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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

SCM Garments Private Limited forayed into the textile industry in 1989 at

Tirupur. Initially established to cater to the increased demands of the export market,

today, we are a vibrant presence in the hosiery map of India.

The study was carried out in Unit I of SCM garments with of 100 sewing

machines, 20 ironing machines, and 20 cutting persons. Both manual and machine cutting

is carried out in this unit. The company is producing 1500-2000 pieces per day. Defect

occurrence is one of the main risks faced by them and it may occur by both machine and

operator fault. In this situation, identifying the frequently occurring defects in the

garment is highly important so as to minimize their occurrence.

The study has been conducted for around 45 days. In this study 20 orders were

analyzed thoroughly. Defective pieces and the types of defects are been identified in

these 20 orders. Analyses are made with the data and defects percentage is identified.

Reasons for the defects are found out and analyzed during the study. This study is an

effort to reduce the defects in the production process.

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If a company can bring down the defects in production process, then the

company production rate increases with high profitability. The defect percentage is more

than the acceptable norms of the company for defects margin, in order to rectify or ignore

it, this project study is done.

The initial step in this research is a systematic study in the production department

to identify the defects. The collected data have been classified and tabulated. Simple

tables have been prepared and liberally used to exhibit the classified data to provide easy

and better understanding of the study.

The frequently occurring defects and the defects which are contributing more in

the total percentage of defects are identified by categorization analysis and chi-square

analysis. The most occurring defects in the garments are found to be skipped stitch, oil

stain and ADAS (holes in the garment). The major reasons for occurrence of these

defects are improper tension in the disk, repetitive usage of machines, improper handling

of the garment and needle fault.

It is suggested that the company can concentrate on these defects mainly and

technically some suggestions are given to bring down the defects. This will pay way for

increasing the level of productivity and save the time.


CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The textile industry has unique place in the Indian economy. Its contribution to

industrial production, employment and earnings is very significant. It is one of the oldest

industries established 125 years ago. Since then the industry has made tremendous

progress, despite the early struggles to survive competition from abroad.

In keeping pace with the trend in advanced countries of the world, the Indian

textile industry progressed in many directions in the use of various fibers for fabric

production and employed different techniques of production such as weaving and

knitting. Today, the textile industry has emerged as a multi-fiber industry employing

cotton and cellulosic and synthetic fibers to produce both knitted and woven fabrics.

The apparel sector plays a vital role in textile industry and mainly exports play an

important role in the global business. There are many countries in the playground of

apparel exports such as China, India, Bangladesh, SriLanka, Pakistan, Europe, Korea,

Turkey, Thailand, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Nepal, Taiwan, Australia, Syria, Italy, USA,

and Brazil. There are 2 types of garments in apparel sector. One is Woven garments.

Another is Knitted garments.

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For every industry or business, to get increased sales and better name amongst

consumers and fellow companies it is important to maintain a level of quality. Especially

businesses engaged in export have to sustain a high level of quality to ensure better

business globally. Generally quality control standards for export are set strictly, as this

business also holds the prestige of the country, whose company is doing the export.

The major challenges which are being faced by all countries apparel exporters is

to bring effective solution to increase quality of product in the apparel manufacturing.

Quality is keyhole for global competition. Also having prime importance for every

industry or business, to get increased sales and better name amongst consumers and

fellow companies. For apparel industry product quality and productivities are calculated

right from the initial stage of raw material to the stage of finished garment. The quality

control of garment industry is normally depends on raw material, employee, machinery of

the company.

For a garment exporter there are many strategies and rules that are required to be

followed to achieve good business. The fabric quality, product quality, delivery, price,

packaging and presentation are some of the many aspects that need to be taken care of in

garment export business.

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Apparel manufacturing comprises a variety of product categories and when it is

analyzed, the central process in the manufacturing is the joining together of components,

which is the labor intensive part of this type of manufacturing known as the sewing

process, where most of the defects occur in the garment.

Further more when the cost structure is analyzed, apart from material cost, the cost

structure of sewing process is of critical importance and the cost of poor quality will also

include with this. Every time work is redone, the cost of quality increases. In the apparel

industry, reworking of the garment, retesting of performance of the apparel, rebuilding of

garment machine, all these are done when the defect occurs.

Defect minimization aims to reduce and minimize the number of defects and errors in

a process and to do things right from the first stage. The ultimate aim is to reduce the

level of defects. However, this may not be possible in practice but what it means is that

everything possible will be done to eliminate the likelihood of errors or defects occurring.

The overall effect of this project is to identify and reduce the defects which lead to reduce

the time and increase the productivity.

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1.2 COMPANY PROFILE

This section discusses about the history and profile SCM garments Pvt. Ltd to

provide insights so that the suggestion made in the study can be related in a better

manner.

HISTORY:

SCM Garments Private Limited forayed into the textile industry in 1989 at

Tirupur. Initially established to cater to the increased demands of the export market,

today, they are a vibrant presence in the hosiery map of India.

In these 2-decade long presences in the textile industry, they have seamlessly

transcended time to establish themselves as a company with a global vision. The

company represents their group abroad, a role that they fulfill with utmost responsibility,

and will continue to do so.

The company has always adopted a process of continuous up gradation of the

technology and processes. Its dedicated team of researchers and designers constantly

keeps in touch with the current trends in the market place and the consumers

requirements. The approach has lead to various technological innovations resulting in

new product introduction.

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SCM Garments Pvt. Ltd. is promoted by eminent men of vision and foresight. At

the help of the affairs Mr. K.Paramasivan as Chairman and HR manager Mr. Sekar

.SCM has created brands that have made marketing history. What is more they managed

it in a category, which was dominated by the unorganized sector with unbranded

products.

SCM Garments Pvt. Ltd is one of the world’s largest knitted garment

manufacturer and marketers commanding an impressive annual growth rate. It has to its

credit six regional offices, three production bases, and state of the art technology right

from developing cotton to making garments.

All this plus an extensive distribution set up spanning the length, breadth of the

country. The company through its dedicated research team constantly keeps in with

current trends in the market place & the consumers. This approach has let to various

technological innovations resulting in new product introduction/extensions.

MANUFACTURING UNITS

The company has manufacturing units at Tirupur, Avinashi, Erode, Coimbatore

(all in Tamilnadu), and has around 25 production units, in all.

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MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

SCM garments have its manufacturing facilities located at Tamilnadu. Their

spinning division facilitates the production of the finest combed cotton yarn. While 50%

of the facility is dedicated to manufacturing heavier count yarns like 30s, 34s & 40s, the

remaining 50% produces finer yarn of counts 60s & 80s. With 28 combing machines, 45

ring frames and 20 Auto Coner machines, the spinning unit is well suited to handle huge

loads. The use of organic cotton and imported machines help them give the quality of the

yarn as desired by the buyers.

EXPORTING COUNTRIES

Through the years, they have been associated with renowned brands and retail

stores in Europe, USA, Canada, and France.

AWARDS

This company is compliant with AQL 2.5 Level Quality & Standards and follows

a 4 point system to ensure conformance of rigorous norms. The ISO 9001:2000, WRAP,

Oeko TEX Class 1 & 2 and CU certification for Organic Cotton are testimonials to our

commitment and compliance to global standards.

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VISION

To deliver innovation and quality to their customers by following a progressive

and on time approach and further the cause of a sustainable future by promoting an eco

friendly approach in all our operations.

MISSION STATEMENT

“Join Hands Together, To Become an International Symbol of Excellence

through Continuous Innovation, Manpower Development, Productivity Improvement,

Quality Improvement, Cost Reduction, Time Management”

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1.3 NEED FOR THE STUDY

 The company is facing risk in the occurrence of defects in the garments.

 Identifying the frequently occurring defects in the garment is highly

important and also they have to be minimized.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 The objective of the study is to study the frequency of the occurrence of defects.

 To explore the causes for the defects and to find out the possible ways for

eliminating those defects.

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1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 The study has been conducted in SCM garments during June and July month of

2010 to identify the reasons for the defects and suggest the remedies to the

defects in the production process.

 The study will help the organization to avoid the defects in the garment and to

save time.

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

 The project was conducted for a company operating in export and domestic

market. The study will not show the complete picture of apparel industry rather it

will be confined to a single company only.

 The project was restricted for 2 months.

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CHAPTER - 2

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Data collection is a decisive step in the Research Process and this is the

descriptive type of research. The first hand data needed for this study was obtained from

the production department of the company for the standard acceptable percentage of

defects in the garments. The details about the types of defects are collected from by the

analysis and from the supervisors.

2.1 DATA COLLECTION

The initial step in this research is a systematical study and concepts and its

different tools and techniques, after that the production unit study has done to identify the

current state of processes and activities happening in the unit. The next step is to analyze

the defects in the garment as per the order and implementing reduction technique and

tools to reduce and avoid the defects.

Primary data source:

Primary data sources are originated by the researches for specific purpose of addressing

the problem at hand and it sought for their proximity to their truth and control over

error. The primary data sources are

• Observation

• Interaction with company manager and line supervisors.

The study is carried out for nearly 45 days and 23 orders have been executed in these

time period. 20 orders were taken into study, as for 3 orders sufficient information and

data was not available.

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2.2. TOOLS USED

Percentage analysis is used to categorize the defects according to its percentage

and chi-square test has been to compare the style wise defects margin.

2.3 PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

The collected data have been classified and tabulated. Simple tables have been

prepared and liberally used to exhibit the classified data to provide easy and better

understanding of the study.

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CHAPTER-3

THEORY OVERVIEW

3.1 ABOUT THE PROCESS

There are nearly 450 employees in Unit I and it comprises of 10 lines where 800-

1000 pieces are produced in one line per day. There are 8 buyers for whom the orders are

carried out in a constant manner. And 8 teams of merchandisers handle these 8 buyers.

SEQUENCE OF OPERATION

FIGURE 3.1

Cutting

Production

Random checking

Final checking

Packing

Dispatching

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The sequence of operation of the production department starts from the pattern

making, continued with pattern layout. Once pattern layout has been done, Cutting

process will be started according to the style of the garment. Next is the sewing process,

were all the parts of the garments are attached. Then the sewed garments will be

randomly checked by the line supervisors. After the random checking, final checking will

be carried out by the inspection department and directly the garments will be taken to the

packing department. Once the packing is fully completed as per the buyer’s requirement.

Then it will be directly taken for dispatching.

3.2 PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

There are various styles of garments being produced in the sewing process. Of

which the process flow of a particular garment is shown below

PROCESS FLOW OF A T-SHIRT PRODUCTION SEWING LINE

Fig.3.2

COLLAR STITCH

SHOULDER ATTACH

PLACKET OPEN

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PLACKET FINISH

COLLAR ATTACH

SLEEVE ATTACH

SLEEVE TOP STITCH

SLEEVE HEM

SIDE ATTACH

BOTTOM HEM

In the production process of T-Shirt, the first step is to stitch the collar. Next

operation is joining the shoulder with the body part. The placket will be made in the front

for the opening and fasteners. The collar is attached to the neck of the T-shirt. The right

and left sleeves are attached to the respective armholes. The top stitch and the hemming

in the bottom is done for sleeves. The side seam of the T-shirt is stitched and the hem is

done, by this the T-shirt will be produced.

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CHAPTER -4

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

For the purpose of analyzing the frequency of every defect in the production process

 20 ORDERS were taken into study.

 The total number of pieces produced under this 20 orders were – 1,68,956 pieces

 The table of defects-4.1 shows the

• Types of defects

• Defective Pieces and number of defects

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4.1. TABLE OF DEFECTS

This is the primary data collected from the company by analysis and the table

shows the types of defects which occur in the garment in 20 orders and number of

defective pieces and the frequency of occurrence are also shown.

OVERALL LIST OF DEFECTS

TABLE 4.1

TYPES OF DEFCTS NO. OF DEFECTS DEFECTIVE


PIECES
S.NO DESCRIPTION CODE NO. % NO %

1. Skipped stitches in flat lock m/c D1 3319 21.3 1220 12.7

2. Misalignment of collar D2 141 0.9 0 0.0

3. Pattern stripes mismatched D3 367 2.4 84 0.9

4. Pocket box size variation D4 211 1.4 122 1.3

5. Label mismatched D5 210 1.4 103 1.1

6. ADAS (holes in garment) D6 1069 6.9 356 3.7

7. Oil Strains D7 1976 12.7 724 7.5

8. Uneven stitch D8 538 3.5 43 0.4

9. Bottom edge stitching irregular D9 326 2.1 50 0.5

10. More threads joining in one place D10 477 3.1 112 1.2

Table 4.1 continued

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11. Improper sleeve attachment D11 231 1.5 32 0.3

12. Improper ruffle attachment D12 105 0.7 0 0.0

13. Collar point mismatched D13 239 1.5 84 0.9

14. Raw edges outside D14 952 6.1 216 2.2

15. Misplacing the scrap in the garment D15 83 0.5 31 0.3

16. Yoke piece unevenly attached D16 555 3.6 141 1.5

17. Neck rib measurement changed D17 340 2.2 0 0.0

18. Puckering in the attachment D18 858 5.5 241 2.5

19. Mismatching of stripes D19 673 4.3 165 1.7

20. Printing defect D20 137 0.9 81 0.8

21. Seam twisted gives puckering D21 771 4.9 251


2.6
appearance
22. Over pressing leads to unshaped of D22 131 0.8 116
the garment 1.2

23. Breakage of stitch D23 628 4.0 146 1.5

24. Un stiff button holes D24 78 0.5 30 0.3

25. Uneven length in the placket D25 231 1.5 0 0.0

26. Uneven stitch formation in the D26 167 1.1 25


0.3
placket box
27. Improper belt width D27 281 1.8 87 0.9

28. D1&D2 - - 68 0.7

29. D1&D4 - - 89 0.9

Table 4.1 continued

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30. D1&D6 - - 205 2.1

31. D1&D7 - - 287 3.0

32. D1&D9 - - 62 0.6

33. D1&D10 - - 172 1.8

34. D1&D12 - - 38 0.4

35. D1&D14 - - 183 1.9

36. D1&D18 - - 46 0.5

37. D1&D19 - - 64 0.7

38. D1&D21 - - 146 1.5

39. D1&D23 - - 251 2.6

40. D1&D25 - - 142 1.5

41. D1&D27 - - 42 0.4

42. D1&D6&D7 - - 62 0.6

43. D1&D7&D8 - - 230 2.4

44. D1&D6&D10 - - 12 0.1

45. D2&D5 - - 73 0.8

46. D3&D18 - - 251 2.6

47. D3&D16 - - 32 0.3

48. D5&D7&D13 - - 34 0.4

49. D6&D7 - - 128 1.3

50. D6&D10 - - 92 1.0

Table 4.1 continued

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51. D6&D14 - - 76 0.8

52. D6&D22 - - 15 0.2

53. D6&D19 - - 123 1.3

54. D7&D8 - - 169 1.8

55. D7&D11 - - 132 1.4

56. D7&D13 - - 121 1.3

57. D7&D20 - - 56 0.6

58. D7&D10 - - 89 0.9

59. D8&D21 - - 96 1.0

60. D9&D27 - - 152 1.6

61. D9&D18 - - 34 0.4

62. D9&D19 - - 28 0.3

63. D11&D12 - - 67 0.7

64. D14&D17 - - 232 2.4

65. D14&D16 - - 192 2.0

66. D14&D18 - - 53 0.6

67. D15&D17 - - 52 0.5

68. D16&D17 - - 56 0.6

69. D16&D18 - - 134 1.4

70. D18&D21 - - 18 0.2

71. D18&D19 - - 33 0.3

Table 4.1 continued

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72. D18&D24 - - 48 0.5

73. D19&D21 - - 260 2.7

74. D23&D25 - - 89 0.9

75. D23&D26 - - 142 1.5

TOTAL 15094 100 9636 100

[Calculations furnished in annexure –table1&2]

 This table shows the types of defects in the garment. There are 27 type of defects

listed in the table with its code. These defects occur solely and also in

combinations with the other defect. The combinations are also shown in the table

which is mentioned in code. Number of defects and the defective pieces for every

defect and also for combinations are shown separately with its percentage.

 Each piece in 20 orders is checked and the total number of defective pieces was

9636 pieces (which is around 5.7%)

 Out of these 9636 pieces, there were 27 types of defects occurring. And in this

9636 pieces number of defects occurs is around 15094 in the garments.

 The standard acceptable norms adopted in the company for defects margin is 3%

 The occurrence of defects is more than the standard norms. So the analysis is

carried out to find the frequently occurring defects in the garments.

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4.2 COMPARITIVE ANALYSIS OF TOP 5 DEFECTS OUT OF TOTAL

DEFECTS

- FREQUENCY OF DEFECTS & DEFECTIVE PIECES

The comparative analysis is done between the frequency of defects and the

defective pieces. The defects are ranked on the basis of both and first 5 ranks are taken

for the comparison as this contributes more from the total percentage.

4.2.1. FIRST 5 RANKS OF FREQUENCY OF DEFECTS

This table shows the first 5 ranks of frequency of defects

FIRST 5 RANKS OF FREQUENCY OF DEFECTS

TABLE 4.2

S.NO DEFECTS NO.OF.DEFECTS PERCENTAGE

1. Skipped stitches in 3319 21.3


flat lock m/c
2. Oil stains 1976 12.7

3. ADAS (holes in the 1069 6.9

garment)

4. Raw edges outside 952 6.1

5. Puckering in the 858 5.5


attachment

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INTERPRETATION:

 These 27 defects have been occurred 15094 times in 9636 pieces individually and

also in combinations, in which skipped stitch is the most occurring defect occurs

around 3319 times, which is of 21.3% of total occurrence.

 The defect oil stains comes second in the rank which occurs around 1976 times,

which is of 12.7% of the total occurrence.

 The defect ADAS (holes in the garment) occurs around 1069 times, which is of

6.9% of total occurrence.

 The defect raw edges outside occurs around 952 times, which is of 6.1%of total

occurrence.

 The defect puckering in the attachment occurs around 858 times, which is of

5.5% of total occurrence. [For ranking please refer annexure, table 3].

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4.2.2. FIRST 5 RANKS OF DEFECTIVE PIECES

This table shows the first 5 ranks of defective pieces

FIRST 5 RANKS OF DEFECTIVE PIECES

TABLE 4.3

S.NO DEFECTS DEFECTIVE PERCENTAGE


PEICES
1. Skipped stitch 1220 12.7

2. Oil stains 724 7.5

3. ADAS 356 3.7

4. Combination of Skipped & Oil stitch 287 3.0

5. Combination of Mismatched stripes & 260 2.7


Seam Twisted

INTERPRETATION

 The defect “SKIPPED STITCH” occurs comparatively higher than the other

kinds of defects when analyzed individually. It has occurred in about 1220 pieces

out of 9636 total defective pieces, which comes around 12.6% in the entire

defects.

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 The defect “OIL STAINS” comes second in the rank which is about 724 pieces

out of 9636 total defective pieces, and it comes around 7.5% in the entire defects.

 The defect “ADAS” comes third in the rank which is about 356 pieces out of

9636 total defective pieces, and it comes around 3.6%.

 The combination of SKIPPED STITCH and OIL STAINS comes 4TH, which is

about 287 pieces out of 9636 defective pieces, and it comes around 3%.

 The combination of defects “MISMATCHIN OF STRIPES” and “SEAM

TWISTED” come 5TH which is about 260 pieces out of 9636 defective pieces,

which comes around 2.7%. [for ranking please refer annexure, table 4].

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4.2.3 COMPARING FIRST 3 RANKS OF DEFECTIVE PIECES & ITS

FREQUENCY

From the table 4.2 and 4.3, it is seen that the top 3 defects are same in both

defective pieces and its occurrence.

This table shows the first 3 ranks of defective pieces and its frequency of

occurrence.

FIRST 3 RANKS OF DEFECTIVE PIECES & ITS FREQUENCY

TABLE 4.4

RANK DEFECTS NAME DEFECTIVE DEFECTS FREQUENCY


PIECES (NO OF TIMES)

1. Skipped stitch 1220 Skipped stitches 3319

2. Oil stains 724 Oil stains 1976

3. ADAS 356 ADAS 1069

TOTAL 2300 6364

PERCENTAGE 23.86% 42.16%

INTERPRETATION

Based on the defective pieces, these 3 defects contribute about 23. 8% and based

on the frequency of occurrence it contributes about 42.16%.

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4.3 CATEGORIZING THE DEFECTS BASED ON ITS PERCENTAGE

The total defects are categorized based on its percentage to the total occurrence and

defective pieces. By which the defects are being segregated as follows:

4.3.1 CATEGORY A (above 7% of defects)

Under category A the defects based on defective pieces and their frequencies

of occurrence which are more than the 7% are shown.

CATEGORY ‘A’ OF DEFECTS

TABLE 4.5

S.NO DEFECTS NO.OF.DEFECTS PERCENTAGE

BASED ON 1. Skipped Stitches 3319 21.3


OCCURRENCE
2. Oil Stains 1976 12.7
OF DEFECTS

S.NO DEFECTS DEFECTIVE PERCENTAGE


BASED ON PIECES
1. Skipped Stitches 1220 12.7
DEFECTIVE

PIECES 2. Oil Stains 724 7.5

26
4.3.2 CATEGORY B (Between 3 – 7% of defects)

Under category B, the defects based on defective pieces and its frequency of

occurrence which lies between 3-7% is shown.

CATEGORY ‘B’ OF DEFECTS

TABLE 4.6

S.NO DEFECTS NO.OF. PERCENTAGE

DEFECTS

1. Skipped Stitches 1069 6.9

2. Raw edges outside 952 6.1


BASED ON
3. Seam twisted gives puckering 771 4.9
OCCURRENCE
appearance
OF DEFECTS
4. Mismatching of stripes 673 4.3

5. Breakage of stitch 628 4.0

6. Yoke piece unevenly attached 555 3.6

7. Uneven stitch 538 3.5

8. More threads joining in one 477 3.1


place
BASED ON S.NO DEFECTS DEFECTIVE PERCENTAGE
DEFECTIVE PIECES
1. ADAS (holes in garment) 356 3.7
PIECES
2. Combination of Skipped & 287 3.0
Oil stitch

27
4.3.3 CATEGORY C (Below 3% of defects)

The other defects from the Ranking of Defects table will come under the

Category C.

INTERPRETATION

• From the above categorization we can see that the Category A has more than 7%

defects.

• Also, from Category B, it has a defects range of 3 – 7%.

The Category A contributes about 34% of the total defects based on the number of

defects. The Category B contributes about 44% of the total defects based on number of

defects.

By eliminating the total defects category A & B, we can reduce about 78% of the

total defects and bring down the total defects rate below the standard acceptable norms of

the company i.e. below 3%.

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4.4 CHI – SQUARE ANALYSIS FOR STYLE WISE DEFECTS MARGIN

The chi-square analysis is carried out to compare the actual and expected

data. In this the average percentage of defects among the styles and percentage of defect s

of each style are compared and chi-square analysis is done to know the significant

difference among the styles in occurrence of defects.

For this analysis null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis is formed.

Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference among the different styles. (H0)

Alternate Hypothesis: There is significant difference among the different styles. (H1)

STYLE WISE DEFECTIVE PIECES

TABLE 4.7

S.NO STYLE TOTAL DEFECTIVE PERCENTAGE

QTY PIECES

1. Gangelo polo 8520 512 6%

2. Babies top 3603 187 5%

3. Ladies top 17566 1152 6.5%

4. Night wear 6408 372 5.8%

5. Girl’s frill top 8500 508 5.9%

6. Men’s polo t-shirt 8040 446 5.5%

7. Babies top 10806 703 6.5%

29
8. Babies top with stripes 13935 836 6%

9. Babies top with rib 8970 522 5.8%

10. Boy’s stripes polo t-shirt 7670 404 5.2%

11. Ladies top 12288 693 5.6%

12. Babies top 4500 234 5.2%

13. Girl’s top 5800 302 5.2%

14. Babies top 2575 132 5.1%

15. Babies top 12992 656 5%

16. Ladies top 10224 542 5.3%

17. Men’s polo t-shirt 3660 188 5.1%

18. Babies top 13824 732 5.2%

19. Babies bottom 6500 377 5.8%

20. Babies top with stripes 2575 138 5.3%

TOTAL 168956 9636 AVG:5.5%

Assuming α = 0.05. This means that when α = 0.05, we will be making an error of

rejecting the null hypothesis when in fact it is true, 5% of the time.

α = 0.05 and df= (k-1) =20-1=19.

The computed value of X2 =0.29 is less than the critical value of X2 =10.117; we

cannot reject the null hypothesis.

30
INTERPRETATION

Based on chi-square analysis of style wise defects, there was no

significant difference between the no. of defects among each style. Irrespective of all

styles the defect percentage is same. Nearly 5 to 6% of defects are occurring in each

style. [Calculations furnished in annexure-5]

31
CHAPTER-5

FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 FINDINGS

• The 3 defects Skipped stitches, Oil stains, ADAS, contribute more in the total

percentage of defects. (4.2)

• The skipped stitch and oil stains contribute about 34% of the total defects based

on the number of defects. (Category A, 4.3)

• The Skipped Stitches, Raw edges outside, Seam twisted gives puckering

appearance, Mismatching of stripes, Breakage of stitch, Yoke piece unevenly

attached, Uneven stitch, More threads joining in one place, these defects

contributes about 44% of the total defects based on number of defects. (Category

B, 4.3)

• Irrespective of all styles the defect percentage is same. Nearly 5 to 6% of defects

are occurring in each style. (4.4)

The most occurring defects in the garments are analyzed and percentage of that is

interpreted and those defects are skipped stitch, oil stain and ADAS (holes in the

garment).

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There are some of the reasons for the occurrence of these defects in the garment.

REASONS FOR SKIPPED STITCH

 Improper threading in the sewing machine

 Tension in the disc is improper

 Repetitive usage of machines causing friction in the parts

REASONS FOR OIL STAINS

 The availability of oil for the machine is quite high which left unnoticed and this

ultimately leads to oil stain in the garments.

 Improper handling of the garments

REASONS FOR ADAS (holes in the garment)

 Trimming fault

 Needle breakage

33
5.2 SUGGESTIONS

Currently the total defects margin is around 5.7% of the entire production. If we

can cut down the top 3 defects from the entire process it can bring down the total

defects under Standard acceptable defects margin. The total defects margin will come

down to 2.7%, which is below the Standard acceptable defects margin i.e. 3%.

By eliminating the total defects category A & B, we can reduce about 78% of the

total defects and bring down the total defects rate below the standard acceptable

norms of the company i.e. below 3%. For eliminating the following suggestions are

given.

• For machineries and equipments continuous assessment and maintenance is

needed.

• The technician can be appointed and he must keenly check the threads, needle,

and tension of the machine frequently according to the fabric texture.

• The machines should be cleaned and maintained by that technician frequently.

34
5.3 CONCLUSION

From this study, the most occurring defects and its frequency of occurrence have

been identified. It is suggested that the company can concentrate on these defects mainly

and take steps to bring down and this will pay way for increasing the level of productivity

and save the time.

35
3. RANKING OF DEFECTS BASED ON ITS OCCURENCE

TABLE.3

S.NO DEFECTS NO.OF.DEFECTS PERCENTAGE

1. D1 3319 21.3

2. D7 1976 12.7

3. D6 1069 6.9

4. D14 952 6.1

5. D18 858 5.5

6. D21 771 4.9

7. D19 673 4.3

8. D23 628 4.0

9. D16 555 3.6

10. D8 538 3.5

11. D10 477 3.1

12. D3 367 2.4

13. D17 340 2.2

14. D9 326 2.1

15. D27 281 1.8

16. D13 239 1.5


17. D11 231 1.5

18. D25 231 1.5

19. D4 211 1.4

20. D5 210 1.4

21. D26 167 1.1

22. D2 141 0.9

23. D20 137 0.9

24. D22 131 0.8

25. D12 105 0.7

26. D15 83 0.5

27. D24 78 0.5

TOTAL 15094 100


4. RANKING OF DEFECTIVE PIECES

TABLE.4

S.NO DEFECTS DEFECTIVE PERCENTAGE

PEICES

1. D1 1220 12.7

2. D7 724 7.5

3. D6 356 3.7

4. D7,D1 287 3.0

5. D21,D19 260 2.7

6. D21 251 2.6

7. D18,D3 251 2.6

8. D1,D23 251 2.6

9. D18 241 2.5

10. D14,D17 232 2.4

11. D1,D7,D8 230 2.4

12. D14 216 2.2

13. D6,D1 205 2.1

14. D16,D14 192 2.0

15. D14,D1 183 1.9

16. D10,D1 172 1.8

17. D7,D8 169 1.8

18. D19 165 1.7


19. D9,D27 152 1.6

20. D23 146 1.5

21. D1,D21 146 1.5

22. D1,D25 142 1.5

23. D26,D23 142 1.5

24. D16 141 1.5

25. D18,D16 134 1.4

26. D11,D7 132 1.4

27. D6,D7 128 1.3

28. D19,D6 123 1.3

29. D4 122 1.3

30. D13,D7 121 1.3

31. D22 116 1.2

32. D10 112 1.2

33. D5 103 1.1

34. D21,D8 96 1.0

35. D6,D10 92 1.0

36. D1,D4 89 0.9

37. D7,D10 89 0.9

38. D25,D23 89 0.9

39. D27 87 0.9

40. D3 84 0.9
41. D13 84 0.9

42. D20 81 0.8

43. D14,D6 76 0.8

44. D5,D2 73 0.8

45. D1,D2 68 0.7

46. D12,D11 67 0.7

47.. D1,D19 64 0.7

48. D6,D7,D1 62 0.6

49. D1,D9 62 0.6

50. 16,17 56 0.6

51.. D20,D7 56 0.6

52. D14,D18 53 0.6

53. D17,D15 52 0.5

54. D9 50 0.5

55. D24,D18 48 0.5

56. D1,D18 46 0.5

57.. D8 43 0.4

58. D1,D27 42 0.4

59. D12,D1 38 0.4

60. D7,D5,D13 34 0.4

61.. D9,D18 34 0.4

62. D18,D19 33 0.3


63. D11 32 0.3

64. D16,D3 32 0.3

65. D15 31 0.3

66.. D24 30 0.3

67. D19,D9 28 0.3

68. D26 25 0.3

69. D18,D21 18 0.2

70. D22,D6 15 0.2

71. D1,D6,D10 12 0.1

72. D2 0 0.0

73. D12 0 0.0

74. D17 0 0.0

75. D25 0 0.0

TOTAL 9636 100.0


5. CHI – SQUARE ANALYSIS FOR STYLE WISE DEFECTS MARGIN

Step – 1:

Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference among the different styles.

(H0)

Alternate Hypothesis: There is significant difference among the different styles.

(H1)

Step – 2:

Assume α = 0.05. This is the probability of making the Type I error. This means that

when α = 0.05, we will be making an error of rejecting the null hypothesis when in fact it

is true, 5% of the time.

Step – 3:

Calculate the expected frequency fe, for each category.

Step – 4:

In our case, X2 test is selected because we are comparing observed frequencies with

expected frequencies in discrete categories. X2 test measures the discrepancy between the

observed values and expected values for decision making purpose about the null

hypothesis, so that:
X2 = ∑ (fo – fe) 2

fe

X2= {(6-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(6.5-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.8-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.9-5.5)/5.5)}+

{(5.5-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(6.5-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(6-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.8-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.2-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.6-

5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.2-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.2-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.1-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.3-

5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.1-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.2-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.8-5.5)/5.5)}+ {(5.3-5.5)/5.5)}

= 0.09-0.09+0.18+0.05+0.07+0+0.18+0.09+0.05-0.05+0.018-0.05-0.05-0.07-0.09-

0.03-0.07-0.05+0.05-0.03

=0.298

Step 5:

 Check the critical value of X2 from the table against α = 0.05 and df= (k-1) =20-

1=19.

 This value is given as 10.117. We compare our computed value of X2 with the

critical value of X2 from the table.

 Since our computed value of X2 =0.29 is less than the critical value of X2 =10.117,

we cannot reject the null hypothesis.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS

1. Title of the book : “STATISTICS for business & economics”

Author : Jit S Chandan

Publications : Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

2. Title of the book : “RESEARCH METHODOLOGY METHODS &

TECHNIQUES”

Author : C.R. Kothari

Publications : New Age International Publisher

3. Title of the book : “MANAGING QUALITY IN THE APPAREL INDUSTRY”

Author : Pradip V. Mehta, Satish K. Bhardwaj

Publications : New Age International Publisher

4. Title of the book : “INDIAN TEXTILES-An intersectoral perspective”

Author : Vinod Shanbhag, S.S. Mehta

Publications : Oxford &IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd


WEBSITES

• www.scmgarments.com

• www.economywatch.com

• www.fabrics-manufacturers.com

• www.fiber2fashion.com