300
Jawaharlal Nehru defines “It is Science alone that can solve the problems of
hungry and poverty and illiteracy of superstition and deadening customs and
traditions, of vast resources running waste, of a rich country inhabited by the starving
people”.

In the world of science everything has to be proved in a scientific way. In


order to enrich the science education various factors plays a prominent role. The
teaching of science has discipline popularly known as scientific attitude, to develop
among the learners. These include open mindedness, keen observation, critical
thinking and suspended judgments. Such attitude goes a long way in fostering the
growth of influencing the drawing ability of the students.

Scientific attitude is one of the key objectives of science teaching. Scientific


attitude makes the people live as efficient citizens in the present scientific society. It
also helps the pupil live up to their expectations and satisfactions. The scientific
attitude is no one that simply comes with maturity; it must be encouraged, practiced,
and emphasized during the learning process - (Smith 2008).

The formation of scientific attitudes which is a processes that starts right from
the very beginning in the immediate environment provide by the parents, friends,
neighbourhood, school and society at large. Attitude is a “condition of readiness for a
certain type of activity”. (Vaidya 2007).

5.4.7.1 IMPORTANCE OF DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE

The development of scientific attitude of mind is one of the objective of


science. It is very significant outcome of the process of science education. The
development of the scientific attitude is possible only through conscious attempts to
make it happen. To achieve this we should understand what it means. Scientific
attitude of mind is essential to enable them to adjust themselves and line as efficient
citizen in a scientific society.

A scientific attitude can be developed only personal experience and keen


observation in the process of science learning. The teacher will have to provide
situations in the classroom of field environment where the students can experience,
see and feel the need of developing this attitude. For instance, open mindedness of the
learners is necessary in scientific pursuits. They should respect others opinion but at
the same time believe only in verifies facts. They should learn to observe and think
critically and accurately. Accuracy and precision are essential in scientific
experimentation. The purpose of scientific pursuit is to find the truth. There is no
place for bias or prejudice if truth is to be revealed. The students observation,
therefore should be unbiased and objective. These characteristics of any scientific

301
pursuit should become a habit in the students learning science so that these are
developed as a metal attitude in them. (Das, 2007).

The National Science Teachers Association of USA says that as a result of


science education, the learners should be in the “process of developing a personal
philosophy based on truth, understand and logic rather than one based on
superstitions, intuition or wishful thinking”. Ours is a multilingual and multicultural
country. Scientific society is to be developed in order to help future citizens to adjust
themselves and live without succumbing to dangers of differing opinions or loyalties
to different groups. Teaching of science should enable students to develop a personal
philosophy of life based on truth, understanding and logic. Our future citizens should
not possess scientific literacy but they should also possess scientific attitudes. Science
teachers are becoming aware that if scientific attitudes are to develop from the study
of science, they must be taught for directly and systematically in the same manner as
me try to develop a mastery of the principles of sciences.

5.4.7.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WITH SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE

An individual who has learned the scientific attitude and makes use of it does
not jump to conclusions. He is patient and reserved in his judgement. In considering a
situation or a problem, he studies all aspects of it, looking at every side of it before
approaching the study with a minimum of prejudice or bias.

The person who possess the scientific attitude has no time for old wives tales,
rumor, or superstitions. He is person of caution who observes carefully before coming
to conclusions. He is ready and ready to change his mind when he observes new
evidence that he can accept as valid. Individual without a proper attitude toward the
application of knowledge or the acquisition of new knowledge gain little value from
their education. Those with the scientific attitude have a means of applying their
knowledge and a thirst for new knowledge.

Scientific attitude if ever it is developed in the mind of the child “he will live,
think and work it”, Kohli (2007) says that a person who possess scientific attitude is
reflected as:

• Curiosity to know about one’s environment


• Open mindedness towards work and opinions of others and information
related to his problem.
• Evaluates techniques and procedures used and information obtained.
• An unwillingness to accept a facts any statements that are not supported by
convincing proof.
• The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.
• The intention to respect another’s point of view.

302
• The willingness to change an opinion or a conclusion if later evidence shows
that it is wrong.
• An intention not to experiment or to work blindly and carelessly, but to begin
only after careful planning.

5.4.7.3 TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE

One of the major aims of teaching life science is the development of scientific
attitude in the pupil. Problem solving in all of its elements is closely associated with a
group of attitude or mind sets which are important as outcomes of instruction in
science. A person of caution who observes carefully before coming to conclusion. He
is ready and willing to change his mind when he observes new evidence that he can
accept as valid.

By developing scientific attitude in a person certain mind – sets are created in


a particular direction. Such mind – sets may be developed either by direct teaching in
schools or by out of schools experiences gained by the pupil through out of school
experience.

Tyler (1998) made some suggestions for planning learning experiences in order to
inculcate scientific attitude in the pupil. They are summarized below:-

• The increase in the degree of consistency of the environment helps in


developing and inculcating scientific attitude in the pupil,
• The scientific attitude can be inculcated in the pupil by providing him
opportunities for making satisfaction adjustments to attitude situations.
• The scientific attitude can be developed in the pupil by providing him
opportunity for the analysis of problem or situation so that the pupil may
understand and the rest intellectually in desired attitude.
• Science should be taught through the procedure of inquiry. The students will
learn that science is not memory or magic but rather a disciplined form of
human curiosity.

5.4.7.4 ROLE OF TEACHER IN DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE

The major role can be played by the science teacher in developing scientific
attitudes among his students and this he can do by manipulating various situations that
infuse among the pupils certain characteristics of scientific attitude.

Teacher can use one or more of the ways for developing scientific attitude
among the pupils.

• Making use of planned exercise


• Wide reading

303
• Proper example of the teacher
• Study of superstitions
• Planning of activities
• Preparing the students for activities
• Suggest project which give the pupils experience in problem solving
• Preserve democratic procedures in the classroom
• The maximum use of all the immediate resources like laboratory, manuals and
reading materials available in school

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. List any two characteristics of person with Scientific Attitude.

5. Mention any four role of teacher in promoting Scientific Attitude.

5.4.8 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson you have learnt the importance of science education, and
fostering of scientific attitude and scientific outlook. Scientific attitude is one of the
key objectives of science teaching. Scientific attitude makes the pupil live as efficient
citizens in the present scientific society. The scientific attitude is no one that simply
comes with maturity, it must be encourages, practiced and emphasized during the
learning process. The teachers will have to provide situations in the classroom where
the students can experience, see and feel the need of developing scientific attitude and
outlook.

304
5.4.9 UNIT END EXERCISES

13. Discuss the importance of science education


14. What is the role of teaching in promoting scientific attitude among students
15. Explain the characteristics of persons with scientific attitude.
16. Briefly discuss the role of teacher in fostering scientific outlook among
students.

5.4.10 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. a. Self-confidence and self-reliance develop.


b. Love for truth enhances.

2. Scientific outlook means acquiring and developing abilities such as


spirit of inquiry creativity, objectivity, the courage to question and
aesthetic sensibility. It also includes enabling the learners to acquire
problem solving and discovering skills.
3. a. Integrating pupils' ideas into classroom discussions.
b. Adopting creative models of teaching.

4. a. The determination not to believe in superstition of any sort.


b. The intention to respect another’s point of view.

5. a. Wide reading
b. Proper example of the teacher
c. Study of superstitions
d. Planning of activities

5.4.11 SUGGESTED READINGS

Wadhwa, S. (2008). A text book on modern methods of teaching physics, New


Delhi : Karon Paper Backs.
Vaidya, N. (2006). A text book on Science Teaching in Schools, New Delhi : Deep
and Deep Publications.
Rao, D.B (2008). Reflections on Scientific attitude, New Delhi : Discovery
Publishing House.
Yadav, M.S. (2000). A text book on modern methods of Science teaching in
Secondary Schools, New Delhi : Anmol Publications.

305
LESSON 5.5

INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING

STRUCTURE

5.5.1 Introduction

5.5.2 Objectives

5.5.3 Concept of Institutional Educational Planning

5.5.4 Objectives of Institutional Planning

5.5.5 Characteristics of Institutional Planning

5.5.6 Areas of Institutional Planning

5.5.7 The Human relationships in Educational Institution

5.5.8 Modern management techniques in educational institutions

5.5.9 Let us sum up

5.5.10 Unit – End Exercises

5.5.11 Answers to check your progress

5.5.12 Suggested Readings

5.5.1 INTRODUCTION

There is a vast change in the conceptualization of educational planning


presently. New trend in the planning process of education involves progressive
measures of decentralization of educational planning administration and on the
methodological side preparing plan from the institutional levels and involving the
concerned population. actively.

5.5.2 OBJECTIVES

After going through this lesson, you will be able to:


1. state the concept, objectives and characteristics, areas of institutional planning.
2. understand the human relationships in educational institutions.

306
3. discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.

5.5.3 CONCEPT OF INSTITUTIONAL EDUCATIONAL PLANNING

There is need today to make each institution a unit of educational


planning. It is essential to involve every educational and institutional administrator,
every teacher, every parent, and every student in the process of educational
planning, because democratic educational planning administration presupposes
popular participation just as any other process of democracy, executive as well as
public.

It is high t ime t hat in each edu cat io nal inst it ut io n, each teacher,
and each student are regarded as separate entities. Institution should be regarded
as the unit, and educational development programmes should be prepared and
implemented in a planned and phased manner. By recognizing each institution as a
separate entity it is quite easy to develop district and State educational plans.
Each institution on its part should consider each teacher and each student as
individual entities and plan its' developmental programmes accordingly. In such a
scheme of things the individuality of the institutions, teachers and students is not
lost sight of.

It is essential to involve individuals in the educational planning process


through their organisations like the professional organisations of teachers and
school or educational administrators, students organisations and parents
associations It should be the responsibility of the colleges of education,
schools and professional organizations to form planning forums and undertake
improvement programmes at their own level. Teachers should be trained to
assume leadership in the matter of educational planning by preparing effective
plans for their institutions, which become the bases for further planning at the district,
State and national levels from below, and supplement planning from above.

5.5.4 OBJECTIVES OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING

The objectives of institutional educational planning are as enumerat ed below


• to introduce decentralization of educational planning;
• to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level
planning;
• to make planning development-oriented;
• to involve teachers and school administrators, in the task of educational
planning; and, to attempt at the institutional development through adequate
perspective planning of each of the educational institution.
• To make institutional planning more successful, the following prerequisites
are to be satisfied
• institutions should have adequate academic freedom
• inspection should be based on the institutional plans involved and

307
implemented; heads of the institutions and senior teachers should be oriented
as to the techniques of instructional planning; and
• minimum financial aid should be provided by the State Five-Year Plans

5.5.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING

The institutional planning has the following characteristics


 it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State
 it is prepared by the heads of institutions and the teachers, it is prepared as the
annual and five-years plans;
 it becomes the basis for school inspection; and
 it aims at the optimum utilization of the available resources slowly by
undertaking minimum possible school improvement programmes.

5.5.6 AREAS OF INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING

Institutional planning can be conceive& as, having the following areas of


operation

• Instruction;
• Classwork;
• Syllabus;
• Examinations;
• Co-curricular activities; and
• Personnel services.

Administrative Pattern

Every school should have a Planning Council to be headed by the Head of the
Institution and all teachers should be its members. There should be some Standing
Committees for (1) Academic Affairs, (2) Co- curricular Activities, (3) Teaching-
Learning Aids, and (4) Discipline and Welfare Services, etc. The Committees should be
headed by the senior teachers, who are usually in charge of those programmes in
routine work.

Preparation of an Institutional Plan

The Planning Council of the School should meet a week before the commencement of
the academic year to prepare the annual plan. The Standing Committees will work out
the details in their sessions, which will be discussed in the general, council and,
approved after making necessary modifications. The annual plan should be submitted to
the District Educational Officer to become the basis for the district plan as well as the basis
for inspect ion.

308
THE DETAILS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING

S.No. Subject Items to be involved in Institutional Plans


1. Curricular Improving methods of teaching;
Fair distribution of syllabi;
Preparation of instructional material;
Improving the subject competence of teachers;
Improving the internal assessment;
Undertaking remedial instruction services;
Holding special classes to the educationally retarded
children; etc.
2 Co-curricular Organisation of cultural and literary activities;
Editing the school magazine;
Conducting of educational, scientific and historical
excursions;
Celebrating of national and international festivals;
Organising play-for-all programmes;
Running science clubs, hobby-centres, etc.
3 Instructional Preparation of audio-visual aids;
Aids Preparation of models, charts and apparatus, etc.
Equipping of laboratory and library;
Organisation of class-room libraries; etc.
4 Discipline and Organisation of Students’ Association;
Welfare. Organisation of Pupils; Courts;
Organisation of Self-Government Days;
Organisation of Parent-Teacher Meetings, etc.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

1. Write any two objectives of Institutional Planning.

2. List any two characteristics of Institutional Planning.

3. What are the areas of Institutional Planning?

309
5.5.7 THE HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

The school system is a system, involving mainly human materials. A number of


human relationships exist within the school systems and also with other facets of
social system.

If the problems relating to human relationships with the school system can
properly be tackled and solved, the same will have its concomitant effect on
the larger society and on the world at large also. Hence Pounds and Garretson
observe: “This single most important end of all our educational efforts may well
be that of preventing some kind of world catastrophe.”

The human relationships in, the school system are of great significance and
consequence for the ultimate success of the whole educative process rests on the
cordiality and congeniality of the human element in the school. Amicable and
adjustive human relationships in a school system and in the societal system
would go a long way to establish international peace, understanding, co-operation,
and solidarity.

The complexity of school organisation in modern times and the many formal
and informal relationships that exist between the school system and the
societal system lead to creation of sub-systems within the sub-system such as
teachers associations, headmasters associations, science teachers’ associations,
students’ associations, parent-teacher associations, etc.

Interpersonal Relationships

There are numerous interpersonal relationships in the social system of the


school involving the many human factors which is concerned like administrators,
teachers, pupils, parents, educationists and nonofficial educational functionaries. The
art of maintaining good interpersonal relationships is pre-requisite for the school
system for attaining its goals and for its effective functioning.

The interpersonal relationships in the school may be conveniently considered


as the Formal and as the Informal. The formal interpersonal relationships can again
be considered as the In-Group Relationships and as the Out-Group Relationships.

The Formal interpersonal Relationships

The formal interpersonal relationships, which are divided as the in- group and
out-group relationships are as given below
i. The In Group Interpersonal Relationships administrator-teacher;
administrator-pupil; teacher-teacher; teacher-pupil; and —pupil-pupil.
ii. The Out-Group Interpersonal Relationships. Administrator-State;
administrator-administrator; administrator-supervisor; administrator-non-
official functionaries administrator-managing body; teacher-State; teacher-
inspector; teacher-managing body; teacher-nonofficial functionaries; pupil-
310
State; pupil-inspector; pupil-non-official functionaries; and pupil-
administrator.

The Informal Interpersonal Relationships

The informal interpersonal relationships of the school systems and societal system are
Administrator-community leader: administrator-parent; teacher-community leader;
teacher-parent; pupil-community leader; pupil-parent.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

4. The formal interpersonal relationships can be divided into


&

5.5.8 MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATIONAL


INSTITUTIONS

Administration, organisation and management, now-a-days, have become


complicated and complex phenomena due to the impact of behavioural sciences,
social sciences and other disciplines. As in the case with Public Administration so
is the case with Educational Administration. It is also being modernized to become a
technique. To administer means to manage, to carry out, to accomplish, to
attend, and to serve. According to C. V. Good, Educational administration includes
all the techniques and procedures employed in operating the educational organisation
in accordance with established policies."

Meaning of Educational Management

According to Campbell and Ramseyer, educational administration is


“facilitating the development of goals and policies basic to teaching and learning, and
procuring and managing personnel and material to implement teaching and
learning”. Hence educational administration is a broader concept embracing
management, organisation, control, supervision, superintendence, etc. It is related
to the executive activity and all its processes.

Management may be taken as a narrow concept. It covers personnel and


material management, supervision and superintendence. It covers all the
managerial activity relating to the day-to-day functioning of the educational
institutions. School organisation may be taken still as a narrower concept. It
relates to administration of a single educational institution.

311
Modern Management Techniques
At this juncture, it is essential to know about the modern management
techniques
1. Decision Making - This is an important aspect of modern management
techniques. Those, who occupy the managerial positions, should be quite apt
and adept in the task of decision-making.
2. Leadership - The manager should have leadership traits. He should be able
to command the employees that are placed under his control and make
them carry but the decisions that have been taken. He must be capable of
impressing them with his approach and actions.
3. Motiviation - He should be able to motivate his subordinates in a suitable
manner. He must wisely make use incentive motivation in the interest of
efficient work.
4. Communication - The manager should be capable of having better
communication with his employees. He should be able to provide his
instructions through proper communication channels.
5. Better Human Relationships - The modern manager should be very good
in inter-personal relationships. He should be an artist in human
relationships. He should have cordial and courteous approach either with
the subordinates or superior.
6. Socio-Scientific Approach - Of all the approaches, the socio scientific
approach is considered to be the best in the management techniques.
7. Rapport between the Management and Employees - There is need to
establish full rapport between the management and the employees, without
this the efficacy will be handicapped.
8. Coordination between the Administrative Wings and the Technical
Accounts - This coordination should be ensured to have better results
from the managerial endeavours.
9. Worker Participation - Any good management allows its workers to
actively participate in the administration of affairs. This is the latest
democratic trend in management.
10. Cost-Benefit Analysis - Any management is also concerned with the
cost-benefit analysis. If the cost benefit ratio is less, the worth whileness of
the enterprise is well established. If it is more, it is not worth-while.
11. Democratic Management - The manager should take his subordinates
into confidence. The relationship should change from master- sla ve t o t hat
o f a demo cr at ic- lead er fo llo wer r elat io nship . T he d ecis io ns
should be taken in the group meetings and should appear as though they
are evolved by themselves and not as imposed from the above. The
status of leader enhances in proportion to the extent he appears to bow,
low.
12. Liasion with the Public - Any good management will always have good
public relations. It stimulates and maintains public interest in the
enterprise.
13. Economic Management - Management should be efficient and economical

312
too. Wastage and duplication should be avoided. Things should be done
as quickly as possible and quite successfully too.
14. Collaborative Thinking and Cooperative Performance - These two
are, indications of a good management The managers should seek
collaboration of their subordinates in planning, and cooperative performance
should be ensured.

It is quite obvious that all the modern management techniques are not adopted in
educational management. Our educational management still follows the old
bureaucratic process and procedures with the result that many of the educational
goals visualized are remaining unattained. Hence there is need to apply these
modern management techniques to the educational institutions without further delay.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Notes : a. Give your answer as instructed in each question

b. Compare your answer with those at the end of the unit

5. Mention any four Modern Management techniques in educational institutions.

5.5.9 LET US SUM UP

In this lesson you have learnt the concept, objective, characteristics and areas
of institutional planning, the human relationships in educational institutions and
modern management techniques in educational institutions. The institutional plans
can enable every educational institution to do a great deal more through better
planning and harder work, to improve the quality of education it provides. The
emphasis in this movement should be not so much on physical resources as on human
resources for improvement of education. There are large number of programmes
which an educational institution can undertake on the basis of human effort for e.g.
improvement of teaching methods, enrichment of curricula, reduction of wastage and
stagnation etc.

5.5.10 UNIT END EXERCISES

17. Enumerate the objectives and characteristics of Institutional Planning.


18. Explain the interpersonal relationships in educational institution.
19. Discuss the modern management techniques in educational institutions.

313
5.5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. a. to introduce decentralization of educational planning;


b. to bring an accord between the institutional development and high level
planning;

2. a. it becomes the basis for school inspection;


b. it is an implicit aspect of educational planning of the district and the State

3. a. Instruction;
b. Classwork;
c. Syllabus;
d. Examinations;
e. Co-curricular activities; and
f. Personnel services.

4. In group and Out group

5. a. Decision Making
b. Leadership
c. Motiviation
d. Communication

5.5.12 SUGGESTED READINGS

Murthy, S.K. (2001). Teacher and Education in Indian Society. Ludhiana :


Tando Publication
Tarachand and Advanced Educational Administration. New Delhi :
Prakash, R. (2003). Kanishka Publishers.
Singh, H.M. (1995). Fundamental of Educational Management. New Delhi :
Vikas Publishing House.
NUEPA. Educational Administration. APH Publishing
Corporation.

314
CORE PAPER - I,
CHALLENGES IN INDIAN EDUCATION
Objectives :
On successful completion of the course the student - teachers should have :
1. Understood the history of Indian education indifferent periods of time.
2. Learnt the role of teachers and various systems in education
3. Realized the problems of school education, higher education, women
education and teacher education in India.
4. Gained the knowledge of school health programmes, nutritional requirement,
population education, physical education and environmental education
5. Appreciated the divergent philosophies behind education and their differential
implications.
UNIT I : History of Indian Education
1.1 Gurukula system of education, Buddhist and Jain system of education,
Education by Christian Missionaries
1.2 The progress of education in Free India with special emphasis on
vocationalisation community and Social Service - Socially Useful Productive
Work (SUPW)
1.3 Directive Principles - Article 45 - Responsibilities of State and Central
Governments on Education.
1.4 India's Secular Policy - Religious and Modern Education
1.5 Regional Educational Development in India - Imbalances and Variations in
different environment.
UNIT II : Role of Teachers and System of Education
2.1 Inculcation of Socialism, Secularism and Democracy through Indian education
2.2 Teacher's role towards : a) Pupil's development , (b) Community development
(c) National Integration and reconstruction (d) International understanding and
(e) Elimination of social tensions and conflicts
2.3 Educational Influences of Home, School, Community and Mass Media
2.4 Formal and Non-formal systems of education
2.5 Continuing Education and the concepts of Open University
UNIT III : Current problems in Indian Education
3.1 Primary Education : Education for all, wastage and Stagnation
3.2 Secondary Education : Co-education, Examination reforms, New evaluation
procedures, Inspection and Supervision
3.3 Higher Secondary Education : Curricular needs and Vocational needs of Rural
India, social Impact
3.4 women's Education : Status of Women in Higher Education
3.5 Teacher Education : Training teachers for all levels of education - Pre-service
and In-services facilities, Code of conduct for teachers.
UNIT IV : Health and Nutrition Education
4.1 School Health Programme, Common ailments of Children, Communicable
diseases - Preventive measures, First Aid, Sex-education
4.2 Nutritional deficiencies, Preservation of nutrients, Balanced diet, Healthy
Food Habit
4.3 Population Education : (a) Impact of population growth on Social, Economic

315
and Educational development: (b) Family welfare policies of Government -
Small family norms; and (c) Correlating school subjects with population
problems
4.4 Physical education : Importance of physical education and role of teachers
4.5 Environmental Education : Types of environment, Teacher's role
UNIT V : Philosophical Foundation of Education

5.1 Idealism, Realism, Naturalism and Pragmatism - Aim, curriculum and


teacher's role
5.2 Educational philosophies of Swami Vivekananda, Mahatma Gandhi, Tagore
5.3 Curriculum Construction: Principles - flexibility and sensitivity to the need
and and differences of pupils; Curriculum and national goals - improvement of
teachers in curriculum planning and implementation
5.4 Promotion of Scientific outlook and attitude among students
5.5 Institutional planning : Human relationships and application of modern
management techniques in educational institutions.
REFERENCE
1. Taneja V.R. (1998) Educational Thoughts and Practice, Delhi : University
Publications
2. Anand (1993) The Teachers Education in Emerging Indian Society, New
Delhi: NCERT
3. Saraswathi T.S. (1999) Culture, Socialization, and Human Development, New
Delhi: Sge Publications
4. Sharma, R.N. and Sharma R.K. (2004) Problems of Education in India. New
Delhi: Atlantic Publishers.
5. Mishra, B.K. and Mohanty R.K. (2003) Trends and Issues in Indian
Education, Meerut : Surya Publication
6. Ghanta R. and Dash B.N. (2005) Foundations of Education, hyderabad :
Neelkamal Publications.
7. Prof. Ramesh chandra (2007) New Delhi : Kalpaz Publication
8. Pandy V.C.(2007) Future Challengers of learning : Isha Books : New Delhi
9. Ram S. (2008) Current issue in teacher Education, Kalan Paper Packs
10. Hemchand, T.K. (2008) Problems of Teacher Education, New Delhi : Crescent
Publisher Corporation
11. Singaravelu G (2010) Emerging Indian Society, Hydrabad : Neelkamal
Publications.

316