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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Evolving

consumer

preferences

whose

awareness

levels

of

trends,

fashion

consciousness, disposable income and consumerism is at all time high.

This much

consumer awareness wants different merchandise at even shorter intervals complimented

with greater shopping experiences, which is inducing product lifecycles to shrink

dramatically, driving the needs of even more new products.

So the goal is not only to deliver the product at low cost but most importantly in shorter

time which we can be achieved by ensuring proper coordination among different

activities. In today scenario where ―lean is the buzz word making the delivery quick and

on time is the main objective of any retailer and manufacturer. Reducing the delay

elements which are normally non value added elements and making the entire supply

chain more efficient and agile. Hence entire pre production, production and post

production activities need to be managed properly. This also leads to getting more order,

more profit and good name in this competitive scenario.

Pre – Production delays are the extension of the days beyond standard and planned

schedule for the activities starting from order enquiry to all approvals required for bulk

production. These delays increases the lead-time even more than the standard one and

hence

to

survive

manufacturers.

in

the

global

competitiveness

is

much

more

difficult

for

the

1.2Objectives:

Primary Objectives:

1. To find out the reasons for delays at pre-production stage.

2. Understanding the work culture of different departments, occurrence of delays and their magnitude.

3. Providing probable solutions to the delays

4. To understand cost implication of delays

Secondary Objectives:

1. Understanding the concept & dynamics of delay in Pre-production.

2. To understand the various aspects in Apparel manufacturing which cause delays in pre-production activities.

1.3 Need for the study:

1. It is observed that the said company is not fully exploiting its resources as a

vertically integrated company to reduce the lead time to get a competitive advantage.

2. Shrinkage in product life cycles demanding shorter lead times.

3. Garment preproduction activities taking 60-70% of total lead-time.

4. pre-production process networks are unique for every single enterprise, every single buyer, even sometimes for every single order. In the absence of a standardized process network, preproduction activities are highly prone to delays in the process.

1.4 Scope of Study:

1. Orders,

executed

in

the

period

study in the company (IGL).

of

Apr’10-Jul’10,

were

selected

for

2. Helps us to get a view of process flow of product at pre-production.

3. Establish framework of set of activities required for excluding the delay element.

4. Beneficial for company to execute order with smaller runs and frequent varying

style.

5. Make company proactive in approach to foresee kind of delivery schedule and an

get insight of delays

1.5. Limitations:

1. Many times it was very difficult to conduct in depth interviews since the department

in-charges /merchandisers did not have much time to devote.

2. Raw data collected was for three months available at Imperial Garments Unit so all

suggestions and recommendations are applicable only to the said company.

3. Any recommendations regarding material procurement is not possible since all

operations are not under IGL control. These are followed up by central purchasing unit of

GTN Industries.

4. It was very difficult to get sufficient data regarding activities of knitting unit, Yarn

processing unit & Fabric processing units since they are located at greater distances from

Each other.

1.6 Expected Benefits to Sponsors:

1. Effective planning of resources.

2. Increase in the unit value realization of the company.

3. Reduce lead-time and delays in shipment.

4. Beneficial to the companies trying to execute orders with smaller runs with frequently varying styles.

1.7 Hypothesis setting:

H 0 : There is no difference between Planned lead time and actual lead time.

H 1 : There is difference between planned lead time and actual lead time

1.8 COMPANY PROFILE

GTN Industries Ltd, an organization with over five decades of ceaseless efforts

to select the best natural cotton fiber from the world markets & convert into value added

products such as high-end fine count grey yarns, gassed yarns, organic yarns, mercerized

and dyed yarns, knitted fabrics and lifestyle garments at the consumer end of the markets.

Imperial Garments Limited:

A state of the art Juki assembly line garment confection arrangement at

Hyderabad backed by contemporary facilities in cutting, placket welting, CAD systems &

embroidery machines from Tajima provide facility which is capable of producing over 3

million knitted garments every year in the highest end of life style garments. The ability

to produce and employ fabrics of finer count yarns such as NE60/2, 70/2, 80/2 and even

finer in case of specific orders make an attractive proposition.

A state of the art Garment Unit with built up area of 9000 sq mts spread over 7 acres with

latest machinery and open width cutting capable of producing 3 million knitted garments

per annum in the highest end of lifestyle garments at Hyderabad.

Products: T-shirts(All types), kids wear, Sports wear.

Major Customers: Nike,ITC, Pantaloons, Truworth, Dogleg, Carrefour Etc

Major Vendors: Vardhaman poly tex, Priyadarsini Spinning Mills, KPR mills etc

The company in which project is executed has following main departments

Fabric Sourcing,

Production,

Sampling,

Quality,

Finance & Accounting,

Marketing and

Human Resource Department.

Printing,

Embroidery.

Process flow of company

Salesman Sample

Trade show

Order booking

Order to manufacture

Process flow in execution for Particular Order

Order from buyer Allocate to tech-pack, specifications Closing of costing with buyer Make time and action Proto for fit Size set with artworks Testing Pre production Production Post production Inline, midline, final inspection by QA Final inspection by buyer representative

CHAPTER-2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1 Research Process:

CHAPTER-2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.1 Research Process: Step I: Define the problem and the research objectives It

Step I: Define the problem and the research objectives

It is the most important stage, as poorly defined problems will not yield useful results.

One should be careful not to define the problem too broadly or too narrowly.

Research problem:

A

study

on

causes

for

delays

in

Pre-Production

activities

of

garment

manufacturing at Imperial Garments unit, Hyderabad.”

Growing demand for new product by the customer leads to decreasing of product lead

time drastically. Nearly 60% of total lead time is consumed on Pre-Production activities.

Research objectives:

1. To analyze the extent of delays in executing the orders

2. To determine the extent of pre-production delays in overall delays

3. To determine the potential areas causing frequent delays

4. To determine factors those can be controllable, to avoid delays

Step II: Develop the research plan

Designing a research plan calls for decisions on data sources, choice of research design,

research approaches, research instruments, sampling plan and contact methods.

Data Sources:

In this research, both secondary as well as primary data have been used.

The secondary data was collected from literature provided to us by the company. Also

help was taken from Internet, magazines and newspapers that helped in getting latest

information about the happenings in this sector.

The

Secondary

data

also

includes

Process

flow

charts,

process

parameters,

and

procedures. The primary data consists of survey of various people involved in related

activities, by asking them to fill up a questionnaire and Queries from company employees

to understand the process better.

Research Design

Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to

obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. A research design specifies

the methods and procedures for constructing a particular study.

In this research, the design is Descriptive research.

Descriptive research:

It can be defined as fact finding with adequate interpretations. Fact finding would involve

just data gathering. In descriptive research more is involved in the form of reflective

thinking.

Reflective thinking relates

the facts

gathered to the

objectives

and the

assumptions of the study. It involves observing things with out influencing them.

The Descriptive research focuses on the factors, which help to understand the various

causes for delays in related activities.

Research Instruments:

In this research, Questionnaires and Informal enquiries have been used to fill out so as to

help in understanding the reasons and coming to conclusions.

Contact methods:

Once the research plan has been determined, it must be decided how the Subject should

be contacted: Past records available at different departments. In this survey, personal

enquiries were also used.

Step III: Collect the information

Information was collected from the various people involved in production over a period

of time. It was filling up of the questionnaire. Apart from filling up of the questionnaire

information was also collected as regard to MOF release dates, Process capacities,

selection of vendors, Desired quality levels etc.

Step IV: Analyze the information

The data had been segregated manually and the analysis work has been done with the

help of MS.Excel. Simple tools such as standard deviations and measures of central

tendency are used. The data on 24 Orders which primarily got delayed in Pre-production

stage have been analyzed on the basis of the following parameters:

Sample submissions

Material procurement

Quality problems

Lab dips

On the basis of Enquiries, the data were tabulated, charts were developed and findings

were extracted from the research.

2.2 Research Process Flow Chart

Secondary data collection

Study of processes and activities

Order tracking and study through questionnaire for concerned person handling the

activity

Identification of major problem (as per merchandiser and concerned person responsible

and also as per observation made during execution of project)

Analyzing problems

Project suggestion

Comparative analysis

Project conclusion and feedback Time

TECHNIQUES OF ANALYSIS

The hypothesis testing is used for the analysis of the study to arrive at conclusions which

will have practical application. The results are interpreted and tabulated. Then the tables

are used for comparison and analysis.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

The difference between the two sets of scores is used for analysis. The null

hypothesis is a statement to the effect that there is ‘no difference ‘specifically the

null states that the average difference between the two sets of scores will be zero.

That is if we found the difference between each pair of scores added these

differences and divided by the number of pairs of scores the result would be zero.

This would be the case if the sets of scores were exactly the same. The greater the

overall differences

between the two

sets of score the greater the average

difference and the more likely we will be to reject the null hypothesis.

The means of differences and the standard deviation of the differences are

computed by using formulas

The standard deviation of the differences are computed by using formulas

and1.2

Formula 1.1

Xd= ∑D/ N

1.1

Where Xd is the mean of the differences

∑D is the summation of the d column

Formula 1.2

Sd=√∑D²-(∑D)²/N/N

Where Sd is the standard deviation of the differences ∑D is the summation of the difference (D) column ∑D² is the summation of the D² column The test statistic computed in step 4 of the five step model will be a t-score:

Formula 1.3

t(obtained)=

Xd

Sd/√N-1

CHAPTER -3

THEORY OVERVIEW

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Benjamin Franklin aptly said that ―”to love life is to love time; since time is the stuff

that life is made of” Time has always been an enigma for man; everyone feels its

importance but no one really knows how to harness its real potential. The global

competition, intense work pressure for faster and better delivery, optimization of profits,

E-sales and E-Commerce, downtime analysis of productions process and human error,

reduction

in

time-to-market,

design

driven

market

with

quickly

changing

trends,

customer demands for greater design variety and frequent design creation with specific

changes, on-line information access in the production process, on-line transactions and

most importantly, need of the mass, are some of the challenges being faced by the

Fashion and Apparel industry. The Garment Industry of India is an Rs -one trillion

industry. Almost 33 % of its knitwear production and about 20% of its woven-garment

production, both by volume, enters export markets. Overall about 25 % of the volume of

its garment production goes into export markets, leaving 75 % for domestic consumption.

The Industry covers over one lakh units and employs about 6 million workers, both

directly and indirectly in almost equal proportion. The indirect portion helps to sustain

the direct production sector in the shape of items associated with the garment industry

production including sewing/embroidery thread, buttons, buckles, zippers, metal plates,

cardboard sheets, plastic butterflies and packaging material. Organized sector of the

garment industry is roughly 20% of the total industry, concentrating chiefly on exports.

These are usually limited Companies while the rest are proprietary or partnership

Companies. 1 . Fabric constitutes 65 to 70% of the cost of production with labor making

up a further 15% and the rest go for overheads and manufacturer's profit. 1 The main

competitors of India are countries like China, Korea, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and

Sri-Lanka. The Indian garment industry is gaining grounding the world market at

breakneck speed, but still not flourished at its fullest extent

The key factors behind this

are low technological development, lower output, cut throat competition, high raw

material cost, inadequate infrastructure, traditional productivity, unfavorable regulatory

policies, and globalization impact

3.2 OPERATION IN APPAREL PRODUCTION

Manufacturing operations in garment production incorporates pre production, production

and post production activities.

3.2.1 Pre production activities

Apparel manufactures develop sample size garments for a specific target market and size

range. The first step to successfully executing an apparel product line for manufacturing

is the development of a sample garment which meets the specifications fit and desired

look of our client. If no prototypes or samples exist, product Development Department

will assist in the development of original prototypes. If the replication of an existing

garment style and fit is requested then it will match the fabric, trim and wash desired to

client’s specifications and create sample garments for final approval and pre production.

If a prototype of a new design is needed. then Product Development Department will

work as an advisor with the client’s design and merchandising staff to develop a new

garment

from

scratch.

A

prototype

garment

is

generated

for

approval

and

fit

modifications.

 

After final approval of sample garments and final approval of fit and tolerances, the

product development team and production team will create a size range and deliver a Pre

Production package to manufacturing facilities, monitoring and requiring that each spec

standard is

met to the requirements

of the customer.

Sourcing is to provide an

experienced understanding of supplier relationships in order to develop procurement

strategies destined to reduce costs, make procurement customizable, predictable and

repeatable, and to provide leverage over suppliers in negotiation on behalf of our clients.

Leverage is therefore eliminating one of the biggest problems associated with sourcing

and

manufacturing

by

translating

all

specs

into

an

understandable

sourcing/manufacturing language, and by supervising on site all aspects of the production

process. In all relationships people work best when speaking the same language, but that

language changes slightly as you move from one area to the other.

Some of the important pre production activities like

Proto-type Sample development.

Yarn Procurement.

Fabric Sample development

Colour Development

Accessories Management

Fit Sample Development

Specification Finalization and Costing Calculation

3.2.2 People involved in are:-

Development Team

Designers/Sample Developers

Customers/Clients

Textile technologists

Garment technologists

Packaging & Dispatch

Sourcing & Purchasing

Costing & Finance

Sales & Marketing

Production Team

Planning & Control

Testing & Quality Control

3.3 DELAY

Delay means retarding detention and postponement of set of event and activities and to

put off them to future time.

It is unplanned deferment of a scheduled activity because of something or occurrence that

impede its commencement or continuation. It has time associated cost effects on a contact

which may be measured in term of time money or a combination thereof. As far as

apparel industry is concerned ―Deviation from quoted lead is referred to as delay

Delays occur due to several reasons and these can occur at various stages of product and

hence broadly

Main causes for the delay can be classified as:-

1) Technical Problem

2) Employee related Problem

3) System related Problem

1) Technical Problem

These problems are incurred due to some problem in making out the use of technology

effectively and efficiently. Poor utilization of capacities also lead to delay as it would

result to piling up of work which would stand pending until the earlier loads are

completed.

2) Employee related Problem

The garmenting activities are primarily people driven functions and employee play a

very important role. There are several reasons under this category also some of them are

miscommunication, wrong interpretation of the information and work get affected as all

activities are interdependent on each other.

3) System related Problem

This is mainly related to the process activities and the way entire system works. This

includes the time taken in documentation, inter-departmental communication, the release

of orders, flow of work, processes followed. The system is unique to every company and

it is way the various functions are executed. And developing a system to work is very

difficult.

3.4LEAD TIME AND TIMELY DELIVERIES

Meeting the delivery on time is the most important factor in today market to have good

reputation and existence with good market share in this competitive world. To keep

abreast with the dynamic market conditions these days one need to be able to get more of

the fastest selling merchandise on sale during season whilst its appeal lasts and

correspondingly eliminate lines which are not popular and become drain on resources.

The main areas of concern are

Merchandise development

Communication

System compatibility

Long delivery time

Export market is such where there is lot of innovation in styles and particularly fashion

market which very dynamic and shorter run of production are increasing day by day.

Moreover examples of ZARA which produce garments and hit store with new styles

every three week emphasize more competing market.

every three week emphasize more competing market. What make situation more difficult is the interdependence of

What make situation more difficult is the interdependence of the activities and it is not at

all surprising that the time taken to get goods from concept to market place is often

longer than the selling season itself.

The maximum amount of time spend is in preproduction activities. These activities

include the process of procuring yarn and fabric, getting the samples made and getting

them approved by the buyers. The actual garmenting process does not increase lead time

as much as the preproduction activities. Timely deliveries in the department like fabric

and color development, garment sampling etc are more important.

3.5 Reasons for Delay

There can be several reasons for delay some of them can be:- Resource unavailability

(Man, Machine, Material), Non Clarities from Buyer Internal Communication, Lapse

External Communication Lapse Frequent change from the buyer Priorities and Internal

Rejections.

Reducing lead times is only possible by:

Elimination (remove a process)

Compression (remove time within a process)

Integration (re-engineering interfaces between successive processes)

Concurrence (operate processes in parallel)

3.6 ORDER MANAGEMENT

The classic definition of the Perfect Order is one that is on-time, complete, accurate, and

in perfect condition. Achieving this performance consistently is no small achievement. It

requires an enormous amount of operational discipline. However, your customers may

not take note of operational execution. After all, they expect to get what they ordered

when they want it. To achieve a Perfect Order from your customer's point of view

requires much more: Meeting customer demand on a timely basis drives customer

satisfaction, while ordering excess inventory hurts bottom line. Keep supply and demand

in profitable balance with Distributed Order Management. That means having a global

view of inventory—at the supplier, in transit or at warehouse—along with real-time

aggregated order reporting. In today’s scenario company should always know what they

need and what they have.

Distributed

Order

Management

simplifies

following points to be considered:

fulfillment

process

by

orchestrating the

i) Aggregating and prioritizing orders: This include selection of the orders and planned

execution of the orders based on the importance and priority

ii) Sourcing: Optimize procurement across an extensive supply network, including

stores, distribution centers and suppliers, to meet current demand. Proactive generation of

purchase orders for additional supplies when needed. Plan for the

future with Demand Forecasting so that right product at right time is ensured. Close eye

on the events that may delay order delivery based upon past records.

iii) Scheduling and shipping: Efficiently route orders to customers, distribution centers,

retailers and partners to minimize delivery time and storage costs.

iv) Managing exceptions and substitutions: Inventory shortages, potential customer

service issues and delivery problems should be monitored,

so that

the time and

information necessary to place new orders, reroute, substitute and communicate with

customers is there.

v) Reporting: Capture key performance metrics and establish benchmarks for on-time

deliveries, cash-to-cash cycle time, inventory turns and forecasting accuracy. Get the

information needed to continuously improve fulfillment process.

For most enterprises and their vendors, Order Management Cycle

(OMC) functionality resides in the ERP, CRM and SCM functional domains. However,

the requirements of the OMC focus on order processes. Business process frameworks and

related business process repositories transcend functional silos and will enable enterprises

to address order management challenges across all stakeholders in a hub-like manner.

Today, key business drivers are shaping the future of the OMC. These include the

following:

Emphasis on processes. As process trumps functional views of business, enterprises

are redefining their operational and strategic plans around key business processes

including the OMC. Leading organizations adapt and modify these business processes

in response to market conditions. However, most organizations manually adjust these

processes and seek an automated systems approach to creating re-usable processes.

Increasing importance of service orders:

Lower profit-product sales continue to take a back seat to higher-margin service

orders. Expect enterprises to continue to grow warranty, installation and support

revenues. As a result, service order requirements like project accounting, dispatch

availability and asset scheduling will increase in importance.

Requirements for multiple party accesses:

The number of access points to order systems increases as processes encompass all

departments, access order status, and review account balances. More importantly, these

stakeholders expect to have the ability to change order attributes at various points

throughout the order process.

Focus on business processes, requirements for multiple stakeholder access,

and

maturation

of

middleware

platforms

in

the

order

management

cycle

drives

enterprises towards the concept of an order hub. As process proliferation increases

around the order management cycle, standards for core and reusable processes will

emerge.

Together

with

advances

in

BPM

tools

and

Web

services

repositories,

organizations are seeking centralized management of these order processes. Growing

acceptance of data hubs—such as customer, product, and supplier—is leading to this new

notion of process hubs. The pairing of master data with reusable order processes will

complete the OMC equation resulting in the prominence of the order hub.

3.7 Critical Chain Approach Like project management, pre-production activities in

garment manufacture are driven by human parameters. Furthermore, some of the critical

chain characteristics have a lot in common with garment pre-production activities, all of

which are addressed specifically and decisively in the critical chain approach. These

include:

Reverse scheduling - scheduling of activities start backwards from delivery date;

Multitasking - garment pre-production is organized chaos. Resources migrate from one

project to the next to. Resources tend to migrate between orders in response to the latest,

loudest customer demand in an attempt to keep as many customers satisfied as possible

and also to show as much simultaneous progress as possible to different customers;

And common resource dependencies - typical apparel pre-production consists of 60 or

more different tasks to be taken care by 3-5 executives in a time sharing approach.

Traditional work environments put the emphasis on "not being late," but at the same time

they don't promote the concept of "being early" - which leads to safety-nets, the 'student

syndrome,' and Parkinson's Law taking over the process.

Task estimating - When estimating the duration of a specific task, people often worry

about the effect of unplanned work interruptions and add a hidden safety-net. A 10-day

task may have an extra 5 days built into it. It's perfectly reasonable to include this safety

factor (especially with third party activities), but because it's hidden its purpose is lost.

Student syndrome - General human nature is to put off the start of any task until the last

possible minute, thus eating into the safety buffer. Unfortunately, if the task then faces

unplanned interruptions it will overrun the estimate because there was simply not enough

time to recover.

Parkinson's Law - Work expands to fit the allotted time. If a task is estimated at 10

days, it is usual for it to take less. This is because people will simply adjust the level of

effort to keep busy for the entire schedule.

Multi-tasking - Most people work in a multi-project environment and have to stop

working on one task so that progress can be made on another task in another project.

Jumping around like this results in reduced focus and loss of efficiency. Resources tend

to migrate between projects in response to the latest, loudest customer demand in an

attempt to keep as many customers satisfied as possible. This focus on showing progress

on as many active projects as possible is the major cause of multi-tasking.

No early finishes! - It is important to note that tasks seem to either finish on time, or late,

but rarely early. This is because early finishes are seldom rewarded. In fact, early

finishers often being accused of sandbagging their estimates instead of being rewarded

for completing ahead of schedule. In this environment, people worry about their future

estimates being cut based on their past performance, so they quietly enjoy the lull and

officially finish on schedule.

Critical chain is the longest chain of dependent activities in a project. Activities can be

depend on each other because of project structure or limited resources.

Manage the flow, not projects

Critical chain is a breakthrough for streamlining flow of work through multi project

pipelines in a high uncertainty environment. Thus it greatly facilitates the management of

projects. Indeed, experienced project managers rely instinctively on aspects of critical

chain principles in planning and controlling their projects successfully

Adopt counterintuitive rules

Reduce the amount of work in execution. Instead of ―as soon as; possible, release work

based on the availability of most loaded resources (these are what limit the amount of

work that can be done) Place blocks of protective time, called buffers where they can do

most good. Remove safety from individual’s tasks, and concentrate it into explicit buffers

that protect the whole project-at the end of critical chain and where other chains feed it.

Allow individuals tasks within projects to be late. Use a buffer index (work completed

along any chain divided by the buffer consumed at the end of that chain) to drive and

measure performance. Based on above schedules can be made aggressive and projects

still be delivered on time, on budget and on scope.

Attack Policies not behaviors

It is a myth that you need to change how people behavior (procrastination, multitasking,

unnecessary polishing of already finished work etc.) in order to improve project

performance. The reality is that the following policy changes will give you much better

results. Replace measurement that requires individual tasks to finish on time with the

ones that drive low work in progress. Mandate a minimum amount of protective time in

each project, typically 50% of the sum of tasks, to assure uninterrupted flow of work.

Make project due dates, sacrosanct, to be changed only by senior management. Behaviors

will change gradually in response to such new management policies, which then will

produce even better results.

3.8 Business process reengineering (BPR)

Business process reengineering (BPR) is the analysis and redesign of workflow within

and between enterprises. It help in getting was lower costs and increase quality. Design of

workflow in most large corporations was based on assumptions about technology, people,

and organizational goals. There are seven principles of reengineering to streamline the

work process and thereby achieve significant levels of improvement in quality, time

management, and cost:

1. Organize around outcomes, not tasks.

2. Identify all the processes in an organization and prioritize them in order of redesign

urgency.

3. Integrate information processing work into the real work that produces the information.

4. Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized.

5. Link parallel activities in the workflow instead of just integrating their results.

6. Put the decision point where the work is performed, and build control into the process.

7. Capture information once and at the source.

3.9 ROLE OF MERCHANDISER IN PRE-PRODUCTION

Today's garment merchandisers have to move with frequent changes in demand and the

developing technologies utilized in manufacturing and production. To find out customer

requirements, they regularly visit retail outlets, and come up with latest updates from

frontline staff. In order to keep an eye on developments in sourcing, site visits are made

every week to mainland factories to meet suppliers and study production. In garment

merchandising, there is no specific rule, so it’s important to be able to think on one's feet.

The main procedures of merchandisers are as followed:

Understanding Sample Order

Merchandiser has to understand the buyer’s requirements after receiving specification in

the sample order. In many cases, there are modifications pertaining to the specifications

in the order to dispatch on time and the right quality. He has to talk with the in-house

veterans on the execution problems of sample orders, as the right information is required

in decision making.

Managing order route card and production timetable

Merchandiser has to manage every single production schedule and order route card that

helps to follow-up the execution in the planned way. It is expected to be acknowledged of

the various descriptions like: design, no. of modules, no. of operators, how many

processes, and date of dispatch, quantity, output capacity, and deadlines in the schedules.

The sub-ordinates are normally assigned to follow-up with execution of the plan.

Merchandiser plans the activities depending on the essentials or non-essentials, and top

priority are given to the most essential tasks. This is customary that the essential activities

are handled personally or with the support of junior merchandisers/sub-ordinates. In a

―daily schedule, merchandiser has to carry-out and categorize which is the most

significant and urgent task. The activity that has to be focused with full attention to

sweep-off non-essential activities and have to be to be corrected by prioritizing to meet

the deadlines.

Using route card to reschedule activities

To get updated on the current status on the order, the route cards should be utilized. The

latest status can be fed into the computers. In case, the buyer ask for the goods prior to

the deadline, then merchandiser has to reorganize the schedules to accomplish tasks,

output capacity, no. of pieces to be produced daily, substitute arrangements, time

availability, supply time, scheduling critical ratio, etc

Submitting pre-production samples

The pre-production samples should be provided on time to the concerned buyers. Quality

of the sample must be verified. If required, revised samples should be made available to

the buyers. Merchandiser should adjust to the required changes demanded by the buyer.

The execution of bulk orders should be made only after samples are approved by the

buyer. In-process inspection denote between any tasks in order-execution. In case of non-

conformation, it is better to focus on the concerns of quality. Merchandisers that work on

complete orders have to check deviation to the production teams so that any amendments

can be done to avoid the non-conformities.

Solving shortage problem

The merchandiser should know about the dearth of any commodity such as fabric, yarn,

etc. from the beginning. Actions should be taken immediately to arrange required

materials, after discovering the shortage. It is expected that the merchandisers should

verify quality of the goods prior to execution of the order. If the material is found

unavailable, the superior should be informed about the concern.

Communicating with associated people and buyer

It is essential to communicate with the buyers regarding the order. It is expected to give

some time to the buyer to read the sent messages. Merchandiser should go through the

messages received from the buyer and reply on time. In many cases, merchandisers have

to provide order status to the buyers. Also, merchandiser has to communicate with the

people that are in-house, venders, contractors and job-workers. Only through the right

communication can one meet deadline for the concerned orders. Apart from the above

mention procedures, merchandiser has to assign subordinates to help him in the order

execution, and direct the procedures. He has to revise his knowledge from time-to-time to

know current market trends. To record preferences for all the planned activities, use daily

or

time

log

systems.

The

Merchandiser

should

find

out

exact

reasons

for

time

consumption. It is necessary to keep record of time value and keeping it safe, as it is

going to be shared with concerned parties/buyers. It is certain that merchandising jobs

need huge time planning.

CHAPTER -4

ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

4.1 Data collection

Extensive list of tentative reasons that could be responsible for delays are prepared as

follows :-

Yarn procurement

Fabric development

Lab dip and bulk approval

Print related problems

Fabric In house

Special label development

Change of Specifications

Changes in bulk production

Testing failure

Multitasking

Miscommunication between merchandisers and buyer

These were the main reasons that were responsible for the delays in preproduction

activities during an order execution. These were not the sole reasons responsible for delay

but if reduced can play considerable role in overall reduction in delay in deliveries.

Some of the personal delay elements observed is:-

Phone interruptions

Acting with incomplete information

Dealing with team members

Crisis management (putting out fires)

Unclear communication about the order execution

Inadequate training to do the job

Over emphasis on routine tasks

SWOT ANALYSIS OF IMPERIAL GARMENTS LIMITED

During internship, the researcher observed some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of IGL which are given below.

Strengths

 

Big buyers from market

Backward integration

Good reputation as a unit belongs GTN industries.

Fully trained manpower

fully equipped with modern machinery

Efficient supply chain

Weaknesses

 

Small orders

Low coordination between departments

Too much decentralized departments

No Designing Studio

No marketing research

Opportunity

Able to attract new customers

Expansion of business

More domestic demand especially in Hyderabad.

Threats

5.2 Order Tracking

low profit margins

reduced lead times

Frequently changing styles

Switching of buyers

High quality demands

For Primary data collection, 35 orders, those were delayed, were studied for two months

that is Jun’10 and Jul’10. It included both the historical data from records for the orders

being shipped and tracking of the running styles also. In order to find delay and reasons

of delay the order tracking was done and during tracking of order the entire follow up of

the order right from the order received to the final arrival of fabric and trims in-house was

studied. The tracking of the order involves the extensive study of the procedure of order

execution in the company that is process flow during different stages like Sourcing,

Merchandising, Sample development, Material Procurement and Approval.

The project has been carried out in Fabric department and entire

orders being tracked were of as per this department only. The tracking include the actual

order follow up and also the reference of the record which is being kept in form of entry

register and in the excel sheets of the merchandisers and sourcing personnel.

Tracking also included the follow up of mails of merchandisers to keep record of delay

reasons with dates. These are the mails which are being sent to the vendor (fabric and

yarn) as a part of the information system to communicate the resubmission of the

particular sample of particular material, delay in submission etc. The mails also include

the internal communication to the corresponding Product department and the Quality

department.

5.3 Delay in different department

It was found that Out of 35 orders that were delayed, there are 24 orders got delayed

primarily in Pre-Production stage.

Department

No of orders delayed

% contribution in delay

Pre-Production

24

68%

Production

8

26%

(including finishing)

Post Production

3

6%

Total

24

100%

Table No:

Production 8 26% (including finishing) Post Production 3 6% Total 24 100% Table No: Fig No:

Fig No:

Classification of different stages of delay

S. No

Work order No

Stages of Delay

 

1 G1900460

Pre-production

 

2 G1900461

Production

 

3 G1900487

Pre-production

 

4 G1900488

Pre-production

 

5 G1900489

Pre-production

 

6 G1900490

Post-Production

 

7 G1900491

Post Production

 

8 G1900492

Pre-production

 

9 G1900493

Pre-production

 

10 G1900494

Production

 

11 G1900495

Pre-production

 

12 G1900496

Production

 

13 G1900383

Pre-production

 

14 G1900384

Pre-production

 

15 G1900386

Pre-production

 

16 G1900387

Production

 

17 G1900527

Pre-production

 

18 G1900528

Production

 

19 G1900529

Pre-production

 

20 G1900530

Pre-production

 

21 G1901183

Pre-production

 

22 G1901184

Production

 

23 G1901185

Pre-production

 

24 G1901186

Production

 

25 G1901187

Pre-production

 

26 G1901188

Pre-production

 

27 G1901189

Pre-production

 

28 G1901190

Production

 

29 G1901191

Pre-production

 

30 G1901192

Pre-production

 

31 G1900542

Pre-production

 

32 G1900543

Post Production

 

33 G1900544

Pre-production

 

34 G1900554

Pre-production

 

35 G1900555

Pre-Production

5.4 LEAD TIME V/S PRE PRODUCTION & PRODUCTION TIME Hence in 24 orders problem of delay in pre production was found and on further detailed analysis of the lead time and time spent in pre-production of these 24 order was studied it was found 65.5% of time was involved in the preproduction of these 24 orders.

250 200 150 100 lt 50 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
250
200
150
100
lt
50
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
Total Lead time

Production Order

Production11 13 15 17 19 21 23 Total Lead time Production Order Pre-Production Fig GRAPHICAL INTERPRETATION

Pre-Production17 19 21 23 Total Lead time Production Order Production Fig GRAPHICAL INTERPRETATION OF LEAD TIME

Fig GRAPHICAL INTERPRETATION OF LEAD TIME V/S PRE PRODUCTION & PRODUCTION TIME

Preproduction & production durations

 

Work

order

 

Total

Lead

Pre-

 

%time

in

S.No

No

Color

Time

production

production

pre-

production

1

G1900460

Black

90

60

30

66.7

2

G1900487

Peacoat

80

50

30

62.5

3

G1900488

kelly green

90

60

30

66.7

4

G1900489

DK Shadow

75

45

30

60.0

5

G1900492

Chalk

80

50

30

62.5

6

G1900493

Tropical Red

90

60

30

66.7

7

G1900495

Coffee Bean

90

60

30

66.7

8

G1900383

Olive

90

60

30

66.7

9

G1900384

Wine

90

60

30

66.7

10

G1900386

Red

85

55

30

64.7

11

G1900527

DK Shadow

80

50

30

62.5

12

G1900529

Black

90

60

30

66.7

13

G1900530

Sprit pink

90

60

30

66.7

14

G1901183

Red

90

60

30

66.7

15

G1901185

Black

90

60

30

66.7

16

G1901187

Olive

90

60

30

66.7

17

G1901188

Yellow

110

80

30

72.7

18

G1901189

Terracotta

90

60

30

66.7

19

G1901191

Blue

90

60

30

66.7

20

G1901192

White

60

30

30

50.0

21

G1900542

Coral

100

70

30

70.0

22

G1900544

Fresh Green

90

60

30

66.7

23

G1900554

Blue Marl

90

60

30

66.7

24

G1900555

Yellow Marl

90

60

30

66.7

 

AVERAGE

 

65.5

TATISTICAL ANALYSIS TABLE

   

Planned

Actual

   

S.No

Work

order No

lead

lead

d

d

2

time

time

 

1

G1900460

90

103

13

169

2

G1900487

80

97

17

289

3

G1900488

90

107

17

289

4

G1900489

75

85

10

100

5

G1900492

80

82

2

4

6

G1900493

90

94

4

16

7

G1900495

90

94

4

16

8

G1900383

90

99

9

81

9

G1900384

90

97

7

49

10

G1900386

85

93

8

64

11

G1900527

80

84

4

16

12

G1900529

90

97

7

49

13

G1900530

90

101

11

121

14

G1901183

90

96

6

36

15

G1901185

90

102

12

144

16

G1901187

90

104

14

196

17

G1901188

110

116

6

36

18

G1901189

90

94

4

16

19

G1901191

90

96

6

36

20

G1901192

60

66

6

36

21

G1900542

100

114

14

196

22

G1900544

90

99

9

81

23

G1900554

90

105

15

225

24

G1900555

90

105

15

225

 

Sum

220.0

2490

Mean actual lead time : 97.1

Mean Planned lead time : 87.9

Null hypothesis

Ho: μd=0 ; Alternate hypothesis (H1:μd≠0)

Selecting the sampling distribution and establishing the critical region

Sampling distribution = t distribution

Degrees of freedom = N-1=24-1=23

t(critical) = 2.069

t(obtained) = 4.44

Making a Decision:

The test statistic is in the critical region so we can reject the null hypothesis. The

difference in prejudice scores from the plan days and actual days is statistically

significant

GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAD TIME 140 120 100 80 Planned lead time 60 Actual lead
GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAD TIME
140
120
100
80
Planned
lead time
60
Actual lead
40
20
0
Number of days

1 3 5 7 9 11131517192123

Production Order

Fig:

Interpretation:

As it can be seen that mean actual lead time is higher than the mean planned lead time, so it can be said that there is significant differences between these two values. Same thing has been proved in t-score test also.

STATUS OF ORDER TRACKED

     

Fabric

Fabric

   

S.No

Work

No

order

Color

In-house

Expected

In-house

Actual

Total delay

Reason

 

1

 

Black

20/06/2010

3/7/2010

 

13

days

Material

procurement,

Approval

delay,

G1900460

 

Quality problems

 

2

 

peacoat

8/7/2010

25/07/2010

 

17

days

Quality

problems,

Lab

dip,

Approval

G1900487

 

Delay

 

3

G1900488

kelly green

8/7/2010

25/7/2010

 

17

days

Spec. change, Material Procurement

 

4

 

DK

20/07/2010

30/07/2010

10days

Approval delay, Lap Dip

 

G1900489

Shadow

5

G1900492

Chalk

28/07/2010

30/07/2010

2

days

Quality problems, Specs Change

 

6

 

Tropical

22/07/2010

26/07/2010

4

days

Approval delay, Material Procurement

G1900493

Red

 

7

 

Coffee

22/07/2010

26/07/2010

4

days

Lap dip, Material problems

procurement,

Quality

G1900495

Bean

   

8

G1900383

Olive

15/07/2010

24/07/2010

9

days

Specs change , Approval delay

 

9

G1900384

wine

15/07/2010

22/07/2010

7

days

Material procurement, lab dips

 

10

G1900386

red

14/07/2010

22/07/2010

8

days

Specs change, Quality problems, Approval Delay

11

 

DK

16/07/2010

20/07/2010

4

days

Material procurement, Lap Dip

 

G1900527

Shadow

   

12

G1900529

Black

25/07/2010

1/8/2010

7

days

Quality problems, Approval delay, Specs change.

13

 

Sprit pink

30/07/2010

10/8/2010

 

11

days

Lap

Dip,

Approval

Delay,

Material

G1900530

 

procurement

 

14

G1901183

Red

4/8/2010

10/8/2010

6

days

Specs change, Approval delay

 

15

 

Black

4/8/2010

16/08/2010

 

12

days

Lab

dip,

Material

Procurement,

Specs

G1901185

 

Change

 

16

G1901187

Olive

4/8/2010

18/08/2010

 

14

days

Quality problems, Material Procurement, Specs Change

17

G1901188

Yellow

10/8/2010

16/08/2010

6

days

Quality problems, Approval delay

 

18

G1901189

Terracotta

11/8/2010

15/08/2010

4

days

Material Procurement, Approval Delay

19

G1901191

blue

12/8/2010

18/08/2010

6

days

Approval delay, Specs Change

 

20

 

White

10/8/2010

16/08/2010

6

days

Material

Procurement,

Lap

Dip,

Specs

G1901192

 

Change

 

21

G1900542

Coral

19/07/2010

2/8/2010

 

14

days

Material procurement, Quality problems, Approval Delay

22

 

Fresh

18/7/2010

27/07/2010

9

days

Approval delay, Quality problems, Lab dip

G1900544

Green

 
           
           
 

23

G1900554

Blue Marl

20/07/2010

4/8/2010

15

days

Material procurement, Quality problems, Approval Delay

 

24

 

Yellow

22/07/2010

6/8/2010

15

days

Lab dips, Material Procurement

 

G1900555

Marl

 

4.5 DELAY REASONS

During the tracking of the orders which included both Historical data and the

follow up of the running and shipped during the project period.

The following main reasons are summarized

Change of Specifications

Fabric quality

Lab-dip and bulk approval

Material procurement

Approval delays

No of C as es

Broad classification of reasons for delays

     

As

a

S.No

Reasons

Cases Recorded

Percentage

of

total

cases

1

Material procurement

15

62.5

2

Lab dip

11

45.8

3

Specification

8

33.3

 

Changes

4

Approval delays

14

58.3

5

Quality Problems

11

45.8

Table No:

(The reasons for delay are not independent, within one case the reason for delay be multiple. Percentage were calculated =Reason for delay/Total no. of cases*100)

Obs erved delay

Fig 5.4

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

15

cases*100) Obs erved delay Fig 5.4 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 15

Material

proc urement

11

Fig 5.4 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 15 Material proc urement 11

L ab dip

reas ons

8

10 8 6 4 2 0 15 Material proc urement 11 L ab dip reas ons

S pec ific ation Changes

Reasons

14

11 L ab dip reas ons 8 S pec ific ation Changes Reasons 14 Approval delays

Approval

delays

11

ons 8 S pec ific ation Changes Reasons 14 Approval delays 11 Quality P roblems Interpratation:

Quality

P roblems

Interpratation: From the figure, it can be understood that material procurement and

approval delays are contributing more for delays.

4.5.1 Approval Delays

The second biggest problem which is not allowing the various departments to plan and

perform according to their capacities is the problem of approvals i.e. at various stages the

departments especially embroidery, printing, knitting and dyeing have to wait for the

various approvals. Although there is no permanent solution to this problem we can only

work to minimize the loss due to this problem. The reasons for Approval delays are

categorized as follows:-

1) Priorities

2) Internal Rejections

3) Incomplete Submission

4) Change in Product team specifications

Priorities

Delays occur due to changing priorities at various supply chain level which mainly cause

approval delays at the office and at merchandiser table. Resources tend to migrate

between projects in response to the latest, loudest customer demand (merchandiser) in an

attempt to keep as many customers as possible.

Internal Rejections:

It is one of the major in house delay problems. Mainly occurs due to the lack of

communication between the sampling team and merchandising team handling the

particular account. Many times there are several styling element and other changes that

are being done by the sampling team after the sample is being made. There are times that

they do not like the material or printing technique or any other stylization and hence they

want to Change it at that time these causes delay as approval take long time and also new

samples need to be developed.

Changes by the Product Team

A considerable time is involved in coping with the changes made by the Product Team.

This need to be controlled as last minute changes lead to the great loss of time and

money. The changes that normally done are:- Change in the trims like buttons Change in

the print colors and sometime change in the print which leads to new development of

screen and cause delay. Change in the color ways in which the order was placed initially

Change in style that does not alter much of fabric consumption Reduction in Order

quantity Prep one of the some orders from the decided arrival plan. Sometimes there is

also delay which is being desired and done in orders keeping in mind several factors the

competitor launch, market condition and matching theme of the launch.

Incomplete submission:

This was the one of the reason which leads to delay just because samples and another

submission such as artwork etc without complete information and full package as

required for nay approval. For example for size set approval a full package including

original sample, proto, specification sheet and any previous size set sample if it was

rejected earlier. Similarly the complete information regarding every submission from

supplier and vendor is required. Missing information lead to either resubmission or wait

for required information and in both cases there is loss time and delay happening.

Approval delays:

   

No.of

as

a

S.no

Reasons

cases

Percentage

1

Priorities

3

21.4

 

Changes During bulk

   

2

production

4

28.6

3

Rejections

3

21.4

4

Incomplete Details

6

42.9

Table No:

(The reasons for delay are not independent, within one case the reason for delay be

multiple Percentage were calculated = Reason for delay / Total no of cases *100)

Approval delays

7 6 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 1 0 Priorities Changes During
7
6
6
5
4
4
3
3
3
2
1
0
Priorities
Changes During
Rejections
Incomplete
bulk production
Details
No of cases

Reasons

4.5.2Quality related problems:

The main quality problems that are responsible for delays are Fabric GSM

(grams/square meter) variations and shade variation between different fabric rolls.

Different type of knitting machines producing different weights, some fine tuning of

knitting process is required.

Changes in bulk production, resulting in deviation in colour development from samples

approved.

Some times it was observed that Barre/patta ie stripes were appeared in fabric,

Any material variation in producing yarn or mix up of different lots yarns leads to this

type of problems.

Spirality, at times higher than the expected levels of 5% was resulted in delays in

Fabric in- house.

Quality Problems

     

As

a

S.no

Reasons

Cases Recorded

Percentage

of

total

cases

1

Fabric GSM variation

2

18.2

2

Barre/Patta problem

3

27.3

3

shade variation in bulk

5

45.5

4

Spirality

1

9.1

Table No:

(The reasons for delay are not independent, within one case the reason for delay be

multiple Percentage were calculated = Reason for delay / Total no of cases *100)

Quality Related Problems

6 5 5 4 2 3 3 1 2 1 0 Fabric GSM Barre/Patta Spirality
6
5
5
4
2
3
3
1
2
1
0
Fabric GSM
Barre/Patta
Spirality
variation
problem
shade variation in
bulk
No.of cases

Reasons

It is observed many times that shade variation and patches in finished fabric causes

material shortage hence delays. So, it demands proper process control.

4.5.3 Delay in Lap Dip

These delays result from problems related to the prints and colors not matching the

specified standards and merchandise not getting the desired hand feel.

Print and color related problems: - These problems arise when the supplier is not able to

achieve specified prints and colors. The supplier gets the Lap dips and strike offs

approved but are somehow unable to get the same quality in bulk.

Delays in lab dip

     

as

a

S.no

Reasons

No.of cases

Percentage

 

Internal Communication

   

1

Lapse

4

36.4

 

External

   

2

Communication Lapse

3

27.3

3

Not desired shade

 

4

36.4

 

Changes

during

bulk

   

4

production

2

18.2

(The reasons for delay are not independent, within one case the reason for delay be

multiple Percentage were calculated = Reason for delay / Total no of cases *100)

Delay in Labdips

5 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 0 Internal External Not desired Changes
5
4
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
0
Internal
External
Not desired
Changes during
Communication
Communication
shade
bulk production
Lapse
Lapse
No of cases

Reasons

This might happen due to no of reasons:-

1) Miscommunication between supplier and the company:

The change in the dyeing and printing mill at the bulk stage in order to cut down the

costs Lack of the uniformity in different batches being dyed as the change by the Product

team in quantities lead to dyeing at different times and batch and hence change in the

shade and the tone.

2) There is test failure also in which the fabric is not able to pass the chemical and

physical test. Wash Test there is failures mainly the shrinkage, crocking, staining and

print chip off. Wash test failure is observed in most of the cases and hence this causes

resubmission and hence it lead to delay.

Internal Communication lapse is another reason responsible. Communication plays a very

important role in the success of any organization. The success of an organization depends

largely on correct and speedy delivery of information to concerned departments. Right

information at right time plays a significant role in getting desired beneficial outcome.

There is lot which can be improved in this case and hence money and time can be saved.

For example:-

Sourcing team is not informed about the changes suggested by buyer from

merchandising team and it is only at the last moment that they got to know it.

Miscommunication between Quality and Merchandising team regarding Test

report

information

Incomplete

transfer

regarding

changes

made

to

corresponding

concerned departments

Lack of co-ordination and transparency between various teams.

Apart from the internal communication External Communication also plays important

role. External Communication comes into role when the information needed to be passed

over to the other units such as knitting division, fabric processing unit. As in these cases

there

are

many

cases

when

there

is

miscommunication that is being made.

incomplete

information

transfer

and

For example:- Mail to the processing unit mention that fabric color need to be lighter how

much tone lighter is not mentioned and hence great need to clarify and so amount of time

is wasted in these clarifications.

4.5.4 Delay in Material procurement

Approximate 62.5% of the delay cases are due to delay in the material procurement

and Poor material procurement planning is responsible for this which include

Material shortage, Resource Unavailability and Embroidery and Print Delay.

The main reasons for the material shortage is variation between the actual and indent

consumption and quantity received is less than ordered. Higher wastage and re

cutting can lead to shortage moreover pilferage at vendor is also one of the reason

that can lead to shortage.

Delays in material procurement

   

No.of

as

a

S.no

Reasons

cases

Percentage

 

Resource

   

1

unavailability

4

26.7

2

Priorities

5

33.3

3

Material shortage

4

26.7

 

Fluctuation

in

   

4

Yarn prices

2

13.3

(The reasons for delay are not independent, within one case the reason for delay be

multiple Percentage were calculated = Reason for delay / Total no of cases *100)

Material Procurement

6 5 5 4 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 Resource Priorities Material shortage
6
5
5
4
4
4
3
2
2
1
0
Resource
Priorities
Material shortage
Fluctuation in
unavailability
Yarn prices
No of cases

Reasons

There are chances that the shrinkage of the fabric received might not match the

planned shrinkage of the fabric. Another possible reason is improper documentation

and wrong details. Resource unavailability mainly includes manpower and machine

unavailability which in turn causes the material throughput time and material delays

at various levels. Priorities here tend to migrate resources between projects in

response to the latest and loudest customer demand. As far as Embroidery and print

delay are concerned it is the development of strike off and samples as per required

specification. Sometime there is ambiguity regarding the sample developer and his

end time order lead to lack of planning so plan in advance can greatly reduce this

problem. Fluctuation in yarn prices forces the management to wait for some time.

4.5.5 CHANGE IN SPECIFICATIONS

In 33.3% of cases of main delay causing reason found out was the frequent change in the

specifications of the style.

Delays due specification changes:

     

as

a

S.no

Reasons

No.of cases

Percentage

1

Internal Communication Lapse

3

37.5

2

External Communication Lapse

2

25.0

3

Lack of standardization

2

25.0

4

Changes

during

bulk

3

37.5

 

production

The factor for delay are not independent, within one case the factor for reason be

multiple. Percentage were calculated =factor for delay/Total no. of cases*100)

Graphical interpretation:

Delay due to Specifacations change

4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 0 Internal External Lack of Changes during
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
0
Internal
External
Lack of
Changes during
Communication
Communication
stadardization
bulk production
Lapse
Lapse
No of cases

Reasons

It was found that primarily there was change in specifications because there was no

standards being set up for the fit and specification of even basic styles like crew neck t-

shirts and polo t-shirts also.

There are times when the merchandisers sent the sample on old specification instead of

getting

new

specifications

and

hence

again

resubmission.

some

times

changed

specification are not being sent and only comments are sent by the merchandisers and

hence they are unable to understand and develop sample according to new specification.

So again in this condition resubmission of sample is required is required.

These specification changes are the major contributor to the delay in pre-production of

particular style example location of logos and pocket positions etc

4.5.6 Summarization of the Delay Reasons:

Materialprocurement Lab dip Specification Changes Approval delays Quality Problems

procurement

Lab dipMaterial procurement Specification Changes Approval delays Quality Problems

Specification ChangesMaterial procurement Lab dip Approval delays Quality Problems

Approval delaysMaterial procurement Lab dip Specification Changes Quality Problems

Quality ProblemsMaterial procurement Lab dip Specification Changes Approval delays

11 15 DELAY 14 11 8 Factors for each reason:
11 15
DELAY
14
11
8
Factors for each reason:

Material Procurement

Lab-dips

Approval Delays

Resource unavailability

Internal communication lapse

Priorities

Priorities

External communication lapse

Changes in Bulk

Material shortage

Changes in bulk Production

Rejections

   

Incomplete

Priorities

Lack of standardization

submissions

Changes in Specification

Quality Problems

Internal communication lapse

Fabric GSM variation

External communication lapse

Barre/Patta

hanges in bulk Production

Shade variation

Lack of standardization

Spirality

CHAPTER- 5

FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE

PROSPECT OF PROJECT

5.1 Identification of Controllable and Un-controllable Delay

The first step in the reduction of the delay is to identify the delay reasons and their

factors as Controllable and Uncontrollable. It was primarily done after discussion with

merchandisers and coming on the single consent based on the secondary data collection.

There was format which was filled up by the merchandisers to spot controllable and un

controllable delay and suggested measure against the controllable delays.

Reasons

Merch

Merch

Merch

Merch

Merch

Merch

Merch

Merch

Merch

Merch

Merch

Merch

ant 1

ant 2

ant 3

ant 4

ant 5

ant 6

ant 7

ant 8

ant 9

ant 10

ant 11

ant 12

Resource

nc

nc

nc

Nc