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Chapter 6 – In Sunny Spain

Rizal decided to complete his studies in Spain after his 4th year of the medical course in UST.

• Rizal’s Secret Mission - To observe the European nations for the ff:
a. The life and culture
b. Languages and customs
c. Industries and commerce
d. Governments and laws
• Secret Departure for Spain
 Those who knew of Rizal’s departure were the ff:
a. Paciano (brother)
b. Uncle Antonio Rivera
c. Neneng and Lucia (sisters)
d. The Valenzuela Family (Capitan Juan, Capitana Sanday, Orang)
e. Pedro Paterno
f. Mateo Evangelista (compare)
g. Ateneo Jesuits – gave letters of recommendation to members of society in
h. Jose M. Cecilio/Chengoy (friend)
 Rizal used the name Jose Mercado.
 Before leaving, he left a letter for his parents and hi sweetheart Leonor Rivera.
 May 3, 1882 – Rizal departed for SINGAPORE on board the steamer SALVADORA
• Singapore
 Donato Lecha – Ship captain from Asturias, Spain befriended Rizal
 May 9, 1882 – arrival at Singapore
 Hotel de Paz – hotel where Rizal stayed while in Singapore for 2 days
• From Singapore to Colombo
DJEMNAH – French steamer that Rizal rode after leaving Singapore; It sailed through Colombo,
capital of Ceylon(Now Sri Lanka) which impressed Rizal due to it’s scenic beauty and elegant
• First trip through Suez Canal
 The Djemnah continued to sail across the Indian Ocean Cape of Guardafui, Africa
stopover at Aden City City of Suez, Red Sea terminal of Suez Canal Port Said,
Mediterranean terminal of Suez Canal
 The trip took 5 days
• Naples and Marseilles.
 The Djemnah passed the Italian City Naples and finally docked at Merseilles.
 From Merseilles, Rizal left for Barcelona and arrived on June 16, 1882.
 He enjoyed walking along Las Ramblas, the most famous street in Barcelona.
 Rizal met some Filipinos, some who were classmates in Ateneo. They gave Rizal a
welcome party.
• “Amor Patrio”(Love of Country)
 Nationalistic essay by Rizal, written in Barcelona under pen name Laong Laan. It was
sent to his friend Basilio Teodoro Moran, publisher of Dairiong Tagalog, 1st Manila biligual
newspaper and published on Augugst 20, 1882.
 In the essay, Rizal urged his compatriots to love their fatherland.
 Other articles for Diariong Tagalog:
a. Los Viajes(Travels)
b. Revisita de Madrid – returned to him due to end of publication of the
• Manila moves to Madrid
 Rizal received news from Paciano’s letter about the cholera epidemic in Manila and other
 Chengoy wrote a letter to Rizal about the unhappiness of Leonor Rivera.
 Paciano, in one of his letters, advised Rizal to continue his studies in Madrid.
• Life in Madrid
 Rizal enrolled at Universidad Central de Madrid in 2 courses: Medicine and Philosophy and
 He studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts of san Fernando, studies French, German
and English, and practiced fencing and shooting.
 Spartan Life in Madrid: Rizal lived frugally.
 On Saturday evenings, he visited Don Pablo Ortiga y Rey who lived with son(Rafael), and
 Don Pablo Ortiga has been a city mayor in Manila and was promoted to vice-president of the
Council of the Philippines in the Ministry of Colonies.
• Romance with Consuelo Ortiga y Perez
 Rizal was attracted to consuelo’s beauty and vivacity. However before their
relationship became a serious affair,their romance since:
 He was still engaged to Leonor
 His friend is in love with Consuelo
• “They Ask Me For Verses”
 Circulo Hispano-Filipino - a society of Spaniards and Filipinos in which Rizal joined
shortly after arriving in Madrid.
 He wrote the poem “Me Piden Versos” (They Ask Me For Verses) upon request of the
• Rizal as Lover of Books
 Uncle Tom’s Cabin and The Wandering Jew were two books that around his sympathy for
oppressed and unfortunate people.
• Rizal’s First Visit to Paris (1883)
• Rizal as a Mason
 He joined the Masonic lodge in Acacia in Madrid.
 His reasons for joining was to secure Freemasonry’s aid in his fight against the friars in the
 He became a Master Mason but was not very active in the activities.
 “Sciene, Virtue and Labor” – only Masonic writing contribution
• Financial Worries
 Due to hard times in Calamba, Rizal’s monthly allowances were late in arrival.
 Paciano had to sell Rizal’s pony to send money to Madrid.

• Rizal’s Salute to Luna and Hidalgo

 He attended and gave a speech in a banquet sponsored by Filipino community to

celebrate the victory of Luna’s Spolarium as 1st prize and Hidalgo’s Christian Virgins
exposed to the Populace as 2nd prize in the National Exposition of the Fine Arts in Madrid.

• Rizal involved in Student Demonstrations

 Dr. Miguel Morayta, history professor, who proclaimed “the freedom of science and
the teacher” in an opening ceremony was condemned and excommunicated by Spanish
bishops along with the audience who applauded him. This triggered the bloody riots by the
students of Central University. The rector of the university supported the students; thus, he
was replaced by Dr. Creus, who was disliked by everyone. More student demonstrations

• Studies Completed in Spain.

 Rizal was awarded the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and Licentiate in Philosophy
and Letters by the Universidad Central de Madrid on June 21, 1884.

 He became a full-fledged physician and was qualified to be a professor in Humanities

in any Spanish University.
 He did not pursue the degree of Doctor in Medicine because it was only good for
teaching purposes.

 He believed that the Spanish friars in the Philippines would not grant him a position
in a university due to his brown color and ancestry.