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# Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

CHAPTER 3

## 3.1 Consider the motion: x1 = (1 + kt ) X1 / (1 + kto ), x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 .

(a) Show that reference time is t = to . (b) Find the velocity field in spatial coordinates. (c) Show
that the velocity field is identical to that of the following motion:
x1 = (1 + kt ) X1 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 .
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Ans. (a) At t = to , x1 = X1 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 . Thus, t = to is the reference time.
(b) In material description, v1 = kX1 / (1 + kto ), v2 = v3 = 0 . Now, from x1 = (1 + kt ) X1 / (1 + kto ) ,
→ X1 = (1 + kto ) x1 / (1 + kt ) , therefore, → v1 = kX1 = kx1 / (1 + kt ), v2 = v3 = 0 .
(c) For x1 = (1 + kt ) X1 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 , → v1 = kX1 , v2 = v3 = 0
→ v1 = kx1 / (1 + kt ), v2 = v3 = 0 , which are the same as the velocity components in (b).
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## 3.2 Consider the motion: x1 = α t + X1 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 , where the material coordinates X i

designate the position of a particle at t = 0 . (a) Determine the velocity and acceleration of a
particle in both a material and a spatial description. (b) If the temperature field in spatical
description is given by θ = Ax1 , what is its material description? Find the material derivative of
θ , using both descriptions of the temperature. (c) Do part (b) if the temperature field is θ = Bx2
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Ans. (a) Material description: v1 = Dx1 / Dt = ( ∂x1 / ∂t ) X −fixed = α , v2 = v3 = 0 ,
i

a1 = Dv1 / Dt = ( ∂v1 / ∂t ) X = 0, a2 = a3 = 0 .
i − fixed

## Spatial description: The same as above v1 = α , v2 = v3 = 0, a1 = a2 = a3 = 0 ..

(b) The material description of θ is θ = A (α t + X1 ) .
Using the material description: θ = A (α t + X1 ) → Dθ / Dt = (∂ / ∂t ) ⎡⎣ A (α t + X1 ) ⎤⎦ = Aα .
Using the spatical description: θ = Ax1 →
Dθ ∂θ ∂θ ∂θ ∂θ
= + v1 + v2 + v3 = 0 + α ( A) + (0)(0) + (0)(0) = Aα .
Dt ∂t ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3
(c) Using the material description: θ = BX 2 → Dθ / Dt = (∂ / ∂t )( BX 2 ) = 0 .
Using the spatical description: θ = Bx2 →
Dθ ∂θ ∂θ ∂θ ∂θ
= + v1 + v2 + v3 = 0 + α (0) + ( 0 )( B ) + ( 0 )( 0 ) = 0 .
Dt ∂t ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3
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## 3.3 Consider the motion

x1 = X1 , x2 = β X12t 2 + X 2 , x3 = X 3 , where X i are the material coordinates. (a) at t = 0 , the
corners of a unit square are at A(0,0,0), B(0,1,0), C (1,1,0) and D(1,0,0) . Determine the position
of ABCD at t = 1 and sketch the new shape of the square. (b) Find the velocity v and the
acceleration in a material description and (c) Find the spatial velocity field.
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Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

## Ans. For the material line AB, ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = ( 0, X 2 ,0 ) ; at t = 1 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( 0, X 2 ,0 )

( )
For the material line BC , ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = ( X1 ,1,0 ) ; at t = 1 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = X1 , β X12 + 1,0

1 1 2 3 1
2
1

## For the material line CD, ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (1, X 2 ,0 ) ; at t = 1 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (1, β + X 2 ,0 )

The shape of the material square at t = 1 is shown in the figure.

⎛ ∂x ⎞ ⎛ ∂v ⎞
(b) vi = ⎜ i ⎟ , ai = ⎜ i ⎟ → v1 = v3 = 0, v2 = 2β X12t ; a1 = a3 = 0, a2 = 2β X12
⎝ ∂t ⎠ X i −fixed ⎝ ∂t ⎠ X i −fixed
(c) Since x1 = X1 , in spatial descrip. v1 = v3 = 0, v2 = 2 β x12t ; a1 = a3 = 0, a2 = 2β x12
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## 3.4 Consider the motion: x1 = β X 22t 2 + X1 , x2 = kX 2t + X 2 , x3 = X 3

(a) At t = 0 , the corners of a unit square are at A(0,0,0), B(0,1,0), C (1,1,0) and D(1,0,0) . Sketch
the deformed shape of the square at t = 2 . (b) Obtain the spatial description of the velocity field.
(c) Obtain the spatial description of the acceleration field.
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Ans. (a)
(
For material line AB, ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = ( 0, X 2 ,0 ) ; at t = 2 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = 4 β X 22 , 2kX 2 + X 2 ,0 .)
For material line BC , ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = ( X1 ,1,0 ) ; at t = 2 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( 4 β + X1 , 2k + 1,0 ) .
For material line AD, ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = ( X1 ,0,0 ) ; at t = 2 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( X1 ,0,0 ) .

(
For mat. line CD, ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (1, X 2 ,0 ) ; at t = 2 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = 4β X 22 + 1, 2kX 2 + X 2 ,0 . )
The shape of the material square at t = 2 is shown in the figure.
x2
4
B’ C’
2k
C
B

A x1
D

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Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

b) vi = ⎛⎜ i ⎞⎟ ⎛ ∂v ⎞
∂x 2 2
, ai = ⎜ i ⎟ → , v1 = 2 β X 2 t , v2 = kX 2 , v3 = 0; a1 = 2 β X 2 , a2 = a3 = 0 .
⎝ ∂t ⎠ X − fixed
i
⎝ ∂t ⎠ X − fixed
i

## 2 β x22t kx2 2β x22

(c) x2 = ( kt + 1) X 2 → , v1 = , v2 = , v3 = 0; a1 = , a2 = a3 = 0 .
(1 + kt ) 2
(1 + kt ) (1 + kt )2
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## 3.5 Consider the motion: x1 = k ( s + X1 ) t + X1 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 .

(a) For this motion, repeat part (a) of the previous problem. (b) Find the velocity and acceleration
as a function of time of a particle that is initially at the orgin. (c) Find the velocity and
acceleration as a function of time of the particles that are passing through the origin.
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Ans. a) For material line AB, ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = ( 0, X 2 ,0 ) ; at t = 2 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( 2ks, X 2 ,0 ) .
For material line BC , ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = ( X1 ,1,0 ) ; at t = 2 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( 2ks + 2kX1 + X1 ,1,0 ) .
For material line AD, ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = ( X1 ,0,0 ) ; at t = 2 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( 2ks + 2kX1 + X1 ,0,0 ) .
For material line CD, ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (1, X 2 ,0 ) ; at t = 2 , ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( 2ks + 2k + 1, X 2 ,0 ) .
The shape of the material square at t = 2 is shown in the figure.
x2
2ks
2k(s+1)
B B’ C’
C
1

A D’
x1
A’ D

(b) vi = ⎛⎜ i ⎞⎟ ⎛ ∂v ⎞
∂x
and ai = ⎜ i ⎟ → , v1 = k ( s + X 1 ) , v2 = 0, v3 = 0; a1 = a2 = a3 = 0 .
⎝ ∂t ⎠ X − fixed
i
⎝ ∂t ⎠ X − fixed
i

## Thus, for the particle ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = ( 0,0,0 ) , v1 = ks, v2 = 0, v3 = 0 and a1 = 0, a2 = 0, a3 = 0

(c) x1 = k ( s + X 1 ) t + X 1 → x1 = kst + ( kt + 1) X 1 → X 1 = ( x1 − kst ) / (1 + kt ) ,
thus, in spatial descriptions,
⎪⎧ x − kst ⎪⎫ k ( s + x1 )
v1 = k ⎨ s + 1 ⎬= , v = 0, v3 = 0 and a1 = 0, a2 = 0, a3 = 0 .
⎩⎪ (1 + kt ) ⎭⎪ (1 + kt ) 2
At the position ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( 0,0,0 ) , v1 = ks / (1 + kt ), v2 = 0, v3 = 0 and a1 = 0, a2 = 0, a3 = 0 .
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## x1 = X 1 − 2 β X 22t 2 , x2 = X 2 − kX 3t , x3 = X 3 , where β = 1 and k = 1 .

(a) Sketch the deformed shape, at time t = 1 of the material line OA which was a straight line at
t = 0 with the point O at ( 0,0,0 ) and the point A at ( 0,1,0 ) . (b) Find the velocity at t = 2 , of the
particle which was at (1,3,1) at t = 0 . (c) Find the velocity of the particle which is at (1,3,1) at
t=2.
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Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

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Ans. With β = 1 and k = 1 , x1 = X 1 − 2 X 22t 2 , x2 = X 2 − X 3t , x3 = X 3
For the material line OA : ( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (0, X 2 , 0) : at t = 1 , x1 = −2 X 22 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = 0 . Thus,
the deformed shape of the material line at t = 1 is a parabola given in the figure shown.

x2
A’ A

x1
O

## (b) v1 = Dx1 / Dt = −4 X 22t , v2 = Dx2 / Dt = − X 3 , v3 = Dx3 / Dt = 0

For the particle ( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (1,3,1) , at t = 2 , v1 = −4(3) 2 (2) = −72, v2 = −1, v3 = 0.
(c) The particle, which is at ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (1,3,1) at t = 2 , has the material coordinates given by the
following equations: 1 = X 1 − 8 X 22 , 3 = X 2 − 2 X 3 , 1 = X 3 → X 1 = 201, X 2 = 5, X 3 = 1
→ v1 = −4 X 22 t = −4(5) 2 (2) = −200, v2 = − X 3 = −1, v3 = 0.
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## 3.7 The position at time t of a particle initially at ( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ) is given by:

x1 = X 1 + k ( X 1 + X 2 ) t , x2 = X 2 + k ( X 1 + X 2 ) t , x3 = X 3 ,
(a) Find the velocity at t = 2 , of the particle which was at (1,1,0) at the reference time t = 0 .
(b) Find the velocity of the particle which is at (1,1,0) at t = 2 .
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Ans. (a) v1 = Dx1 / Dt = k ( X 1 + X 2 ) , v2 = Dx2 / Dt = k ( X 1 + X 2 ) , v3 = Dx3 / Dt = 0.
For the particle ( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (1,1, 0) , at t = 2 , v1 = k (1 + 1) = 2k , v2 = k (1 + 1) = 2k , v3 = 0
(b) The particle, which is at ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (1,1,0 ) at t = 2 , has the material coordinates given by
the following equations: 1 = X 1 + 2k ( X 1 + X 2 ) , 1 = X 2 + 2k ( X 1 + X 2 ) , 0 = X 3 .
1 1 2k
→ X1 = , X2 = , X3 = 0 , → v1 = v2 = k ( X 1 + X 2 ) = , v3 = 0
1 + 4k 1 + 4k 1 + 4k
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## x1 = X1 + β X 22t 2 , x2 = X 2 + kX 2t , x3 = X 3 , where β = 1 and k = 1 .

(a) for the particle which was initially at (1,1,0), what are its positions in the following instant of
time: t = 0, t = 1, t = 2 . (b) Find the initial position for a particle which is at (1,3,2) at t = 2 . (c)
Find the acceleration at t = 2 of the particle which was initially at (1,3,2) and (d) find the
acceleration of a particle which is at (1,3,2) at t = 2 .
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Ans. With β = 1 and k = 1 , x1 = X1 + X 22t 2 , x2 = X 2 + X 2t , x3 = X 3

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Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

(a) t = 0 → ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (1,1,0) ,
t = 1 → ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( X1 + X 22 , X 2 + X 2 , X 3 ) = (2, 2,0)
t = 2 → ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( X1 + 4 X 22 , X 2 + 2 X 2 , X 3 ) = (5,3,0)
(b) x1 = X1 + X 22t 2 x2 = X 2 + X 2t , x3 = X 3 , at t = 2 → 1 = X1 + 4 X 22 , 3 = 3 X 2 , 2 = X 3
→ X1 = −3, X 2 = 1, X 3 = 2 .
(c) x1 = X1 + X 22t 2 x2 = X 2 + X 2t , x3 = X 3 → v1 = 2 X 22t , v2 = X 2 , v3 = 0 .
→ a1 = 2 X 22 , a2 = 0, a3 = 0 . For ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (1,3, 2 ) , → a1 = 2 ( 3) = 18, a2 = a3 = 0 at any
2

time.
(d) The initial position of this particle was obtained in (b), i.e., → X1 = −3, X 2 = 1, X 3 = 2 .
Thus, → a1 = 2 X 22 = 2(1) 2 = 2, a2 = 0, a3 = 0 .
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3.9 (a) Show that the velocity field vi = kxi / (1 + kt ) corresponds to the motion xi = X i (1 + kt )
and (b) find the acceleration of this motion in material description.
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Ans. (a) From xi = X i (1 + kt ) and X i = xi / (1 + kt ) → vi = kX i =kxi / (1 + kt ) .
(b) vi = kX i → ai = 0 , or
⎛ ∂v ⎞ ∂v k 2 xi kx j kδ ij k 2 xi kxi k
ai = ⎜ i ⎟ + vj i = − + = − + =0.
⎝ ∂t ⎠ xi − fixed ∂x j (1 + kt ) (
2 1 + kt )(1 + kt ) ( 1 + kt ) (1 + kt ) ( kt )
1 +
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3.10 Given the two dimensional velocity field: vx = −2 y, v y = 2 x . (a) Obtain the acceleration
field and (b) obtain the pathline equation.
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∂v ∂v ∂v
Ans. (a) ax = x + vx x + v y x = 0 + ( −2 y ) (0) + ( 2 x )( −2 ) = −4 x ,
∂t ∂x ∂y
∂v y ∂v y ∂v y
ay = + vx = 0 + ( −2 y ) (2) + ( 2 x )( 0 ) = −4 y , i.e., a = −4 xe x − 4 ye y
+ vy
∂t ∂x ∂y
dx dy dy x
(b) = −2 y and = 2x → = − → xdx + ydy = 0 , → x 2 + y 2 = constant=X 2 + Y 2 ,
dt dt dx y
dx dy d2x dy d 2x
Or, = −2 y and = 2x → = −2 = − 2 ( 2 x ) → + 4x = 0
dt dt dt dt dt
→ x = A sin 2t + B cos 2t and y = − A cos 2t + B sin 2t , where A = −Y , B = X .
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3.11 Given the two dimensional velocity field: vx = kx, v y = − ky . (a) Obtain the acceleration
field and (b) obtain the pathline equation.
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∂v ∂v ∂v
Ans. (a) ax = x + vx x + v y x = 0 + ( kx ) ( k ) + ( − ky )( 0 ) = k 2 x
∂t ∂x ∂y
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∂v y ∂v y ∂v y
ay =
∂t
+ vx
∂x
+ vy
∂y
(
= 0 + ( kx ) (0) + ( − ky )( − k ) = k 2 y , That is, a = k 2 xe x + ye y )
x t
dx dx x
(b) = kx → ∫ = ∫ kdt → ln x − ln X = kt → ln = kt → x = Xe kt .
dt X
x 0 X
Similarly derivation gives → y = Ye− kt . Or, xy = XY where ( X , Y ) are material coordinates.
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3.12 Given the two dimensional velocity field: vx = k ( x 2 − y 2 ), v y = −2kxy . Obtain the
acceleration field.
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∂v
∂t
∂v
∂x
∂v
( )
Ans. ax = x + vx x + v y x = 0 + k x 2 − y 2 (2kx) + ( −2kxy )( −2ky ) = 2 xk 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) .
∂y
∂v y ∂v y ∂v y
ay =
∂t
+ vx
∂x
+ vy
∂y
( )
= 0 + k x 2 − y 2 ( −2ky ) − 2kxy ( −2kx ) = 2 yk 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) .

(
That is, a = 2k 2 x 2 + y 2 ) ( xe x + ye y )
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Dv ∂v
3.13 In a spatial description, the equation to evaluate the acceleration = + ( ∇v ) v is
Dt ∂t
nonlinear. That is, if we consider two velocity fields v A and v B , then a A + a B ≠ a A+B , where
a A and a B denote respectively the acceleration fields corresponding to the velocity fields
v A and v B each existing alone, a A+B denotes the acceleration field corresponding to the combined
velocity field v A +v B . Verify this inequality for the velocity fields:
v A = −2 x2e1 + 2 x1e2 , v B = 2 x2e1 − 2 x1e2
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Dv ∂v
Ans. From = + ( ∇v ) v
Dt ∂t
0 −2 ⎤ ⎡ −2x2 ⎤ ⎡ −4 x1 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 2 ⎤ ⎡ 2x2 ⎤ ⎡ −4 x1 ⎤
⎡a A ⎤ = ⎡⎢ ⎤⎥ + ⎡⎢
0
= , ⎡a B ⎤ = + =
⎣ ⎦ ⎣0 ⎦ ⎣ 2 0 ⎦⎥ ⎢ 2x1 ⎥ ⎢ −4 x2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣⎢ 0 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ −2 0 ⎦⎥ ⎢ −2x1 ⎥ ⎢ −4 x2 ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
→ a A = −4 x1e1 − 4 x2e 2 , a B = −4 x1e1 − 4 x2e 2
→ a A + a B = −8 x1e1 − 8 x2e 2 .
On the other hand, v A +v B =0, so that a A+B = 0 . Thus, a A + a B ≠ a A+B
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## 3.14 Consider the motion: x1 = X1 , x2 = X 2 + ( sin π t )( sin π X1 ) , x3 = X 3

(a) At t = 0 , a material filament coincides with the straight line that extends from ( 0,0,0 ) to
(1,0,0 ) . Sketch the deformed shape of this filament at t = 1 / 2, t = 1 and t = 3 / 2 .
(b) Find the velocity and acceleration in a material and a spatial description.
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Ans. (a) Since x1 = X1 and x3 = X 3 , therefore there is no motion of the particles in the
x1 and x3 directions. Every particle moves only up and down in the x2 direction.
When t = 1 / 2 → x2 = X 2 + sin π X1 , t = 1 → x2 = X 2 , t = 3 / 2 → x2 = X 2 − sin π X1
The deformed shapes of the material at three different times are shown in the figure.
y

t=1/2

t=0, t=1
(1,0)
x

t=3/2

## (b) v1 = 0, v2 = π ( cos π t )( sin π X1 ) , v3 = 0 , a1 = 0, a2 = −π 2 ( sin π t )( sin π X1 ) , a3 = 0

Since x1 = X1 , the spatial descriptions are of the same form as above except that X1 is replaced
with x1 .
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## 3.15 Consider the following velocity and temperature fields:

v = α ( x1e1 + x2e 2 ) / ( x12 + x22 ), Θ=k ( x12 + x22 )
(a) Write the above fields in polar coordinates and discuss the general nature of the given velocity
field and temperature field (e.g.,what do the flow and the isotherms look like?) (b) At the point
A (1,1,0 ) , determine the acceleration and the material derivative of the temperature field.
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Ans. (a) In polar coordinates, x1e1 + x2e2 = rer , where r 2 = x12 + x22 and er is the unit vector in
α
the r direction, so that v = er , Θ =kr 2 . Thus, the given velocity field is that of a two
r
dimensional source flow from the origin, the flow is purely radial with radial velocity inversely
proportional to the radial distance from the origin. With Θ=kr 2 , the isotherms are circles.
α
(b) From vr = and vθ = 0 , and Eq. (3.4.12)
r
∂v ∂v v ∂v v2 ⎛ α ⎞⎛ α ⎞ α2
ar = r + vr r + θ r − θ = 0 + ⎜ ⎟⎜ − 2 ⎟ + 0 + 0 = − 3 .
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ⎝ r ⎠⎝ r ⎠ r
∂vθ ∂vθ vθ ∂vθ vr vθ
aθ = + vr + + =0.
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r
That is, a = −α 2 / r 3e r . At the point A(1,1,0), r = 2 , a = −α 2 / ( 2)3 e r = −α 2 2 / 4e r .
DΘ ∂Θ ∂Θ vθ ∂Θ ⎛α ⎞
= + vr + = 0 + ⎜ ⎟ ( 2kr ) = 2α k .
Dt ∂t ∂r r ∂θ ⎝r⎠
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3.16 Do the previous problem for the following velocity and temperature fields:

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α ( − x2e1 + x1e2 )
v=
x12
+ x22
(
, Θ=k x12 + x22 )
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Ans. With x1 = r cos θ , x2 = r sin θ and x12 + x22 = r 2 , we have
α ( - x2e1 + x1e2 ) α r ( − sin θ e1 + cosθ e2 ) α
v= = = eθ and Θ=kr 2
+ x12 x22 r 2 r
Particles move in concentric circles with their speed inversely proportional to r . Isotherms are
circles.
α
(b) With vr = 0, vθ = , we have, from Eq.(3.4.12).
r
2
∂vr ∂v v ∂v v2 ⎛α ⎞ 1 α2 ∂vθ ∂v v ∂v vv
ar = + vr r + θ r − θ = − ⎜ ⎟ = − 3 , aθ = + vr θ + θ θ + r θ = 0
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ⎝r⎠ r r ∂t ∂r r ∂θ r
i.e., a = −α 2 / r 3e r . At the point A, r = 2 , therefore, a = − 2α 2 / 4e r
DΘ ∂Θ ⎛α ⎞
= + v ⋅ ∇Θ = 0 + ⎜ eθ ⎟ ⋅ 2kre r = 0 .
Dt ∂t ⎝r ⎠
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## 3.17 Consider : x = X + X1ke1 . let dX( ) = dS1 / 2

1
( ) (e1 +e2 ) & dX( 2) = ( dS2 / 2 ) ( −e1 +e2 ) be
differential material elements in the undeformed configuration. (a) Find the deformed elements
dx( ) and dx( ) . (b) Evaluate the stretches of these elements ds / dS and ds / dS and the change
1 2
1 1 2 2
−2
in the angle between them. (c) Do part (b) for k = 1 and k = 10 and (d) compare the results of
part (c) to that predicted by the small strain tensor E .
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⎡1 + k 0 0 ⎤
Ans. (a) x1 = X1 + kX1 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 → [ F ] = ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ , dx = FdX →
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
⎡1 + k 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤
⎛ ⎞ ⎢ ⎛ dS ⎞
( ) 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ → dx( ) = ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎡⎣(1 + k ) e1 + e2 ⎤⎦ .
⎡ dx ⎤ =
1 dS1 1
0
⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ ⎢ ⎝ 2⎠
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
⎡1 + k 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ −1⎤
⎡ dx( 2 ) ⎤ = ⎛ dS2 ⎞ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ → dx( 2 ) = ⎛ dS2 ⎞ ⎡ − 1 + k e + e ⎤ .
⎣⎢ ⎜
⎦⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎢ ⎟ 1 0 ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟⎣ ( ) 1 2⎦
⎢⎣ 0 ⎝ 2⎠
0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
ds1 ds2 ⎛ 1 ⎞
(b) = =⎜ ⎟ (1 + k )2 + 1 .
dS1 dS2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
Let γ be the decrease in angle (from 90o ), then (π / 2 ) − γ is the angle between the two
deformed differential elements. Thus,

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(1) ( 2)
⎤ = − (1 + k ) + 1 →
2
⎛π ⎞ dx ⋅ dx 1 ⎛ dS1 ⎞⎛ dS2 ⎞ ⎡
cos ⎜ − γ ⎟ = = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ − (1 + k ) 2
+ 1
⎝2 ⎠ ds1ds2 ds1ds2 ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎣⎢ ⎦⎥ (1 + k )2 + 1

− (1 + k ) + 1
2
sin γ = .
(1 + k )2 + 1
ds1 ds2 5 3
(c) For k = 1 , = = , sin γ = − .
dS1 dS2 2 5
ds1 ds2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞
For k = 10−2 , = =⎜ ⎟ (1 + k )2 + 1 ≈ ⎜ ⎟ 2 + 2k = 1 + k = 1.01 = 1.005 .
dS1 dS2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠
− (1 + k ) + 1
2
−2k −k −0.01
sin γ = ≈ = = → γ = −0.0099 radian ( − sign indicates increase in
(1 + k ) 2
+1 2 + 2k 1 + k 1.01
angle).

⎡k 0 0⎤ ⎡ k 0 0⎤
(d) u = x − X = kX1e1 → u1 = kX1 , u2 = u3 = 0 , → [∇u ] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥ → [ E] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ ,

⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦
⎡ k 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡k ⎤
1 1 1
( e1 + e2 ) → E11 = [1 1 0] ⎢⎢ 0 0 0⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ = [1 1 0] ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ = ,
' k

e1 =
2 2 2 2
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
ds − dS k ds k
′ =
E11 = → = 1 + = 1.005 , same as the result of part (c).
dS 2 dS 2
Also with
⎡ k 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ −1⎤ ⎡−k ⎤
1 1 1
( -e1 + e2 ) → E12′ = [1 1 0] ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ = [1 1 0] ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ = − → 2 E12′ = −k
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ k
e′2 =
2 2 2 2
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
Thus, the decrease in angle = −k , or the increase in angle is 0.01 ≈ 0.0099 .
_________________________________________________________________

3.18 Consider the motion: x = X + AX , where A is a small constant tensor (i.e., whose
components are small in magnitude and independent of X i ). Show that the infinitesimal strain
tensor is given by E = ( A + A T ) / 2 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. u = x − X = AX → ∇u = ∇ ( AX ) . Since A is a constant, therefore,
∇u = ∇ ( AX ) = A ( ∇X ) . Now, [∇X] = ⎡⎣∂X i / ∂X j ⎤⎦ = ⎡⎣δ ij ⎤⎦ = [ I ] → ∇u = A → E = ( A + A T ) / 2
_______________________________________________________________________

## 3.19 At time t , the position of a particle, initially at ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) is defined by:

x1 = X1 + kX 3 , x2 = X 2 + kX 2 , x3 = X 3 , k = 10−5 . (a) Find the components of the strain tensor
and (b) find the unit elongation of an element initially in the direction of e1 + e2 .

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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. (a) u1 = x1 − X1 = kX 3 , u2 = x2 − X 2 = kX 2 , u3 = x3 − X 3 = 0
⎡0 0 k ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 k / 2⎤
⎢ ⎥
→ [ ∇u ] = ⎢ 0 k 0 ⎥ → [ E ] =
[ ∇u ] + [ ∇u ]
T

=⎢ 0 k 0 ⎥⎥
2
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ k / 2 0 0 ⎥⎦
⎡ 0 0 k / 2 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ −5
1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 ⎥ = k = 10
(b) Let e1′ = ( 1 2 ) 11 1 1 11 [
e + e → E ′ = e′ ⋅ Ee ′ → E ′ = 1 1 0 ]⎢ 0 k 0 ⎥⎢ ⎥ 2
2 2 2
⎢⎣ k / 2 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.20 Consider the displacements: u1 = k (2 X12 + X1 X 2 ), u2 = kX 22 , u3 = 0, k = 10−4 . (a) Find the

unit elongations and the change of angles for two material elements
dX( ) = dX e and dX( ) = dX e that emanate from a particle designated by X = e + e . (b)
1 2
1 1 2 2 1 2
Sketch deformed positions of these two elements.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡ 4kX1 + kX 2 kX1 0 ⎤
Ans. (a) [∇u ] = ⎢⎢ 0 2kX 2 0 ⎥⎥ ,
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦
⎡ 5k k 0 ⎤ ⎡ 5k k / 2 0 ⎤
At ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (1,1,0 ) , [∇u ] = ⎢ 0 2k 0 ⎥ → [ E] = ⎢⎢ k / 2 2k 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦
Unit elong. for dX( ) = dX1e1 is E11 = 5k = 5 × 10−4 , unit elong. for dX( ) = dX 2e 2 is
1 2

E22 = 2k = 2 × 10−4 .
Decrease in angle between them is 2 E12 = k = 10−4 radian .
(b) For dX( ) = dX1e1 , dx( ) = dX( ) + ( ∇u ) dX( ) = dX1e1 + 5kdX1e1 = (1 + 5k ) dX1e1 ,
1 1 1 1

For dX( ) = dX e ,
2
2 2

2 2 2

## The deformed positions of these two elements are shown below:

k dX 2
(1 + 2 k) dX 2

dX 2 P’
u2=k

(1 + 5 k) dX1
P dX1
u1= 3k

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_________________________________________________________________

## 3.21 Given displacement field: u1 = kX1 , u2 = u3 = 0, k = 10−4 . Determine the increase in

length for the diagonal element OA of the unit cube (see figure below) in the direction of
e1 + e2 + e3 (a) by using the strain tensor and (b) by geometry.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡k 0 0⎤
1
Ans. (a) [u ] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ = [ E] . Let e1′ = ( e1 + e2 + e3 ) , then the unit elongation in the e1' -
3
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦
⎡ k 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1⎤
1 k 10−4
direction is E11′ = e1′ ⋅ Ee1′ = [1 1 1] ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢1⎥ = = .
3 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 3 3
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1⎥⎦
(b) From the given displacement field, we see that the unit cube becomes longer in the
x1 direction by an amount of k , while the other two sides remain the same. The diagonal
OA becomes OA ' , (see Figure), where OA = 3 and
OA ' = (1 + k ) 2 + 1 + 1 = 3 + 2k + k 2 = 3(1 + 2k / 3 + k 2 / 3)
→ OA '− OA = 3(1 + 2k / 3 + k 2 / 3)1/2 − 3 .

( )
1/2
Using binomial theorem, 1 + 2k / 3 + k 2 / 3 = 1 + (1 / 2)(2k / 3) + ... ≈ 1 + k / 3
Thus, OA '− OA = 3(1 + k / 3) − 3 = 3k / 3 → (OA '− OA) / OA = k / 3 , same as that obtained in
part (a).
_________________________________________________________________

3.22 With reference to a rectangular Cartesian coordinate system, the state of strain at a point is
⎡5 3 0 ⎤
given by the matrix [ E ] = ⎢⎢ 3 4 −1⎥⎥ × 10−4 . (a) What is the unit elongation in the direction of
⎢⎣ 0 −1 2 ⎥⎦
2e1 + 2e 2 + e3 ? (b) What is the change in angle between two perpendicular lines (in the
undeformed state) emanating from the point and in the directions of 2e1 + 2e2 + e3 and 3e1 − 6e3 ?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. Let e1′ = (2e1 + 2e2 + e3 ) / 3 , the unit elongation in this direction is:

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⎡5 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2⎤
1 58
′ = e1′ ⋅ Ee1′ = [ 2 2 1] ⎢ 3 4 −1⎥ ⎢ 2 ⎥ × 10−4 = × 10−4 .
E11
9 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 9
⎢⎣ 0 −1 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 1 ⎥⎦
1
Let e′2 = ( 3e1 − 6e3 ) , then the decrease in angle between the two elements is:
45
⎡5 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 3 ⎤
2 32
′ = 2e1′ ⋅ Ee′2 =
2 E12 [ 2 2 1] ⎢⎢3 4 −1⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ × 10−4 = × 10−4 rad .
3 45 45
⎢⎣0 −1 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −6 ⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

3.23 For the strain tensor given in the previous problem, (a) find the unit elongation in the
direction of 3e1 − 4e2 and (b) find the change in angle between two elements in the dir. of
3e1 − 4e3 and 4e1 + 3e3 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1
Ans. (a) Let e1′ = ( 3e1 − 4e2 ) , the unit elongation in this direction is:
5
2 ⎡5 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 3 ⎤
⎛1⎞ 37
′ = e1′ ⋅ Ee1′ = ⎜ ⎟ [3 −4 0] ⎢ 3 4 −1⎥ ⎢ −4 ⎥ × 10−4 =
E11 × 10−4 = 1.48 × 10−4
5
⎝ ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 25
⎢⎣ 0 −1 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
1 1
(b) Let e1'' = ( 3e1 − 4e3 ) and e''2 = ( 4e1 + 3e3 ) , then the decrease in angle between these two
5 5
elements is:
2 ⎡5 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 4⎤
⎛ 1 ⎞ 72
= 2e1'' ⋅ Ee''2 = 2 ⎜ ⎟ [3 0 −4] ⎢⎢ 3 4 −1⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ × 10−4 = × 10−4 = 2.88 × 10−4 rad .
'''
2 E12
⎝5⎠ 25
⎢⎣ 0 −1 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 3 ⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

3.24 (a) Determine the principal scalar invariants for the strain tensor given below at the left and
(b) show that the matrix given below at the right can not represent the same state of strain.
⎡5 3 0 ⎤ ⎡3 0 0⎤
[E] = ⎢3 4 −1⎥ × 10 , ⎢0 6 0 ⎥⎥ × 10−4
⎢ ⎥ −4 ⎢

⎢⎣ 0 −1 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. (a) I1 = ( 5 + 4 + 2 ) × 10−4 = 11 × 10−4 ,
5 3 4 −1 5 0
I2 = × 10−8 + × 10−8 + × 10−8 = 28 × 10−8
3 4 −1 2 0 2
5 3 0
I 3 = 3 4 −1 × 10−12 = 17 × 10−12
0 −1 2

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⎡3 0 0⎤
(b) For ⎢⎢ 0 6 0 ⎥⎥ × 10−4 , I 3 = 36 × 10−12 , which is different from the I 3 in (a), therefore, the
⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦
two matrices can not represent the same tensor.
_________________________________________________________________

3.25 Calculate the principal scalar invariants for the following two tensors. What can you say
⎡0 τ 0⎤ ⎡ 0 −τ 0 ⎤
⎡ T(1) ⎤ = ⎢τ 0 0 ⎥ and ⎡ T( 2 ) ⎤ = ⎢ −τ 0 0 ⎥ .
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡0 τ 0 ⎤
Ans. For ⎢ T ⎥ = ⎢τ 0 0 ⎥⎥ , I1 = 0, I 2 = −τ 2 , I 3 = 0 .
⎡ (1) ⎤ ⎢
⎣ ⎦
⎢⎣0 0 0 ⎥⎦
{ei }

⎡0 −τ 0⎤
2) ⎤ ⎢
⎡ (
For ⎢ T ⎥ = ⎢ −τ 0 0 ⎥⎥ I1 = 0, I 2 = −τ 2 , I 3 = 0
⎣ ⎦
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦
{ei }
We see that these two tensors have the same principal scalar invariants. This result demonstrates
that two different tensors can have the same three principal scalar invariants and therefore the
same eigenvalues (in fact, λ1 = τ , λ2 = −τ , λ3 = 0 ). However, corresponding to the same
eigenvalue τ , the eigenvector for T( ) is (e + e ) / 2 , whereas the eigenvector for T( ) is
1 2
1 2
(e1 − e 2 ) / 2 . We see from this example that having the same principal scalar invariants is a
necessary but not sufficient condition for the two tensors to be the same.
_________________________________________________________________

( )
3.26 For the displacement field: u1 = kX12 , u2 = kX 2 X 3 , u3 = k 2 X1 X 3 + X12 , k = 10−6 , find
the maximum unit elongation for an element that is initially at (1,0,0 ) .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡ 2kX1 0 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
Ans. [∇u ] = ⎢ 0 kX 3 kX 2 ⎥ , thus, for ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) = (1,0,0 ) ,
⎢ k ( 2 X 3 + 2 X1 ) 0 2kX1 ⎥
⎣ ⎦
⎡ 2 k 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2 k 0 k ⎤
[∇u ] = ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥ → [E] = ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎥ , the characteristic equation for this tensor is:
⎢ ⎥ ⎢
⎢⎣ 2k 0 2k ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ k 0 2k ⎥⎦

2k − λ 0 k
0 = 0 → ( −λ ) ⎡⎢( 2k − λ ) − k 2 ⎤⎥ = 0 → λ1 = 0, λ2 = 3k , λ3 = k .
2
0 0−λ
⎣ ⎦
k 0 2k − λ

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## Thus, the maximum unit elongation at (1,0,0 ) is λ2 = 3k = 3 × 10−6 .

_________________________________________________________________

## 3.27 Given the matrix of an infinitesimal strain tensor as

⎡ k1 X 2 0 0 ⎤
[ E] = ⎢⎢ 0 − k2 X 2 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎣⎢ 0 0 − k2 X 2 ⎦⎥
(a) Find the location of the particle that does not undergo any volume change.
(b) What should the relation between k1 and k2 be so that no element changes its volume?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Δ ( dV )
Ans. (a) = E11 + E22 + E33 = ( k1 − 2k2 ) X 2 = 0 . Thus, the particles which were on the plane
dV
X 2 = 0 do not suffer any change of volume.
(b) If ( k1 − 2k2 ) = 0, ie., k1 = 2k2 , then no element changes its volume.
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.28 The displacement components for a body are:

u1 = k ( X12 + X 2 ), u2 = k (4 X 32 − X1 ), u3 = 0, k =10−4 .
(a) Find the strain tensor. (b) Find the change of length per unit length for an element which was
at (1, 2,1) and in the direction of e1 + e2 . (c) What is the maximum unit elongation at the same
point (1, 2,1) ? (d) What is the change of volume for the unit cube with a corner at the origin and
with three of its edges along the positive coordinate axes?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡ 2kX1 k 0 ⎤ ⎡ 2kX1 0 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
Ans. (a) [∇u ] = ⎢ − k 0 8kX 3 ⎥ → [ E] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 4kX 3 ⎥⎥
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 4kX 3 0 ⎥⎦
⎡ 2k 0 0⎤
(b) At (1, 2,1) , [ E] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 4k ⎥⎥ ,
⎢⎣ 0 4k 0 ⎥⎦
⎡ 2k 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤
1 1
for e1' = ( e1 + e2 ) , E11' = [1 1 0] ⎢⎢ 0
= e1' ⋅ Ee1' 0 4k ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ = k
2 2
⎢⎣ 0 4k 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
2k − λ 0 0
4k = 0 → ( 2k − λ ) ⎢⎡λ 2 − ( 4k ) ⎥⎤ = 0
2
(c) The characteristic equation is 0 −λ
⎣ ⎦
0 4k −λ
→ λ1 = 2k , λ2 = 4k , λ3 = −4k . The maximum elongation is 4k .
(d) Change of volume per unit volume = Eii = 2kX1 , which is a function of X1 . Thus,
1 1
ΔV = ∫ 2kX1dV = 2∫ kX1 (1) dX1 = kX12 = k .
o
o
_________________________________________________________________
3-14
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3.29 For any motion, the mass of a particle (material volume) remains a constant (conservation of
mass principle). Consider the mass to be the product of its volume and its mass density and show
that (a) for infinitesimal deformation ρ (1 + Ekk ) = ρo where ρo denote the initial density and ρ ,
the current density. (b) Use the smallness of Ekk to show that the current density is given by
ρ = ρo (1 − Ekk ) .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ρ dV dV + ΔdV ⎛ ΔdV ⎞
Ans. (a) ρo dVo = ρ dV → ρ o = =ρ o = ρ ⎜1 + ⎟,
dVo dVo ⎝ dVo ⎠
ΔdV
For small deformation, = Ekk → ρo = ρ (1 + Ekk ) .
dVo
−1
(b) From bionomial theorem, for small Ekk , (1+Ekk ) ≈ 1 − Ekk , thus,
−1
ρ = ρo (1 + Ekk ) = ρo (1 − Ekk ) .
_________________________________________________________________

3.30 True or false: At any point in a body, there always exist two mutually perpendicular material
elements which do not suffer any change of angle in an arbitrary small deformation of the body.
Give reason(s).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. True. The strain tensor E is a real symmetric tensor, for which there always exists three
principal directions, with respect to which, the matrix of E is diagonal. That is, the non-diagonal
elements, which give one-half of the change of angle between the elements which were along the
principal directions, are zero.
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.31 Given the following strain components at a point in a continuum:

E11 = E12 = E22 = k , E33 = 3k , E13 = E23 = 0, k = 10−6
Does there exist a material element at the point which decreases in length under the deformation?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.
⎡k k 0 ⎤ k −λ k 0
⎢ ⎥
[E] = ⎢ k k 0 ⎥ → k k − λ 0 = 0, → ( 3k − λ ) ⎢⎡⎣( k − λ )2 − k 2 ⎥⎤⎦ = 0
⎢⎣ 0 0 3k ⎥⎦ 0 0 3k − λ

( )
→ ( 3k − λ ) −2λ k + λ 2 = 0 → λ1 = 3k , λ2 = 0, λ3 = 2k .
Thus, the minimum unit elongation is 0 . Therefore, there does not exist any element at the point
which has a negative unit elongation (i.e., decreases in length).
_________________________________________________________________

3.32 The unit elongation at a certain point on the surface of a body are measured experimentally
by means of strain gages that are arranged 45o apart (called the 45o strain rosette) in the direction
1
of e1 , ( e1 + e2 ) and e2 . If these unit elongation are designated by a, b, c respectively, what are
2
the strain components E11 , E22 and E12 ?
3-15
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.

1
With e1′ = ( e1 + e2 ) , we have,
2
⎡ E11 E12 E13 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤
1 1
′ = e1′ ⋅ Ee1′ = [1 1 0] ⎢ E21 E22 E23 ⎥ ⎢1 ⎥ = ( E11 + E12 + E21 + E22 ) , with E12 = E21 ,
E11
2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2
⎢⎣ E31 E32 E33 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
1
′ = ( E11 + 2 E12 + E22 ) → E12 = E11
( E + E22 )
′ − 11
E11 . Thus, the strain components are:
2 2
(a + c)
E11 = a, E22 = c, E12 = b − .
2
_________________________________________________________________

3.33 (a) Do the previous problem, if the measured strains are 200 × 10−6 , 50 × 10−6 and
100 × 10−6 in the direction e1 , e1′ and e 2 respectively. (b) Find the principal directions, assuming
E31 = E32 = E33 = 0 . (c) How will the result of part b be altered if E33 ≠ 0 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. (a) With E11 = 200 × 10−6 , E11 ′ = 50 × 10−6 and E22 = 100 × 10−6 , we have, from the results
E11 + E22 ⎛ 200 + 100 ⎞ −6 −6
′ −
of the previous problem, E12 = E11 = ⎜ 50 − ⎟ × 10 = −100 × 10
2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
E11 − λ E12 0
(b) E12 E22 − λ 0 = 0 → λ ⎡ ( E11 − λ )( E22 − λ ) − E12
2 ⎤
=0
⎣ ⎦
0 0 −λ

⎣ (
→ λ ⎡ + λ 2 − λ ( E11 + E22 ) + E11E22 − E12
2 ⎤

=0, )
( E11 + E22 ) ± ( E11 − E22 )2 + 4 E122
λ1,2 = , λ3 = 0 ,
2
thus,

⎢ ( 200 + 100 ) ± ( 200 − 100 )2 + 4 ( −100 )2 ⎤⎥ −6 261.8 × 10−6
λ1,2 = × 10 = , λ3 = 0
⎢ 2 ⎥ 38.2 × 10−6
⎣⎢ ⎦⎥
The principal direction for λ3 is e3 . The principal directions corresponding to the other two
eigenvalues lie on the plane of e1 and e2 . Let
n = α1e1 + α 2e 2 ≡ cosθ e1 + sin θ e 2 , then ( E11 − λ )α1 + E12α 2 = 0 ,

3-16
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

α2 ( λ − E11 )
→ = tan θ = ,
α1 E12
λ1 − E11 261.8 − 200 61.8
For λ1 = 261.8 × 10−6 , tanθ = = = = −0.618 → θ = −31.7o ,
E12 −100 −100
Or, n = 0.851e1 − 0.525e 2
λ2 − E11 38.2 − 200
For λ2 = 38.2 × 10−6 , tanθ = = = 1.618 → θ = 58.3o
E12 −100
Or, n = 0.525e1 + 0.851e 2 .
(c) If E33 ≠ 0 , then the principal strain corresponding to the direction e3 is E33 instead of zero.
Nothing else changes.
_________________________________________________________________

## ′ = E22 = 1000 × 10−6 .

3.34 Repeat the previous problem with E11 = E11
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E + E22 ⎛ 2000 ⎞
Ans. (a) From the results of Problem 3.32, E12 = E11 ′ − 11 = ⎜ 1000 − × 10−6 = 0 ,
2 ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
⎡10−3 0 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
(b) and (c) [ E ] = ⎢ 0 10−3 0 ⎥ , the principal strains are 10−3 in any directions lying on the
⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ 0 0 E33 ⎥

plane of e1 and e 2 and the principal strain E33 is in e3 direction.
_________________________________________________________________

3.35 The unit elongation at a certain point on the surface of a body are measured experimentally
by means of strain gages that are arranged 60o apart (called the 60o strain rosette) in the direction
1
(
of e1 , e1 + 3e 2 and
2
) 1
2
( )
−e1 + 3e2 . If these unit elongation are designated by a, b, c

respectively, what are the strain components E11 , E22 and E12 ?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.

## With e1' = (e1 + 3e 2 ) / 2, e1'' = ( −e1 + 3e2 ) / 2 , we have,

3-17
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

## ⎡ E11 E12 E13 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤

⎢ ⎥ 1
E11' = e1' ⋅ Ee1'
1
= ⎣⎡1
4
3 0 ⎦⎤ ⎢⎢ E21 E22
4
(
E23 ⎥⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎥ = E11 + 2 3E12 + 3E22 (i) )
⎢⎣ E31 E32 E33 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

## ⎡ E11 E12 E13 ⎤ ⎡ −1 ⎤

⎢ ⎥ 1
"'
E11 = e1" ⋅ Ee1"
1
= ⎣⎡ −1
4
3 0 ⎦⎤ ⎢⎢ E21 E22
4
(
E23 ⎥⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎥ = E11 − 2 3E12 + 3E22 ) (ii)
⎢⎣ E31 E32 E33 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

1 1 E ' − E11
''
b−c
(i) & (ii), → E22 = ⎡ 2 E11' + 2 E11
'''
− E11 ⎤ = [ 2b + 2c − a ] , E12 = 11 = , E11 = a .
3 ⎣ ⎦ 3 3 3
_________________________________________________________________

3.36 If the 60o strain rosette measurements give a = 2 × 10−6 , b = 1 × 10−6 , c = 1.5 × 10−6 , obtain
E11 , E12 and E22 . Use the formulas obtained in the previous problem.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. Using the formulas drived in the previous problem, we have,
1 1
E22 = [ 2b + 2c − a ] = ⎡⎣( 2 )(1) + ( 2 )(1.5 ) − 2 ⎤⎦ × 10−6 = 1 × 10−6 ,
3 3
b−c 1
E12 = =− × 10−6 , E11 = 2 × 10−6 .
3 2 3
_________________________________________________________________

3.37 Repeat the previous problem for the case a = b= c = 2000 × 10−6 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 1
Ans. E22 = [ 2b + 2c − a ] = ⎡⎣( 2 )( 2000 ) + ( 2 )( 2000 ) − 2000 ⎤⎦ × 10−6 = 2 × 10−3 ,
3 3
b−c
E12 = = 0 , E11 = 2 × 10−3
3
_______________________________________________________________________

3.38 For the velocity field: v = kx22e1 , (a) find the rate of deformation and spin tensors. (b) Find
the rate of extension of a material element dx = dsn where n = ( e1 + e2 ) / 2 at x = 5e1 + 3e 2 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. v1 = kx22 , v2 = v3 = 0 ,
⎡ 0 2kx2 0⎤ ⎡ 0 kx2 0⎤ ⎡ 0 kx2 0⎤
→ [∇v ] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 ⎥ → [ D] = [∇v ] = ⎢⎢ kx2
⎥ 0 ⎥⎥ , [ W ] = [∇v ] = ⎢⎢ − kx2 0 ⎥⎥
S A
0 0 0
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦
(b) At the position x = 5e1 + 3e 2 ,
⎡ 0 3k 0⎤ ⎡ 0 3k 0⎤
[ D] = ⎢⎢3k 0 0 ⎥⎥ , [ W ] = ⎢⎢ −3k 0 0 ⎥⎥
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦

3-18
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

For the element dx = dsn with n = (e1 + e2 ) / 2 , the rate of extension is:
⎡ 0 3k 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤
1
D( n )( n ) = n ⋅ Dn = [1 1 0] ⎢⎢3k 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ = 3k .
2
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

⎛ t+k ⎞
3.39 For the velocity field: v = α ⎜ ⎟ e1 , find the rates of extension for the following material
⎝ 1 + x1 ⎠
1
1 1
2
( 2 )( 1
elements: dx( ) = ds e and dx( ) = ds / 2 e + e at the origin at time t = 1 .
2 )
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡ −α ( t + k ) / (1 + x )2 0 0 ⎤
1
⎛ t+k ⎞ ⎢ ⎥
Ans. v1 = α ⎜ ⎟ , v2 = v3 = 0 → [∇v ] = ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥ = [ D] .
⎝ 1 + x1 ⎠ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎥
⎣⎢ ⎦
⎡ −α (1 + k ) 0 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
At t = 1 and at ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( 0,0,0 ) , [ D] = ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ .
⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦

(
Rate of extension for dx( ) = ds1e1 is D11 = −α (1 + k ) ; for dx( ) = ds2 / 2 ( e1 + e 2 ) , it is:
1 2
)
⎡ −α (1 + k ) 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤
1 ⎢ ⎥ 1
= [1 1 0] ⎢
D11' 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ = − α (1 + k )
2 2
⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦

_________________________________________________________________

3.40 For the velocity field v = ( cos t )( sin π x1 ) e 2 (a) find the rate of deformation and spin tensors,
and (b) find the rate of extension at t = 0 for the following elements at the origin:
1 1
2
2 2
3
(
dx( ) = ds e , dx( ) = ds e and dx( ) = ds / 2 e + e .
1
3 )( 1 2 )
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. (a) With v1 = 0, v2 = ( cos t )( sin π x1 ) , v3 = 0 ,
⎡ 0 0 0⎤ ⎡ 0 (π cos t cos π x1 ) / 2 0⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
[∇v ] = ⎢π cos t cos π x1 0 0⎥ → [ D] = ⎢(π cos t cos π x1 ) / 2 0 0⎥ ,
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦

⎡ 0 − (π cos t cos π x1 ) / 2 0⎤
⎢ ⎥
[ W ] = ⎢(π cos t cos π x1 ) / 2 0 0⎥ .
⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦

⎡ 0 π / 2 0⎤
(b) At t = 0 and ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) = ( 0,0,0 ) , [ D] = ⎢⎢π / 2 0 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦

3-19
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

For dx( ) = ds1e1 , rate of extension is D11 =0, for dx( ) = ds2e 2 , D22 = 0 and
1 2

⎡ 0 π / 2 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤
π
( 3)
( ) 1 ⎢
for dx = ds3 / 2 ( e1 + e 2 ) , D11 = [1 1 0] ⎢π / 2
'
2
0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ =
2
⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

3.41 Show that the following velocity components correspond to a rigid body motion.
v1 = x2 − x3 , v2 = − x1 + x3 , v3 = x1 − x2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡ 0 1 −1⎤ ⎡0 0 0 ⎤
Ans. [∇v ] = ⎢ −1 0 1 ⎥ → [ D] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 0 ⎥⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ 1 −1 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 0 ⎥⎦
Therefore, the velocity field is a rigid body motion..
_________________________________________________________________

1
3.42 Given the velocity field v = e r , (a) find the rate of deformation tensor and the spin tensor
r
and (b) find the rate of extension of a radial material line element.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1
Ans. With vr = , vθ = vz = 0 , we have, using Eq. (2.34.5)
r
⎡ ∂vr 1 ⎛ ∂vr ⎞ ∂vr ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤
⎢ ⎜ − vθ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢− 2 0 0⎥
⎢ ∂r r ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ ∂z ⎥ ⎢ r ⎥
⎢ ∂vθ 1 ⎛ ∂vθ ⎞ ∂vθ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥= D , W = 0 .
[ ] ⎢
∇ v = ⎜ + vr⎟ =
⎥ ⎢ 0 0 ⎥ [ ] [ ] [ ]
⎢ ∂r r ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ ∂z ⎥ ⎢ 2
r

⎢ ∂v 1 ∂vz ∂vz ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎥
⎢ z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎦
⎢⎣ ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ⎥⎦ ⎣
1
(b) The rate of extension for a radial element is Drr = −
.
r2
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.43 Given the two-dimensional velocity field in polar coordinates:

4
vr = 0, vθ = 2r +
r
(a) Find the acceleration at r = 2 and (b) find the rate of deformation tensor at r = 2 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
∂vr
Ans. (a) Using Eq. (3.4.12), ar =
∂v v ⎛ ∂v ⎞ (v ) 2
1⎛
+ vr r + θ ⎜ r − vθ ⎟ = − θ = − ⎜ 2r + ⎟ ,
4⎞
2

∂t ∂r r ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ r r⎝ r⎠
∂v ∂v v ⎛ ∂v ⎞
aθ = θ + vr θ + θ ⎜ θ + vr ⎟ = 0 . At r = 2 , ar = −(6) 2 / 2 = −18 , aθ = 0 .
∂t ∂r r ⎝ ∂θ ⎠

3-20
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

⎡ ∂vr 1 ⎛ ∂vr ⎞⎤ ⎡ vθ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 4 ⎞⎤
⎢ − vθ ⎟⎥ − 0 − ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟⎥
r ⎝⎜ ∂θ ⎢
0
∂r ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎝ r ⎠⎥
(b) Eq. (2.34.5) → [∇v ] = ⎢ ⎥=⎢
r
=⎢ .
⎢ ∂vθ 1 ⎛ ∂vθ ⎞ ⎥ ⎢ ∂vθ ⎥ ⎢⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎥
+ vr ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎜⎝ 2 − r 2 ⎟⎠
⎢ 0 0 ⎥
⎣ ∂r r ⎜⎝ ∂θ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ∂r ⎣ ⎦

−4 / r 2 ⎤
0 ⎡ 0 −1⎤
[ D] = [∇v ]S = ⎢ ⎥ , at r = 2 , [ D] = ⎢ ⎥.
⎢⎣ −4 / r 2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎣ −1 0 ⎦
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.44 Given the velocity field in spherical coordinates:

⎛ B⎞
vr = 0, vθ = 0, vφ = ⎜ Ar + 2 ⎟ sin θ
⎝ r ⎠
(a) Determine the acceration field and (b) find the rate of deformation tensor.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. (a) From Eq. (3.4.16),
∂vr ∂vr
vθ ⎛ ∂vr ⎞ vφ ⎛ ∂vr ⎞ vφ2 1⎛ B ⎞
2
ar = + vr + ⎜ − vθ ⎟ + ⎜ − vφ sin θ ⎟ = − = − ⎜ Ar + 2 ⎟ sin 2 θ
∂t ∂r r ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ r sin θ ⎝ ∂φ ⎠ r r⎝ r ⎠
∂vθ ∂vθ
vθ ⎛ ∂vθ ⎞ vφ ⎛ ∂vθ ⎞ vφ2 cos θ sin θ ⎛ B ⎞
2
aθ = + vr + ⎜ + vr ⎟ + ⎜ − vφ cos θ ⎟ = − cot θ = − ⎜ Ar + 2 ⎟
∂t ∂r r ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ r sin θ ⎝ ∂φ ⎠ r r ⎝ r ⎠
∂vφ ∂vφ vθ ∂vφ vφ ⎛ ∂vφ ⎞
aφ = + vr + + ⎜ + vr sin θ + vθ cos θ ⎟ = 0
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ⎝ ∂φ ⎠
(b) Eq. (2.35.25) →
⎡ ∂vr ⎛ 1 ∂vr vθ ⎞ ⎤
⎛ 1 ∂vr vφ ⎞
⎢ ⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ ⎥ ⎡ 0
− ⎟ 0 −
vφ ⎤
⎢ ∂r ⎝ r ∂θ r ⎠ ⎝ r sin θ ∂φ
⎥ ⎢r ⎠ ⎥
⎢ r ⎥
⎢ ⎥
∂v 1 ∂v ⎛ 1 ∂vθ vφ cot θ ⎞
⎥ =⎢ 0 vφ cot θ ⎥
[∇v ] = ⎢⎢ ∂rθ ⎛⎜ r ∂θθ + rr ⎞
v
⎟ ⎜ − ⎢ ⎟ 0 − ⎥ , thus
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ r sin θ ∂φ ⎥ r ⎠ r
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂v ∂vφ

⎢ ∂vφ ⎢ 1 ⎥
1 ∂vφ ⎛ 1 ∂vφ vr vθ cot θ
⎞ ⎥

φ
, 0 ⎥
⎢ ⎜ + +
⎟ ⎥ ⎣ ∂r r ∂θ
⎢⎣ ∂r r ∂θ ⎝ r sin θ ∂φ ⎠ ⎥⎦r r ⎦
the nonzero components of rate of deformation tensor are:
1 ⎛ vφ ∂vφ ⎞ 3B
Drφ = ⎜ − + ⎟ = − 3 sin θ ,
2⎝ r ∂r ⎠ 2r
1 ⎛ vφ cot θ 1 ∂vφ ⎞ 1 ⎡ ⎛ B⎞ ⎛ B ⎞⎤
Dθφ = ⎜ − + ⎟ = ⎢ − ⎜ A + 3 ⎟ + ⎜ A + 3 ⎟ ⎥ cos θ = 0 .
2⎝ r r ∂θ ⎠ 2 ⎣ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠⎦
_________________________________________________________________

3.45 A motion is said to be irrotational if the spin tensor vanishes. Show that the following
velocity field is irrotational:
−x e + x e
v = 2 2 2 1 2 , r 2 = x12 + x22
r
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3-21
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

⎡ ∂v1 ∂v1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 x2 ∂r 1 2 x2 ∂r ⎤
⎢ ∂x − +
x2 x1 2 ∂x2 ⎥ ⎢ r 3 ∂x1 r2 ⎥
r 3 ∂x2 ⎥
Ans. v1 = − 2 , v2 = 2 , r = x1 + x2 , → [∇v ] = ⎢ ⎥=⎢
2 2 1
,
r r ⎢ ∂v2 ∂v2 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 x1 ∂r 2 x ∂r ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − − 31 ⎥
⎣ ∂x1 ∂x2 ⎦ ⎣ r 2 r 3 ∂x1 r ∂x2 ⎦
∂r ∂r x1 ∂r x
r 2 = x12 + x22 → 2r = 2 x1 → = , also, = 2,
∂x1 ∂x1 r ∂x2 r
⎡ 2 x1 x2 x22 − x12 ⎤
⎢ 4 ⎥
r4 ⎥
[∇v ] = ⎢⎢ 2 r 2 ⎥
= [∇v ] → [ W ] = 0.
S

x −x 2x x
⎢ 2 4 1 − 14 2 ⎥
⎣ r r ⎦
_________________________________________________________________

3.46 Let dx( ) = ds1n and dx( ) = ds2m be two material elements that emanate from a particle
1 2

P which at present has a rate of deformation D . (a) Consdier D / Dt (dx( ) ⋅ dx( ) ) to show that
( )
1 2

⎡ 1 D ( ds1 ) 1 D ( ds2 ) ⎤ Dθ
⎢ + ⎥ cosθ − sin θ = 2m ⋅ Dn
⎣ ds1 Dt ds2 Dt ⎦ Dt
where θ is the angle between m and n .
(b) Consider the case of dx( ) = dx( ) , what does the above formula reduce to?
1 2

π
, i.e., dx( ) and dx( ) are perpendicular to each other, where
1 2
(c) Consider the case where θ =
2
does the above formula reduces to?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.
⎛ (1) Ddx( 2 ) ⎞
D
Dt
(
(1)
dx ⋅ dx ( 2)
=⎜)⎛ D (1) ⎞
⎝ Dt
( 2)
dx ⎟ ⋅ dx + ⎜ dx ⋅
⎠ ⎜

Dt ⎟
⎟ = ( ∇v ) dx(1) ⋅ dx( 2 ) + dx(1) ⋅ ( ∇v ) dx( 2 )

1 T
) 2 1
( ) 2 1
{( T
) ( )}
= dx( ) ⋅ ∇v dx( ) + dx( ) ⋅ ∇v dx( ) = dx( ) ⋅ ∇v + ∇v dx( ) = 2dx( ) ⋅ Ddx( ) .
( 2 1 2

With dx( ) = ds1n and dx( ) = ds2m , the above formula give,
1 2

D D
( ds1ds2n ⋅ m ) = 2ds1ds2 ( n ⋅ Dm ) → ( ds1ds2 cosθ ) = 2ds1ds2 ( n ⋅ Dm ) . Thus,
Dt Dt
Dds1 Dds2 D cos θ
( ds2 cosθ ) + ( ds1 cosθ ) + ( ds1ds2 ) = 2ds1ds2 ( n ⋅ Dm ) ,
Dt Dt Dt
⎧⎪ 1 D ( ds1 ) 1 D ( ds2 ) ⎫⎪ Dθ
→⎨ + ⎬ cos θ − sin θ = 2 ( n ⋅ Dm ) = 2 ( m ⋅ Dn ) .
⎩⎪ 1
ds Dt ds2 Dt ⎭⎪ Dt
⎧⎪ 1 D ( ds ) ⎫⎪
(b) For, dx( ) = dx( ) = dsn the above formula → ⎨ ⎬ = ( n ⋅ Dn ) = D( n )( n ) , no sum on n .
1 2

⎩⎪ ds Dt ⎭⎪
(c) For dx( ) perpendicular to dx( ) , θ = 90o , we have,
1 2

− = 2 ( n ⋅ Dm ) = 2 Dnm .
Dt

3-22
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

_________________________________________________________________

3.47 Let e1 , e2 ,e3 and D1 , D2 , D3 be the principal directions and corresponding principal values of
a rate of deformation tensor D . Further, let dx( ) = ds e , dx( ) = ds e and dx( ) = ds e be
1 2 3
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 2 3
{
three material elements. Consider the material derivative ( D / Dt ) dx( ) ⋅ dx( ) × dx( ) and show }
1 D ( dV )
that = D1 + D2 + D3 , where dV = ds1ds2 ds3 .
dV Dt
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. Since the principal directions are (or can always be chosen to be) mutually perpendicular,
therefore, dx( ) ⋅ dx( ) × dx( ) = ds ds ds = dV .
1 2 3
1 2 3
D ( dV ) D ( ds1ds2 ds3 ) D ( ds1 ) D ( ds2 ) D ( ds3 )
→ = = ds2 ds3 + ds1ds3 , + ds1ds2
Dt Dt Dt Dt Dt
1 D ( dV ) 1 D ( ds1 )
1 D ( ds2 ) 1 D ( ds3 )
→ = + + = D11 + D22 + D33 .
dV Dt ds1 Dt ds2 Dt ds3 Dt
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.48 Consider a material element dx = dsn (a) Show that ( D / Dt ) n = Dn + Wn − ( n ⋅ Dn ) n ,

where D is rate of deformation tensor and W is the spin tensor. (b) Show that if n is an
eigenvector of D , then,
Dn
= Wn = ω × n
Dt
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
D Dn Dds ⎛ Dn 1 Dds ⎞ ⎛ Dn ⎞
Ans. (a) ( dsn ) = ds + n = ds ⎜ +n ⎟ = ds ⎜ + (n ⋅ Dn)n ⎟ . [see
Dt Dt Dt ⎝ Dt ds Dt ⎠ ⎝ Dt ⎠
D D
Eq.(3.13.12) ]. We also have, ( dsn ) = ( dx ) = ( ∇v ) dx = ds ( ∇v ) n , therefore,
Dt Dt
⎛ Dn ⎞ Dn
( ∇v ) n = ⎜ + n ( n ⋅ Dn ) ⎟ → = ( ∇v ) n − n ( n ⋅ Dn ) = ( D + W ) n − n ( n ⋅ Dn ) .
⎝ Dt ⎠ Dt
(b) If n is an eigenvector of D , then Dn = λn , therefore,
Dn Dn
= ( D + W ) n − n ( n ⋅ Dn ) = λ n + Wn − nλ = Wn . That is, = Wn .
Dt Dt
Since W is antisymmetric → Wn = ω × n , where ω is the dual vector for W . Thus
Dn
= Wn = ω × n .
Dt
That is, the principal axes of D rotates with an angular velocity given by the dual vector of the
spin tensor.
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.49 Given the following velocity field: v1 = k ( x2 − 2 ) x3 , v2 = − x1 x2 , v3 = kx1 x3 for an

2

incompressible fluid, determine the value of k , such that the equation of mass conservation is
satisfied.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3-23
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

## ∂v1 ∂v2 ∂v3

Ans. + + = 0 → 0 − x1 + kx1 = 0 → k = 1
∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.50 Given the velocity field in cylindrical coordinates: vr = f (r ,θ ), vθ = vz = 0 . For an

incompressible material, from the conservation of mass principle, obtain the most general form of
the function f (r ,θ ) .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. The equation of continuity for an incompressible material is [see Eq.(3.15.11)]:
∂vr 1 ∂vθ vr ∂vz ∂f f 1 ∂
+ + + =0→ + =0→ ( fr ) = 0, → fr = g (θ ) .
∂r r ∂θ r ∂z ∂r r r ∂r
Therefore, f = g (θ ) / r , where g (θ ) is an arbitrary function of θ .
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.51 An incompressible fluid undergoes a two-dimensional motion with vr = k cos θ / r . From

the consideration of the principle of conservation of mass, find vθ , subject to the condition that
vθ = 0 at θ = 0 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.
k cos θ ∂v ⎛ 1⎞ 1 v (k cos θ ) ∂v v ⎛ 1 ⎞ (k cos θ )
vr = → r = ( k cos θ ) ⎜ − ⎟ 3/2 , r = → r + r =⎜ ⎟ .
r ∂r ⎝ 2⎠r r r 3/2 ∂r r ⎝ 2 ⎠ r 3/2
The equation of continuity for an incompressible fluid is [see
∂v 1 ∂vθ vr ∂vz
Eq.(3.15.11)]: r + + + = 0 . Thus,
∂r r ∂θ r ∂z
∂vθ ⎛ k ⎞ cos θ ⎛ k ⎞ sin θ
= −⎜ ⎟ → vθ = − ⎜ ⎟ + f ( r ) . Since vθ = 0 at θ = 0 , Therefore,
∂θ ⎝2⎠ r ⎝2⎠ r
⎛ k ⎞ sin θ
f ( r ) = 0 . Thus, vθ = − ⎜ ⎟ .
⎝2⎠ r
_________________________________________________________________

3.52 Are the following two velocity fields isochoric (i.e., no change of volume)?
xe +x e −x e + x e
(i) v = 1 1 2 2 2 , r 2 = x12 + x22 and (ii) v = 2 1 2 1 2 , r 2 = x12 + x22
r r
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. (i) With v1 = x1 / r 2 , v2 = x2 / r 2 , r 2 = x12 + x22 ,
∂v1 1 2 x1 ∂r 1 2 x2 ⎛ 2 2 2 ∂r ∂r ⎞
= 2− 3 = 2 − 41 . ⎜ r = x1 + x2 → 2r = 2 x1 , 2r = 2 x2 ⎟ .
∂x1 r r ∂x1 r r ⎝ ∂x1 ∂x2 ⎠
∂v2 1 2 x2 ∂r 1 2 x2 ∂v1 ∂v2 2 2 x2 2 x2 2 2
= 2− 3 = 2 − 42 , + = 2 − 41 − 42 = 2 − 2 = 0.
∂x2 r r ∂x2 r r ∂x1 ∂x2 r r r r r

## (ii) v1 = − x2 / r 2 , v2 = x1 / r 2 , r 2 = x12 + x22

3-24
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

∂v1 2 x2 ∂r 2 x2 x1⎛ 2 2 2 ∂r ⎞
= 3 = 4 ⎜ r = x1 + x2 → 2r = 2 x1 ⎟
∂x1 r ∂x1 r ⎝ ∂x1 ⎠
∂v2 2 x1 ∂r 2 x1 x2 ∂v1 ∂v2 2 x2 x1 2 x1 x2
=− 3 =− 4 , + = 4 − 4 = 0.
∂x2 r ∂x2 r ∂x1 ∂x2 r r
_________________________________________________________________

3.53 Given that an incompressible and inhomogeneous fluid has a density field given by ρ = kx2 .
From the consideration of the principle of conservation of mass, find the permissible form of
velocity field for a two dimensional flow ( v3 = 0 ) .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. Since the fluid is incompressible, therefore,
Dρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ
=0→ + v1 + v2 = 0 → 0 + v1 ( 0 ) + v2 k = 0 → v2 = 0.
Dt ∂t ∂x1 ∂x2
The conservation of mass equation of an incompressible fluid in two dimensional flow is
∂v1 ∂v2 ∂v
+ = 0 → 1 = 0 → v1 = f ( x2 ) , v2 = 0.
∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x1
_________________________________________________________________

α x1
3.54 Consider the velocity field: v = e1 . From the consideration of the principle of
1 + kt
conservation of mass, (a) Find the density if it depends only on time t , i.e., ρ = ρ (t ) , with
ρ ( 0 ) = ρo . (b) Find the density if it depends only on x1 , i.e., ρ = ρˆ ( x1 ) , with ρˆ ( xo ) = ρ * .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.(a) Equation of conservation of mass is
∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ⎛ ∂v ∂v ∂v ⎞ α x1
+ v1 + v2 + v3 + ρ ⎜ 1 + 2 + 3 ⎟ = 0 . With v1 = , v2 = v3 = 0 ,
∂t ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ⎝ ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ⎠ 1 + kt
ρ
dρ α dρ ρ α ρ
t
dt −α / k
→ +ρ =0→ ∫ = −α ∫ → ln = − ln (1 + kt ) → = (1 + kt ) .
dt 1 + kt ρ
ρ 0
1 + kt ρo k ρo
o

α x1
(b) with ρ = ρ ( x1 ) and v1 = , v2 = v3 = 0
1 + kt
∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ⎛ ∂v ∂v ∂v ⎞ α x1 d ρ α
+ v1 + v2 + v3 + ρ⎜ 1 + 2 + 3 ⎟ =0→ +ρ =0
∂t ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ⎝ ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ⎠ 1 + kt dx1 1 + kt
ρ x
dρ dρ 1
dx ρ x x
→ x1 + ρ = 0, → ∫ = − ∫ 1 → ln = − ln 1 → ρ = ρ * o
dx1 ρ*
ρ x
x1 ρ* xo x1
o

## where ρo is the density at x1 = xo .

_________________________________________________________________

3.55 Given the velocity field: v = α ( x1te1 + x2te 2 ) . From the consideration of the principle of
conservation of mass, determine how the fluid density varies with time, if in a spatial description,
it is a function of time only.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3-25
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

## Ans. Equation of conservation of mass is

∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ⎛ ∂v ∂v ∂v ⎞
+ v1 + v2 + v3 + ρ ⎜ 1 + 2 + 3 ⎟ = 0 . With v1 = α x1t , v2 = α x2t , v3 = 0 ,
∂t ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ⎝ ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ⎠
ρ
dρ dρ ρ
t
+ ρ (α t + α t ) = 0 → ∫
2
= −2α ∫ tdt → ln = −α t 2 → ρ = ρo e−α t .
dt ρ
ρ 0
ρo
o

_________________________________________________________________

## ∂Wim ∂Eik ∂Ekm 1 ⎛ ∂u ∂u ⎞

3.56 Show that = − , where Eim = ⎜ i + m ⎟ is the strain tensor and
∂X k ∂X m ∂X i 2 ⎝ ∂X m ∂X i ⎠
1 ⎛ ∂u ∂u ⎞
Wim = ⎜ i − m ⎟ is the rotation tensor.
2 ⎝ ∂X m ∂X i ⎠
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.
∂Wim ∂ 1 ⎛ ∂ui ∂um ⎞ 1 ⎛ ∂ 2ui ∂ 2 um ⎞
= ⎜ − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟=
∂X k ∂X k 2 ⎝ ∂X m ∂X i ⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ ∂X m ∂X k ∂X i ∂X k ⎟⎠

1 ⎛ ∂ 2ui ∂ 2 uk ∂ 2 uk ∂ 2 um ⎞
⎜⎜ + − − ⎟=
2 ⎝ ∂X m ∂X k ∂X m ∂X i ∂X m ∂X i ∂X i ∂X k ⎟⎠

## 1 ⎛ ∂ ⎛ ∂ui ∂uk ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂uk ∂um ⎞ ⎞ ∂Eik ∂Ekm

⎜ ⎜ + ⎟− ⎜ + ⎟⎟ = −
2 ⎜⎝ ∂X m ⎝ ∂X k ∂X i ⎠ ∂X i ⎝ ∂X m ∂X k ⎠ ⎟⎠ ∂xm ∂xi
_________________________________________________________________

3.57 Check whether or not the following distribution of the state of strain satisfies the
compatibility conditions:
⎡ X1 + X 2 , X1 X2 ⎤
⎢ X 3 ⎥⎥ , k = 10−4
[ E] = k ⎢ X1 X2 + X3
⎢⎣ X 2 X3 X1 + X 3 ⎥⎦
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. Yes. We note that the given Eij are linear in X1 , X 2 and X 3 and the terms in the
compatibility conditions all involve second derivatives with respect to X i , therefore these
conditions are obviously satisfied by the given strain components.
_________________________________________________________________

3.58 Check whether or not the following distribution of the state of strain satisfies the
compatibility conditions:
⎡ X12 X 22 + X 32 X1 X 3 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
[E] = k ⎢ X 22 + X 32 0 X1 ⎥ , k = 10−4
⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ X1 X 3 X1 X 22 ⎥

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.

3-26
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

## ∂ 2 E11 ∂ 2 E22 ∂ 2 E12

+ =2 → 0 + 0 = 0,OK
∂X 22 ∂X12 ∂X1 X 2
∂ 2 E22 ∂ 2 E33 ∂ 2 E23
+ =2 → 0 + 2k ≠ 0, not satisfied
∂X 32 ∂X 22 ∂X 2 X 3
The given strain components are not compatible.
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.59 Does the displacement field: u1 = sin X1 , u2 = X13 X 2 , u3 = cos X 3 correspond to a

compatible strain field?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. Yes. The displacement field obviously exists. In fact, the displacement field is given. There
is no need to check the compatibility conditions. Whenever a displacement field is given, there is
never any problem of compatibility of strain components.
_________________________________________________________________

3.60 Given the strain field: E12 = E21 = kX1 X 2 , k = 10−4 and all other Eij = 0 .
(a) Check the equations of compatibility for this strain field and (b) by attempting to integrate the
strain field, show that there does not exist a continuous displacement field for this strain field.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
∂ 2 E11 ∂ 2 E22 ∂ 2 E12
Ans. (a) + = 2 → 0 + 0 ≠ 2k . This compatibility condition is not satisfied.
∂X 22 ∂X12 ∂X1 X 2
∂u1 ∂u
(b) E11 = 0 → = 0 → u1 = u1 ( X 2 , X 3 ) . Also, E22 = 0 → 2 = 0 → u2 = u2 ( X1 , X 3 ) .
∂X1 ∂X 2
∂u1 ∂u2 ∂u ( X , X ) ∂u ( X , X )
Now, 2 E12 = + → 2kX1 X 2 = 1 2 3 + 2 1 3 = f ( X 2 , X 3 ) + g ( X1 , X 3 ) ,
∂X 2 ∂X1 ∂X 2 ∂X1
That is,
2kX1 X 2 = f ( X 2 , X 3 ) + g ( X1 , X 3 ) . Clearly, there is no way this equation can be satisfied,
because the right side can not have terms of the form of X1 X 2 .
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.61 Given the following strain components:

1 ν
E11 = f ( X 2 , X 3 ) , E22 = E33 = − f ( X 2 , X 3 ) , E12 = E13 = E23 = 0 .
α α
Show that for the strains to be compatible, f ( X 2 , X 3 ) must be linear in X 2 and X 3 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans
1 ∂ f ( X2, X3 ) 1 ∂ f ( X2, X3 )
2 2
∂ 2 E11 ∂ 2 E22 ∂ 2 E12 ∂ 2 E11 ∂ 2 E33 ∂ 2 E13
+ = 2 → = 0, + = 2 → =0
∂X 22 ∂X12 ∂X1 X 2 α ∂X 22 ∂X 32 ∂X12 ∂X1 X 3 α ∂X 32
,
1 ∂ f ( X2, X3 )
2
∂ 2 E11 ∂ ⎛ ∂E23 ∂E31 ∂E12 ⎞
= ⎜ − + + ⎟ → = 0 , Thus,
∂X 2 ∂X 3 ∂X1 ⎝ ∂X1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ⎠ α ∂X 2 ∂X 3

3-27
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

∂2 f ( X 2 , X 3 ) ∂2 f ( X 2 , X 3 ) ∂2 f ( X 2 , X 3 )
= 0, = 0, = 0 . → f ( X 2 , X 3 ) is a linear function of
∂X 22 ∂X 32 ∂X 2 ∂X 3
X 2 and X 3 . We note also
∂ 2 E22 ∂ 2 E33 ν ⎛ ∂2 f ∂2 f ⎞ ∂ 2 E23
+ =− ⎜⎜ + ⎟ = 0 = 2 ,
∂X 32 ∂X 22 α ⎝ ∂X 32 ∂X 22 ⎠⎟ ∂X1 X 3
∂ 2 E22 ν ∂2 f ∂ ⎛ ∂E31 ∂E12 ∂E23 ⎞
=− =0= ⎜− + + ⎟,
∂X 3∂X1 α ∂X 3∂X1 ∂X 2 ⎝ ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ∂X1 ⎠
∂ 2 E33 ν ∂2 f ∂ ⎛ ∂E12 ∂E23 ∂E31 ⎞
=− =0= ⎜− + + ⎟.
∂X1∂X 2 α ∂X1∂X 2 ∂X 3 ⎝ ∂X 3 ∂X1 ∂X 2 ⎠
Thus, if f ( X 2 , X 3 ) is a linear function of X 2 and X 3 , then all compatibility equations are
satisfied.
_________________________________________________________________

3.62 In cylindrical coordinates ( r ,θ , z ) , consider a differential volume bounded by the three pairs
of faces: r = r and r = r + dr; θ =θ and θ =θ + dθ ; z = z and z = z + dz. The rate at which mass is
flowing into the volume across the face r = r is given by ρ vr ( rdθ )( dz ) and similar expressions
for the other faces. By demanding that the net rate of inflow of mass must be equal to the rate of
increase of mass inside the differential volume, obtain the equation of conservation of mass in
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. Mass flux across the face r = r into the differential volume dV is ( ρ vr )( rdθ ) dz . That
across the face r = r + dr out of the volume is ( ρ vr )r = r + dr ( r + dr ) dθ dz . Thus ,
the net mass flux into dV through the pair of faces r = r and r = r + dr is
( ρ vr )r =r ( rdθ ) dz − ( ρ vr )r =r + dr ( r + dr ) dθ dz = ⎡⎣( ρ vr )r =r − ( ρ vr )r =r + dr ⎤⎦ rdθ dz
− ( ρ vr )r = r + dr drdθ dz .
⎡ ∂ ( ρ vr ) ⎤
Now, ⎡⎣( ρ vr )r = r − ( ρ vr )r = r + dr ⎤⎦ rdθ dz = − ⎢ ⎥ dr ( rdθ dz ) and
⎣ ∂r ⎦
− ( ρ vr )r = r + dr drdθ dz = − ⎡⎣( ρ vr ) + d ( ρ vr ) ⎤⎦ drdθ dz = − ( ρ vr ) drdθ dz , where we have dropped
the higher order term involving ⎡⎣ d ( ρ vr ) ⎤⎦ drdθ dz which approaches zero in the limit compared to
the terms involving only three differentials. Thus, the net mass flux into dV through the pair of
faces r = r and r = r + dr is
⎧ ⎛ ∂ρ vr ⎞ ⎫
⎨−r ⎜ ⎟ − ( ρ vr ) ⎬ drdθ dz . Similarly,
⎩ ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎭
the net mass flux into dV through the pair of faces θ = θ and θ = θ + dθ is
⎛ ∂ρ vθ ⎞
−⎜ ⎟ dθ ( drdz ) ,
⎝ ∂θ ⎠
and the net mass flux into dV through the pair of faces z = z and z = z + dz is

3-28
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

⎛ ∂ρ vz ⎞
−⎜ ⎟ dz ⎡⎣ dr ( rdθ ) ⎤⎦
⎝ ∂z ⎠
Thus, the total influx of mass through these three pairs of faces is:
⎪⎧⎛ ∂ρ vr ⎞ ( ρ vr ) 1 ⎛ ∂ρ vθ ⎞ ⎛ ∂ρ vz ⎞ ⎪⎫
− ⎨⎜ ⎟ + r + r ⎜ ∂θ ⎟ + ⎜ ∂z ⎟ ⎬ dr ( rdθ ) dz
⎩⎪⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎭⎪
∂ ∂ρ
On the other hand, the rate of increase of mass inside dV is ( ρ rdθ drdz ) = rdθ drdz .
∂t ∂t
Therefore, the conservation of mass principle gives,
⎪⎧⎛ ∂ρ vr ⎞ ( ρ vr ) 1 ⎛ ∂ρ vθ ⎞ ⎛ ∂ρ vz ⎞ ⎪⎫ ∂ρ
− ⎨⎜ ⎟ + + ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎬ dr ( rdθ ) dz = rdθ drdz , That is:
⎩⎪⎝ ∂r ⎠ r r ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎭⎪ ∂t
∂ρ ∂ρ vr ρ vr 1 ⎛ ∂ρ vθ ⎞ ⎛ ∂ρ vz ⎞
+ + + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ∂z ⎟ = 0 , Or,
∂t ∂r r r ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎧ ∂ρ ∂ρ vθ ⎛ ∂ρ ⎞ ∂ρ ⎫ ⎛ ∂vr vr 1 ∂vθ ∂vz ⎞
⎨ + vr + ⎜ ⎟ + vz ⎬+ ρ⎜ + + + = 0 . This is the same as
⎩ ∂t ∂r r ⎝ ∂θ ⎠ ∂z ⎭ ⎝ ∂r r r ∂θ ∂z ⎟⎠
Eq.(3.15.7).
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.63 Given the following deformation in rectangular Cartesian coordinates:

x1 = 3 X 3 , x2 = − X1 , x3 = −2 X 2
Determine (a) the deformation gradient F , (b) the right Cauchy-Green tensor C and the right
stretch tensor U , (c) the left Cauchy-Green tensor B , (d) the rotation tensor R , (e) the
Lagrangean strain tensor E* (f) the Euler strain tensor e* , (g) ratio of deformed volume to initial
volume, (h) the deformed area (magnitude and its normal) for the area whose normal was in the
direction of e 2 and whose magnitude was unity for the undeformed area.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡ 0 0 3⎤ ⎡ 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 3⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤
Ans. (a) [ F ] = ⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥ , (b) [C] = [ F ] [ F ] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 −2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 4 0 ⎥⎥ ,
⎢ ⎥ T

⎢⎣ 0 −2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 3 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 9 ⎥⎦
⎡1 0 0 ⎤
[ U ] = [C] = ⎢⎢0 2 0⎥⎥ . (The only positive definite root).
1/2

⎢⎣0 0 3⎥⎦
⎡ 0 0 3⎤ ⎡0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡9 0 0 ⎤
(c) [ B ] = [ F ][ F ] = ⎢⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢0 0 −2 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ .
T

⎢⎣ 0 −2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 3 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 4 ⎥⎦
⎡ 0 0 3⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 1⎤
= ⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 / 2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎢ ⎥ ⎢
−1
(d) [ R ] = [ F ][ U ]
⎢⎣ 0 −2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 / 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −1 0 ⎥⎦

3-29
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

⎡0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡0 0 0⎤ ⎡4 / 9 0 0 ⎤
1 1 1
(e) ⎡ E = [C - I ] = ⎢0 3 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 3 / 2 0 ⎥ , (f) ⎡e* ⎤ = ⎡I − B ⎤ = ⎢⎢ 0
*⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1
0 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎣ ⎦ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎣ ⎦
⎢⎣0 0 8 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 3 / 8⎥⎦
ΔV
(g) = det B = ( 9 )(1)( 4 ) = 6 ,
ΔVo
⎡ 0 −6 0 ⎤
( ) 1⎢
n o , dAo = 1, det F = 6, [ F ] = ⎢ 0 0 −3⎥⎥ , no = e2 ,
T −1
(h) dA = dAo ( det F ) F −1
6
⎢⎣ 2 0 0 ⎥⎦
⎡ 0 0 2 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤

( ) ⎤ 1⎢
[ dA ] = dAo ⎢( det F ) F no ⎥ = (1)( 6 ) 6 ⎢ −6 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ → dA = −3e3 .
T
−1
⎣ ⎦
⎢⎣ 0 −3 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −3⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.64 Do the previous problem for the following deformation:

x1 = 2 X 2 , x2 = 3 X 3 , x3 = X1 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡0 2 0⎤ ⎡ 0 0 1 ⎤ ⎡0 2 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤
Ans. (a) [ F ] = ⎢ 0 0 3⎥ . (b) [C] = [ F ] [ F ] = ⎢⎢ 2 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢0 0 3⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢0 4 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎢ ⎥ T

## ⎢⎣1 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 3 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 9 ⎥⎦

⎡1 0 0 ⎤
[ U ] = [C] = ⎢⎢0 2 0⎥⎥ . (The only positive definite root).
1/2

⎢⎣0 0 3⎥⎦
⎡0 2 0⎤ ⎡0 0 1 ⎤ ⎡ 4 0 0⎤
(c) [ B ] = [ F ][ F ] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 3⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 2 0 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 9 0 ⎥⎥ .
T

⎢⎣1 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 3 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
⎡0 2 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡0 1 0⎤
(d) [ R ] = [ F ][ U ] = ⎢0 0 3⎥⎥ ⎢⎢0
−1 ⎢
1 / 2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥⎥ .
⎢⎣1 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 1 / 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣1 0 0 ⎥⎦

⎡0 0 0⎤ ⎡0 0 0⎤ ⎡3 / 8 0 0⎤
1 1 1
(e) ⎡ E = [C − I ] = ⎢ 0 3 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 3 / 2 0 ⎥ , (f) ⎡e ⎤ = ⎡I − B ⎤ = ⎢ 0 4 / 9 0 ⎥⎥ .
*⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ * − 1 ⎢
⎣ ⎦ 2 2 ⎣ ⎦ 2⎣ ⎦
⎢⎣ 0 0 8 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 0 ⎥⎦
ΔV
(g) = det B = ( 4 )( 9 )(1) = 6 .
ΔVo
⎡0 0 6⎤
( ) 1⎢
= ⎢ 3 0 0 ⎥⎥ , no = e 2
T −1
(h) dA = dAo ( det F ) F −1
n o , dAo = 1, det F = 6, [ F ]
6
⎢⎣ 0 2 0 ⎥⎦

3-30
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

⎡0 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0⎤ ⎡ 3⎤
( )
[ dA ] = dAo ⎡⎢( det F ) F −1
⎤ 1⎢
n o ⎥ = (1)( 6 ) ⎢ 0 0 2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ → dA = 3e1
T

⎣ ⎦ 6
⎢⎣ 6 0 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.65 Do Prob. 3.63 for the following deformation:

x1 = X1 , x2 = 3 X 3 , x3 = −2 X 2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡1 0 0 ⎤
Ans. (a) [ F ] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 3⎥⎥ .
⎢⎣ 0 −2 0 ⎥⎦
⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤
(b) [C] = [ F ] [ F ] = ⎢⎢0 0 −2 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢0 0 3⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢0 4 0 ⎥⎥ , The only positive definite root
T

## ⎢⎣0 3 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 −2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 9 ⎥⎦

⎡1 0 0 ⎤
is [ U ] = [C] = ⎢⎢0 2 0 ⎥⎥ .
1/2

⎢⎣0 0 3⎥⎦
⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤
(c) [ B ] = [ F ][ F ] = ⎢⎢ 0 0 3⎥⎥ ⎢⎢0 0 −2 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢0 9 0 ⎥⎥ .
T

⎢⎣ 0 −2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 3 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 0 4 ⎥⎦
⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤
(d) [ R ] = [ F ][ U ] = ⎢ 0 0 3⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0
−1 ⎢
1 / 2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥⎥ ,
⎢⎣ 0 −2 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 / 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 −1 0 ⎥⎦

⎡0 0 0⎤ ⎡0 0 0 ⎤
1 1
(e) ⎡ E = [C − I ] = ⎢ 0 3 / 2 0 ⎥ , (f) ⎡e* ⎤ = ⎡I − B ⎤ = ⎢ 0 4 / 9 0 ⎥⎥ .
*⎤ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 ⎢
⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎣ ⎦ 2⎣ ⎦
⎢⎣ 0 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 3 / 8⎥⎦

ΔV
(g) = det B = (1)( 9 )( 4 ) = 6 .
ΔVo
⎡6 0 0 ⎤
( ) 1⎢
n o , dAo = 1, det F = 6, [ F ] = ⎢ 0 0 −3⎥⎥ , n o = e 2
T −1
(h) dA = dAo ( det F ) F −1
6
⎢⎣ 0 2 0 ⎥⎦
⎡6 0 0 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤

( ) ⎤ 1⎢
[ dA ] = dAo ⎢( det F ) F no ⎥ = (1)( 6 ) 6 ⎢0 0 2⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ → dA = −3e3
T
−1
⎣ ⎦
⎢⎣ 0 −3 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ −3⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.66 Do Prob. 3.63 for the following deformation:

3-31
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

x1 = 2 X 2 , x2 = − X1 , x3 = 3 X 3
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡ 0 2 0⎤ ⎡ 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 2 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤
Ans. (a) [ F ] = ⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥ . (b) [C] = [ F ] [ F ] = ⎢⎢ 2 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 4 0 ⎥⎥ ,
⎢ ⎥ T

## ⎢⎣ 0 0 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 9 ⎥⎦

⎡1 0 0 ⎤
[ U ] = [C] = ⎢⎢0 2 0⎥⎥ . (The only positive definite root).
1/2

⎢⎣0 0 3⎥⎦
⎡0 2 0⎤ ⎡0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ 4 0 0 ⎤
(c) [ B ] = [ F ][ F ] = ⎢⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 2 0 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ .
T

⎢⎣ 0 0 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 9 ⎥⎦
⎡0 2 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 1 0⎤
−1 ⎢
(d) [ R ] = [ F ][ U ] = ⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 1 / 2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −1 0 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎢⎣ 0 0 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 / 3⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦

⎡0 0 0⎤ ⎡3 / 8 0 0 ⎤
1 1⎡
(e) E = [C − I ] = ⎢ 0 3 / 2 0 ⎥⎥ ,
⎡ *⎤ ⎢ ⎡ ⎤
(f) e = I − B
* −1 ⎤ ⎢
= 0 0 0 ⎥⎥
⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎣ ⎦ 2⎣ ⎦ ⎢
⎢⎣ 0 0 4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 4 / 9 ⎥⎦

ΔV
(g) = det B = ( 4 )(1)( 9 ) = 6 .
ΔVo
⎡ 0 −6 0 ⎤
( ) 1⎢
n o , dAo = 1, det F = 6, [ F ] = ⎢ 3 0 0 ⎥⎥ , n o = e 2
T −1
(h) dA = dAo ( det F ) F −1
6
⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦
⎡ 0 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0⎤ ⎡ 3⎤
1⎢
[dA] = dAo (det F)[F ] [n o ] = (1)(6) ⎢ −6 0 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢1 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ → dA = 3e1
−1 T
6
⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

3.67 Given x1 = X1 + 3 X 2 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 .
Obtain (a) the deformation gradient F and the right Cauchy-Green tensor C , (b) The eigenvalues
and eigenvector of C , (c) the matrix of the stretch tensor U and U −1 with respect to the ei -basis
and (d) the rotation tensor R with respect to the ei -basis.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡1 3 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 3 0 ⎤ ⎡1 3 0 ⎤
Ans. (a) [ F ] = ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ , [C] = [ F ] [ F ] = ⎢⎢ 3 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ 3 10 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎢ ⎥ T

⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
(b) the characteristic equation is

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1− λ 3 0
3 10 − λ ( )
0 = 0 → (1 − λ ) λ 2 − 11λ + 1 = 0,
0 0 1− λ
11 ± 121 − 4
λ1,2 = → λ1 = 10.908326, λ2 =0.0916735, λ3 = 1
2
For λ1 = 10.908326 ,
(1 − λ1 )α1 + 3α 2 = 0 → α 2 = − (1 − λ1 )α1 / 3 = 3.302775α1 ,
1
n1 = ( e1 + 3.302775e2 ) = 0.289785e1 + 0.957093e2 .
3.450843
For λ2 = 0.0916735 ,
(1 − λ2 )α1 + 3α 2 = 0 → α 2 = − (1 − λ2 )α1 / 3 = −0.3027755α1 ,
1
n2 = ( e1 − 0.3027755e2 ) = 0.957093e1 − 0.289784e2 .
1.044832
For λ3 = 1, n3 = e3 ,
(c) The matrices with respect to the principal axes are as follows
⎡10.9083 0 0⎤ ⎡3.30277 0 0⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.302774 0 ⎥⎥ .
[C]ni = ⎢ 0 0.0916735 0 ⎥ → [ U ]n = ⎢ 0
i
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
⎡0.302774 0 0⎤

⎡U ⎤ =
1 ⎢ 0 3.302772 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎣ ⎦ ni ⎢
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
The matrices with respect to the ei -basis are given by the formula [ U ]{e } = [Q ] [ U ]{n } [Q ] :
T
i i

## ⎡ 0.289785 0.957093 0 ⎤ ⎡3.30277 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0.289785 0.957093 0 ⎤

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.302774 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0.957093 −0.289785 0 ⎥⎥
[ U ]e i
= ⎢ 0.957093 −0.289785 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦

⎡ 0.554704 0.832057 0 ⎤
= ⎢⎢ 0.832057 3.05087 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
⎡0.289785 0.957093 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0.302774 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0.289785 0.957093 0 ⎤
⎡ U −1 ⎤ = ⎢ 0.957093 −0.289785 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 3.302772 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0.957093 −0.289785 0 ⎥⎥
⎣ ⎦ ei ⎢ ⎥⎢
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
⎡ 3.050852 −0.832052 0 ⎤
= ⎢⎢ −0.832052 0.554701 0 ⎥⎥ .
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦

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## ⎡1 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 3.050852 −0.832052 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0.55470 0.83205 0 ⎤

(d) [ R ]e = [ F ] ⎡ U = ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ −0.832052 0.554701 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ −0.83205 0.55470 0⎥⎥ .
−1 ⎤
i ⎣ ⎦ ⎢
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
_________________________________________________________________

3.68 Verify that with respect to rectangular Cartesian base vectors, the right stretch tensor U and
the rotation tensor R for the simple shear deformation , x1 = X1 + kX 2 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 ,

## are given by: With f = (1 + k 2 / 4)−1/2 ,

⎡ f kf / 2 0⎤ ⎡ f kf / 2 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥

( 2
)
[ U ] = ⎢ kf / 2 1 + k / 2 f 0⎥ , [ R ] = ⎢−kf / 2 f 0⎥⎥ .

⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
⎣⎢ 0 0 1 ⎦⎥
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
⎡ f kf / 2 0 ⎤ ⎡ f kf / 2 0⎤
⎢ ⎥
Ans. [ RU ] = ⎢⎢ − kf / 2 f ( )
0 ⎥⎥ ⎢ kf / 2 1 + k 2 / 2 f 0 ⎥
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎢ 0 0

1 ⎦⎥

⎡ f 2 + ( kf / 2 )( kf / 2 )
⎢ ( )
f ( kf / 2 ) + ( kf / 2 ) 1 + k 2 / 2 f 0 ⎤

( )
= ⎢( − kf / 2 ) f + f ( kf / 2 ) ( − kf / 2 )( kf / 2 ) + f 1 + k / 2 f 0 ⎥
2 ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0 0 1⎥
⎣ ⎦

2
( 2
)
⎡ f 1 + k / 4 kf 1 + k / 4 0 ⎤
2
(2
) ⎥ ⎡1 k 0 ⎤
=⎢

0 ( ) ⎥
f 1 + k / 4 0 ⎥ = ⎢⎢0 1 0 ⎥⎥ = the given [ F ]
2 2

⎢ ⎥
⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢⎣0 0 1 ⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦
Since the decomposition of F is unique, therefore, the given R and U are the rotation and the
stretch tensor respectively.
_________________________________________________________________

3.69 Let dX( ) = dS1N( ) , dX( ) = dS2 N( ) be two material elements at a point P. Show that if θ
1 1 2 2

denotes the angle between their respective deformed elements dx( ) =ds m and dx( ) = ds n ,
1 2
1 2

## Cαβ Nα(1) N β(2)

, where N( ) = Nα(1)eα , N( ) = Nα(2)eα , λ1 = 1 and λ2 = 2 .
1 2 ds ds
then, cos θ =
λ1λ2 dS1 dS2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. dx( ) ⋅ dx( ) = FdX( ) ⋅ FdX( ) = dX( ) ⋅ F T FdX( ) = dX( ) ⋅ CdX( ) ,
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

( 2)
→ ds1ds2 cosθ = dS1dS2 N( ) ⋅ CN( ) = dS1dS2 ( Nα( )eα ) ⋅ C( N β e β ),
1 2 1

( 2)
Cαβ Nα( ) N β
1
dS1dS2 (1) ( 2 )
→ cosθ = Nα N β eα ⋅ Ce β = .
ds1ds2 λ1λ2

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_________________________________________________________________

## 3.70 Given the following right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor at a point

⎡9 0 0 ⎤
[C] = ⎢0 4 0 ⎥⎥

⎣⎢0 0 0.36 ⎦⎥
(a) Find the stretch for the material elements which were in the direction of e1 , e 2 ,and e3 . (b)
Find the stretch for the material element which was in the direction of e1 + e2 . (c) Find cosθ ,
where θ is the angle between dx( ) and dx( ) where dX( ) = dS e and dX( ) = dS e deform to
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 1

## dx( ) = ds1m and dx( ) = ds2n .

1 2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ans. (a) For the elements which were in e1 , e 2 ,and e3 direction, the stretches are
C11 , C22 , C33 , that is, 3, 2 and 0.6 respectively.
⎡9 0 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡9 ⎤
1 1 1 13
(b) Let e1' = ( e1 + e2 ) → C11 = [1 1 0] ⎢0 4 0 ⎥ ⎢1 ⎥ = [1 1 0] ⎢⎢ 4⎥⎥ = .
' ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
2 2 2 2
⎢⎣0 0 0.36 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

## That is, the stretch for dX = dSe1' is ( ds / dS ) = '

C11 = 13 / 2 .
(c) C12 = 0 → cosθ = 0 → θ = 90o . There is no change in angle. (note, {e1 , e 2 , e3} are principal
axes for C .
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.71 Given the following large shear deformation:

x1 = X1 + X 2 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 .
(a) Find the stretch tensor U (Hint: use the formula given in problem 3.68) and verify that
U 2 = C , the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. (b) What is the stretch for the element
which was in the direction e 2 ?
(c) Find the stretch for an element which was in the direction of e1 + e 2 .
(d) What is the angle between the deformed elements of dS1e1 and dS2e2 ?.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. (a) For x1 = X1 + kX 2 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 , from Prob. 3.68, we have
⎡ f kf / 2 0⎤ −
1
⎢ ⎥ ⎛ k2 ⎞
(1 + k / 2) f
2
[ U ] = ⎢ kf / 2 2
0 ⎥ where f = ⎜1 +
⎜ ⎟⎟ . Thus, with k = 1 , f = 2 / 5
⎢ ⎥ ⎝ 4 ⎠
⎣⎢ 0 0 1 ⎦⎥
⎡ f f /2 0⎤ ⎡ 1 1/ 2 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1 1/ 2 0 ⎤
2 ⎢ ⎥
[ U ] = ⎢⎢ f / 2 (3 / 2) f 0 ⎥⎥ = f ⎢⎢1 / 2 3 / 2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢1 / 2 3 / 2 0 ⎥.
5⎢
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 / f ⎥⎦ ⎣ 0 0 5 / 2 ⎥⎦

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⎡ 1 1/ 2 0 ⎤⎡ 1 1/ 2 0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 0 ⎤
4⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
[ U ][ U ] = ⎢1 / 2 (3 / 2) 0 ⎥ ⎢1 / 2 (3 / 2) 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 1 2 0 ⎥ = [ C] .
5⎢
⎣ 0 0 5 / 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 5 / 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
(b) The stretch for the element which was in the direction e 2 is C22 = 2 .
(c) Let e1' = ( e1 + e2 ) / 2 ,
⎡1 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡ 2⎤
1 1 5
= [1 1 0] ⎢1 2 0 ⎥ ⎢1 ⎥ = [1 1 0] ⎢⎢ 3 ⎥⎥ = →
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
' ds
C11 = 5/ 2 .
2 2 2 dS
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
⎛ ds ⎞⎛ ds ⎞
⎝ dS1 ⎠⎝ dS2 ⎠
( )
(d) ⎜ 1 ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟ cosθ = C12 → (1) 2 cosθ = 1 → cosθ =
1
2
→ θ = 45o .

_________________________________________________________________

## 3.72 Given the following large shear deformation:

x1 = X1 + 2 X 2 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3
(a) Find the stretch tensor U (Hint: use the formula given in problem 3.68) and verify that
U 2 = C , the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor.
(b) What is the stretch for the element which was in the direction e 2 .
(c) Find the stretch for an element which was in the direction of e1 + e2 .
(d) What is the angle between the deformed elements of dS1e1 and dS2e 2 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. For x1 = X1 + kX 2 , x2 = X 2 , x3 = X 3 , from Prob. 3.68, we have
⎡ f kf / 2 0⎤ −
1
⎢ ⎥ ⎛ k2 ⎞
( )
2
[ U ] = ⎢ kf / 2 1 + k 2 / 2 f 0 ⎥ where f = ⎜1 +
⎜ ⎟⎟ . Thus, with k = 2 , f = 1 / 2
⎢ ⎥ ⎝ 4 ⎠
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
⎡ f kf / 2 0⎤ ⎡1 1 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
[ U ] = ⎢ kf / 2

( )
1 + k 2 / 2 f 0⎥ =

1 ⎢
⎢1
2⎢
3 0 ⎥.

⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎣0 0 2 ⎥⎦

⎡ f kf / 2 0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎥
[ R ] = ⎢ −kf / 2 f 0⎥ = ⎢ −1 1 0 ⎥.
2⎢
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎣0 0 2 ⎥⎦

2 ⎡1 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 2 0 ⎤
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
[ U ][ U ] = ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 3 0 ⎥ ⎢1 3 0 ⎥ = ⎢⎢ 2 5 0⎥⎥ = [C] .
⎝ 2⎠ ⎢
⎣0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦
(b) The stretch for the element which was in the direction e2 is C22 = 5 .
(c) Let e1′ = ( e1 + e2 ) / 2 ,

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⎡ 1 2 0 ⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡ 3⎤
1 1
′ = [1 1 0] 2 5 0 1 = [1 1 0] ⎢7 ⎥ = 5 →
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ds
C11 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = 5 = 2.236 .
2 2 dS
⎢⎣ 0 0 1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦
⎛ ds ⎞⎛ ds ⎞
⎝ 1 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠
dS dS
( )
(d) ⎜ 1 ⎟⎜ 2 ⎟ cosθ = C12 → (1) 5 cosθ = 2 → cos θ =
2
5
.

_________________________________________________________________

∂A jn
3.73 Show that for any tensor A ( X1 , X 2 , X 3 ) ,

∂X m
det A = ( det A ) A −1 ( ) nj ∂X m
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans

## ∂A11 ∂A12 ∂A13

A11 A12 A13
A11 A12 A13 ∂X m ∂X m ∂X m A11 A12 A13
∂A ∂A ∂A22 ∂A23
A = A21 A22 A23 → = A21 A22 A23 + 21 + A21 A22 A23
∂X m ∂X m ∂X m ∂X m
A31 A32 A33 A31 A32 A33 ∂A31 ∂A32 ∂A33
A31 A32 A33
∂X m ∂X m ∂X m
.
A22 A23 c A A23
Let Aijc denote the cofactor of Aij , i.e., A11
c
= , A12 = − 21 etc.
A32 A33 A31 A33
∂A ∂A11 c ∂A12 c ∂A13 c ∂A21 c ∂A22 c
Then, = A11 + A12 + A13 + A21 + A22 + ...
∂X m ∂X m ∂X m ∂X m ∂X m ∂X m
∂A ∂Aij Acji
That is,
∂X m
=
∂X m
Aijc . On the other hand, A ( ) −1
ij
=
det A
→ Acji = det A A −1 ( ) ij
.

∂A ∂Aij ∂Anj
Thus,
∂X m ji ∂X
( )
= det A A −1
m
jn ∂X
m
. ( )
= det A A −1

_________________________________________________________________

3.74 Show that if TU = 0 , where the eigenvalues of U are all positive (nonzero), then T = 0 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. Using the eigenvectors of U as basis, we have,
⎡T11 T12 T13 ⎤ ⎡λ1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ λ1T11 λ2T12 λ3T13 ⎤
[TU ] = [T][ U ] = ⎢⎢T21 T22 T23 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0 λ2 0 ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢λ1T21 λ2T22 λ3T23 ⎥⎥
⎣⎢T31 T32 T33 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ 0 0 λ3 ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ λ1T31 λ2T32 λ3T33 ⎦⎥
Thus, TU = 0 gives, all Tij = 0 , that is, T = 0 .
_________________________________________________________________

2 2 2
⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞
3.75 Derive Eq. (3.29.21), that is, Bθθ = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟
⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

## Ans. Bθθ = eθ ⋅ Beθ = eθ ⋅ FF T eθ . From Eq. (3.29.15). we have,

r ∂θ o r ∂θ o r ∂θ o
F T eθ = er + eθ + ez , thus,
∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo
⎛ r ∂θ o r ∂θ o r ∂θ o ⎞ r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ
Bθθ = eθ ⋅ F ⎜ er + eθ + ez ⎟ = eθ ⋅ Feor + eθ ⋅ Feθo + eθ ⋅ Feoz .
⎝ ∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo ⎠ ∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo
r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ
Since, eθ ⋅ Feor = , eθ ⋅ Feθo = , eθ ⋅ Feoz = , [See Eq. (3.29.10)], therefore,
∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo
2 2 2
⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞
Bθθ = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ .
⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠
_________________________________________________________________

⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
3.76 Derive Eq. (3.29.23), i.e., Brz = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠⎝ ∂zo ⎠
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. Brz = er ⋅ Bez = er ⋅ FF T ez , from Eq. (3.29.16), we have,
∂z o ∂z o ∂z o
FTez = er + eθ + e z , thus,
∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo
⎛ ∂z o ∂z o ∂z o ⎞ ∂z ∂z ∂z
Brz = er ⋅ F ⎜ er + eθ + ez , ⎟ = er ⋅ Feor + er ⋅ Feθo + er ⋅ Feoz .

⎝ or r ∂θ
o o ∂z o ⎠ ∂ro r ∂θ
o o ∂ z o
∂r ∂r ∂r
From Eq. (3.29.9), er ⋅ Feor = , er ⋅ Feθo = , eθ ⋅ Feoz = , thus,
∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
Brz = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟.
⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠⎝ ∂zo ⎠
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.77 From ro = ro ( r ,θ , z , t ) , θ o = θ o ( r ,θ , z , t ) , zo = zo ( r ,θ , z , t ) ,derive the components of B −1

with respect to the basis at x .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. From dX = F −1dx , where dx = drer + rdθ eθ + dzez and dX = dro eor + ro dθ o eθo + dzo eoz , we
have, dro eor + ro dθ o eθo + dzo eoz = F −1 ( drer + rdθ eθ + dzez )

( ) ( ) (
→ dro = dr eor ⋅ F −1er + rdθ eor ⋅ F −1eθ + dz eor ⋅ F −1ez )

∂ro
∂r
∂r
∂θ
∂r
( ) ( )
dr + o dθ + o dz = dr eor ⋅ F −1er + rdθ eor ⋅ F −1eθ + dz eor ⋅ F −1ez
∂z
( )
−1 ∂ro ∂r ∂r
o
→ er ⋅ F er = , eor ⋅ F −1eθ = o , eor ⋅ F −1e z = o .
∂r r ∂θ ∂z

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Similarly,
ro ∂θ o r ∂θ r ∂θ
eθo ⋅ F −1er = , eθo ⋅ F −1eθ = o o , eθo ⋅ F −1ez = o o .
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
∂z ∂z ∂z
eoz ⋅ F −1er = o , eoz ⋅ F −1eθ = o , eoz ⋅ F −1ez = o .
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
Thus,
∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z
F −1er = o eor + o o eθo + o eoz , F −1eθ = o eor + o o eθo + o eoz
∂r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
F −1ez = o eor + o o eθo + o eoz .
∂z ∂z ∂z
Also, we have,

( ) ∂r ∂r
( )
T T
er ⋅ F −1 eor = eor ⋅ F −1er = o , eθ ⋅ F −1 eor = eor ⋅ F −1eθ = o ,
∂r r ∂θ

( ) ( )

T r
ez ⋅ F −1 eor = eor ⋅ F −1 ez = o .
∂z
Thus,
r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ
( ) ∂r ∂r ∂r
( )
T T
F −1 eor = o er + o eθ + o ez , F −1 eθo = o o er + o o eθ + o o ez
∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z

( ) ∂ ∂ ∂
T z z z
F −1 eoz = o er + o eθ + o ez .
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
The components of B −1 with respect to the basis at x are:
( ) ( ) (F e )
−1 T
Brr−1 = er ⋅ B −1er = er ⋅ FF T e r = e r ⋅ F −1 −1
r
2 2 2
ro ∂θ o ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
⎛ ∂r
( ) ( ) ∂zo
( )
T T T
= ⎜ o er ⋅ F −1 eor + er ⋅ F −1 eθo + e r ⋅ F −1 eoz ⎟ = ⎜ o ⎟ + ⎜ o o ⎟ + ⎜ o ⎟ .
⎝ ∂r ∂r ∂r ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎠

( ) ( ) (F e )
−1 T
−1
Bθθ = eθ ⋅ B −1eθ = eθ ⋅ FF T e θ = e θ ⋅ F −1 −1
θ
2 2 2
ro ∂θ o ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
∂ro
( ) ( ) ∂zo
( )
T T T
= eθ ⋅ F −1 eor + eθ ⋅ F −1 eθo + e θ ⋅ F −1 eoz = ⎜ o ⎟ + ⎜ o o ⎟ + ⎜ o ⎟ .
r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ ⎝ r ∂θ ⎠ ⎝ r ∂θ ⎠ ⎝ r ∂θ ⎠
2 2 2
−1 ⎛ ∂ro ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
Bzz =⎜ ⎟ +⎜ o o ⎟ +⎜ o ⎟ .
⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠

( ) ( ) (F e )
−1 T
Br−θ1 = er ⋅ B −1eθ = er ⋅ FF T e θ = e r ⋅ F −1 −1
θ

ro ∂θ o ⎞ ⎛ ro ∂θ o ⎞⎛ ro ∂θ o
∂ro
( ) ( ) ∂zo
( ) ⎛ ∂ro ⎞⎛ ∂ro ⎞ ⎛ ∂zo ⎞⎛ ∂zo ⎞
T T T
= e r ⋅ F −1 eor + e r ⋅ F −1 eθo + e r ⋅ F −1 eoz = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ ⎝ r ∂θ ⎠⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎝ r ∂θ ⎠⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎝ r ∂θ ⎠⎝ ∂z ⎠

( ) ( ) (F e )
−1 T
Brz−1 = er ⋅ B −1ez = er ⋅ FF T ez = er ⋅ F −1 −1
z

r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ro ∂θ o ⎞⎛ ro ∂θ o
∂ro
( ) e ⋅ ( F ) eθ +
∂z
e ⋅ (F )
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂zo ⎞⎛ ∂zo ⎞
T T T
= er ⋅ F −1 eor + o o r −1 o o
r
−1
eoz = ⎜ o ⎟⎜ o ⎟ + ⎜ ∂r ⎟⎜ ∂z ⎟ + ⎜ ∂r ⎟⎜ ∂z ⎟
∂z ∂z ∂z
⎝ ∂r ⎠⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
Bθ−z1 = ⎜ o ⎟⎜ o ⎟ + ⎜ o o ⎟⎜ o o ⎟ + ⎜ o ⎟⎜ o ⎟ .
⎝ r ∂θ ⎠⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ r ∂θ ⎠⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ r ∂θ ⎠⎝ ∂z ⎠

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_________________________________________________________________

2 2 2
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
3.78 Derive Eq. (3.29.47), that is, Cθoθo = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟
⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
Ans. Cθoθo = eθo ⋅ Ceθo = eθo ⋅ F T Feθo . Now, Feθo = er + eθ + e z [Eq.3.29.3] ,
ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o
therefore,
⎛ ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ⎞ ∂r o T r ∂θ o T
Cθoθo = eθo ⋅ F T ⎜ er + eθ + ez ⎟ = eθ ⋅ F e r + eθ ⋅ F eθ
⎝ ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ⎠ ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o
∂z o T
+ eθ ⋅ F e z . Now, from Eqs. (3.29.14) (3.29.15) and (3.29.16),
ro ∂θ o
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
eθo ⋅ F T er = , eθo ⋅ F T eθ = , eθo ⋅ F T ez = , thus.
ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o
2 2 2
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
Cθoθo = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟
⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠
_________________________________________________________________

⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
3.79 Derive Eq. (3.29.49), Croθo = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
Ans. Croθo = eor ⋅ Ceθo = eor ⋅ F T Feθo . Now, Feθo = er + eθ + e z [Eq.(3.29.3)] ,
ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o
⎛ ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ⎞ ∂r o T r ∂θ o T
Croθo = eor ⋅ F T ⎜ er + eθ + ez ⎟ = er ⋅ F er + e r ⋅ F eθ
⎝ ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ⎠ ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o
∂z o T
+ er ⋅ F ez . From Eqs. (3.29.14), (3.29.15) and (3.29.16)
ro ∂θ o
∂r o T r ∂θ o T ∂z
eor ⋅ F T er = , e r ⋅ F eθ = , er ⋅ F ez = ,
∂ro ∂ro ∂ro
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
Thus, Croθo = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟.
⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠
_________________________________________________________________

## 3.80 Derive the components of C−1 with respect to the bases at X .

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.

( ) ( ) ∂r ∂r ∂r
−1 T
Cr−o1ro =eor ⋅ F T F eor =eor ⋅ F −1 F −1 eor = o eor ⋅ F −1er + o eor ⋅ F −1eθ + o eor ⋅ F −1ez
∂r r ∂θ ∂z

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## ∂ro ∂ro ∂ro ∂ro ∂ro ∂ro

= + + . [See Eqs.(3.29.30), (3.29.31) and (3.29.32)].
∂r ∂r r ∂θ r ∂θ ∂z ∂z
r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ
( ) ( )
−1 T
Cr−oθ1o =eor ⋅ F T F eθo =eor ⋅ F −1 F −1 eθo == o o eor ⋅ F −1er + o o eor ⋅ F −1eθ + o o eor ⋅ F −1ez
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞
= ⎜ o o ⎟⎜ o ⎟ + ⎜ o o ⎟⎜ o ⎟ + ⎜ o o ⎟⎜ o ⎟ .
⎝ ∂r ⎠⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎝ r ∂θ ⎠⎝ r ∂θ ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ⎠⎝ ∂z ⎠
The other components can be similarly derived.
_________________________________________________________________

3.81 Derive components of B with respect to the basis {er ,eθ ,ez } at x for the pathline equations
given by r = r ( X , Y , Z , t ), θ = θ ( X , Y , Z , t ), z=z( X , Y , Z , t ) .
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. From dx = drer + rdθ eθ + dzez and dX = dXeX + dYe Y + dZe Z and
r = r ( X , Y , Z , t ), θ = θ ( X , Y , Z , t ), z=z( X , Y , Z , t ) , we have,
dx = FdX → dx = dre r + rdθ eθ + dzez = dXFeX + dYFeY + dZFe Z
⎛ ∂r ∂r ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ ⎞
→⎜ dX + dY + dZ ⎟ er + ⎜ dX + dY + dZ ⎟ eθ
⎝ ∂X ∂Y ∂Z ⎠ ⎝ ∂X ∂Y ∂Z ⎠
⎛ ∂z ∂z ∂z ⎞
+⎜ dX + dY + dZ ⎟ e z = dXFe X + dYFeY + dZFe Z
⎝ ∂ X ∂Y ∂ Z ⎠
∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z
→ Fe X = er + eθ + ez , FeY = er + eθ + ez ,
∂X ∂X ∂X ∂Y ∂Y ∂Y
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
Fe Z = er + eθ + e z , and
∂Z ∂Z ∂Z
∂r ∂r
e X ⋅ F T er = er ⋅ FeX = , eY ⋅ F T er = er ⋅ FeY = , etc.
∂X ∂Y
∂r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ
F T er = eX + eY + e Z , F T eθ = eX + eY + eZ ,
∂X ∂Y ∂Z ∂X ∂Y ∂Z
∂z ∂z ∂z
FTe z = eX + eY + eZ .
∂X ∂Y ∂Z
The components of B are:
2 2 2
∂r ∂r ∂r ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞
Brr = e r ⋅ FF T e r =e r ⋅ Fe X + e r ⋅ Fe Y + er ⋅ Fe Z = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ .
∂X ∂Y ∂Z ⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂Y ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠
r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ
Brθ = e r ⋅ FF T eθ = er ⋅ FeX + er ⋅ FeY + er ⋅ Fe Z
∂X ∂Y ∂Z
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞
=⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟.
⎝ ∂X ⎠⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂Y ⎠⎝ ∂Y ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠⎝ ∂Z ⎠
_________________________________________________________________

3.82 Derive the components of B −1 with respect to the basis {e r ,eθ ,e z } at x for the pathline
equations given by X = X (r ,θ , z , t ), Y = Y (r ,θ , z , t ), Z =Z (r ,θ , z , t ) .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. From dx = drer + rdθ eθ + dzez and dX = dXeX + dYe Y + dZe Z and
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X = X (r ,θ , z , t ), Y = Y (r ,θ , z , t ), Z =Z (r ,θ , z , t ) , we have,
dX = F −1dx → dXe X + dYeY + dZe Z = drF −1er + rdθ F −1eθ + dzF −1ez
⎛ ∂X ∂X ∂X ⎞ ⎛ ∂Y ∂Y ∂Y ⎞
→⎜ dr + dθ + dz ⎟ e X + ⎜ dr + dθ + dz ⎟ e Y
⎝ ∂r ∂θ ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ∂θ ∂z ⎠
⎛ ∂Z ∂Z ∂Z ⎞
+⎜ dr + dθ + dz ⎟ e Z = drF −1e r + rdθ F −1eθ + dzF −1ez .
⎝ ∂r ∂θ ∂ z ⎠
Thus,
∂X ∂Y ∂Z ∂X ∂Y ∂Z
F −1e r = eX + eY + e Z , F −1eθ = eX + eY + eZ
∂r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ
∂X ∂Y ∂Z
F −1e z = eX + eY + eZ .
∂z ∂z ∂z
and

( ) ∂X
( ) ∂Y
T T
e r ⋅ F −1 e X = eX ⋅ F −1er = , er ⋅ F −1 eY = eY ⋅ F −1er = ,
∂r ∂r

( ) ∂Z
T
e r ⋅ F −1 e Z = e Z ⋅ F −1er = , etc. that is,
∂r

( ) ∂X ∂X ∂X
( ) ∂Y ∂Y ∂Y
T T
F −1 e X = er + eθ + e z , F −1 e Y = er + eθ + ez
∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z

( ) ∂Z ∂Z ∂Z
T
F −1 e Z = er + eθ + ez .
∂r r ∂θ ∂z
Thus,

( ) ( ) ∂X
( ) ∂Y
( )
−1 T T T
Brr−1 = e r ⋅ FF T e r = e r ⋅ F −1 F −1e r = e r ⋅ F −1 eX + er ⋅ F −1 eY
∂r ∂r
2 2 2
∂Z
( ) ⎛ ∂X ⎞ ⎛ ∂Y ⎞ ⎛ ∂Z ⎞
T
+ e r ⋅ F −1 eZ = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ .
∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎠

( ) ∂X
( ) ∂Y
( )
T T T
Br−θ1 = e r ⋅ F −1 F −1eθ = e r ⋅ F −1 e X + e r ⋅ F −1 e Y
r ∂θ r ∂θ
e ⋅ (F )
∂Z −1
T ⎛ ∂X ⎞⎛ ∂ X ⎞ ⎛ ∂ Y ⎞⎛ Y ⎞ ⎛ ∂Z ⎞⎛ ∂Z
∂ ⎞
+ r eZ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ .,
r ∂θ ⎝ ∂r ⎠⎝ r ∂θ ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎠⎝ r ∂θ ⎠ ⎝ ∂r ⎠⎝ r ∂θ ⎠
etc.
_________________________________________________________________

3.83 Verify that (a) the components of B with respect to {e r ,eθ ,e z } can be obtained from ⎡ FF T ⎤
⎣ ⎦
o o o
{ }
and (b) the component of C , with respect to e r ,eθ , e z can be obtained from ⎡ F F ⎤ , where [ F ]

T

is the matrix of the two points deformation gradient tensor given in Eq. (3.29.12).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans.
(a) Eq. (3.29.12) →

3-42
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

⎡ ∂r ∂r ∂r ⎤ ⎡ ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ⎤
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo ⎥ ⎢ ∂ro ∂ro ∂ro ⎥
⎢ r ∂θ ⎥ ⎢ ∂r ∂z ⎥
⎡ FF T ⎤ = ⎢ r ∂θ r ∂θ
⎥⎢
r ∂θ
⎥ →
⎣ ⎦ ro ∂θ o ∂zo ⎥ ⎢ ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ⎥
⎢ ∂ro
⎢ ∂z ∂z ∂z ⎥ ⎢ ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ ∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ∂zo ∂zo ∂zo ⎥⎦
2 2 2
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ∂r r ∂θ ∂r r ∂θ ∂r r ∂θ
Brr = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ , Brθ = + + etc.
⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠ ∂ro ∂ro ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ∂zo ∂zo
(b)
⎡ ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ⎤ ⎡ ∂r ∂r ∂r ⎤
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎢ ∂ro ∂ro ∂ro ⎥ ⎢ ∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo ⎥
⎢ r ∂θ ∂z ⎥ ⎢ r ∂θ r ∂θ r ∂θ ⎥
⎡ F T F ⎤ = ⎢ ∂r ⎥⎢ ⎥→
⎣ ⎦
⎢ ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ro ∂θ o ⎥ ⎢ ∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo ⎥
⎢ ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ⎥ ⎢ ∂z ∂z ∂z ⎥
⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢ ∂zo ∂zo ∂zo ⎦⎥ ⎣⎢ ∂ro ro ∂θ o ∂zo ⎦⎥
2 2 2
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
Cro ro = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ , Croθo = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟.
⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠
_________________________________________________________________

3.84 Given r = ro , θ = θ o + kzo , z = zo . (a) Obtain the components of the Left Cauchy-Green
tensor B , with respect to the basis at the current configuration ( r ,θ , z ) . (b) Obtain the
components of the right Cauchy-Green tensor C with respect to the basis at the reference
configuration.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ans. (a), Using Eqs (3.29.19) to (3.29.24). we obtain
2 2 2
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞
Brr = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ =1,
⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠
2 2 2 2
⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ⎞
⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ + ( kr ) = 1 + ( kr ) ,
2 2
Bθθ =⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜
⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠ ⎝ ro ⎠
2 2 2
⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
Bzz = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ = 1,
⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θo ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠
⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞
Brθ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 0,
⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠⎝ ∂zo ⎠
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
Brz = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=0,
∂ ∂ ∂θ ∂ θ
⎝ o ⎠⎝ o ⎠ ⎝ o o ⎠⎝ o o ⎠ ⎝ o ⎠⎝ o ⎠
r r r r ∂ z ∂z
⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞
Bzθ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = rk .
⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠⎝ ∂zo ⎠
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.
⎡1 0 0⎤
⎢ ⎥
Thus, [ B ] = ⎢ 0 1 + ( rk ) rk ⎥ .
2

⎢0 rk 1 ⎥⎥
⎢⎣ ⎦
(b) Using Eqs.(3. 29.43) to (3. 29.51), we have,
2 2 2 2 2 2
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
Cro ro =⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ = 1, Cθoθo = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ = 1,
⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠
2 2 2
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
⎟ = 1 + ( rk ) ,
2
Cz o z o = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜
⎝ ∂zo ⎠ ⎝ ∂z o ⎠ ⎝ ∂z o ⎠
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
Croθo = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 0,
⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠ ⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠⎝ ∂ro ⎠
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
Cro zo = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 0,
⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ∂zo ⎠ ⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ∂zo ⎠ ⎝ ∂ro ⎠⎝ ∂zo ⎠
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
C zo θ o = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = rk .
⎝ ∂zo ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠ ⎝ ∂zo ⎠⎝ ro ∂θ o ⎠
⎡1 0 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
Thus, [C] = ⎢ 0 1 rk ⎥ .
⎢ 2⎥
⎣⎢ 0 rk 1 + ( rk ) ⎦⎥

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## 3.85 Given r = ( 2aX + b ) , θ = Y / a, z = Z , where ( r ,θ , z ) are cylindrical coordinates for the

1/2

cuurent configuration and ( X , Y , Z ) are rectangular coordinates for the reference configuration.
(a) Obtain the components of [ B ] with respect to the basis at the current configuration and (b)
calculate the change of volume.
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Ans. (a) Using Eqs.(3.29.59) to (3.29.64), we have,
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ a ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ r ⎞
Brr = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ , Bθθ = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟
⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂Y ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠ ⎝ r ⎠ ⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂Y ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠ ⎝ a ⎠
2 2 2
⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
Bzz = ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ =1,
⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂Y ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞
Brθ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟=0,
⎝ ∂X ⎠⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂Y ⎠⎝ ∂Y ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠⎝ ∂Z ⎠
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
Brz = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 0,
⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂Y ⎠ ⎝ ∂Y ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠
⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
Bθ z = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = 0.
⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ∂Y ⎠⎝ ∂Y ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠ ⎝ ∂Z ⎠
3-44
Lai et al, Introduction to Continuum Mechanics

⎡( a / r ) 2 0 0⎤
⎢ ⎥
Thus, [ B ] = ⎢ ( r / a ) 0⎥⎥ .
2
0

⎢ 0 0 1⎥
⎣ ⎦
(b) det B = 1 =1, thus, there is no change of volume.
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## 3.86 Given r = r ( X ), θ = g (Y ), z = h( Z ) , where ( r ,θ , z ) and ( X , Y , Z ) are cylindrical and

rectangular Cartesian coordinate with respect to the current and the reference configuration
respectively. Obtain the components of the right Cauchy-Green Tensor C with respect to the basis
at the reference configuration.
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Ans. Using Eqs.(3.29.68) etc. we have,
2 2 2
⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞
= ( r ′( X ) ) , CYY = ( rg ′(Y ) ) , CZZ = ( h′( Z ) )
2 2 2
CXX =⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ∂X ⎟ + ⎜ ∂X ⎟
⎝ ∂X ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎛ ∂r ⎞⎛ ∂r ⎞ ⎛ r ∂θ ⎞⎛ r ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂z ⎞⎛ ∂z ⎞
CXY =⎜ ⎟⎜ ∂Y ⎟ + ⎜ ∂X ⎟⎜ ∂Y ⎟ + ⎜ ∂X ⎟⎜ ∂Y ⎟ = 0, CYZ = 0, CXZ = 0 .
⎝ ∂X ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠
⎡( r ′( X ) ) 2
0 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
[ C] = ⎢ 0
⎢ ( g ′(Y ) ) 2
0 ⎥ , where r ′( X ) ≡ dr / dX , etc.,

0 0 ( h′( Z ) ) ⎥
2

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