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bm ole oer lacy ye ree sane } 3 rave ace, sar a lS | oo | | i tog NY ms wag enti om RRS ake é Ba ony (aor cuhg edge) Front ai angio ~~ 2 4p ~- Depth of cut (Distance between work surface and machined surface) 4p -- Length of cutting edge engaging in cutting, Cutting edge angle (Angle to be made by cutting edge and work surface) f «1. Feed per revolution ‘Thickness to be cut per revolution Machined surface ... Workpiece surface after having machined. Work surface ... Workpiece surface to be cut. | a = ong workplace at 250 min 9.143180%250 Principal force (Ret Values of ke Aly stele] 2500-4500 [Castirons| 1500-3500 ‘@Cutting speed ‘When calculating cutting speed from number of revolutions: Ve Gut speutny “na Vex EXOKN |e: hater crete) 1000 D; Diameter of work plece(mm) mi 3.4 Example Calculating the cutting speed when turning a 150 mm-clameter — pe ss 7mynin 8 g Zz ‘Wien caleulating required number of revolutions from cutting speed: 5 — ny =1000%Ve B ecutting forces xD | __(1) Finding from the diagram besed on experimental data 3 @)incase cerning by spies equation £ F + cutting force & | cutting force in turning 2 Cnr Faksxapxf ts Specie euttng force (MPa) 2 ! Depth of cut (mm) 1: Foed (mire) Example Calculating the cutting fore when Cutting a high carbon steel W'S $55C) at 0.2mm/rev feed and 3mm depth of cut F=4800%30.2-2700N Turning Tools Calculation of power consumption (kW) @Cutting time on face turning @Bending stress and tool deflection FxVe P="60000x 7 mx (a?—b?) 4000xVe xf") Square shark Bending stress (1) Square shank 6XFXL S~~ pxt? (2) Round shank S32xFXL 5 m XD? Tool defection (mm) (1) Square shank ie 4xFxL? Exbxh® P = Power requirement (kV) F : Cutting force (N) Refer to previous page Ve : Cutting speed (m/min) 11; Efficiency of machine 0.70-0185) Vz: Cutting speed (vein) Feed (mmirev) Cutting Time min} Bending stress in shank (MPa) Cutting force iN) ‘Overhang longth of tot (rm) Shani with (eam) # Shank height (mm) Shank diameter (mm) Modulus of elasticity of shank retrial (MPa) moserne Stoo | 210,000 21,000 600-2000 Tamer Partie | sea on0-ncoo (2) Round shank 64xFXL? 3x a XEXD* é 7 “see 1 Surace Frish (am) 1: Feed (mmirev) re: Nose radius (rm) yseL, 2 s 3 3 8 Technical Reference zi ie mi sors Increasing et tee eee ee Chattering | temperature | and Racial force Efect on Cutting ed intnation =| pesmace | tower |Past |estendeny| Lower |, Efactan i wt Sapam tonne -Lscuaetsn | Lower tor Ral angle Deccan) Sees lecsodecs | [uayboae| tae I - " ower | Raia foee| . Eraentmoecoemon | Dureme | - | tow [SRE mage [laeinaey) Lowe | ‘ide cutting edge angle | Decrease | Decrease | increase [R#dtlforel _—ineyozar| increase | PAs csuae Deseatetoumeient | ean | Ina | Improve [ueyneae| woman | S622 Honing width Increase | = | tmerease | increase | [ueyoonu| tease |= ‘General recommendation for tool geometry General recommendation for nose radius —— Wig) Steels, aluminum Cast Fon, Sa] 2 , 9 Satie aloys, copper aloys | _ nonmetal Cutting edge | Senerlturing TAC took) | e+e | | 8 MRR ~ a inclination tarrpted turing secre | 13) ae +e Pranin, shaping sss | 13) oo 98 4 ee - Over 20 24 32 “General turning (TAC tools) | 6°= +5" ee a : ae re ing depth=6 = a| Cutting depth--4 = a sido rake ngje| Ha mira 17] camae | eae ee) aan Soft materials +15-+ (nm) | Use larger value of | Use larger value of Interructed turning 818° | aorb. aorb. Generaltuning (aC tools) | 5°-8° | @Honing Rolit angle | Nonferrous metals r ‘TAG indexable inserts of steel cutting grades are honed. eS corer bea Honing spectications ara show inthe following table Weed | ene End eating edge ara [_veriabie Sharp edge Kicking ce eal [Variable z ae Round honing | Effect of side cutting edge angle Chamtered honing | Inte outing of sae oe at, st sie cating edge angle Increases the chp etre decreauee toohishe Turning Tools Fracture (Large breakage ‘teuting eee) ripping (Spal ortakown etormation (Spat alow Plastic oetormat Atypical om of wears mecranical wer (paving). Theres no eft of heather tis ‘enamanon of gradual seeping of y abresion resutirg na ough facaasifscapad wih apo. “The main cause of thermal wear isthe cutting temperature. High temperature and ‘temperature adhesion will diffuse with part ofthe cutting face. Mechanical or thermal wear occured on tool nose. ‘Wear ccuingat xl bound cating ee ne cating ee eter he Workin, ‘Small fractures on cutting edge, such s due fo mechanical shock. thermal shock, chip welding and chip recuting. Large fracture on cutting edge. Complete damage to insert. ‘Breaking of long tools such as dri and endl. Tool failure ‘Shol-ike damage on rake face and relist face. ‘Softening ote tool materia de to se neg emperaur, neato wisn cuting face and ‘ting edge deformation by subscng or bling up ‘Occurs mainly on the ak ec but also noted on fants italy cocusatrigh angle the ctng ge buts the amountincreses ng pall rect, t may chip of nL shape. ‘Cracks aseuring paral tothe ct edge asthe rst of repetive mechanical ses being oped cue to npact and ct fore eecompanyngintrptedcuting In compatson wih tonal (rac, cccars messy adjacent to cutingeoge. With the advancement of wear, complete loss occurs over a considerable pit of the cuting cross section and cutting bacomesimpossiie, 8 BRM UC meee ire bo BTM CM ime elects os 2 ‘Wh ak var 0s agen an So 3 With offen ear Arm | ating of sped eas Catatontc aire | Hoh posted ios Oo akobs wed Wit at wou Ten |G tn enon ds |Frkwenr wth cnet meer or) © Wi of fork oar. [Rough cing fy at en v6 «0 mm cha (EE Depth of crater Normally 0.05-0.1mm | VB max = 0.6 mm [In case of uneven flank weer is caused Depth of crater er=008+ 031mm) | Cemented carbo tot arr represent eed me) Overt srg roe Incase roughness is essential 4,18,25,4,63, 10ymRa Technical Reference Flank wear Bem Cllr g Crater wear * Change to more wear resistant orades. P,M,K30— 20 -- 10 * Change to more wear resistant grades, P,M,K30 > 20 10 + Raduce cutting speed. * Change to appropriate feed. * Reduce cutting speed, * Reduce feed, | + increase relief angle * Increase end cutting edge angle. * Increase comer radius. + Select free-cutting chip breaker | «Increase rake angle, * Select an appropriate chipbreaker. Notch wear + Change to more wear resistant races. P,M,K30 — 20-- 10 + Raduce cutting speed. + Reduce feed. + Increase rake angle + Increase side cutting adge angle. Fracture * Change to tougher grades. PM,K10 > 20> 30 ‘+ Reduce feed ‘+ Reduce depth of cut + Reduce rake angle + Select a chipbroaker with high edge| strength jerease honing with. * Increase side cutting adge angle. * Select larger shank size Chipping “Change to tougher grades. PM,K10—~ 20-30 Reduce feed. * Increase cutting speed * Reduce rake angle + Select a chipbreaker with high edge| strength * Increase honing with. + Increase side cutting edge angle. + Select larger shank size Flaking * Change to tougher grads. P.M,K10 > 20» 30 = Reduce feed, ‘= Reduce cutting speed + Recuce rake angle + Increase comer radius + Increase honing width, * Change to more wear resistant grade, P,M,K30 — 20> 10 “Reduce cutting sped. “Reduce feed, ‘Reduce depth of cut + Supply cutting fui in adequate volume, * Increase relat angle + Increase rake angle “ Reduce comer radius, + Recluce ede cutting edge angle. + Selecta fre-cutting chipbreaker. ‘+ Uso a grade which has low tandency ‘0 adhara to work mato ‘Cemented carbide > Coated carbide or cermet + Increase cutting speed. + Increase feed “Increase rake angle «+ Select a tree-cutting chipbreaker, [Thermal cracking | Chip welding | Pleic detonation + Change to more impact resistant grades. P.M.K10--20--30 + Recuce cutting speed. + Reduce feed, + Change to dry cutting + Supply cutting uid In adequate volume. + Increase rake angle + Select free-cutting chipbreaker.