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Ninth Edition

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Farid Golnaraghi • Benjamin C. Kuo


Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 2 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
C
Chapter 2

2
2‐1  (a)   −10;   
Poless:  s = 0, 0, −1, −   (b)  Poles:  s = −2,, −2; 

    Zeross:  s = −2, ∞, ∞, ∞.             Zeros:  s = 0.

                   The pole and zero at s = −1 ccancel each otther. 

    

( Poles:  s = 0, −1 + j, −1 − j; 
(c)     (d)  Poles:  s = 0, −1, −2, ∞. 

    Zeross:  s = −2. 

    

2
2-2) a)

b)

c)

2
2-3)

M
MATLAB code
e: 

2‐1 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
clear all;

s = tf('s')

'Generated transfer function:'

Ga=10*(s+2)/(s^2*(s+1)*(s+10))

'Poles:'

pole(Ga)

'Zeros:'

zero(Ga)

'Generated transfer function:'

Gb=10*s*(s+1)/((s+2)*(s^2+3*s+2))

'Poles:';

pole(Gb)

'Zeros:'

zero(Gb)

'Generated transfer function:'

Gc=10*(s+2)/(s*(s^2+2*s+2))

'Poles:';

pole(Gc)

'Zeros:'

zero(Gc)

'Generated transfer function:'

Gd=pade(exp(-2*s),1)/(10*s*(s+1)*(s+2))

'Poles:';

pole(Gd)

'Zeros:'

zero(Gd)

2‐2 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 

Poles and zeros of the above functions:  

(a)  

Poles:     0     0   ‐10    ‐1 

Zeros:    ‐2 

(b)    

Poles:     ‐2.0000   ‐2.0000   ‐1.0000 

Zeros:     0    ‐1 

(c) 

Poles: 

     0           

  ‐1.0000 + 1.0000i 

  ‐1.0000 ‐ 1.0000i 

Zeros:    ‐2 

Generated transfer function: 

(d) using first order Pade approximation for exponential term 

Poles: 

        0           

  ‐2.0000           

  ‐1.0000 + 0.0000i 

  ‐1.0000 ‐ 0.0000i 

Zeros: 

     1 

2‐3 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2-4) Mathematical representation:

In all cases substitute and simplify. The use MATLAB to verify.

10 22 + ω 2 1 + ω 2 102 + ω 2
R= ;
−ω 2 (ω 2 + 1)(ω 2 + 100)
ω
10( jω + 2)
φ1 = tan −1 2 + ω
2 2
−ω ( jω + 1)( jω + 10)
2
2
10( jω + 2) ( − jω + 1)(− jω + 10) 22 + ω 2
= ×
−ω ( jω + 1)( jω + 10) (− jω + 1)(− jω + 10)
2
−ω
10( jω + 2)( − jω + 1)(− jω + 10)
φ2 = tan −1 1 + ω
2
a)   =  
−ω (ω + 1)(ω + 100)
2 2 2 1
jω + 2 − jω + 1 − jω + 10 1+ ω2
=R
22 + ω 2 1 + ω 2 102 + ω 2 −ω
φ3 = tan −1 10 + ω
2 2
= R(e jφ1 e jφ2 e jφ3 )
10
102 + ω 2
φ = φ1 + φ2 + φ3

10 1 + ω 2 9 + ω 2
R= ;
(ω 2 + 1) 2 (ω 2 + 9)
−ω
10
−1 1 + ω
2
( jω + 1) ( jω + 3)
2 φ1 = tan
1
10 (− jω + 1)(− jω + 1)(− jω + 3) 1+ ω2
= ×
( jω + 1)( jω + 1)( jω + 3) ( − jω + 1)(− jω + 1)(− jω + 3) −ω
10(− jω + 1)(− jω + 1)(− jω + 3) −1 1 + ω
2
b) = φ = tan
1
 
(ω 2 + 1) 2 (ω 2 + 9)
2

− jω + 1 − jω + 1 − jω + 3 1+ ω2
= R
1+ ω2 1+ ω2 9 + ω2 −ω
φ3 = tan −1 9 + ω
2
= R (e jφ1 e jφ2 e jφ3 )
3
9 + ω2
φ = φ1 + φ2 + φ3

2‐4 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
10
jω ( j 2ω + 2 − ω 2 )
−10 j (2 − ω 2 − j 2ω )
= ×
ω ( j 2ω + 2 − ω 2 ) (2 − ω 2 − j 2ω )
10(−2ω − (2 − ω 2 ) j )
c) =
ω (4ω 2 + (2 − ω 2 ) 2 )
−2ω − (2 − ω 2 ) j
=R
4ω 2 + (2 − ω 2 ) 2

  = R (e )   

10 4ω 2 + (2 − ω 2 ) 2 10
R= = ;
ω (4ω + (2 − ω ) ) ω 4ω + (2 − ω 2 ) 2
2 2 2 2

−2 − ω 2  
4ω 2 + (2 − ω 2 ) 2
φ = tan −1 −2ω
4ω + (2 − ω 2 ) 2
2

1
R= ;
10ω 2 + ω 2 1 + ω 2
2

e −2 jω
−ω
10 jω ( jω + 1)( jω + 2)
φ = tan −1 22 + ω 2
− j (− jω + 1)(− jω + 2) −2 jω 1 2
= e
d) 10ω (ω 2 + 1)(ω 2 + 2) 2 + ω2  
2

− jω + 2 − jω + 1 −2 jω − jπ / 2 −ω
=R e
2 + ω 1+ ω
2 2 2
φ2 = tan −1 1 + ω
2

1
= R (e jφ1 e jφ2 e jφ3 )
  1+ ω2
φ = φ1 + φ2 + φ3

MATLAB code: 

clear all;

s = tf('s')

'Generated transfer function:'

Ga=10*(s+2)/(s^2*(s+1)*(s+10))

figure(1)

2‐5 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Nyquist(Ga)

'Generated transfer function:'

Gb=10*s*(s+1)/((s+2)*(s^2+3*s+2))

figure(2)

Nyquist(Gb)

'Generated transfer function:'

Gc=10*(s+2)/(s*(s^2+2*s+2))

figure(3)

Nyquist(Gc)

'Generated transfer function:'

Gd=pade(exp(-2*s),1)/(10*s*(s+1)*(s+2))

figure(4)

Nyquist(Gd)

Nyquist plots (polar plots):  

Part(a) 

2‐6 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Nyquist Diagram
15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15
-300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0
Real Axis
 

Part(b) 
Nyquist Diagram
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Real Axis
 

Part(c) 

2‐7 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

Nyquist Diagram
80

60

40

20
Imaginary Axis

-20

-40

-60

-80
-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
Real Axis
 

Part(d) 

Nyquist Diagram
2.5

1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4
Real Axis
 

2‐8 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2-5) In all cases find the real and imaginary axis intersections.

10 10(− jω + 2) 10 2 − jω
G ( jω ) = = = ;
( jω − 2) (ω + 4)
2
(ω 2 + 4) (ω 2 + 4)
2
Re {G ( jω )} = cos φ = ,
(ω 2 + 4)
−ω
a) Im {G ( jω )} = sin φ = ,
(ω 2 + 4)
2
(ω 2 + 4)
φ = tan −1 −ω
(ω 2 + 4)
10
R=
(ω 2 + 4)

lim ω →0 G ( jω ) = 5; φ = tan −1 1 = −90o


−0
lim ω →∞ G ( jω ) = 0; φ = tan −1 0 = −180o
−1
Real axis intersection @ jω = 0
Imaginary axis int er sec tion does not exist.

b&c) =1 0o

∞ =0 -180o

Therefore:

Re{ G(jω) } =

Im {G(jω)} =

2‐9 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
If Re{G(jω )} = 0 Ö

0
If Im{ G(jω )} = 0 Ö 0

If ω = ωn Ö
90

If ω = ωn and ξ = 1 Ö

If ω = ωn and ξ 0 Ö

If ω = ωn and ξ ∞ Ö 0

d) G(jω) =

limω G jω = - 90o

limω ∞G jω = -180o

e) | |

G(jω) = + = tan-1 (ω T) – ω L

2‐10 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2‐6 

 MATLAB code: 

clear all;

s = tf('s')

%Part(a)

Ga=10/(s-2)

figure(1)

nyquist(Ga)

%Part(b)

zeta=0.5; %asuuming a value for zeta <1

wn=2*pi*10 %asuuming a value for wn

Gb=1/(1+2*zeta*s/wn+s^2/wn^2)

figure(2)

nyquist(Gb)

%Part(c)

zeta=1.5; %asuuming a value for zeta >1

wn=2*pi*10

Gc=1/(1+2*zeta*s/wn+s^2/wn^2)

figure(3)

nyquist(Gc)

%Part(d)

T=3.5 %assuming value for parameter T

Gd=1/(s*(s*T+1))

figure(4)

nyquist(Gd)

2‐11 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
%Part(e)

T=3.5

L=0.5

Ge=pade(exp(-1*s*L),2)/(s*T+1)

figure(5)

hold on;

nyquist(Ge)

notes: In order to use Matlab Nyquist command, parameters needs to be assigned with values, and Pade 
approximation needs to be used for exponential term in part (e). 

Nyquist diagrams are as follows: 

2‐12 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Part(a) 

Nyquist Diagram
2.5

1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis
 

Part(b) 

Nyquist Diagram
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Real Axis
 

2‐13 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 

Part(c) 

Nyquist Diagram
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
Imaginary Axis

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Real Axis
 

Part(d) 

2‐14 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

Nyquist Diagram
60

40

20
Imaginary Axis

-20

-40

-60
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0
Real Axis
 

Part(e) 

Nyquist Diagram
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
Imaginary Axis

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Real Axis
 

2‐15 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2-7) a) G(jω) =
. .

Steps for plotting |G|:

(1) For ω < 0.1, asymptote is

Break point: ω = 0.5


Slope = -1 or -20 dB/decade
(2) For 0.5 < ω < 10
Break point: ω = 10
Slope = -1+1 = 0 dB/decade
(3) For 10 < ω < 50:
Break point: ω = 50
Slope = -1 or -20 dB/decade
(4) For ω > 50
Slope = -2 or -40 dB/decade

Steps for plotting G

(1) = -90o

0: 90
(2) =
∞ 0

0: 0
.
(3) =
.
∞: 90
.

0: 90
.
(4) =
.
∞ 0
.

b) Let’s convert the transfer function to the following form:

G(jω) = . Ö G(s) =
.

Steps for plotting |G|:

(1) Asymptote: ω < 1 |G(jω)| 2.5 / ω


Slope: -1 or -20 dB/decade
| | 2.5

2‐16 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
(2) ωn =2 and ξ = 0.1 for second-order pole
break point: ω = 2
slope: -3 or -60 dB/decade
| | 5

Steps for plotting G(jω):

(1) for term 1/s the phase starts at -90o and at ω = 2 the phase will be -180o
(2) for higher frequencies the phase approaches -270o

c) Convert the transfer function to the following form:

0.01 1
0.01 1
9
for term , slope is -2 (-40 dB/decade) and passes through | | 1

(1) the breakpoint: ω = 1 and slope is zero


(2) the breakpoint: ω = 2 and slope is -2 or -40 dB/decade
|G(jω)|ω = 1 = 2ξ = 0.01 below the asymptote
|G(jω)|ω = 1 = = = 50 above the asymptote
ξ .

Steps for plotting G:

(1) phase starts from -180o due to

(2) G(jω)|ω =1 = 0
(3) G(jω)|ω = 2 = -180o

d) G(jω) = ω ω
ξ ω ω

Steps for plotting the |G|:

(1) Asymptote for <1 is zero

(2) Breakpoint: = 1, slope = -1 or -10 dB/decade

(3) As ξ is a damping ratio, then the magnitude must be obtained for various ξ when
0≤ξ≤1

2‐17 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
The high frequency slope is twice that of the asymptote for the single-pole case

Steps for plotting G:

(1) The phase starts at 0o and falls -1 or -20 dB/decade at = 0.2 and approaches -180o

at = 5. For > 5, the phase remains at -180o.

(2) As ξ is a damping ratio, the phase angles must be obtained for various ξ when
0≤ξ≤1

2‐8) Use this part to confirm the results from the previous part. 

 MATLAB code: 

s = tf('s')

'Generated transfer function:'

Ga=2000*(s+0.5)/(s*(s+10)*(s+50))

figure(1)

bode(Ga)

grid on;

'Generated transfer function:'

Gb=25/(s*(s+2.5*s^2+10))

figure(2)

bode(Gb)

grid on;

'Generated transfer function:'

Gc=(s+100*s^2+100)/(s^2*(s+25*s^2+100))

figure(3)

bode(Gc)

grid on;

2‐18 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

'Generated transfer function:'

zeta = 0.2

wn=8

Gd=1/(1+2*zeta*s/wn+(s/wn)^2)

figure(4)

bode(Gd)

grid on;

'Generated transfer function:'

t=0.3

'from pade approzimation:'

exp_term=pade(exp(-s*t),1)

Ge=0.03*(exp_term+1)^2/((exp_term-1)*(3*exp_term+1)*(exp_term+0.5))

figure(5)

bode(Ge)

grid on;

Part(a) 

2‐19 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

Bode Diagram
60

40

Magnitude (dB)
20

-20

-40

-60
0

-45
Phase (deg)

-90

-135

-180
-2 -1 0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)
 

Part(b) 

Bode Diagram
50
Magnitude (dB)

-50

-100
-90

-135
Phase (deg)

-180

-225

-270
-1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)
 

2‐20 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 

Part(c) 

Bode Diagram
60

40
Magnitude (dB)

20

-20

-40
0

-45
Phase (deg)

-90

-135

-180
-1 0 1
10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)
 

Part(d) 

2‐21 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

Bode Diagram
10

Magnitude (dB)
-10

-20

-30

-40

-50
0

-45
Phase (deg)

-90

-135

-180
-1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)
 

Part(e) 

Bode Diagram
0

-20
Magnitude (dB)

-40

-60

-80

-100

-120
0

-90
Phase (deg)

-180

-270
-1 0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)

2‐22 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2-9)  

a) 

⎡ −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎡0 0 ⎤
⎡ u1 (t ) ⎤
       A = 0 −2 3 ⎥
⎢ B = 1 0⎥
⎢ u (t ) = ⎢ ⎥ 
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ u 2 (t ) ⎦
⎢⎣ −1 −3 −1⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0 1 ⎥⎦

b) 

1 2 0 2 0
2 0 1 0 1
3 4 1 0 0

2-10) We know that:



1
2
2

Partial integration of equation (1) gives:


∞ ∞
1 ′

Ö sG s g 0 g′ t

Ö sG s – g 0

Differentiation of both sides of equation (1) with respect to s gives:


∞ ∞

∞ ∞

Comparing with equation (1), we conclude that:

2‐23 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

2-11) Let g(t) = ∞


then

Using Laplace transform and differentiation property, we have X(s) = sG(s)

Therefore G(s) = , which means:


1

2-12) By Laplace transform definition:


Now, consider τ = t - T, then:


∞ ∞

Which means: ↔

2-13) Consider:

f(t) = g1(t) g2(t) =

By Laplace transform definition:

By using time shifting theorem, we have:

2‐24 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

Let’s consider g(t) = g1(t) g2(t)

By inverse Laplace Transform definition, we have

1
2

Then

Where

therefore:

1
G s G s
2

2-14) a) We know that

= = sG(s) + g(0)

When s Æ ∞ , it can be written as:

2‐25 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

As

Therefore: 0

b) By Laplace transform differentiation property:

As

∞ 0

Therefore

0 ∞ 0

which means:

2‐15) 

 MATLAB code: 

clear all;

syms t

s=tf('s')

f1 = (sin(2*t))^2

L1=laplace(f1)

2‐26 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
% f2 = (cos(2*t))^2 = 1-(sin(2*t))^2 ===> L(f2)=1/s-L(f1) ===>

L2= 1/s - 8/s/(s^2+16)

f3 = (cos(2*t))^2

L3=laplace(f3)

'verified as L2 equals L3'

2
MATLAB solution for  L sin 2t  is:  { }
8/s/(s^2+16) 

2
{ 2
}
Calculating  L cos 2t  based on  L sin 2t   { }
{ }
L cos 2 2t = (s^^3 + 8 s)/( s^4 + 16 s^2) 

2
{
verifying  L cos 2t :  }
(8+s^2)/s/(s^2+16) 

2‐16) (a)              (b)                           (c)   

5 4s 1 4
     G ( s ) =              G ( s ) = +                     G ( s ) =  
( s + 5) 2
(s 2
+4 ) s+2 2
s + 4s + 8

         (d)              (e) 

1 1
      G ( s ) = 2
s +4
      G ( s) = ∑e kT ( s + 5 )
=
1− e
− T ( s +5 )
 
k =0

2‐27 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2‐17) Note: %section (e) requires assignment of T and a numerical loop calculation

 MATLAB code: 

clear all;

syms t u

f1 = 5*t*exp(-5*t)

L1=laplace(f1)

f2 = t*sin(2*t)+exp(-2*t)

L2=laplace(f2)

f3 = 2*exp(-2*t)*sin(2*t)

L3=laplace(f3)

f4 = sin(2*t)*cos(2*t)

L4=laplace(f4)

%section (e) requires assignment of T and a numerical loop calculation

(a)     g (t ) = 5te −5t u s (t )


 

Answer: 5/(s+5)^2 

(b)     g ( t ) = ( t sin 2t + e −2t )us ( t )  

Answer: 4*s/(s^2+4)^2+1/(s+2) 

(c)     g ( t ) = 2e −2t sin 2t u s (t )  

Answer: 4/(s^2+4*s+8)     

2‐28 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
(d)     g ( t ) = sin 2t cos 2t u s (t )  

Answer: 2/(s^2+16) 


(e)     g ( t ) = ∑e −5 kT
δ ( t − kT )   where δ(t) = unit‐impulse function 
k =0

%section (e) requires assignment of T and a numerical loop calculation

2‐18  (a)  

g (t ) = u s (t ) − 2u s (t − 1) + 2u s ( t − 2) − 2u s (t − 3) + L
−s
1 1− e
G(s) = (1 − 2e − s + 2e −2 s − 2e −3s + L) =
     
s (
s 1+ e
−s

gT (t ) = u s (t ) − 2u s (t − 1) + u s (t − 2) 0≤t≤2

1 1
(1 − 2e − s + e −2 s ) = (1 − e − s )
2
GT ( s ) =
s s

∞ ∞ −s
1 1− e
     g ( t ) = ∑g T
( t − 2 k )u s ( t − 2 k ) G( s) = ∑ s (1 − e − s 2 −2 ks
) e =
s(1 + e
−s
)
 
k =0 k =0

          (b) 

              g (t ) = 2tu s (t ) − 4(t − 0.5)u s (t − 0.5) + 4(t − 1)u s (t − 1) − 4(t − 1.5)u s (t − 1.5) + L  

2 ( −0.5s )  
2 1− e
       G ( s ) = ( 1 − 2e
−0.5 s
+ 2e
−s
− 2e
−1.5 s
) s 2 1 + e−0.5s
+L =
s
2
( )
       gT ( t ) = 2tu s ( t ) − 4( t − 0.5)u s ( t − 0.5) + 2( t − 1)u s ( t − 1) 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 

2 2
(1 − 2e−0.5 s + e− s ) = s 2 (1 − e−0.5 s )
2
       GT ( s ) = 2
 
s

∞ ∞
2 ( −0.5 s
2 1− e ) 
       g (t ) = ∑ gT (t − k )us (t − k ) G ( s) = ∑ (1 − e )
−0.5 s 2
e
− ks
= 2
s (1 + e
k =0 k =0 s
2 −0.5 s
)
 

2‐19)     

       g ( t ) = ( t + 1)u s ( t ) − ( t − 1)u s ( t − 1) − 2u s ( t − 1) − ( t − 2 )u s ( t − 2) + ( t − 3)u s ( t − 3) + u s ( t − 3)  

2‐29 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

                                    

1 1
           G ( s ) =
s
2 (1 − e − s − e −2 s + e −3s ) + s (1 − 2e − s + e −3s )  
2-20)

1 1
1

2-21)

1
1

2-22) 0 0 0

0 0

Ö 2 2 2 2

2‐30 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Ö 2 2 2 2

2‐23

MATLAB code: 

clear all;

syms t u s x1 x2 Fs

f1 = exp(-2*t)

L1=laplace(f1)/(s^2+5*s+4);

Eq2=solve('s*x1=1+x2','s*x2=-2*x1-3*x2+1','x1','x2')

f2_x1=Eq2.x1

f2_x2=Eq2.x2

f3=solve('(s^3-s+2*s^2+s+2)*Fs=-1+2-(1/(1+s))','Fs')

Here is the solution provided by MATLAB: 

Part (a): F(s)=1/(s+2)/(s^2+5*s+4) 

  

Part (b):    X1(s)= (4+s)/(2+3*s+s^2) 

           X2(s)= (s‐2)/(2+3*s+s^2) 

  

       Part (c):     F(s) = s/(1+s)/(s^3+2*s^2+2) 

2‐31 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2‐24)

MATLAB code: 

 
clear all;

syms s Fs

f3=solve('s^2*Fs-Fs=1/(s-1)','Fs')

Answer from MATLAB: Y(s)= 1/(s-1)/(s^2-1)

2‐25)

MATLAB code: 

clear all;

syms s CA1 CA2 CA3

v1=1000;

v2=1500;

v3=100;

k1=0.1

k2=0.2

k3=0.4

f1='s*CA1=1/v1*(1000+100*CA2-1100*CA1-k1*v1*CA1)'

f2='s*CA2=1/v2*(1100*CA1-1100*CA2-k2*v2*CA2)'

f3='s*CA3=1/v3*(1000*CA2-1000*CA3-k3*v3*CA3)'

Sol=solve(f1,f2,f3,'CA1','CA2','CA3')

CA1=Sol.CA1

CA3=Sol.CA2

CA4=Sol.CA3

2‐32 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Solution from MATLAB: 

CA1(s) = 
1000*(s*v2+1100+k2*v2)/(1100000+s^2*v1*v2+1100*s*v1+s*v1*k2*v2+1100*s*v2+1100*k2*v2+k1*v1*s*v2+
1100*k1*v1+k1*v1*k2*v2) 

CA3(s) = 

1100000/(1100000+s^2*v1*v2+1100*s*v1+s*v1*k2*v2+1100*s*v2+1100*k2*v2+k1*v1*s*v2+1100*k1*v1+k1*
v1*k2*v2) 

CA4 (s)= 

1100000000/(1100000000+1100000*s*v3+1000*s*v1*k2*v2+1100000*s*v1+1000*k1*v1*s*v2+1000*k1*v1*k
2*v2+1100*s*v1*k3*v3+1100*s*v2*k3*v3+1100*k2*v2*s*v3+1100*k2*v2*k3*v3+1100*k1*v1*s*v3+1100*k1
*v1*k3*v3+1100000*k1*v1+1000*s^2*v1*v2+1100000*s*v2+1100000*k2*v2+1100000*k3*v3+s^3*v1*v2*v3+
1100*s^2*v1*v3+1100*s^2*v2*v3+s^2*v1*v2*k3*v3+s^2*v1*k2*v2*v3+s*v1*k2*v2*k3*v3+k1*v1*s^2*v2*v3
+k1*v1*s*v2*k3*v3+k1*v1*k2*v2*s*v3+k1*v1*k2*v2*k3*v3) 

 2-26) (a) 
1 1 1 1 1 −2t 1 −3t
  G( s) = − + g (t ) = − e + e t ≥ 0 
3s 2( s + 2) 3( s + 3) 3 2 3

(b)     

−2.5 5 2.5 −t −t −3t


  G( s) = + 2
+ g ( t ) = −2.5e + 5te + 2.5e t ≥ 0 
s + 1 ( s + 1) s+3

(c) 

  G(s) = ( 50
s

s +1
20

30 s + 20
s +4
2 ) e
−s
[
g ( t ) = 50 − 20 e
− ( t −1)
− 30 cos 2(t − 1) − 5 sin 2(t − 1) ] us (t − 1)  

(d) 
1 s −1 1 1 s
  G( s) = − 2
= + 2
− 2
  Taking the inverse Laplace transform, 
s s + s+2 s s + s+2 s + s+2

  g (t ) = 1 + 1.069e
−0.5t
[sin 1.323t + sin (1.323t − 69.3o )] = 1 + e−0.5t (1.447 sin 1.323t − cos1.323t ) t ≥ 0 

2 −t
(e)  g ( t ) = 0.5t e t ≥ 0 

(f)Try using MATLAB

>> b=num*2

2‐33 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
b=

2 2 2

>>num =

1 1 1

>> denom1=[1 1]

denom1 =

1 1

>> denom2=[1 5 5]

denom2 =

1 5 5

>> num*2

ans =

2 2 2

>> denom=conv([1 0],conv(denom1,denom2))

denom =

1 6 10 5 0

>> b=num*2

b=

2 2 2

>> a=denom

a=

1 6 10 5 0

>> [r, p, k] = residue(b,a)

r=

-0.9889

2‐34 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2.5889

-2.0000

0.4000

p=

-3.6180

-1.3820

-1.0000

k=[]

If there are no multiple roots, then

The number of poles n is

b r r r
= 1 + 2 + ... + n + k
a s + p1 s + p2 s + pn

In this case, p1 and k are zero. Hence,

0.4 0.9889 2.5889 2


G ( s) = − + −
s s + 3.6180 s + 1.3820 s + 1

g (t ) = 0.4 − 0.9889e −3.618t + 1.3820e −2.5889t − 2e − t

(g)

Ö G s 2e 2e 2e 1

(h)

Ö 3

2‐35 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
(i)

2‐27

MATLAB code: 

 
clear all;

syms s

f1=1/(s*(s+2)*(s+3))

F1=ilaplace(f1)

f2=10/((s+1)^2*(s+3))

F2=ilaplace(f2)

f3=10*(s+2)/(s*(s^2+4)*(s+1))*exp(-s)

F3=ilaplace(f3)

f4=2*(s+1)/(s*(s^2+s+2))

F4=ilaplace(f4)

f5=1/(s+1)^3

F5=ilaplace(f5)

f6=2*(s^2+s+1)/(s*(s+1.5)*(s^2+5*s+5))

F6=ilaplace(f6)

s=tf('s')

f7=(2+2*s*pade(exp(-1*s),1)+4*pade(exp(-2*s),1))/(s^2+3*s+2) %using Pade command


for exponential term

2‐36 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
[num,den]=tfdata(f7,'v') %extracting the polynomial values

syms s

f7n=(-2*s^3+6*s+12)/(s^4+6*s^3+13*s^2+12*s+4) %generating sumbolic function for


ilaplace

F7=ilaplace(f7n)

f8=(2*s+1)/(s^3+6*s^2+11*s+6)

F8=ilaplace(f8)

f9=(3*s^3+10^s^2+8*s+5)/(s^4+5*s^3+7*s^2+5*s+6)

F9=ilaplace(f9)

Solution from MATLAB for the Inverse Laplace transforms: 

1
Part (a):   G ( s) =
s( s + 2)( s + 3)  

G(t)=‐1/2*exp(‐2*t)+1/3*exp(‐3*t)+1/6 

To simplify: 

syms t 

digits(3) 

vpa(‐1/2*exp(‐2*t)+1/3*exp(‐3*t)+1/6) 

 ans =‐.500*exp(‐2.*t)+.333*exp(‐3.*t)+.167 

10
Part (b):  G ( s) =  
( s + 1) 2 ( s + 3)

G(t)= 5/2*exp(‐3*t)+5/2*exp(‐t)*(‐1+2*t) 

2‐37 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
100( s + 2)
Part (c):   G( s) = 2
e− s
s( s + 4 )( s + 1)  

G(t)=Step(t‐1)*(‐4*cos(t‐1)^2+2*sin(t‐1)*cos(t‐1)+4*exp(‐1/2*t+1/2)*cosh(1/2*t‐1/2)‐4*exp(‐t+1)‐cos(2*t‐2)‐

2*sin(2*t‐2)+5) 

2( s + 1)
Part (d):  G ( s) =
s( s 2 + s + 2 )  

G(t)= 1+1/7*exp(‐1/2*t)*(‐7*cos(1/2*7^(1/2)*t)+3*7^(1/2)*sin(1/2*7^(1/2)*t)) 

To simplify: 

syms t 

digits(3) 

vpa(1+1/7*exp(‐1/2*t)*(‐7*cos(1/2*7^(1/2)*t)+3*7^(1/2)*sin(1/2*7^(1/2)*t))) 

 ans = 1.+.143*exp(‐.500*t)*(‐7.*cos(1.32*t)+7.95*sin(1.32*t)) 

1
Part (e):    G ( s) =
( s + 1) 3  

G(t)= 1/2*t^2*exp(‐t) 

2( s 2 + s + 1)
Part (f):   G( s) =
. )( s 2 + 5s + 5)  
s( s + 15

G(t)= 4/15+28/3*exp(‐3/2*t)‐16/5*exp(‐5/2*t)*(3*cosh(1/2*t*5^(1/2))+5^(1/2)*sinh(1/2*t*5^(1/2))) 

2 + 2 se − s + 4e −2 s
Part (g): G ( s ) =
s 2 + 3s + 2  

2‐38 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
G(t)= 2*exp(‐2*t)*(7+8*t)+8*exp(‐t)*(‐2+t) 

2s + 1
Part (h):  G ( s) =
s + 6 s 2 + 11s + 6  
3

G(t)= ‐1/2*exp(‐t)+3*exp(‐2*t)‐5/2*exp(‐3*t) 

3s 3 + 10 s 2 + 8s + 5
Part (i):   G ( s) = 4
s + 5 s 3 + 7 s 2 + 5s + 6  

G(t)=  ‐7*exp(‐2*t)+10*exp(‐3*t)‐

1/10*ilaplace(10^(2*s)/(s^2+1)*s,s,t)+1/10*ilaplace(10^(2*s)/(s^2+1),s,t)+1/10*sin(t)*(10+dirac(t)*(‐exp(‐

3*t)+2*exp(‐2*t))) 

2‐39 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2-28) Ax t Bu t

a)

b)

3 2

2 2

2-29) (a)             (b) 


Y (s) 3s + 1 Y (s) 5
= 3 2
       = 4 2
 
R( s) s + 2 s + 5s + 6 R( s) s + 10 s + s + 5

  (c)            (d) 
−s
Y (s) s ( s + 2) Y (s) 1 + 2e
    = 4 3 2
     = 2
 
R( s) s + 10 s + 2 s + s + 2 R( s) 2s + s + 5

e) 1

Ö 5 2 2

By using Laplace transform, we have:

4 5 2

As X s e Y s , then

2‐40 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2 1
4

Then:

f) By using Laplace transform we have:

2
2 2 2

As a result:

2‐30) 

After taking the Laplace transform, the equation was solved in terms of Y(s), and consecutively was divided by 
input R(s) to obtain Y(s)/R(s): 

MATLAB code:  

clear all;

syms Ys Rs s

sol1=solve('s^3*Ys+2*s^2*Ys+5*s*Ys+6*Ys=3*s*Rs+Rs','Ys')

Ys_Rs1=sol1/Rs

sol2=solve('s^4*Ys+10*s^2*Ys+s*Ys+5*Ys=5*Rs','Ys')

Ys_Rs2=sol2/Rs

sol3=solve('s^3*Ys+10*s^2*Ys+2*s*Ys+2*Ys/s=s*Rs+2*Rs','Ys')

Ys_Rs3=sol3/Rs

sol4=solve('2*s^2*Ys+s*Ys+5*Ys=2*Rs*exp(-1*s)','Ys')

Ys_Rs4=sol4/Rs

2‐41 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
%Note: Parts E&F are too complicated with MATLAB, Laplace of integral is not
executable in MATLAB.....skipped

MATLAB Answers: 

Part (a):   Y(s)/R(s)= (3*s+1)/(5*s+6+s^3+2*s^2); 

Part (b):  Y(s)/R(s)= 5/(10*s^2+s+5+s^4) 

Part (c):   Y(s)/R(s)= (s+2)*s/(2*s^2+2+s^4+10*s^3) 

Part (d):  Y(s)/R(s)= 2*exp(‐s)/(2*s^2+s+5) 

%Note: Parts E&F are too complicated with MATLAB, Laplace of integral is not
executable in MATLAB.....skipped

2‐31 

MATLAB code:  

clear all;

s=tf('s')

%Part a

Eq=10*(s+1)/(s^2*(s+4)*(s+6));

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

[r,p] = residue(num,den)

%Part b

Eq=(s+1)/(s*(s+2)*(s^2+2*s+2));

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

[r,p] = residue(num,den)

%Part c

Eq=5*(s+2)/(s^2*(s+1)*(s+5));

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

2‐42 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
[r,p] = residue(num,den)

%Part d

Eq=5*(pade(exp(-2*s),1))/(s^2+s+1); %Pade approximation oreder 1 used

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

[r,p] = residue(num,den)

%Part e

Eq=100*(s^2+s+3)/(s*(s^2+5*s+3));

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

[r,p] = residue(num,den)

%Part f

Eq=1/(s*(s^2+1)*(s+0.5)^2);

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

[r,p] = residue(num,den)

%Part g

Eq=(2*s^3+s^2+8*s+6)/((s^2+4)*(s^2+2*s+2));

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

[r,p] = residue(num,den)

%Part h

Eq=(2*s^4+9*s^3+15*s^2+s+2)/(s^2*(s+2)*(s+1)^2);

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

[r,p] = residue(num,den)

The solutions are presented in the form of two vectors, r and p, where for each case, the partial fraction 
expansion is equal to: 

2‐43 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
b( s ) r r r
= 1 + 2 + ... + n
a( s ) s − p1 s − p 2 s − pn  

Following are r and p vectors for each part: 

Part(a): 

r =0.6944 

   ‐0.9375 

    0.2431 

    0.4167 

p =‐6.0000 

     ‐4.0000 

         0 

         0 

Part(b): 

r =0.2500           

  ‐0.2500 ‐ 0.0000i 

  ‐0.2500 + 0.0000i 

   0.2500           

p =‐2.0000           

  ‐1.0000 + 1.0000i 

2‐44 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
  ‐1.0000 ‐ 1.0000i 

        0           

Part(c): 

r =0.1500 

    1.2500 

   ‐1.4000 

    2.0000 

p = ‐5 

    ‐1 

     0 

     0 

Part(d): 

r =10.0000           

  ‐5.0000 ‐ 0.0000i 

  ‐5.0000 + 0.0000i 

p =‐1.0000           

  ‐0.5000 + 0.8660i 

  ‐0.5000 ‐ 0.8660i 

2‐45 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 

Part(e): 

r =110.9400 

 ‐110.9400 

  100.0000 

p =‐4.3028 

   ‐0.6972 

         0 

Part(f): 

r =0.2400 + 0.3200i 

   0.2400 ‐ 0.3200i 

  ‐4.4800           

  ‐1.6000           

   4.0000           

p =‐0.0000 + 1.0000i 

  ‐0.0000 ‐ 1.0000i 

  ‐0.5000           

  ‐0.5000           

        0           

2‐46 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Part(g): 

r =‐0.1000 + 0.0500i 

  ‐0.1000 ‐ 0.0500i 

   1.1000 + 0.3000i 

   1.1000 ‐ 0.3000i 

p =0.0000 + 2.0000i 

   0.0000 ‐ 2.0000i 

  ‐1.0000 + 1.0000i 

  ‐1.0000 ‐ 1.0000i 

Part(h): 

r =5.0000 

   ‐1.0000 

    9.0000 

   ‐2.0000 

    1.0000 

p =‐2.0000 

   ‐1.0000 

   ‐1.0000 

         0 

         0 

2‐47 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2‐32) 

MATLAB code:  

clear all;

syms s

%Part a

Eq=10*(s+1)/(s^2*(s+4)*(s+6));

ilaplace(Eq)

%Part b

Eq=(s+1)/(s*(s+2)*(s^2+2*s+2));

ilaplace(Eq)

%Part c

Eq=5*(s+2)/(s^2*(s+1)*(s+5));

ilaplace(Eq)

%Part d

exp_term=(-s+1)/(s+1) %pade approcimation

Eq=5*exp_term/((s+1)*(s^2+s+1));

ilaplace(Eq)

%Part e

Eq=100*(s^2+s+3)/(s*(s^2+5*s+3));

ilaplace(Eq)

%Part f

Eq=1/(s*(s^2+1)*(s+0.5)^2);

ilaplace(Eq)

2‐48 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

%Part g

Eq=(2*s^3+s^2+8*s+6)/((s^2+4)*(s^2+2*s+2));

ilaplace(Eq)

%Part h

Eq=(2*s^4+9*s^3+15*s^2+s+2)/(s^2*(s+2)*(s+1)^2);

ilaplace(Eq)

MATLAB Answers: 

Part(a): 

G(t)= ‐15/16*exp(‐4*t)+25/36*exp(‐6*t)+35/144+5/12*t 

To simplify: 

syms t 

digits(3) 

vpa(‐15/16*exp(‐4*t)+25/36*exp(‐6*t)+35/144+5/12*t) 

ans =‐.938*exp(‐4.*t)+.694*exp(‐6.*t)+.243+.417*tPart(b): 

G(t)= 1/4*exp(‐2*t)+1/4‐1/2*exp(‐t)*cos(t) 

Part(c): 

G(t)= 5/4*exp(‐t)‐7/5+3/20*exp(‐5*t)+2*t 

2‐49 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 

Part(d): 

G(t)= ‐5*exp(‐1/2*t)*(cos(1/2*3^(1/2)*t)+3^(1/2)*sin(1/2*3^(1/2)*t))+5*(1+2*t)*exp(‐t) 

Part(e): 

G(t)= 100‐800/13*exp(‐5/2*t)*13^(1/2)*sinh(1/2*t*13^(1/2)) 

Part(f): 

G(t)= 4+12/25*cos(t)‐16/25*sin(t)‐8/25*exp(‐1/2*t)*(5*t+14) 

Part(g): 

G(t)= ‐1/5*cos(2*t)‐1/10*sin(2*t)+1/5*(11*cos(t)‐3*sin(t))*exp(‐t) 

Part(h): 

G(t)= ‐2+t+5*exp(‐2*t)+(‐1+9*t)*exp(‐t) 

2‐50 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2-33) (a)  Poles are at   s = 0, − 15
. + j16583
. , − 15
. − j16583
.         One poles at s = 0.  Marginally stable. 

         (b)  Poles are at  s = −5, − j 2 , j 2              Two poles on  jω  axis. Marginally stable. 

         (c)   Poles are at  s = −0.8688, 0.4344 + j 2.3593, 0.4344 − j 2.3593       Two poles in RHP.  Unstable. 

         (d)  Poles are at  s = −5, − 1 + j , − 1 − j              All poles in the LHP. Stable. 

          (e)  Poles are at   s = −13387
. , 16634
. + j 2.164, 16634
. − j 2.164        Two poles in RHP.  Unstable. 

          (f)  Poles are at  s = −22.8487 ± j 22.6376, 213487


. ± j 22.6023        Two poles in RHP.  Unstable. 

2-34) Find the Characteristic equations and then use the roots command.

(a)

p= [ 1 3 5 0]

sr = roots(p)

p=

1 3 5 0

sr =

-1.5000 + 1.6583i

-1.5000 - 1.6583i

(b) p=conv([1 5],[1 0 2])

sr = roots(p)

p=

1 5 2 10

2‐51 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
sr =

-5.0000

0.0000 + 1.4142i

0.0000 - 1.4142i

(c)

>> roots([1 5 5])

ans =

-3.6180

-1.3820

(d) roots(conv([1 5],[1 2 2]))

ans =

-5.0000

-1.0000 + 1.0000i

-1.0000 - 1.0000i

(e) roots([1 -2 3 10])

ans =

1.6694 + 2.1640i

1.6694 - 2.1640i

-1.3387

2‐52 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
(f) roots([1 3 50 1 10^6])

-22.8487 +22.6376i

-22.8487 -22.6376i

21.3487 +22.6023i

21.3487 -22.6023i

Alternatively

Problem 2‐34 

MATLAB code:  

% Question 2-34,

clear all;

s=tf('s')

%Part a

Eq=10*(s+2)/(s^3+3*s^2+5*s);

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

roots(den)

%Part b

Eq=(s-1)/((s+5)*(s^2+2));

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

roots(den)

%Part c

Eq=1/(s^3+5*s+5);

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

roots(den)

2‐53 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
%Part d

Eq=100*(s-1)/((s+5)*(s^2+2*s+2));

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

roots(den)

%Part e

Eq=100/(s^3-2*s^2+3*s+10);

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

roots(den)

%Part f

Eq=10*(s+12.5)/(s^4+3*s^3+50*s^2+s+10^6);

[num,den]=tfdata(Eq,'v');

roots(den)

MATLAB answer: 

Part(a)
 
 

        0           

  ‐1.5000 + 1.6583i 

  ‐1.5000 ‐ 1.6583i 

Part(b)
 
 

  ‐5.0000           

2‐54 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
  ‐0.0000 + 1.4142i 

  ‐0.0000 ‐ 1.4142i 

Part(c)
 
 

   0.4344 + 2.3593i 

   0.4344 ‐ 2.3593i 

  ‐0.8688           

Part(d)
 
 

  ‐5.0000           

  ‐1.0000 + 1.0000i 

  ‐1.0000 ‐ 1.0000i 

Part(e)
 
 

   1.6694 + 2.1640i 

   1.6694 ‐ 2.1640i 

  ‐1.3387           

Part(f)
 
 

2‐55 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 ‐22.8487 +22.6376i 

 ‐22.8487 ‐22.6376i 

  21.3487 +22.6023i 

  21.3487 ‐22.6023i 

2-35)

  (a)   s 3 + 25 s 2 + 10 s + 450 = 0     Roots:   −25.31, 0.1537 + j 4.214, 0.1537 − 4.214  

     Routh Tabulation: 

3
s 1 10
2
s 25 450
      250 − 450     Two sign changes in the first column. Two roots in RHP. 
1
s = −8 0
25
0
s 450

3 2
         (b)    s + 25 s + 10 s + 50 = 0     Roots:   −24.6769, − 0.1616 + j1.4142, − 0.1616 − j1.4142  

      Routh Tabulation: 

3
s 1 10
2
s 25 50
       250 − 50     No sign changes in the first column. No roots in RHP. 
1
s =8 0
25
0
s 50

         (c)   s 3 + 25 s 2 + 250 s + 10 = 0    Roots:   −0.0402, − 12.48 + j 9.6566, − j 9.6566  

      

     Routh Tabulation: 

2‐56 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3
s 1 250
2
s 25 10
      6250 − 10     No sign changes in the first column. No roots in RHP. 
1
s = 249.6 0
25
0
s 10

4 3 2
           (d)   2 s + 10 s + 5.5 s + 5.5 s + 10 = 0              Roots:   −4.466, − 1116
. , 0.2888 + j 0.9611, 0.2888 − j 0.9611 

       

     Routh Tabulation: 

4
s 2 5.5 10
3
      s 10 5.5        
2 55 − 11
s = 4.4 10
10

1 24.2 − 100
s = −75.8
      4.4         
0
s 10

     Two sign changes in the first column. Two roots in RHP. 

         (e)   s 6 + 2 s 5 + 8 s 4 + 15 s 3 + 20 s 2 + 16 s + 16 = 0      Roots:   −1.222 ± j 0.8169, 0.0447 ± j1153


. , 0.1776 ± j 2.352  

       

       Routh Tabulation: 

6
s 1 8 20 16
5
s 2 15 16
        16 − 15 40 − 16  
4
s = 0.5 = 12
2 2
3
s − 33 − 48

2‐57 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2 −396 + 24
s = 11.27 16
−33
1 −5411
. + 528
          s = −116
. 0       
11.27
0
s 0

       Four sign changes in the first column. Four roots in RHP. 

4 3 2
           (f)    s + 2 s + 10 s + 20 s + 5 = 0           Roots:   −0.29, − 1788
. , 0.039 + j 3105
. , 0.039 − j 3105
.  

        

       Routh Tabulation: 

4
s 1 10 5
3
s 2 20
        20 − 20  
2
s =0 5
2
2
s ε 5 Replace 0 in last row by ε

1 20ε − 10 10
s ≅−
        ε ε       Two sign changes in first column. Two roots in RHP. 
0
s 5

(g)

s8 1 8 20 16 0

s7 2 12 16 0 0

s6 2 12 16 0 0

s5 0 0 0 0 0

2 12 16

12 60 64

2‐58 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
s5 12 60 64 0

s4 2 16 0 0
3
s3 28 64 0 0

s2 0.759 0 0 0

s1 28 0

s0 0

2-36) Use MATLAB roots command

a) roots([1 25 10 450])

ans =

-25.3075

0.1537 + 4.2140i

0.1537 - 4.2140i

b) roots([1 25 10 50])

ans =

-24.6769

-0.1616 + 1.4142i

-0.1616 - 1.4142i

c) roots([1 25 250 10])

ans =

-12.4799 + 9.6566i

-12.4799 - 9.6566i

2‐59 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
-0.0402

d) roots([2 10 5.5 5.5 10])

ans =

-4.4660

-1.1116

0.2888 + 0.9611i

0.2888 - 0.9611i

e) roots([1 2 8 15 20 16 16])

ans =

0.1776 + 2.3520i

0.1776 - 2.3520i

-1.2224 + 0.8169i

-1.2224 - 0.8169i

0.0447 + 1.1526i

0.0447 - 1.1526i

f) roots([1 2 10 20 5])

ans =

0.0390 + 3.1052i

0.0390 - 3.1052i

-1.7881

-0.2900

g) roots([1 2 8 12 20 16 16])

2‐60 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
ans =

0.0000 + 2.0000i

0.0000 - 2.0000i

-1.0000 + 1.0000i

-1.0000 - 1.0000i

0.0000 + 1.4142i

0.0000 - 1.4142i

Alternatively use the approach in this Chapter’s Section 2‐14: 

1. Activate MATLAB 

2. Go to the directory containing the ACSYS software.  

3. Type in  

Acsys 

 
4. Then press the “transfer function Symbolic button 

2‐61 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

 
5. Enter the characteristic equation in the denominator and press the “Routh‐Hurwitz” push‐
button.

RH =

[ 1, 10]

[ 25, 450]

[ -8, 0]

[ 450, 0]

Two sign changes in the first column. Two roots in RHP=> UNSTABLE

2-37) Use the MATLAB “roots” command same as in the previous problem.

2‐62 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2-38) To solve using MATLAB, set the value of K in an iterative process and find the roots such that at
least one root changes sign from negative to positive. Then increase resolution if desired.

Example: in this case 0<K<12 ( increase resolution by changing the loop to: for K=11:.1:12)

for K=0:12 

roots([1 25 15 20 K]) 

end 

K=

ans =

-24.4193

-0.2904 + 0.8572i

-0.2904 - 0.8572i

K=

ans =

2‐63 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

-24.4192

-0.2645 + 0.8485i

-0.2645 - 0.8485i

-0.0518

K=

ans =

-24.4191

-0.2369 + 0.8419i

-0.2369 - 0.8419i

-0.1071

K=

2‐64 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
ans =

-24.4191

-0.2081 + 0.8379i

-0.2081 - 0.8379i

-0.1648

K=

ans =

-24.4190

-0.1787 + 0.8369i

-0.1787 - 0.8369i

-0.2237

K=

2‐65 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

ans =

-24.4189

-0.1496 + 0.8390i

-0.1496 - 0.8390i

-0.2819

K=

ans =

-24.4188

-0.1215 + 0.8438i

-0.1215 - 0.8438i

-0.3381

K=

2‐66 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

ans =

-24.4188

-0.0951 + 0.8508i

-0.0951 - 0.8508i

-0.3911

K=

ans =

-24.4187

-0.0704 + 0.8595i

-0.0704 - 0.8595i

-0.4406

K=

2‐67 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
9

ans =

-24.4186

-0.0475 + 0.8692i

-0.0475 - 0.8692i

-0.4864

K=

10

ans =

-24.4186

-0.0263 + 0.8796i

-0.0263 - 0.8796i

-0.5288

K=

2‐68 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

11

ans =

-24.4185

-0.0067 + 0.8905i

-0.0067 - 0.8905i

-0.5681

K=

12

ans =

-24.4184

0.0115 + 0.9015i

0.0115 - 0.9015i

-0.6046

Alternatively use the approach in this Chapter’s Section 2‐14: 

2‐69 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
1. Activate MATLAB 

2. Go to the directory containing the ACSYS software.  

3. Type in  

Acsys 

 
4. Then press the “transfer function Symbolic button 

2‐70 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

 
5. Enter the characteristic equation in the denominator and press the “Routh‐Hurwitz” push‐
button. 

RH = 

  

[            1,           15,            k] 

[           25,           20,            0] 

[         71/5,            k,            0] 

[ ‐125/71*k+20,            0,            0] 

[            k,            0,            0] 

6. Find the values of K to make the system unstable following the next steps. 

2‐71 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Alternative Problem 2‐36 

Using ACSYS toolbar under “Transfer Function Symbolic”, the Routh‐Hurwitz option can be used to generate RH 
matrix based on denominator polynhomial. The system is stable if and only if the first column of this matrix 
contains NO negative values. 

MATLAB code: to calculate the number of right hand side poles 

%Part a

den_a=[1 25 10 450]

roots(den_a)

%Part b

den_b=[1 25 10 50]

roots(den_b)

%Part c

den_c=[1 25 250 10]

roots(den_c)

%Part d

den_d=[2 10 5.5 5.5 10]

roots(den_d)

%Part e

den_e=[1 2 8 15 20 16 16]

roots(den_e)

%Part f

den_f=[1 2 10 20 5]

roots(den_f)

2‐72 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

%Part g

den_g=[1 2 8 12 20 16 16 0 0]

roots(den_g)

  

using ACSYS, the denominator polynomial can be inserted, and by clicking on the “Routh‐Hurwitz” button, the R‐
H chart can be observed in the main MATLAB command window: 

Part(a): for the transfer function in part (a), this chart is: 

RH chart = 

[   1,  10] 

[  25, 450] 

[  ‐8,   0] 

[ 450,   0] 

Unstable system due to ‐8 on the 3rd row. 

2 complex conjugate poles on right hand side. All the poles are: 

‐25.3075           

 0.1537 + 4.2140i    and    0.1537 ‐ 4.2140i 

2‐73 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

 
 

Part (b):  

RH chart: 

[  1, 10] 

[ 25, 50] 

[  8,  0] 

[ 50,  0] 

Stable system >> No right hand side pole 

Part (c):  

2‐74 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
RH chart: 

[      1,    250] 

[     25,     10] 

[ 1248/5,      0] 

[     10,      0] 

Stable system >> No right hand side pole 

Part (d):  

RH chart: 

[       2,    11/2,      10] 

[      10,    11/2,       0] 

[    22/5,      10,       0] 

[ ‐379/22,       0,       0] 

[      10,       0,       0] 

Unstable system due to ‐379/22 on the 4th row. 

2 complex conjugate poles on right hand side. All the poles are: 

  ‐4.4660           

  ‐1.1116           

   0.2888 + 0.9611i 

   0.2888 ‐ 0.9611i 

2‐75 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 

Part (e):  

RH chart: 

[      1,      8,     20,     16] 

[      2,     15,     16,      0] 

[    1/2,     12,     16,      0] 

[    ‐33,    ‐48,      0,      0] 

[ 124/11,     16,      0,      0] 

[ ‐36/31,      0,      0,      0] 

[     16,      0,      0,      0] 

Unstable system due to ‐33 and ‐36/31 on the 4th and 6th row. 

4 complex conjugate poles on right hand side. All the poles are: 

   0.1776 + 2.3520i 

   0.1776 ‐ 2.3520i 

  ‐1.2224 + 0.8169i 

  ‐1.2224 ‐ 0.8169i 

   0.0447 + 1.1526i 

   0.0447 ‐ 1.1526i 

Part (f):  

RH chart: 

[                1,               10,                5] 

[                2,               20,                0] 

2‐76 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
[              eps,                5,                0] 

[ (‐10+20*eps)/eps,                0,                0] 

[                5,                0,                0] 

Unstable system due to ((‐10+20*eps)/eps) on the 4th. 

2 complex conjugate poles slightly on right hand side. All the poles are: 

   0.0390 + 3.1052i 

   0.0390 ‐ 3.1052i 

  ‐1.7881           

  ‐0.2900       

Part (g):  

RH chart: 

[    1,    8,   20,   16,    0] 

[    2,   12,   16,    0,    0] 

[    2,   12,   16,    0,    0] 

[   12,   48,   32,    0,    0] 

[    4, 32/3,    0,    0,    0] 

[   16,   32,    0,    0,    0] 

[  8/3,    0,    0,    0,    0] 

[   32,    0,    0,    0,    0] 

[    0,    0,    0,    0,    0] 

Stable system >> No right hand side pole 

2‐77 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
6 poles wt zero real part: 

        0           

        0           

   0.0000 + 2.0000i 

   0.0000 ‐ 2.0000i 

  ‐1.0000 + 1.0000i 

  ‐1.0000 ‐ 1.0000i 

   0.0000 + 1.4142i 

   0.0000 ‐ 1.4142i 

2‐78 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 (a)   s 4 + 25 s 3 + 15 s 2 + 20 s + K = 0  

     Routh Tabulation: 

4
s 1 15 K
3
      s 25 20  
2 375 − 20
s = 14.2 K
25

1 284 − 25 K
s = 20 − 176
. K 20 − 176
. K > 0 or K < 1136
.
      14.2  
0
s K K>0

     Thus, the system is stable for 0 < K < 11.36. When K = 11.36, the system is marginally stable. The  

2 2
     auxiliary equation is  A( s ) = 14.2 s + 11.36 = 0.  The solution of A(s) = 0 is  s = −0.8.  The  

     frequency of oscillation is 0.894 rad/sec. 

4 3 2
         (b)   s + Ks + 2 s + ( K + 1) s + 10 = 0  

     Routh Tabulation: 
4
s 1 2 10
3
       s K K +1 K>0 
2 2K − K − 1 K −1
s = 10 K >1
K K
2
1 −9 K − 1 2
s − 9K − 1 > 0
       K −1  
0
s 10

       

2 2
      The conditions for stability are:  K > 0, K > 1, and  −9 K − 1 > 0 . Since  K  is always positive, the  

      last condition cannot be met by any real value of K. Thus, the system is unstable for all values of K. 

2‐79 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 

3 2
         (c)   s + ( K + 2 ) s + 2 Ks + 10 = 0  

     Routh Tabulation: 

3
s 1 2K
2
s K+2 10 K > −2
      2
2 K + 4 K − 10  
1 2
s K + 2K − 5 > 0
K+2
0
s 10

    

2
      The conditions for stability are:  K > −2 and  K + 2 K − 5 > 0  or (K +3.4495)(K − 1.4495) > 0,  

      or K > 1.4495. Thus, the condition for stability is K > 1.4495.  When K = 1.4495 the system is  

2 2
      marginally stable. The auxiliary equation is   A( s ) = 3.4495 s + 10 = 0.  The solution is  s = −2.899 .  

      The frequency of oscillation is 1.7026 rad/sec. 

3 2
         (d)   s + 20 s + 5 s + 10 K = 0  

     Routh Tabulation: 

3
s 1 5
2
s 20 10 K
      100 − 10 K  
1
s = 5 − 0.5K 5 − 0.5K > 0 or K < 10
20
0
s 10 K K>0

     The conditions for stability are:  K > 0 and K < 10. Thus, 0 < K < 10.  When K = 10, the system is 

2
     marginally stable. The auxiliary equation is  A( s ) = 20 s + 100 = 0. The solution of the auxiliary  

2
     equation is  s = −5.  The frequency of oscillation is 2.236 rad/sec. 

2‐80 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 

4 3 2
         (e)   s + Ks + 5 s + 10 s + 10 K = 0  

     Routh Tabulation: 

4
s 1 5 10 K
3
      s K 10 K>0  
2 5 K − 10
s 10 K 5K − 10 > 0 or K > 2
K

50 K − 100 2
− 10 K 3
1 K 50 K − 100 − 10 K 3
s = 5 K − 10 − K > 0
      5K − 10 5 K − 10  
K
0
s 10 K K>0

3
 The conditions for stability are:  K > 0,  K > 2, and  5 K − 10 − K > 0.    

Use Matlab to solve for k from last condition 

>> syms k 

>> kval=solve(5*k‐10+k^3,k); 

 >> eval(kval) 

kval = 

   1.4233           

  ‐0.7117 + 2.5533i 

  ‐0.7117 ‐ 2.5533i 

So K>1.4233. 

     Thus, the conditions for stability is: K > 2 

2‐81 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
4 3 2
         (f)   s + 12.5 s + s + 5 s + K = 0  

     Routh Tabulation: 

4
s 1 1 K
3
      s 12.5 5  
2 12.5 − 5
s = 0.6 K
12.5

1 3 − 12.5 K
s = 5 − 20.83 K 5 − 20.83 K > 0 or K < 0.24
      0.6  
0
s K K>0

                  The condition for stability is  0 < K < 0.24.  When K = 0.24 the system is marginally stable. The auxiliary 

2 2
     equation is  A( s ) = 0.6 s + 0.24 = 0.  The solution of the auxiliary equation is  s = −0.4.  The frequency of 

     oscillation is 0.632 rad/sec. 

2-39)
3 2
The characteristic equation is  Ts + ( 2T + 1) s + ( 2 + K ) s + 5 K = 0  

  Routh Tabulation: 

3
s T K+2 T >0
   
2
s 2T + 1 5K T > −1 / 2

1 ( 2T + 1)( K + 2 ) − 5 KT
s K (1 − 3T ) + 4T + 2 > 0
  2T + 1  
0
s 5K K>0

      

4T + 2
   The conditions for stability are:  T > 0,  K > 0, and   K < .  The regions of stability in the 
3T − 1

2‐82 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
   T‐versus‐K parameter plane is shown below. 

     

2‐40  Use the approach in this Chapter’s Section 2‐14: 

1. Activate MATLAB 

2. Go to the directory containing the ACSYS software.  

3. Type in  

Acsys 

2‐83 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

 
4. Then press the “transfer function Symbolic button.” 

2‐84 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
5. Enter the characteristic equation in the denominator and press the “Routh‐Hurwitz” push‐
button. 

RH = 

  

[1,                                                                                 50000,                 24*k] 

[600,                                                                                     k,                  80*k] 

[‐1/600*k+50000,                                               358/15*k,                        0] 

[ (35680*k‐1/600*k^2)/(‐1/600*k+50000),           80*k,                        0] 

[ 24*k*(k^2‐21622400*k+5000000000000)/(k‐30000000)/(35680*k‐1/600*k^2)*(‐1/600*k+50000),                           
0,                                                                                     0] 

[80*k,                                                                                 0,                          0] 

6. Find the values of K to make the system unstable following the next steps.  

(a)  Characteristic equation:   s 5 + 600 s 4 + 50000 s 3 + Ks 2 + 24 Ks + 80 K = 0  

     Routh Tabulation: 

5
s 1 50000 24 K
4
      s 600 K 80 K  
7
3 3 × 10 − K 14320 K 7
s K < 3 × 10
600 600
2
2 21408000 K − K
s 7
80 K K < 21408000
3 × 10 − K
16 11 2
1 −7.2 × 10 + 3113256
. × 10 K − 14400 K 2 7 12
      s K − 2.162 × 10 K + 5 × 10 < 0 
600(21408000 − K )
0
s 80 K K>0

2‐85 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
     Conditions for stability: 

3 7
     From the  s  row:    K < 3 × 10  

2 7
     From the  s  row:    K < 2.1408 × 10  

1 2 7 12 5 7
     From the  s  row:      K − 2.162 × 10 K + 5 × 10 < 0 or ( K − 2.34 × 10 )( K − 2.1386 × 10 ) < 0  

5 7
    Thus,       2.34 × 10 < K < 2.1386 × 10  

0
     From the  s  row:    K > 0 

5 7
    Thus, the final condition for stability is:  2.34 × 10 < K < 2.1386 × 10  

5
     When  K = 2.34 × 10     ω = 10.6   rad/sec. 

7
     When  K = 2.1386 × 10     ω = 188.59   rad/sec. 

      (b)  Characteristic equation:     s 3 + ( K + 2 ) s 2 + 30 Ks + 200 K = 0  

   

     Routh tabulation: 

3
s 1 30 K
2
s K+2 200 K K > −2
      2  
1 30 K − 140 K
s K > 4.6667
K+2
0
s 200 K K>0

     Stability Condition:              K > 4.6667 

2 2
     When K = 4.6667, the auxiliary equation is   A( s ) = 6.6667 s + 933.333 = 0 .  The solution is  s = −140.  

     The frequency of oscillation is 11.832 rad/sec. 

3 2
         (c)  Characteristic equation:  s + 30 s + 200 s + K = 0  

      

2‐86 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
     Routh tabulation: 

3
s 1 200
2
s 30 K
      6000 − K  
1
s K < 6000
30
0
s K K>0

     Stabililty Condition:  0 < K < 6000  

2 2
     When K = 6000, the auxiliary equation is  A( s ) = 30 s + 6000 = 0.  The solution is  s = −200.  

     The frequency of oscillation is 14.142 rad/sec. 

3 2
         (d)  Characteristic equation:     s + 2 s + ( K + 3) s + K + 1 = 0  

     Routh tabulation: 

3
s 1 K+3
2
s 2 K +1
      K +5  
1
s K > −5
30
0
s K +1 K > −1

     Stability condition:  K > −1.  When K = −1 the zero element occurs in the first element of the 

0
      s  row. Thus, there is no auxiliary equation. When K = −1, the system is marginally stable, and one 

     of the three characteristic equation roots is at s = 0.  There is no oscillation. The system response  

     would increase monotonically. 

2‐87 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2‐42  State equation:  Open‐loop system:  x& ( t ) = Ax ( t ) + Bu ( t )  

⎡1 −2 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤
      A=⎢ ⎥ B= ⎢ ⎥ 
⎣10 0 ⎦ ⎣1 ⎦

               Closed‐loop system:  x& ( t ) = ( A − BK )x ( t )  

⎡ 1 −2 ⎤
      A − BK = ⎢  
⎣10 − k1 − k 2 ⎥⎦

         Characteristic equation of the closed‐loop system: 

s −1 2
sI − A + BK = = s + ( k 2 − 1) s + 20 − 2k1 − k 2 = 0  
2
   
−10 + k1 s + k2

         Stability requirements: 

        k 2 − 1 > 0 or k 2 > 1  

        20 − 2k1 − k 2 > 0 or k 2 < 20 − 2k1  

         Parameter plane: 

     

2‐43)  Characteristic equation of closed‐loop system: 

s −1 0
sI − A + BK = 0 −1 = s + ( k 3 + 3 ) s + ( k 2 + 4 ) s + k1 = 0  
3 2
  s
k1 k2 + 4 s + k3 + 3

     

2‐88 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
 Routh Tabulation: 

k2 + 4
3
s 1

k3 + 3 k 3 +3>0 or k 3 > −3
2
s k1
      (k + 3 )( k 2 + 4 ) − k1  
s
1 3
(k + 3) ( k + 4 ) − k > 0
k3 + 3
3 2 1

k >0
0
s k 1 1

     Stability Requirements: 

           k3 > −3, k1 > 0, (k 3


+ 3 )( k 2 + 4 ) − k1 > 0  

2‐44  (a)  Since A is a diagonal matrix with distinct eigenvalues, the states are decoupled from each other. The  

    second row of B is zero; thus, the second state variable,  x 2  is uncontrollable. Since the uncontrollable  

    state has the eigenvalue at −3 which is stable, and the unstable state  x3  with the eigenvalue at −2 is  

    controllable, the system is stabilizable. 

         (b)  Since the uncontrollable state  x1 has an unstable eigenvalue at 1, the system is no stabilizable. 

2-45) a)

If , then or

If , then 1 . As a result:

1
1 1

2‐89 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

1
b Ö

As a result:

1 1

Y ( s) G ( s) H (s) ( K p + K d s)
= =
X ( s ) (1 + G ( s ) H ( s )) ((τ s + 1)( s 2 − g / l ) + K p + K d s )
( K p + K d s)
=
(τ s + (τ (− g / l ) + 1) s 2 + K d s − g / l + K p )
3

c) lets choose 10 0.1.

Use the approach in this Chapter’s Section 2‐14: 

1. Activate MATLAB 

2. Go to the directory containing the ACSYS software.  

3. Type in  

Acsys 

2‐90 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

 
4. Then press the “transfer function Symbolic button.” 

2‐91 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

 
5. Enter the characteristic equation in the denominator and press the “Routh‐Hurwitz” push‐
button. 

RH =

[ 1/10, kd]

[ eps, kp-10]

[ (-1/10*kp+1+kd*eps)/eps, 0]

[ kp-10, 0]

For the choice of g/l or τ the system will be unstable. The quantity τ g/l must be >1.

Increase τ g/l to 1.1 and repeat the process.

2‐92 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
d) Use the ACSYS toolbox as in section 2-14 to find the inverse Laplace transform. Then plot
the time response by selecting the parameter values. Or use toolbox 2-6-1.

Use the approach in this Chapter’s Section 2‐14: 

1. Activate MATLAB 

2. Go to the directory containing the ACSYS software.  

3. Type in  

Acsys 

 
4. Then press the “transfer function Symbolic button.” 

2‐93 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

 
5. Enter the characteristic equation in the denominator and press the “Inverse Laplace Transform” 
push‐button. 

----------------------------------------------------------------

Inverse Laplace Transform

----------------------------------------------------------------

2‐94 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
G(s) =

[ kd kp ]

[------------------------ ------------------------------]

[ 3 3 ]

[1/10 s + s kd + kp - 10 1/10 s + s kd + kp - 10]

G(s) factored:

[ kd kp ]

[10 -------------------------- 10 --------------------------]

[ 3 3 ]

[ s + 10 s kd + 10 kp - 100 s + 10 s kd + 10 kp - 100]

Inverse Laplace Transform:

g(t) =
matrix([[10*kd*sum(1/(3*_alpha^2+10*kd)*exp(_alpha*t),_alpha=RootOf(_Z^3+10*_Z*kd
+10*kp-
100)),10*kp*sum(1/(3*_alpha^2+10*kd)*exp(_alpha*t),_alpha=RootOf(_Z^3+10*_Z*kd+1
0*kp-100))]])

While MATLAB is having a hard time with this problem, it is easy to see the solution will be unstable
for all values of Kp and Kd. Stability of a linear system is independent of its initial conditions. For
different values of g/l and τ, you may solve the problem similarly – assign all values (including Kp and
Kd) and then find the inverse Laplace transform of the system. Find the time response and apply the
initial conditions.

Lets chose g/l=1 and keep τ=0.1, take Kd=1 and Kp=10.

2‐95 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Y (s) G (s) H (s) ( K p + K d s)
= =
X ( s ) (1 + G ( s ) H ( s )) ((τ s + 1)( s 2 − g / l ) + K p + K d s )
(10 + s ) (10 + s )
= =
(0.1s + (0.1(−1) + 1) s + s − 1 + 10) (0.1s + 0.9 s 2 + s + 9)
3 2 3

Using ACSYS:

RH =

[ 1/10, 1]

[ 9/10, 9]

[ 9/5, 0]

[ 9, 0]

Hence the system is stable

----------------------------------------------------------------

Inverse Laplace Transform

----------------------------------------------------------------

G(s) =

s + 10

-------------------------

3 2

1/10 s + 9/10 s + s + 9

2‐96 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
G factored:

Zero/pole/gain:

10 (s+10)

-----------------

(s+9) (s^2 + 10)

Inverse Laplace Transform:

g(t) = -10989/100000*exp(-
2251801791980457/40564819207303340847894502572032*t)*cos(79057/25000*t)+868757373/25000
0000*exp(-
2251801791980457/40564819207303340847894502572032*t)*sin(79057/25000*t)+10989/100000*ex
p(-9*t)

Use this MATLAB code to plot the time response:

for i=1:1000 

t=0.1*i; 

tf(i)=‐10989/100000*exp(‐
2251801791980457/40564819207303340847894502572032*t)*cos(79057/25000*t)+868757373/250
000000*exp(‐
2251801791980457/40564819207303340847894502572032*t)*sin(79057/25000*t)+10989/100000*e
xp(‐9*t); 

end 

figure(3) 

plot(1:1000,tf) 

2‐97 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

 
2‐52) USE MATLAB 

syms t 

f=5+2*exp(‐2*t)*sin(2*t+pi/4)‐4*exp(‐2*t)*cos(2*t‐pi/2)+3*exp(‐4*t) 

F=laplace(f) 

cltF=F/(1+F) 

 f = 

 5+2*exp(‐2*t)*sin(2*t+1/4*pi)‐4*exp(‐2*t)*sin(2*t)+3*exp(‐4*t) 

  

F = 

(8*s^3+44*s^2+112*s+160+8*2^(1/2)*s^2+16*2^(1/2)*s+2^(1/2)*s^3)/s/(s^2+4*s+8)/(s+4) 

cltF =  

2‐98 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
(8*s^3+44*s^2+112*s+160+8*2^(1/2)*s^2+16*2^(1/2)*s+2^(1/2)*s^3)/s/(s^2+4*s+8)/(s+4)/(1+(8*s^3
+44*s^2+112*s+160+8*2^(1/2)*s^2+16*2^(1/2)*s+2^(1/2)*s^3)/s/(s^2+4*s+8)/(s+4)) 

syms s 

cltFsimp=simplify(cltF) 

Next type the denominator into ACSYS Routh‐Hurwitz program. 

char=collect(s^4+16*s^3+68*s^2+144*s+160+8*2^(1/2)*s^2+16*2^(1/2)*s+2^(1/2)*s^3) 

char = 

160+s^4+(16+2^(1/2))*s^3+(8*2^(1/2)+68)*s^2+(16*2^(1/2)+144)*s 

>> eval(char) 

ans = 

160+s^4+4901665356903357/281474976710656*s^3+2790603031573437/35184372088832*s^2+293
1340519928765/17592186044416*s 

>> sym2poly(ans) 

ans = 

    1.0000   17.4142   79.3137  166.6274  160.0000 

Hence the Characteristic equation is: 

Δ = s 4 + 17.4142 s 3 + 79.3137 s 2 + 166.6274 s + 160  

USE ACSYS Routh‐Hurwitz tool as described in previous problems and this Chapter’s section 2‐14. 

RH = 

  

[                  1,                                                      5581205465083989*2^(‐46),                                               160] 

[87071/5000,                                                      5862680441794645*2^(‐45),                                                 0] 

[427334336632381556219/6127076924293382144,              160,                                                                0] 

2‐99 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
[ 238083438912827127943602680401244833403/1879436288300987963959490983755776000,                               
0,                                                                             0] 

[                          160,                                                                             0,                                                               0] 

The first column is all positive, and the system is STABLE. 

For the other section 

syms s 

G=(s+1)/(s*(s+2)*(s^2+2*s+2)) 

g=ilaplace(G) 

G = 

 (s+1)/s/(s+2)/(s^2+2*s+2) 

 g = 

 1/4‐1/2*exp(‐t)*cos(t)+1/4*exp(‐2*t) 

cltG=G/(1+G) 

cltG = 

(s+1)/s/(s+2)/(s^2+2*s+2)/(1+(s+1)/s/(s+2)/(s^2+2*s+2)) 

  

cltGsimp=simplify(cltG) 

cltGsimp = 

(s+1)/(s^4+4*s^3+6*s^2+5*s+1) 

Next type the denominator into ACSYS Routh‐Hurwitz program. 

2‐100 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 2 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
RH = 

  

[     1,     6,     1] 

[     4,     5,     0] 

[  19/4,     1,     0] 

[ 79/19,     0,     0] 

[     1,     0,     0] 

STABLE 

2‐101 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Chapter 3__________________________________________________________________________

3-1) a)

b)

c)

G H
d) Feedback ratio =

e)

3-2)

Characteristic equation: 1 2 1 0

Ö 3 2 1 0

3‐1 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-3)

G 1

1 − G1 H 1

H2
G2

G1
1 − G1 H 1

G1G2 H2
G3 +
1 − G1 H 1 G2

1
1 1
1

3‐2 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-4)

G2
1 + G 2 G3 H 3

+ G2
X G1 G3 Y
1 + G2G3 H 3 + G2 H 2
-

H1

3‐3 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
+ G1G2 G3
X Y
1 + G 2 G3 H 3 + G 2 H 2
-

H1
G3

3
3-5)

3‐4 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-6) MATLAB

syms s 
G=[2/(s*(s+2)),10;5/s,1/(s+1)] 
H=[1,0;0,1] 
A=eye(2)+G*H 
B=inv(A) 
Clp=simplify(B*G) 

G=

[ 2/s/(s+2), 10]
[ 5/s, 1/(s+1)]

H=
1 0
0 1

A=

[ 1+2/s/(s+2), 10]
[ 5/s, 1+1/(s+1)]

B=

[ s*(s+2)/(s^2-48*s-48), -10/(s^2-48*s-48)*(s+1)*s]
[ -5/(s^2-48*s-48)*(s+1), (s^2+2*s+2)*(s+1)/(s+2)/(s^2-48*s-48)]

Clp =

[ -2*(24+25*s)/(s^2-48*s-48), 10/(s^2-48*s-48)*(s+1)*s]
[ 5/(s^2-48*s-48)*(s+1), -(49*s^2+148*s+98)/(s+2)/(s^2-48*s-48)]

3‐5 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-7)

33-8)

3‐6 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-9)

3
3-10)

3
3-11)

3‐7 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-12)

3-13)

syms t 
f=100*(1‐0.33*exp(‐6*t)‐0
0.7*exp(‐10*t)) 
F=laplace(f) 
syms s 
F=eval(F)   
Gc=F*s 
M=30000 
syms K 
Olp=simplify(KK*Gc/M/s) 
Kt=0.15 
Clp= simplify(Olp/(1+Olp*KKt)) 
s=0 
Ess=eval(Clp) 
 
 
f = 
100‐30*exp(‐6 6*t)‐70*exp(‐‐10*t) 
  
F = 
80*(11*s+75)/s/(s+6)/(s+110) 
  
ans = 

3‐8 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
(880*s+6000)/s/(s+6)/(s+110) 
 
Gc = 
 (880*s+6000)/(s+6)/(s+100) 
 
M = 
       30000 
  
Olp = 
1/375*K*(11**s+75)/s/(s+66)/(s+10) 
 
Kt = 
    0.1500 
  
Clp = 
2
20/3*K*(11*s s+75)/(2500*s^3+40000*ss^2+150000*ss+11*K*s+75*K) 
 
s
s = 
     0 
  
E
Ess = 
2
20/3 

3
3-14)

3‐9 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

3-15)

‐1 ‐1
Note: If  G(s) = g(t), then  {e‐asG(s)} = u(t ‐ a) • g(t ‐ a) 

syms t s 
f=100*(1‐0.3*exp(‐6*(t‐0.5))) 
F=laplace(f)*exp(‐0.5*s) 
F=eval(F)   
Gc=F*s 
M=30000 
syms K 
Olp=simplify(K*Gc/M/s) 
Kt=0.15 
Clp= simplify(Olp/(1+Olp*Kt)) 
s=0 
Ess=eval(Clp) 
digits (2) 
Fsimp=simplify(expand(vpa(F))) 
Gcsimp=simplify(expand(vpa(Gc))) 
Olpsimp=simplify(expand(vpa(Olp))) 
Clpsimp=simplify(expand(vpa(Clp))) 
 
f = 
100‐30*exp(‐6*t+3) 
 
F = 
(100/s‐30*exp(3)/(s+6))*exp(‐1/2*s) 
 
F = 
(100/s‐2650113767660283/4398046511104/(s+6))*exp(‐1/2*s) 
 
Gc = 
(100/s‐2650113767660283/4398046511104/(s+6))*exp(‐1/2*s)*s 
   
M = 
       30000 
  
Olp = 
‐1/131941395333120000*K*(2210309116549883*s‐2638827906662400)/s/(s+6)*exp(‐1/2*s) 
 
Kt = 
    0.1500 
  
Clp = 

3‐10 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
2
20/3*K*(2210 03091165498 883*s‐263882 279066624000)*exp(‐1/2*s)/(‐87960930 022208000000*s^2‐
5
52776558133 324800000*s+ +2210309116 6549883*K*eexp(‐1/2*s)*s‐‐2638827906 6662400*K*exxp(‐1/2*s)) 
 
s = 
     0 
  
Ess = 
 2
20/3 
   
Fsimp = 
‐.10e3*exp(‐.550*s)*(5.*s‐6
6.)/s/(s+6.) 
  
Gcsimp = 
‐.10e3*exp(‐.550*s)*(5.*s‐6
6.)/(s+6.) 
  
Olpsimp = 
‐.10e‐2*K*exp p(‐.50*s)*(17
7.*s‐20.)/s/(s++6.) 
  
Clpsimp = 
 5
5.*K*exp(‐.50
0*s)*(15.*s‐117.)/(‐.44e4*ss^2‐.26e5*s+1
11.*K*exp(‐.550*s)*s‐13.*K
K*exp(‐.50*s))) 

3-16)

3‐11 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-17)

3-18)

1
5 6 3 0.5
1
0.5
1
0.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.5 0.5
0.5 0.5

0.5
u1 0.5 z1
1
3
0.5
1/s -1 1/s 1/s x1 0.5
-6
0.5 0.5 x3 x2 0.5
1 -5
1.5 1
u2 0.5 0.5
-0.5 z2

3‐12 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-19)

Ö
Ö

B1

B0 1/s 1 1/s
u y
x
-A1

-A0

3-20)

3‐13 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 

3
3-21)

3
3-22)

3‐14 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 

33-23)

3‐15 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-24)

3
3-25)

3
3-26)

3
3-27)

3‐16 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 

33-28)

3‐17 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
33-29)

3‐18 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3-30) Use Mason’ss formula:

3-31) MATLAB

syms s K 
G=100//(s+1)/(s+5) 
g=ilaplace(G/s) 
H=K/s 
YN=simmplify(G/(1+G*H)) 
Yn=ilapplace(YN/s) 
 
G = 
 100/(ss+1)/(s+5) 
  
g = 
 ‐25*exxp(‐t)+5*expp(‐5*t)+20 
 
H = 
K/s 

3‐19 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
YN = 
  
100*s/(s^3+6*s^2+5*s+100*K) 
 
Apply Routh‐Hurwitz within Symbolic tool of ACSYS (see chapter 3) 
 

 
RH = 
  
[         1,         5] 
[         6,     100*k] 
[ ‐50/3*k+5,         0] 
[     100*k,         0] 
Stability requires: 0<k<3/10. 

   

3‐20 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3‐32) 

   

3‐21 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3‐33) M
MATLAB solu
utions are in
n 3‐34. 

 
 
3‐34) M
MATLAB 
clear all
p = [1
1 5 6 10] % Define polynomial
p s^3+5*s^2
2+6*s+10=0
roots(
(p)
G=tf(1
1,p)
step(G
G)

   

3‐22 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
p = 
     1     5     6    10 
 
ans = 
  ‐4.1337           
  ‐0.4331 + 1.4938i 
  ‐0.4331 ‐ 1.4938i 
Transfer function: 
          1 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s^3 + 5 s^2 + 6 s + 10 
 

3‐23 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Alternatively:
clear all
syms s
G=1/( s^3 + 5*s^2 + 6*s + 10)
y=ilaplace(G/s)
s=0
yfv=eval(G)

G =
1/(s^3+5*s^2+6*s+10)

y =
1/10+1/5660*sum((39*_alpha^2-91+160*_alpha)*exp(_alpha*t),_alpha =
RootOf(_Z^3+5*_Z^2+6*_Z+10))

s =
0

yfv =
0.1000
 
Problem finding the inverse Laplace. 
Use Toolbox 2‐5‐1 to find the partial fractions to better find inverse Laplace  
clear all
B=[1]
A = [1 5 6 10 0] % Define polynomial s*(s^3+5*s^2+6*s+10)=0
[r,p,k]=residue(B,A)

B =
1
A =
1 5 6 10 0

r =
-0.0152
-0.0424 + 0.0333i
-0.0424 - 0.0333i
0.1000
p =
-4.1337
-0.4331 + 1.4938i
-0.4331 - 1.4938i
0
k =
[] 
1 −0.0152 −0.0424 + 0.0333i −0.0424 - 0.0333i
So partial fraction of Y is: + + +  
s s − 4.1337 s − 0.4331 + 1.4938i s − 0.4331 - 1.4938i

3‐24 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3‐35) M
MATLAB solu
utions are in
n 3‐36. 

 
   

3‐25 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3‐36) 
clear all
p = [1 4 3 5 1] % Define polynomial s^4+4*s^3+3*s^2+5*s+1=0
roots(p)
G=tf(1,p)
step(G)

p =
1 4 3 5 1

ans =
-3.5286
-0.1251 + 1.1250i
-0.1251 - 1.1250i
-0.2212

Transfer function:
1
-----------------------------
s^4 + 4 s^3 + 3 s^2 + 5 s + 1

3‐26 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
Alternatively:
clear all
syms s t
G=1/(s^4+4*s^3+3*s^2+5*s+1)
y=ilaplace(G/s)
s=0
yfv=eval(G)

G =
1/(s^4+4*s^3+3*s^2+5*s+1)

y =
1-
1/14863*sum((3955*_alpha^3+16873+14656*_alpha^2+7281*_alpha)*exp(_alpha*t),_alp
ha = RootOf(_Z^4+4*_Z^3+3*_Z^2+5*_Z+1))

s =
0

yfv =
1

Problem finding the inverse Laplace. 
Use Toolbox 2‐5‐1 to find the partial fractions to better find inverse Laplace  
clear all
B=[1]
A = [1 4 3 5 1] % Define polynomial s^4+4*s^3+3*s^2+5*s+1=0
[r,p,k]=residue(B,A)

B =
1
A =
1 4 3 5 1

r =
-0.0235
-0.1068 + 0.0255i
-0.1068 - 0.0255i
0.2372

p =
-3.5286
-0.1251 + 1.1250i
-0.1251 - 1.1250i
-0.2212

k =
[]

3‐27 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition 
A  Chapter 3 Solution
ns  Golnarraghi, Kuo 
 
 

3-37)

3-38) MATLAB
M
Use TFFcal in ACSY
YS (go to ACSYS foldeer and type in
n TFcal in th
he MATLAB
B Command
d
Windoow).
TFcal

3‐28 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

Alternatively use toolboxes 3-3-1 and 3-3-2


clear all
syms s
G1=100
G2=(s+1)/(s+2)
G3=10/s/(s+20)
G4=(101*s^3+2122*s^2+2040*s)/10/(s+1)
H1=1
H2=1
simplify(G1*G2*G3/(1+G1*G2*H1+G1*G2*H2+G1*G2*G3))

G1 =
100

G2 =
(s+1)/(s+2)

G3 =
10/s/(s+20)

G4 =
(101/10*s^3+1061/5*s^2+204*s)/(s+1)

H1 =
1

H2 =
1

ans =
1000*(s+1)/(201*s^3+4222*s^2+5040*s+1000)

clear all
TF=tf([1000 1000],[201 4222 5040 1000])
step(TF)

3‐29 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

3-39)
clear all
syms s
P1 = 2*s^6+9*s^5+15*s^4+25*s^3+25*s^2+14*s+6 % Define polynomial
P2 = s^6+8*s^5+23*s^4+36*s^3+38*s^2+28*s+16 % Define polynomial
solve(P1, s)
solve(P2, s)
collect(P2-P1)
collect(P2+P1)
collect((P1-P2)*P1)
P1 =
2*s^6+9*s^5+15*s^4+25*s^3+25*s^2+14*s+6

P2 =
s^6+8*s^5+23*s^4+36*s^3+38*s^2+28*s+16

ans =

3‐30 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
-1
-3
i*2^(1/2)
-i*2^(1/2)
-1/4+1/4*i*7^(1/2)
-1/4-1/4*i*7^(1/2)

ans =
-2
-4
i
-i
-1+i
-1-i

ans =

-s^6-s^5+8*s^4+11*s^3+13*s^2+14*s+10

ans =

3*s^6+17*s^5+38*s^4+61*s^3+63*s^2+42*s+22

ans =

-60+2*s^12+11*s^11+8*s^10-54*s^9-195*s^8-471*s^7-796*s^6-1006*s^5-1027*s^4-
848*s^3-524*s^2-224*s

Alternative:
clear all
P1 = [2 9 15 25 25 14 6] % Define polynomial
roots(P1)
P2 = [1 8 23 36 38 28 16] % Define polynomial
roots(P2)

P1 =
2 9 15 25 25 14 6

ans =
-3.0000
-0.0000 + 1.4142i
-0.0000 - 1.4142i
-1.0000
-0.2500 + 0.6614i
-0.2500 - 0.6614i

3‐31 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
P2 =
1 8 23 36 38 28 16

ans =

-4.0000
-2.0000
-1.0000 + 1.0000i
-1.0000 - 1.0000i
0.0000 + 1.0000i
0.0000 - 1.0000i

3-40)
clear all
syms s
P6 = (s+1)*(s^2+2)*(s+3)*(2*s^2+s+1) % Define polynomial
P7 = (s^2+1)*(s+2)*(s+4)*(s^2+s+1) % Define polynomial
digits(2)
vpa(solve(P6, s))
vpa(solve(P7, s))
collect(P6)
collect(P7)

P6 =
(s+3)*(s+1)*(2*s^2+s+1)*(s^2+2)

P7 =
(s^2+1)*(s+2)*(s+4)*(s^2+s+1)

ans = -1.
-3.
1.4*i
-1.4*i
-.25+.65*i
-.25-.65*i

ans = -2.
-4.
i
-1.*i
-.50+.85*i
-.50-.85*i

ans =
2*s^6+9*s^5+15*s^4+25*s^3+25*s^2+14*s+6

ans =
8+s^6+7*s^5+16*s^4+21*s^3+23*s^2+14*s

3‐32 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3‐41) 

Use Toolbox 2‐5‐1 to find the partial fractions  

clear all
B= conv(conv(conv([1 1],[1 0 2]),[1 4]),[1 10])
A= conv(conv(conv([1 0],[1 2]),[1 2 5]),[2 1 4])
[r,p,k]=residue(B,A)

B =
1 15 56 70 108 80

A =
2 9 26 45 46 40 0

r =
-1.0600 - 1.7467i
-1.0600 + 1.7467i
0.9600
-0.1700 + 0.7262i
-0.1700 - 0.7262i
2.0000

p =
-1.0000 + 2.0000i
-1.0000 - 2.0000i
-2.0000
-0.2500 + 1.3919i
-0.2500 - 1.3919i
0

k =
[]

3‐33 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
3‐42) Use toolbox 3‐3‐2 
 
clear all
B= conv(conv(conv([1 1],[1 0 2]),[1 4]),[1 10])
A= conv(conv(conv([1 0],[1 2]),[1 2 5]),[2 1 4])
G1=tf(B,A)
YR1=G1/(1+G1)
pole(YR1)

B = 
     1    15    56    70   108    80 
A = 
     2     9    26    45    46    40     0 
Transfer function: 
  s^5 + 15 s^4 + 56 s^3 + 70 s^2 + 108 s + 80 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
2 s^6 + 9 s^5 + 26 s^4 + 45 s^3 + 46 s^2 + 40 s 
Transfer function: 
2 s^11 + 39 s^10 + 273 s^9 + 1079 s^8 + 3023 s^7 + 6202 s^6 + 9854 s^5 + 12400 s^4   
                                                     + 11368 s^3 + 8000 s^2 + 3200 s 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
4 s^12 + 38 s^11 + 224 s^10 + 921 s^9 + 2749 s^8 + 6351 s^7 + 11339 s^6 + 16074 s^5  
                                         + 18116 s^4 + 15048 s^3 + 9600 s^2 + 3200 s 
ans = 
        0           
  ‐0.7852 + 3.2346i 
  ‐0.7852 ‐ 3.2346i 
  ‐2.5822           
  ‐1.0000 + 2.0000i 
  ‐1.0000 ‐ 2.0000i 
  ‐2.0000           
  ‐0.0340 + 1.3390i 
  ‐0.0340 ‐ 1.3390i 
  ‐0.2500 + 1.3919i 
  ‐0.2500 ‐ 1.3919i 
  ‐0.7794           

C= [1 12 47 60]
D= [4 28 83 135 126 62 12]
G2=tf(D,C)
YR2=G2/(1+G2)
pole(YR2)
C =
1 12 47 60

3‐34 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
D =
4 28 83 135 126 62 12

Transfer function:
4 s^6 + 28 s^5 + 83 s^4 + 135 s^3 + 126 s^2 + 62 s + 12
-------------------------------------------------------
s^3 + 12 s^2 + 47 s + 60

Transfer function:

4 s^9+76 s^8+607 s^7+2687 s^6+7327 s^5+12899 s^4+14778 s^3+10618 s^2


+ 4284 s + 720
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4 s^9+76 s^8+607 s^7+2688 s^6+7351 s^5+13137 s^4+16026 s^3+14267 s^2+9924
s+4320

ans =

-5.0000
-4.0000
0.0716 + 0.9974i
0.0716 - 0.9974i
-1.4265 + 1.3355i
-1.4265 - 1.3355i
-3.0000
-2.1451 + 0.3366i
-2.1451 - 0.3366i

3-43) Use Toolbox 3-3-1


G3=G1+G2
G4=G1-G2
G5=G4/G3
G6=G4/(G1*G2)

G3=G1+G2
G4=G1-G2
G5=G4/G3
G6=G4/(G1*G2)

Transfer function:

8 s^12 + 92 s^11 + 522 s^10 + 1925 s^9 + 5070 s^8 + 9978 s^7 + 15154 s^6 +
18427 s^5

+ 18778 s^4 + 16458 s^3 + 13268 s^2 + 10720 s +


4800

3‐35 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 s^9 + 33 s^8 + 228 s^7 + 900 s^6 + 2348 s^5 + 4267 s^4 + 5342 s^3 + 4640 s^2

+
2400 s

Transfer function:

-8 s^12 - 92 s^11 - 522 s^10 - 1925 s^9 - 5068 s^8 - 9924 s^7 - 14588 s^6

- 15413 s^5 - 9818 s^4 - 406 s^3 + 7204 s^2 + 9760 s +


4800

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 s^9 + 33 s^8 + 228 s^7 + 900 s^6 + 2348 s^5 + 4267 s^4 + 5342 s^3 + 4640 s^2

+
2400 s

Transfer function:

-16 s^21 - 448 s^20 - 5904 s^19 - 49252 s^18 - 294261 s^17 - 1.346e006 s^16

- 4.906e006 s^15 - 1.461e007 s^14 - 3.613e007 s^13 - 7.482e007 s^12

- 1.3e008 s^11 - 1.883e008 s^10 - 2.234e008 s^9 - 2.078e008 s^8 -


1.339e008 s^7

- 2.674e007 s^6 + 6.595e007 s^5 + 1.051e008 s^4 + 8.822e007 s^3 +


4.57e007 s^2

+
1.152e007 s

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
16 s^21 + 448 s^20 + 5904 s^19 + 49252 s^18 + 294265 s^17 + 1.346e006 s^16

+ 4.909e006 s^15 + 1.465e007 s^14 + 3.643e007 s^13 + 7.648e007 s^12

+ 1.369e008 s^11 + 2.105e008 s^10 + 2.803e008 s^9 + 3.26e008 s^8 +


3.343e008 s^7

+ 3.054e008 s^6 + 2.493e008 s^5 + 1.788e008 s^4 + 1.072e008 s^3 +


4.8e007 s^2

3‐36 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 3 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 
+
1.152e007 s

Transfer function:

-16 s^21 - 448 s^20 - 5904 s^19 - 49252 s^18 - 294261 s^17 - 1.346e006 s^16

- 4.906e006 s^15 - 1.461e007 s^14 - 3.613e007 s^13 - 7.482e007 s^12

- 1.3e008 s^11 - 1.883e008 s^10 - 2.234e008 s^9 - 2.078e008 s^8 -


1.339e008 s^7

- 2.674e007 s^6 + 6.595e007 s^5 + 1.051e008 s^4 + 8.822e007 s^3 +


4.57e007 s^2

+
1.152e007 s

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8 s^20 + 308 s^19 + 5270 s^18 + 54111 s^17 + 379254 s^16 + 1.955e006 s^15

+ 7.778e006 s^14 + 2.471e007 s^13 + 6.416e007 s^12 + 1.383e008 s^11

+ 2.504e008 s^10 + 3.822e008 s^9 + 4.919e008 s^8 + 5.305e008 s^7 +


4.73e008 s^6

+ 3.404e008 s^5 + 1.899e008 s^4 + 7.643e007 s^3 + 1.947e007 s^2 +


2.304e006 s

3‐37 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Chapter 4__________________________________________________________________________

4-1) When the mass is added to spring, then the spring will stretch from position O to position L.

The total potential energy is:

1
2
where y is a displacement from equilibrium position L.

The gravitational energy is:

The kinetic energy of the mass-spring system is calculated by:

1
2

As we know that , then

By differentiating from above equation, we have:

0
since KL = mg, therefore:
0

As y cannot be zero because of vibration, then 0

4‐1 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-2)

KU

KL

4-3) a) Rotational kinetic energy:

Translational kinetic energy:

Relation between translational displacement and rotational displacement:

1
2

Potential energy:

As we know , then:

4‐2 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

1 1 1
2 2 2

By differentiating, we have:
0

Since cannot be zero, then 0

b)

c)

1 1 1
2 2 2

where at the maximum energy.

1 1
2 2
Then:

1 1
2 2
Or:

4‐3 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

J
d) G (s) =  
(ms + K )
2

% select values of m, J and K


%Step input
K=10;
J=10;
M=1;
G=tf([10],[1 0 10])
step(G,10)
xlabel( 'Time(sec)');
ylabel('Amplitude');

Transfer function: 
   10 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s^2 + 10 
 

4‐4 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

4-44) 

   (a)  Force equaations: 

⎛ dy1 − dy2 ⎞ + K y − y
2
d y1 dy1
f (t ) = M 1 + B1 + B3 ⎜ ⎟ ( 1 2)
dt
2
dt ⎝ dt dt ⎠
            
⎛ d 2⎞
2
dy1 dy d y2 dy2
B3 ⎜ − ⎟ + K ( y1 − y2 ) + M 2 2 + B2
⎝ dt ddt ⎠ dt dt

      Rearraange the equattions as follows: 

2
d y1 (B + B3 ) dy1 B3 dyy 2 K f
2
=− 1
+ − (y 1
− y2 ) +
dt M1 dt M 1 dt
d M1 M1
          
2
d y2 B3 dy1 (B + B3 ) dy2 K
2
= − 2
+ (y1
− y2 )
dt M 2 dt M2 dtt M2

     (i)  Staate diagram:  SSince  y1 − y 2  appears as one
a  unit, the minimum number of integrators is three. 

4‐5 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

dy 2 dy1
           State equations:  Define the state variables as  x1 = y1 − y 2 , x 2 = , x3 = . 
dt dt

dx1 dx2 K (B + B3 ) B3 dx3 K B3 (B + B3 ) 1


  = − x2 + x3 = x1 − 2
x2 + x3 =− x1 + x2 − 1
x3 + f  
dt dt M2 M2 M2 dt M1 M1 M1 M

dy 2 dy1
  (ii)  State variables:   x1 = y 2 , x 2 = , x3 = y1 , x 4 = . 
dt dt

           State equations: 

dx1 dx 2 K B2 + B3 K B3
      = x2 =− x1 − x2 + x3 + x4  
dt dt M2 M2 M2 M2

dx3 dx 4 K B3 K B1 + B3 1
      = x4 = x1 + x2 − x3 − x4 + f 
dt dt M1 M1 M1 M1 M1

    State diagram: 

    Transfer functions: 

M 2 s + ( B2 + B3 ) s + K
2
Y1 ( s )
=
F (s) {
s M 1 M 2 s + [( B1 + B3 ) M 2 + ( B2 + B3 ) M 1 ] s + [ K ( M 1 + M 2 ) + B1 B2 + B2 B3 + B1 B3 ] s + ( B1 + B2 ) K
3 2
}
   
Y2 ( s ) B3 s + K
=
F (s) {
s M 1 M 2 s + [ ( B1 + B3 ) M 2 + ( B2 + B3 ) M 1 ] s + [ K ( M 1 + M 2 ) + B1 B2 + B2 B3 + B1 B3 ] s + ( B1 + B2 ) K
3 2
}
             (b)  Force equations: 

4‐6 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

2
d y1 (B + B2 ) dy1 B2 dy 2 1 dy2 dy1 K
    2
=− 1
+ + f = − y2  
dt M dt M dt M dt dt B2

       (i)  State diagram: 

             
Define the outputs 
of the integrators 
as state variables, 
dy
x1 = y 2 , x 2 = 1
dt

               
 
State equations: 

dx1 K dx 2 K B1 1
    =− x1 + x 2 =− x1 − x2 + f 
dt B2 dt M M M

dy1
       (ii) State equations:  State variables:   x1 = y 2 , x 2 = y1 , x3 = . 
dt

dx1 K dx 2 dx3 K B1 1
    =− x1 + x3 = x3 =− x1 − x3 + f 
dt B2 dt dt M M M

             

           Transfer functions: 

Y1 ( s) B2 s + K Y2 ( s ) B2
  = =  
F ( s ) s ⎡⎣ MB2 s + ( B1 B2 + KM ) s + ( B1 + B2 ) K ⎤⎦
2
F (s) MB2 s + ( B1 B2 + KM ) s + ( B1 + B2 ) K
2

  (c)   Force equations: 

dy1 dy2 1
2
d y2 (B + B2 ) dy2 B1 dy2 B1 dy1 K
    = + f 2
=− 1
+ + − y2  
dt dt B1 dt M dt M dt M dt M

           (i)  State diagram: 

4‐7 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

     

    State equatio
ons:  Define thee outputs of integrators as sttate variables.

dx1 dxx 2 K B2 1
      = x2 =− x1 − x2 + f
dt d
dt M M M

dy 2
         (ii)  State equations:  state variaables:   x1 = y1 , x 2 = y 2 , x3 = . 
dt

dx1 1 dx 2 dxx3 K B2 1
    = x3 + f = x3 =− x2 − x3 + f
dt B1 dt d
dt M M M

    State diagram
m: 

    Transfer funcctions: 

Ms + ( B1 + B2 ) s + K
2
Y1 ( s ) Y2 ( s ) 1
    = =  
F (s) (
B1 s Ms + B2 s + K
2
) F (s) Ms + B2 s + K
2

4-55)

4‐8 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

   (a)  Force equaations: 
2
1 d y2 B dy 2 K1 + K 2 K2
         y1 = ( f + Mg ) + y 2 2
=− − y2 + y1 
K2 dt M dt M M

            Staate diagram: 

            
Staate equations:  
Deffine the state 
varriables as:  
dy
x1 = y 2 , x 2 = 2
d
dt

     
 
dx1 d 2
dx K1 B 1
= x2 =− x1 − x2 + ( f + Mg )  
dtt dt M M M

           Transfer function
ns: 

2
Y1 ( s ) s + Bs + K1 + K 2 Y2 ( s ) 1
      = 2
= 2
 
F ( s) K 2 ( Ms + Bs + K1 ) F ( s) Mss + Bs + K1

  (b)  Forcce equations: 

⎛ dy1 − dy2 ⎞ + K1 y − y − B2 y − y − B2 dy2  


2
dy1 1 dy 2 K1 d y2 B1
  = [ f (t ) + Mg ] + − (y − y2 ) = ⎜ ⎟ ( 1 2) ( 1 2)
M ⎝ dt dt ⎠ M
1 2
dt B1 dt B1 dt M M dt

          Statte diagram:  (W
With minimum number of inttegrators) 

4‐9 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

         To obtain the transsfer functions Y1 ( s ) / F ( s ) and Y2 ( s ) / F ( s ),  we need to redefine the sttate variables aas: 

  x1 = y 2 , x 2 = dy 2 / dtt , and x3 = y1 .  

          Statte diagram: 

    Transfer funcctions: 

Ms + ( B1 + B2 ) s + K1 Bs + K1
2
Y1 ( s ) Y2 ( s )
    = =  
F (s) s
2
[ MB
M s + (B B
1 1 2
+ MK1 )] F (s) s
2
[ MB
M s + (B B
1 1 2
+ MK1 )]

4-66) a)

y1
y2
K ( y1 − y 2 )
m K ( y1 − y 2 ) M F

μmgy& 2 μMgy&1

b) From Newtton’s Law:

If y1 and y2 are considerred as a posiition and v1 and


a v2 as vellocity variabbles

Then:

The output equation cann be the veloocity of the engine,


e whicch means

4‐10 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

c)

Obtaining requires solving above equation with respect to Y2(s)

From the first equation:

Substituting into the second equation:

By solving above equation:

1
2

d)

0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0
0
0 1

0 0

0001 0

4-7) (a)  Force equations: 

⎛ dy1 − dy2 ⎞ ⎛ dy1 − dy2 ⎞ = M d y2 + B dy2  


2

       f (t ) = K h ( y1 − y2 ) + Bh ⎜ ⎟ K h ( y1 − y 2 ) + Bh ⎜ ⎟
⎝ dt dt ⎠ ⎝ dt dt ⎠ 2 t
dt dt

dy 2
           (b)  State variables:    x1 = y1 − y 2 , x 2 =  
dt

4‐11 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

              State equations: 

dx1 Kh 1 dx 2 Bt 1
       =− x1 + f (t ) =− x2 + f (t )  
dt Bh Bh dt M M

4-8)

α2
α1

For the left pendulum:

sin

sin sin cos sin sin cos

Ö 0
Ö sin sin sin cos

For the right pendulum, we can write the same equation:

sin sin sin cos

since the angles are small:

sin
cos 1 0
Ö Ö
sin 0
cos 1

4-9) a)

4‐12 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Fy

θ m
x(t) Fx

mg
M
f
θ

b) If we consider the coordinate of centre of gravity of mass m as (xg, yg),

Then sin and cos

From force balance, we have:

Ö cos sin
From the torque balance, we have:
cos sin sin
Where:
cos
cos sin
Substituting these equation:
cos sin

4-10) a)

4‐13 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Fy1 Fy 2

Fx1 Fx 2

m1 g
m2 g

θ1 θ2

b) Kinetic energy

(i) For lower pendulum:

1 1
sin cos
2 2

For upper pendulum:

1 1
sin cos
2 2

For the cart:

(ii) Potential energy:

For lower pendulum: cos

For upper pendulum: cos

For the cart: 0

(iii) Total kinetic energy:

Total potential energy:

4‐14 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

The Lagrangian equation of motion is:

Substituting T and U into the Lagrangian equation of motion gives:

cos cos sin sin


cos sin
cos sin

4-11) a) From the Lagrangian equation of motion:

sin 0

b) As:

Then

sin 0

If we linearize the equation about beam angle α = 0, then sinα ≈ α and sinθ ≈ θ

Then:

4‐15 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

c) Considering

Then the state-space equation is described as:

0
0 1
0 0

mgd
d) G ( s) =  
( s L( J / r 2 + m))
2

clear all
% select values of m, d, r, and J
%Step input
g=10;
J=10;
M=1;
D=0.5;
R=1;
L=5;
G=tf([M*g*D],[L*(J/R^2+M) 0 0])
step(G,10)
xlabel( 'Time(sec)');
ylabel('Amplitude');

Transfer function:
5
------
55 s^2

4‐16 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-12) If the aircraft is at a constant altitude and velocity, and also the change in pitch angle does not
change the speed, then from longitudinal equation, the motion in vertical plane can be written as:

sin

cos

Where u is axial velocity, ω is vertical velocity, q is pitch rate, and θ is pitch angle.

Converting the Cartesian components with polar inertial components and replace x, y, z by T, D,
and L. Then we have:

1
cos sin
1
sin cos

Where α = θ – γ is an attack angle, V is velocity, and γ is flight path angle.

4‐17 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

It should be mentioned that T, D, L and M are function of variables α and V.

Refer to the aircraft dynamics textbooks, the state equations can be written as:

b) The Laplace transform of the system is:

By using Laplace transform, we have:

1
2
3

From equation (1):

Substituting in equation (2) and solving for q(s):

Substituting above expression in equation (3) gives:

If we consider sin , then

By using Laplace transform:

Which gives:

4‐18 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

For plotting
g state flow diagram, equation
u (4) muust be rewritten as:

or

S the state flow diagram


So, m will plotteed as:

ml 1/Ms 1 1/s
u y
x
-B/M

-K

Also look at seection 4-11

4-113) (a)   Torque equation:      State d
diagram: 
2
d θ B dθ 1
        2
=− + T (t )  
dt J dt J

       State equations: 

dx1 dx 2 B 1
        = x2 =− x2 + T   
dt dt J J

       Transsfer function: 

Θ( s ) 1
        =  
T ( s) s( Js + B )

          (b)   Torque equations: 

d θ1 dθ 2
2
K 1
        2
=− (θ 1
− θ2 ) + T K (θ 1 − θ 2 ) = B  
dt J J dt

       State diagram:  (minimum numbeer of integratorrs) 

4‐19 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

      State equations: 

dx1 K dx 2 K 1
        =− x1 + x 2 =− x1 + T 
dt B dt J J

dθ 1
      State equations:  Let  x1 = θ 2 , x 2 = θ 1 , and x3 = . 
dt

dx1 K K dx 2 dx3 K K 1
        =− x1 + x2 = x3 = x1 − x2 + T 
dt B B dt dt J J J

      State diagram: 

          Tran
nsfer functionss: 

Θ1 ( s ) B +K
Bs Θ2 ( s) K
            = =  
T (s) (
s BJs + JKs + BK
2
) T (s) (
s BJs + JK
2
Ks + BK )
  (c)  Torqque equationss: 

d θ1 d θ2
2 2

           T (t ) = J 1 2
+ K (θ 1 − θ 2 ) K (θ 1 − θ 2 ) = J 2 2
dt dt

          Statte diagram: 

4‐20 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

dθ 2 dθ 1
  e equations: sttate variables::    x1 = θ 2 , x 2 =
       State , x3 = θ 1 , x 4 = . 
dt d
dt

dx1 dx 2 K K d 3
dx d 4
dx K K 1
    = x2 =− x1 + x3 = x4 = x1 − x3 + T 
dt dt J2 J2 dt dt J1 J1 J1

  nsfer functionss: 
       Tran

Θ1 ( s ) J2s + K Θ2 ( s)
2
K
    = =  
s ⎡⎣ J 1 J 2 s + K ( J 1 + J 2 ) ⎤⎦ s ⎡⎣ J 1 J 2 s + K ( J 1 + J 2 ) ⎤⎦
2 2 2 2
T (s) T (s)

  (d)  Torque equationss: 

d θm d θ1 d θ2
2 2 2

            T (t ) = J m 2
+ K1 (θ m − θ 1 ) + K 2 (θ m − θ 2 ) K1 (θ m − θ 1 ) = J 1 2
K 2 (θ m − θ 2 ) = J 2 2
  
dt dt dt

           

4‐21 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

 State diiagram:   

 
dθ 1 dθ m dθ 2
ons:   x1 = θ m − θ 1 , x 2 =
 State equatio , x3 = , x 4 = θ m − θ 2 , x5 = . 
dtt dt dt

dx1 dx 2 K1 dx3 K1 K2 1 dx 4 dx5 K2


    = − x 2 + x3 = x1 =− x1 − x4 + T = x3 − x5 = x4  
dt dt J1 dt Jm Jm Jm dt dtt J2

    Transfer funcctions: 

Θ1 ( s ) K1 ( J 2 s + K 2 )
2

=
s ⎣⎡ s + ( K1 J 2 J m + K 2 J 1 J m + K1 J 1 J 2 + K 2 J 1 J 2 ) s + K1 K 2 ( J m + J 1 + J 2 ) ⎤⎦
2 4 2
T (s)
     
Θ2 (s) K 2 ( J 1 s + K1 )
2

=
s ⎡⎣ s + ( K1 J 2 J m + K 2 J 1 J m + K1 J 1 J 2 + K 2 J 1 J 2 ) s + K1 K 2 ( J m + J 1 + J 2 ) ⎤⎦
2 4 2
T (s)

  (e)  Torqque equationss: 

d 2θ m K1 K2 1 d θ1
2
K1 B1 dθ 1 d θ2
2
K2 B2 dθ 2
 
2
=− (θ m − θ1 ) − (θ m − θ 2 ) + T = (θ m
− θ1 ) − 2
= (θ m
− θ1 ) −
dt Jm Jm Jm d
dt
2
J1 J 1 dt dt J2 J 2 dt

         State diagram
m: 

4‐22 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

dθ 1 dθ m dθ 2
                SState variabless:   x1 = θ m − θ 1 , x 2 = , x3 = , x 4 = θ m − θ 2 , x5 = . 
dt dt dt

      State equatio
ons: 
dx1 dx 2 K1 B dx3 K1 K2 1 dx4 dx5 K2 B2
  = − x 2 + x3 = x1 − 1 x 2 =− x1 − x4 + T = x3 − x 5 = x4 − x5
dt dt J1 J1 dt Jm Jm Jm dt dt J2 J2

    Transfer funcctions: 

   
Θ1 ( s )
=
(
K1 J 2 s + B2 s + K 2
2
) Θ2 (s)
=
(
K 2 J 1 s + B1 s + K1
2
)
T (s) Δ(s) T (s) Δ(s)

Δ ( s ) = s { J 1 J 2 J m s + J m ( B1 + B2 ) s + [( K1 J 2 + K 2 J 1 ) J m + ( K1 + K 2 ) J 1 J 2 + B1 B2 J m ] s
2 4 3 2

     
+ [( B1 K 2 + B2 K1 ) J m + B1 K 2 J 2 + B2 K1 J 1 ] s + K1 K 2 ( J m + J 1 + J 2 )}

4-114)    

d θ1 d θ3
2 2
N1 N3 N1
Tm (t ) = J m 2
+ T1 T1 = T2 T3 = T4 T4 = J L 2
T2 = T3 θ2 = θ1
dt N2 N4 dt N2
(a))       
N1 N 3 N3 N3 d θ3
2
d θ1
2

N1 N 3 ⎡ N1 N 3 ⎤ ⎤ d 2θ 1
2

θ3 = θ1 T2 = T4 = JL Tm = J m + T4
= ⎢ m ⎢
J + ⎥ JL ⎥ 2
⎢⎣ ⎣ N 2 N 4 ⎦ ⎥⎦ dt
2 2
N2 N4 N4 N4 dt dt N2 N4

         

4‐23 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

(b) 

d θ1 d θ2 d θ3
2 2 2
N1 N3
Tm = J m 2
+ T1 T2 = J 2 2
+ T3 T4 = ( J 3 + J L ) 2
T1 = T2 T3 = T4
dt dt dt N2 N4
       
d θ2 d θ2 d θ3
2 2 2
N1 N1 N 3 N3 N3
θ2 = θ1 θ3 = θ1 T2 = J 2 2
+ T4 = J 2 2
+ (J 3
+ JL ) 2
N2 N2 N4 dt N4 dt N4 dt

d θ1
2
N1 ⎛ ⎡ ⎛ N1 ⎞
d θ2
2
2
⎛ N1 N 3 ⎞
N3
2
⎤ d 2θ1 d θ3 ⎞
2

      Tm (t ) = J m 2 + ⎜ J 2 2 + ( J 3 + J 4 ) 2 ⎟ = ⎢ J m + ⎜ ⎟ J 2 + ⎜ ⎟ ( J 3 + J L ) ⎥ dt 2  
dt N2 ⎝ dt N4 dt ⎠ ⎣⎢ ⎝ N2 ⎠ ⎝ N2 N4 ⎠ ⎦⎥

4-15) (a) 
2 2
d θm d θL N1
        Tm = J m 2
+ T1 T2 = J L 2
+ TL T1 = T2 = nT2 θ m N1 = θ L N 2  
dt dt N2

d θm d θL ⎛ J m + nJ ⎞ α + nT nTm − n TL
2 2 2

        Tm = J m + nJ L + nTL = ⎜ L ⎟
Thus, α L =  
⎝ n ⎠
L L
Jm + n JL
2 2 2
dt dt

∂α L J mTL Jm
       Set  
∂n
= 0. (Tm ( 2
)
− 2 nTL ) J m + n J L − 2 nJ L nTm − n J L = 0     Or,    n + ( 2
) 2
n− = 0 
J LTm JL

      
2 2 2
∗ J mTL J mTL + 4 J m J LTm
  Optimal gear ratio:  n =− +     where the + sign has been chosen. 
2 J LTm 2 J LTm

           

 (b)   When  TL = 0 , the optimal gear ratio is 


          n = Jm / J L  

4-16)   (a)  Torque equation about the motor shaft:   Relation between linear and rotational displacements: 

2 2
d θm 2 d θm dθ m
       Tm = J m 2
+ Mr 2
+ Bm         y = rθ m  
dt dt dt

           (b)  Taking the Laplace transform of the equations in part (a), with zero initial conditions, we have 

           Tm ( s ) = J m + Mr ( 2
)s Θ 2
m
( s ) + Bm sΘ m ( s ) Y (s) = rΘm (s)  

4‐24 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

                    Transffer function: 

Y ( s) r
      =
Tm ( s ) (
s ⎡⎣ J m + Mr
r
)s + B m
⎤⎦

4-117)   (a) 

d θm
2

       Tm = J m 2
+ r ( T1 − T2 ) T1 = K 2 ( rθ m − rθ p ) = K 2 ( rθ m − y ) T2 = K1 ( y − rθ m )  
dt

d θm
2 2 2
d y d y
         T1 − T2 = M 2
us, Tm = J m
Thu 2
+ r ( K1 + K 2 )( rθ m − y ) M 2
= ( K1 + K 2 )( rθ m − y )  
dt dtt dt

            (c)  State equations: 

dx1 dx2 K1 + K 2 dx3 − r ( K1 + K 2 ) 1


         = rx3 − x2 = x1 = x1 + Tm  
dt dt M dt Jm Jm

            (d)  Transfer function: 

Y ( s) r ( K1 + K 2 )
      =  
s ⎡⎣ J m Ms + ( K1 + K 2 )(( J m + rM ) ⎤⎦
2 2
Tm ( s )

             (e)  Charaacteristic equaation: 

            s
2
⎡⎣ J m Ms 2 + ( K1 + K 2 )( J m + rM ) ⎤⎦ = 0  

4-118) (a)  Systeem equations: 

4‐25 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

dω m dia
         Tm = K i ia = ( J m + J L ) + Bmω m ea = Ra ia + La + K bω m y = nθ m y = y ( t − TD )  
dt dt

d
         TD = (sec) e = r −b b = Ks y E a ( s ) = KGc ( s ) E ( s )  
V

       Blockk diagram: 

  (b)  Forw
ward‐path transfer function
n: 

− TD s
Y (s) KK i nGc ( s )e
            =  
E (s) s {( Ra + La s ) [( J m + J L ) s + Bm ] + K b K i }

          Clossed‐loop transsfer function: 

− TD s
Y ( s) KK
K i nGc ( s )e
            =  
s ( Ra + La s ) [ ( J m + J L ) s + Bm ] + K b K i s + KGc ( s ) K i ne
− TD s
R(s)

4-119) (a)  Torquue equations: 

d θm dθ m d θL dθ L
2 2

         Tm (t ) = J m 2
+ Bm + K (θ m − θ L ) K (θ m − θ L ) = J L 2
+ BL  
dt dt dt dt

       

  State diagram: 

4‐26 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

            (b)  Transsfer functions: 

Θ L ( s) Θm (s) J L s + BL s + K
2
K
                 = = Δ ( s ) = s ⎡⎣ J m J L s + ( Bm J L + BL J m ) s + ( KJ m + KJ L + Bm BL ) s + Bm K ⎤⎦  
3 2

Tm ( s ) Δ(s) Tm ( s ) Δ( s)

             (c)  Charaacteristic equaation:        Δ( s ) = 0  

Tm
dy‐state perforrmance:     Tm ( t ) = Tm = constant.
              (d)  Stead t Tm ( s ) = . 
s

J L s + BL s + K
2
1
         lim ω m (t ) = lim sΩ m ( s ) = lim =  
J m J L s + ( Bm J L + BL J m ) s + ( KJ
K m + KJ L + Bm BL ) s + Bm K
3 2
t →∞ s →0 s →0 Bm

         Thuss, in the steadyy state, ω m = ω L . 

  (e)  Thee steady‐state vvalues of ω m and
a ω L  do not depend on  J m and J L . 

4-220)   (a)  Torqque equation:  (About the ceenter of gravityy C) 
2
d θ
           J 2
= Ts d 2 sin δ + Fd d1 Fa d1 = J α α 1 = K F d1θ sin δ ≅ δ  
dt
2 2
d θ d θ
         Thuss,   J 2
= Ts d 2δ + K F d1θ J 2
− K F d1θ = Ts d 2δ  
dt dt
2
             (b)   Js Θ ( s ) − K F d1Θ ( s ) = Ts d 2 Δ ( s )  

            (c)   With
h C and P intercchanged, the torque equation about C is: 

dθ dθ
2 2

      Ts ( d1 + d 2 ) δ + Fα d 2 = J 2
Ts ( d1 + d 2 ) δ + K F d 2θ = J 2
 
dt dt

4‐27 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Θ( s ) Ts ( d1 + d 2 )
               Js Θ ( s ) − K F d 2 Θ ( s ) = Ts ( d1 + d 2 ) Δ ( s ) =
2
             
Δ(s) Js − K F d 2
2

4-21)   (a)  Nonlinear differential equations: 
dx ( t ) dv ( t )
            = v(t ) = − k ( v ) − g ( x ) + f ( t ) = − Bv ( t ) + f ( t )  
dt dt

e( t ) e( t 0
        With  Ra = 0 ,   φ ( t ) = = K f i f ( t ) = K f i f ( t ) = K f ia ( t ) Then, ia ( t ) =  
Kb v ( t ) Kb K f v ( t )

2
Ki e ( t ) dv ( t ) Ki 2
         f ( t ) = Kiφ ( t )ia ( t ) = 2 2
. Thus, = − Bv ( t ) + 2 2
e (t )  
Kb K f v (t ) dt Kb K f v (t )

            (b)  State equations:   ia ( t )  as input. 

dx ( t ) dv ( t ) 2
        = v (t ) = − Bv ( t ) + Ki K f ia ( t )  
dt dt

             (c)  State equations:  φ ( t )  as input. 

2 φ (t )
f ( t ) = K i K f ia ( t ) ia ( t ) = i f ( t ) =
Kf
         
dx ( t ) dv ( t ) Ki 2
= v (t ) = − Bv ( t ) + φ (t )
dt dt Kf

4‐28 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-22) Define as the angle between mass m and the horizontal axis (positive in c..c.w. direction):

θ=ωt ym

Use Newton’s second law:

y + &&
m( && ym ) = − Fm
( M − m) &&
y = Fm − By& − Ky
ym = −eω 2 sin ωt
&&

My&& + By& + Ky = meω 2 sin ωt

Where M is the Mass of the overall block system. M-m is the mass of the block alone.

Y meω 2
G ( s) = =
R Ms 2 + Bs + K
Zero i.c. and input r (t ) = sin ωt

Note θ = ωt . So in case of a step response as asked in the question, ω is a step input and angle θ increases
with time – i.e. it is a ramp function. Hence, ym is a sinusoidal function, where the Laplace transform of a
ω
sine function is sin(ωt ) = 2
s + ω2

Pick values of the parameters and run MATLAB. See toolbox 5-8-2
clear all
m=20.5 %kg
M=60 %kg
K=100000 %N/m
Om=157 %rad/s
B=60 %N-m/s
e=0.15 %m
G=tf([m*e*Om^2],[M B K])
t=0:0.01:1;
u=1*sin(Om*t);
lsim(G,u,t)
xlabel( 'Time(sec)');
ylabel('Amplitude');

4‐29 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

m =
20.5000

M =
60

K =
100000

Om =
157

B =
60

e =
0.1500

Transfer function:
7.58e004
----------------------
60 s^2 + 60 s + 100000

4‐30 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-23) a) summation of vertical forces gives:

2 1
0 2

If we consider and , then:

2
0

The state-space model is:

0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0
2 0
0 0 1

0 0 0

b)

By applying Laplace transform for equations (1) and (2), we obtain:

Which gives:

and

Therefore:

2 2

4-24) a) Summation of vertical forces gives:

Consider and , then

4‐31 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

So, the state-space model of the system is:


0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0
0
1

b) The Laplace transform of the system is defined by:

where

as a result:

Substituting into above equation:

4-25) a) According to the circuit:

0
2 2
0
2 2
0
2 2
By using Laplace transform we have:

4‐32 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

V s V s V s V s
CsV s 0
2R 2R
Cs V s Cs
V s V s V s V s 0
2 R 2
Cs V s V s
V s V s 0
2 2R
From above equations:

1
V s V s V s
2 RCS 1
RCS
V s V s V s
2 RCS 1

Substituting V1(s) and V2(s) into preceding equations, we obtain:

1
4 1

b) Measuring Vout requires a load resistor, which means:

i1 i2 RL
Vin VC1 VC 2

Then we have:

When

If RL >>R, then

4‐33 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

By using Laplace transform we have:

Therefore:

can be obtained by substituting above expressions into the first equation of the state variables
of the system.

4-26) a) The charge q is related to the voltage across the plate:

The force fv produced by electric field is:

2
Since the electric force is opposes the motion of the plates, then the equation of the motion is written
as:

The equations for the electric circuit are:

As we know, and , then:

4‐34 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Since , then :

b) As then

If 1

Then the transfer function is:

4‐35 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

If 1

Then the transfer function is:

4-27) a) The free body diagram is:

where F is required force for holding the core in the equilibrium point against magnetic
field

b) The current of inductor, i, and the force, F, are function of flux, Φ, and displacement, x.

Also, we know that

4‐36 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

The total magnetic field is:

,
2

where W is a function of electrical and mechanical power exerted to the inductor, so:

∂W Φ
i
∂Φ L x
∂W Φ
F
∂x 2L x

As v = , then:

1
2
c) Changing the flux requires a sinusoidal movement, and then we can conclude that:

if the inductance is changing relatively, then L(x) = Lx, where L is constant.

Also, the current is changing with the rate of changes in displacement. It means:

i Bx

So:

Substituting these equations into the state-space equations gives:

1
2
Therefore:

V s 2
tan ω 1
F s B

4‐37 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-28) a) The free body diagram is:

where F is the external force required for holding the plate in the equilibrium point against the
electrical field.

b) The voltage of capacitors, , and the force, , are function of charge, , and displacement, .

Also, we know

The total electrical force between plates is:

,
2

Where W is a function of electrical and mechanical power exerted to the capacitor, so:

As , then:

1
2
c) The same as Problem 4.28,

Consider:

Then solve the equations.

4‐38 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-29) According to the circuit:


_ _

or

As an op-amp is modeled with the following equation:


_
1
Then:

1
1 1
1

4-30) a) Positive feedback ratio:

b) Negative feedback ratio:

c) According to the circuit:

Therefore:

4‐39 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

As
10
1
then:

10
1
1

which gives:

1
10 1 10

It is stable when 1 10 0 which means: 10

4-31) a) If the drop voltage of Rin is called v1

Then:

Also:
0

Then:

Substituting this expression into the above equation gives:

1
1 0

As a result:

4‐40 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

1 1
1

Or
1

b) If the dropped voltage across resistor Rf is called vf, then


0

0
As a result:

Substituting into the second equation gives:

or

As a result:
1
1

4-32) The heat flow-in changes with respect to the electric power as:

where R is the resistor of the heater.

The heat flow-out can be defined as:

where Kf is the heat flow coefficient between actuator and air, T1 and T2 are temperature of
actuator and ambient.

4‐41 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Since the temperature changes with the differences in heat flows:

1 1 1

where C is the thermal capacitor.

The displacement of actuator is changing proportionally with the temperature differences:

If we consider the T2 is a constant for using inside a room, then

Therefore:

By linearizing the right hand side of the equation around point


1
2 1

Or

2 1

If we consider the right hand side of the above equation as two inputs to the system as: 2
and 1 or , then:

2
1

4-33) Due to insulation, there is no heat flow through the walls. The heat flow through the sides is:

4‐42 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

2
, 1
ln
2
, 2
ln

Where T1 and T2 are the temperature at the surface of each cylinder.

As , , , then from equation (1) and (2), we obtain:

ln
, 3
2

The conduction or convection at:

: 4
: 5

: 6

The thermal capacitance dynamics gives:

, 7

Where

According to the equation (7) and (8), T1 and Tf are state variables.

Substituting equation (3), (4), (5) and (6) into equation (7) and (8) gives the model of the system.

4-34) As heat transfer from power supply to enclosure by radiation and conduction, then:

2
1 1 1 1

4‐43 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Also the enclosure loses heat to the air through its top. So:

Where

And Ct is the convective heat transfer coefficient and At is the surface area of the enclosure.

The changes if the temperature of heat sink is supposed to be zero, then:

Therefore where , as a result:

According to the equations (1) and (4), Tp and Te are state variables. The state model of the system
is given by substituting equations (2), (3), and (6) into these equations give.

4-35) If the temperature of fluid B and A at the entrance and exit are supposed to be and , and
TAN and TAX, respectively. Then:

1
2

The thermal fluid capacitance gives:

From thermal conductivity:

5
ln
1 1
2

4‐44 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

Where Ci and Co arre convectivve heat transffer coefficiennt of the inner and outerr tube; Ai andd Ao are
the surfface of innerr and outer tuube; Ri and Ro are the raadius of inneer and outer tube.
t

Substittuting equations (1), (2), and (5) intoo equations (3) and (4) giives the statee model of thhe
system
m.

4-336) (a)  Blockk diagram: 

            (b)  Transfer function: 

−τ D s
Ω( s ) K1 K 4 e
      =
Js + ( JK L + B ) s + K 2 B + K 3 K 4 e
−τ D s
α ( s)
2

            (c)  Characteristic equattion: 

Js + ( JK L + B ) s + K 2 B + K 3 K 4 e
−τ D s
= 0 
2
     

            (d)  Transfer function: 

Ω( s ) K1 K 4 ( 2 − τ D s )
        ≅    
α (s) Δ( s)

        Charaacteristic equaation:            

Δ ( s ) ≅ J τ D s + ( 2 J + JK 2τ D + Bτ D ) s + ( 2 JK 2 + 2 B − τ D K 2 B − τ D K 3 K 4 ) s + 2 ( K 2 B + K 3 K 4 ) = 0
3 2
    

4-337) The tottal potential energy is:

1 1
2 2
The tottal kinetic en
nergy is:

4‐45 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Therefore:

2
As a result:
2

So, the natural frequency of the system is calculated by:

Also, by assuming sin and substituting into yields the same result
when calculated for maximum displacement.

4-38) If the height of the reservoir, the surge tank and the storage tank are assumed to be H, h1 and h2,
then potential energy of reservoir and storage tank are:

For the pipeline we have:

The surge tank dynamics can be written as:

At the turbine generator, we have:

where I is a known input and Q2-v is the fluid flow transfer between point 2 and valve. The
behaviour of the valve in this system can be written as:

4‐46 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

| |

Regarding Newton’s Law:

According to above equations, it is concluded that Q and h1 are state variables of the system.

The state equations can be rewritten by substituting P2, Pv, Ps and Q2-v from other equations.

4-39)

If the beam rotate around small angle of α cos 1 , then

where A and E are cross sectional area and elasticity of the cable; H is the distance between point
O and the bottom of well, and y is the displacement.

On the other hand, Newton’s Law gives:

4‐47 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Pa Aω

Bv 2

Pb Aω

where B is the viscous friction coefficient, Aw is the cross sectional area of the well; P1 and P2 are
pressures above and below the mass m.

The dynamic for the well can be written as two pipes separating by mass m:

Pb Aω

Ps Aω

Q
Q y
Ff

Pa Aω P1 Aω
a b)

0
8
0

Where D is the distance between point O and ground, Ps is the pressure at the surface and known.
If the diameter of the well is assumed to be r, the Ff for the laminar flow is

32

Therefore:

4‐48 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

32

32

The state variables of the system are ω, v, y, Q, Q1.

4-40) For the hydraulic amplifier, we have:

As a result

where N is a constant and A is the cross sectional area.

For the walking beam:

For the spring:

The angular velocity of the lever is assumed as:

0 0

The moments of inertia of the lever are calculated as:

sin
cos sin
cos
0
cos sin

where L is the length of lever and r is the offset from the center of rotation.

According to the equation of angular motion:

4‐49 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Also:

sin cos
2
Due to force balance, we can write:

sin sin
2
Therefore can be calculated form above equations.

On the other hand, sin , and and , the dynamic of the system is:

where B is the viscous friction coefficient, and n1 and n2 are constant.

The state variables of the systems are α ,yp, ω and ω2.

4‐50 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-41) If the capacitances of the tanks are assumed to be C1 and C2 respectively, then

Therefore:
1

Asa result:
1 1 1
0
1 1
0

4-42) The equation of motion is:

Considering gives:

or

4-43) (a)  Block diagram: 
 

4‐51 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

           (b)  Transffer function: 

TAO ( s ) KM KR 3.51
      = =  
Tr ( s ) (1 + τ s )((1 + τ s ) + K
c s m
KR 20 s + 122 s + 4.51
2

4-444)

Sysstem equations: 

d θm dθ m d θL dθ L
2 2

  Tm (t ) = J m 2
+ Bm + K (θ m − θ L ) K (θ m − θ L ) = J L 2
+ Bp  
dt dt dt d
dt

Eθ L
uation:      eo =
          Output equ  
20π

     State diiagram: 

  Transferr 
fun
nction: 

   
 
ΘL (s) K
=
s ⎡⎣ J m J L s + ( Bm J L + B p J m ) s + ( J m K + J L K + Bm B p ) s + Bm K ⎤⎦
3 2
Tm ( s )
Eo ( s ) KE / 20π
=
s ⎡⎣ J m J L s + ( Bm J L + B p J m ) s + ( J m K + J L K + Bm B p ) s + Bm K ⎤⎦
3 2
Tm ( s )

4-445)    (a)  Statte equations: 
dθ L dω L K2 K2 dθ t dω t K1 K1
         =ωL = θm − θL = ωt = θm − θt 
dt dtt JL JL dt dtt Jt Jt

4‐52 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

dθ m dω m Bm (K + K2 ) K1 K2 1
         = ωm =− ωm − 1
θm + θt + θL + Tm  
dt dtt Jm Jm Jm Jm Jm

         (b)  State ddiagram: 

   

            (c)  Transffer functions: 

          
Θ L (s)
=
(
K 2 J t s + K1
2
) Θt ( s)
=
(
K1 J L s + K 2
2
) Θm (s)
=
J t J L s + ( K1 J L + K 2 J t ) s + K1 K 2
4 2

 
Tm ( s ) Δ(s) Tm ( s ) Δ(s) Tm ( s ) Δ(s)

Δ ( s ) = s[ J m J L s + Bm J L J t s + ( K1 J L J t + K 2 J L J t + K1 J m J L + K 2 J m J t ) s
5 4 3

       
+ Bm J L ( K1 + K 2 ) s + K1 K 2 ( J L + J t + J m ) s + Bm K1 K 2 ] = 0
2

            (d)  Charaacteristic equattion:  Δ s ) = 0 . 
Δ(

4-446)

         (a)  Transffer function: 

Ec ( s ) 1 + R2 Cs
        G(s) = =  
E (s) 1 + ( R1 + R2 ) Cs

          (b)  Block diagram: 

4‐53 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

           (c)  Forward‐path transfer function: 

Ωm (s) K (1 + R2 Cs )
        =  
E (s) [1 + ( R 1
+ R2 ) Cs ] ( K b K i + Ra J L s )

              (d)  Closed‐loop transfer function: 

Ωm (s) K φ K (1 + R2 Cs )
      =  
Fr ( s ) [1 + ( R 1
+ R2 ) Cs ] ( K b K i + Ra J L s ) + K φ KK e N (1 + R2 Cs )

Ec ( s ) (1 + R Cs )
  (e)      Gc ( s ) = = 2
 
E (s) R1Cs

     

Forward‐path transfer function: 

Ωm (s) K (1 + R2 Cs )
        =  
E (s) R1Cs ( K b K i + Ra J L s )

          Closed‐loop transfer function: 

Ωm (s) K φ K (1 + R2 Cs )
      =  
Fr ( s ) R1Cs ( K b K i + Ra J L s ) + K φ KK e N (1 + R2 Cs )

Ke = 36 pulses / rev = 36 / 2π pulses / rad = 5.73 pulses / rad.


               (f)   f r = 120 pulses / sec ω m = 200 RPM = 200(2π / 60 ) rad / sec  
f ω = NK eω m = 120 pulses / sec = N ( 36 / 2π ) 200(2π / 60 ) = 120 N pulses / sec

         Thus, N = 1.  For  ω m = 1800 RPM, 120 = N ( 36 / 2π )1800(2π / 60) = 1080 N . Thus, N = 9. 

4-47) If the incremental encoder provides a pulse at every edge transition in the two signals of channels
A and B, then the output frequency is increased to four times of input frequency.

4-48)   (a)   

−1 ⎛ K H (s) ⎞ − K1 ⎛ H i (s) ⎞
⎜ 1 + K1 H e ( s ) + 1 i ⎟ ⎜ H e (s) + ⎟
Ωm (s) B + Js ⎝ Ra + La s ⎠ B + Js ⎝ Ra + La s ⎠
                   = ≅ =0 
TL ( s ) ωr =0
Δ( s) Δ(s)

  Thus, 

4‐54 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

H i (s) H i (s)
      H e (s) = − = − ( Ra + La s )  
Ra + La s H e (s)

K1 K i
Ωm ( s) (R + La s )( B + Js )
             (b)      = a
 
Ωr (s) TL = 0
Δ( s)

K1 K b K1 H i ( s ) K1 K i K b H e ( s )
Δ ( s ) = 1 + K1 H e ( s ) + + +
(R a
+ La s )( B + Js ) Ra + La s (R a
+ La s )( ( B + Js )
          
K1 K b K1 K i
= 1+ +
(R a
+ La s )( B + Js ) (R a
+ La s )( B + Js )

Ωm (s) K1 K i 1
           = ≅  
Ωr ( s) TL = 0
(R a
+ La s )( B + Js ) + K i K b + K1 K i K b H e ( s ) Kb H e (s)

4-49) (a)  Cause‐and‐effect equations:  θe = θ r −θ o e = K sθ e ea = Ke  

dia Ra 1
=− ia + (e a
− eb ) Tm = K i ia
dt La La
d θm Bm dθ m
2
1 nK L Tm
          2
=− + Tm − ( nθ m
− θo ) T2 = θ 2 = nθ m  
dt J m dt J Jm n
d θo
2
KL
2
= (θ 2
− θo )
dt JL

       State variables:      x1 = θ o , x 2 = ω o , x3 = θ m , x 4 = ω m , x5 = ia  

       State equations: 

dx1 dx 2 KL nK L dx3
= x2 =− x1 + x3 = x4
dt dt JL JL dt
           
2
dx 4 nK L n KL Bm Ki dx5 KK s Kb Ra KK s
=− x1 − x3 − x4 + x5 =− x1 − x4 − x5 + θr
dt Jm Jm Jm Jm dt La La La La

            (b)  State diagram: 

4‐55 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

  (c)  Forw
ward‐path tran
nsfer function: 

Θo ( s) KK s K i nK L
=
           Θ e ( s )
4 3
(
s ⎡⎣ J m J L La s + J L ( Ra J m + Bm J m + Bm La ) s + n K L La J L + K L J m La + Bm Ra J L s +  
2
) 2

(n R K J
2
a L L )
+ Ra K L J m + Bm K L La s + K i K b K L + Ra Bm K L ⎤⎦

          Clossed‐loop transsfer function: 

Θo ( s) KK s K i nK L
=
           Θ r ( s )
5 4
(
J m J L La s + J L ( Ra J m + Bm J m + Bm La ) s + n K L La J L + K L J m La + Bm Ra J L s +          
2
) 3

(n R K J
2
a L L )
+ Ra K L J m + Bm K L La s + ( K i K b K L + Ra Bm K L ) s + nKK s K i K L
2

   (d)   K L = ∞, θ o = θ 2 = nθ m . J L is reflected to motor side so J T = J m + n 2 J L .  

           

 Staate equations:: 

dω m Bm Ki dθ m dia Ra KK s KK s Kb
            =− ωm + ia = ωm =− ia + θr − nθ m − ωm 
dtt JT JT dt dt La La La La

           State diagram: 

4‐56 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

           Forrward‐path traansfer function
n: 

Θo ( s ) KK s K i n
              =
Θe ( s) s ⎡⎣ J T La s + ( Ra J T + Bm La ) s + Ra Bm + K i K b ⎤⎦
2

           Closed‐loop transsfer function: 

Θo ( s) KK s K i n
               =  
Θr (s) J T La s + ( Ra J T + Bm La ) s + ( Ra Bm + K i K b ) s + KK s K i n
3 2

                From paart (c), when  K L = ∞, all the terms withoutt K L in Θ o ( s ) / Θ e ( s ) and Θ o ( s ) / Θ r ( s ) cann be neglectedd. 

   The sam
me results as ab
bove are obtained. 

4-550) (a)  System equations: 

dv dia dis dis dia


  f = K i ia = M T + BT v ea = Ra ia + ( La + Las ) − Las + eb 0 = Rs is + ( Ls + Las ) − Las  
dt dt dt dt dt

             (b)  Take the Laplace traansform on bo
oth sides of thee last three equ
uations, with zero initial cond
ditions, we havve 

K i I a ( s ) = ( M T s + BT ) V ( s ) Ea ( s ) = [ Ra + ( La + Las ) s ] I a ( s ) − Las sI s ( s ) + K bV ( s )
     
0 = − Las sI a ( s ) + [ Rs + s ( Ls + Las )] I s ( s )

         Rearrranging these equations, wee get 

Ki V (s) Ki
V (s) = I a (s) Y (s) = = I a (s)
M T s + BT s s ( M T s + BT )
     
1 Las s
I a (s) = [E ( s ) + Las sI s ( s ) − K bV ( s ) ] I s (s) = I a (s)
Ra + ( La + Las ) s Ra + ( La + Las ) s
a

        

diagram: 
  Block d

4‐57 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

  (c)  Trannsfer function:: 

Y (s) K i [ Rs + ( Ls + Las ) s ]
  =
s [ Ra + ( La + Las ) s ] [ Rs + ( Ls + Las ) s ] ( M T s + BT ) + K i K b [ Rs + ( La + Las ) s ] − Las s (M s + BT )
2 2
Ea ( s ) T

4-551) (a)  Causee‐and‐effect eqquations: 

ea − eb
θe = θr −θL e = K sθ e K s = 1 V/rrad ea = Ke ia =
Ra
      
dω m 1 Bm KL dω L KL
Tm = K i ia = Tm − ω− (θ m
−θL ) = (θ m
−θL ) eb = K bω m
dt
d Jm Jm Jm dt JL

15.5
          Kb = 15.5 V / KRPM = = 0.148 V / rad / sec  
1000 × 2π / 60

          Statte equations: 

dθ L dω L KL KL dθ m dω m Bm KL 1 Ki
  = ωL = θm − θL = ωm =− ωm − θL + ( KK θs e
− K bω m )  
dt dt JL JL dt dt Jm Jm J m Ra

  (b)  Statte diagram: 

  (c)  Forw
ward‐path tran
nsfer function: 

K i KK
Ks KL
           G(ss ) =             
s ⎡⎣ J m J L Ra s + ( Bm Ra + K i K b ) J L s + Ra K L ( J L + J m ) s + K L ( Bm Ra + K i K b ) ⎤⎦
3 2

4‐58 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

J m Ra J L = 0.03 × 115
. × 0.05 = 0.001725 Bm Ra J L = 10 × 115
. × 0.05 = 0.575 Ki Kb J L = 21 × 0.148 × 0.05 = 0.1554  

  Ra K L J L = 115
. × 50000 × 0.05 = 2875 Ra K L J m = 115
. × 50000 × 0.03 = 1725 Ki KK s K L = 21 × 1 × 50000 K = 1050000 K  

  K L ( Bm Ra + K i K b ) = 50000(10 × 1.15 + 21 × 0.148) = 730400  

608.7 × 10 K
6

      G(s) =  
(
s s + 423.42 s + 2.6667 × 10 s + 4.2342 × 10
3 2 6 8
)
  (d)  Closed‐loop transfer function:    
ΘL (s) G(s) K i KK s K L
                      M ( s ) = = =  
Θr ( s) 1 + G(s) J m J L Ra s + ( Bm Ra + K i K b ) J L s + Ra K L ( J L + J m ) s + K L ( Bm Ra + K i K b ) s + K i KK s K L
4 3 2

8
6.087 × 10 K
    M ( s) = 4 3 6 2 8 8
 
s + 423.42 s + 2.6667 × 10 s + 4.2342 × 10 s + 6.087 × 10 K

           Characteristic equation roots: 

K =1 K = 2738 K = 5476
s = −1.45 s = ± j1000 s = 405 ± j1223.4
     
s = −159.88 s = −2117
. ± j1273.5 s = −617.22 ± j1275
s = −13105
. ± j1614.6

4-52)   (a)  Nonlinear differential equations: 
dx ( t ) dv ( t )
            = v(t ) = − k ( v ) − g ( x ) + f ( t ) = − Bv ( t ) + f ( t )  
dt dt
e( t ) e( t 0
        With  Ra = 0 ,   φ ( t ) = = K f i f ( t ) = K f i f ( t ) = K f ia ( t ) Then, ia ( t ) =  
Kb v ( t ) Kb K f v ( t )

2
Ki e ( t ) dv ( t ) Ki 2
         f ( t ) = Kiφ ( t )ia ( t ) = 2 2
. Thus, = − Bv ( t ) + 2 2
e (t )  
Kb K f v (t ) dt Kb K f v (t )

            (b)  State equations:   ia ( t )  as input. 

dx ( t ) dv ( t ) 2
        = v (t ) = − Bv ( t ) + Ki K f ia ( t )  
dt dt

             (c)  State equations:  φ ( t )  as input. 

4‐59 
 
Automatic Conttrol Systems, 9th Edition   Chapteer 4 Solutionss    Golnarraghi, Kuo 

2 φ (t )
f ( t ) = K i K f ia ( t ) ia ( t ) = i f ( t ) =
Kf
         
dx ( t ) dv ( t ) Ki 2
= v (t ) = − Bv ( t ) + φ (t )
dt dt Kf

4-553)   (a)  Diffeerential equations: 

d θm dθ m ⎛ dθ m − dθ L ⎞  
2

      K i ia = J m + Bm + K (θ m − θ L ) + B ⎜ ⎟
dt
2
dt ⎝ dt
d dt ⎠

⎛ dθ m − dθ L ⎞ = ⎛ J d θ L + B dθ L ⎞
2

      K (θ m − θ L ) + B ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ L 2 ⎟ + TL  
⎝ dt dt ⎠ ⎝
L
dt dt ⎠

             (b)  Take the Laplace traansform of thee differential eq
quations with zero initial con
nditions, we geet 

( )
K i I a ( s ) = J m s + Bm s + Bs + K Θ m ( s ) + ( Bs + K ) Θ L ( s )
2

                        
( Bs + K ) Θ m ( )
( s ) − ( Bs + K ) Θ L ( s ) = J L s + BL sΘ L ( s ) + TL ( s)
2
s

  a Θ L ( s )  from the last two
      Solving for  Θ m ( s ) and o equations, wee have 

Ki Bs + K
Θm (s) = I a (s) + Θ L (s)
J m s + ( Bm + B ) s + K J m s + ( Bm + B ) s + K
2 2

       
Bss + K TL ( s )
Θ L (s) = Θm (s) −
J L s + ( BL + B ) s + K J L s + ( BL + B ) s + K
2 2

        Signaal flow graph: 

4‐60 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

  (c)  Transfer matrix: 

⎡Θm (s) ⎤ 1 ⎡ K i ⎡⎣ J L s + ( BL + B ) s + K ⎤⎦ Bs + K ⎤ ⎡ I a (s) ⎤


2

    ⎢ Θ (s) ⎥ = Δ (s) ⎢ K i ( Bs + K )
⎥⎢ ⎥ 
J m s + ( Bm + B ) s + K ⎦ ⎣ −TL ( s ) ⎦
⎣ L ⎦ ⎣
2
o

         Δ o ( s ) = J L J m s + [ J L ( Bm + B ) + J m ( BL + B )] s + [ BL Bm + ( BL + BM ) B + ( J m + J L ) K ] s + K ( BL + B ) s  
3 3 2
 

4-54) As can be estimated by:

1 2
2
1 2
2
Therefore:

2
2 1 1

As a result:
Poles: , ,

zeros:

4-55) By approximating :

1
2
1
2
a)
1
2
1 1
2
Therefore:
1
2
1 1
2

4‐61 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

b)

1 1
2 2 2 4
1 1
2
3 2
2 2 1 2 1 4 1 2
2 1
4 4
2 1

4-56) MATLAB

clear all 
L=1 
T=0.1 
G1=tf([‐1/2 1],conv([0.1 1],[1/2 1])) 
figure(1) 
step(G1) 
G2=tf([‐1 ‐1 4 4], conv (conv ([1 2],[1 2]),conv([1 1],[1 1]))) 
figure(2) 
step(G2) 
 
L = 
     1 
 
T = 
    0.1000 
  
Transfer function: 
     ‐0.5 s + 1 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
0.05 s^2 + 0.6 s + 1 
  
Transfer function: 
     ‐s^3 ‐ s^2 + 4 s + 4 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s^4 + 6 s^3 + 13 s^2 + 12 s + 4 

4‐62 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

⎡ L⎤
4-57) 4‐23  (a)  Differential equations:   ⎢ L ( y ) =  
⎣ y ⎥⎦

d L ( y )i ( t ) dL( y ) dy ( t ) L di ( t ) L dy ( t ) L di ( t )
        e ( t ) = Ri ( t ) + = Ri ( t ) + i ( t ) + = Ri ( t ) − 2
i(t ) +  
dt dy dt y dt y dt y dt
2 2
Ki ( t ) di ( t ) dy ( t ) d y(t )
         My ( t ) = Mg − 2
At equilibrium, = 0, = 0, 2
= 0 
y (t ) dt dt dt

4‐63 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Eeq dy eq Eeq K
        Thus,    ieq = =0 yeq =  
R dt R Mg

dy
            (b)  Define the state variables as    x1 = i, x 2 = y, and x3 = . 
dt

Eeq Eeq K
        Then,  x1eq = x 2eq = x3eq = 0  
R R Mg

         The differential equations are written in state equation form: 

2
dx1 R x1 x3 x2 dx 2 dx3 K x1
          =− x1 x 2 + + e = f1 = x3 = f 2 = g− 2
= f3 
dt L x2 L dt dt M x2

  (c)  Linearization: 

∂f1 R x3eq Eeq K ∂f1 R x1 x3 Eeq ∂f1 x1eq Mg


             =− x 2eq + =− =− x1eq − 2
+ =0 = =    
∂x1 L x 2eq L Mg ∂x 2 L x2 L ∂x 3 x 2eq K

∂f1 x 2 eq 1 K Eeq ∂f 2 ∂f 2 ∂f 2 ∂f 2
           = = =0 =0 =1 = 0 
∂e L L Mg R ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3 ∂e

2
∂f 3 2 K x1eq 2 Rg ∂f 3 2 K x1eq 2 Rg Mg ∂f 3
            =− 2
=− = 3
= = 0 
∂x1 M x 2 eq Eeq ∂x 2 M x 2eq Eeq K ∂e

∗ ∗
           The linearized state equations about the equilibrium point are written as:     Δx& = A Δx + B Δe  

⎡ Eeq K Mg ⎤ ⎡ Eeq K ⎤
⎢− 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ L Mg K ⎥
⎢ RL Mg ⎥
A =⎢ 0 ⎥ B =⎢ ⎥ 
∗ ∗
      0 0 0
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ 2 Rg 2 Rg Mg ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ − E 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ eq
Eeq K ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

4-58)

(a)  Differential equations: 
2 2
d y1 ( t ) dy1 ( t ) Ki ( t ) 2 1
      M1 2
= M1 g − B − 2
+ Ki ( t ) 2
 
dt dt y1 ( t ) y 2 ( t ) − y1 ( t )

4‐64 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

2 2
d y2 (t ) 2 dy 2 ( t ) Ki ( t )
      M2 2
= M2 g − B − 2
 
dt dt y 2 ( t ) − y1 ( t )

dy1 dy 2
        Define the state variables as   x1 = y1 , x 2 = , x3 = y 2 , x 4 = . 
dt dt

        The state equations are: 

2 2 2
dx1 dx2 Ki Ki dx3 dx4 Ki
    = x2 M1 = M 1 g − Bx2 − + = x4 M2 = M 2 g − Bx4 −  
dt dt x1
2
(x 3
− x1 )
2
dt dt (x 3
− x1 )
2

dx1 dx 2 dx3 dx 4
       At equilibrium,  = 0, = 0, = 0, = 0. Thus, x 2eq = 0 and x 4 eq = 0. 
dt dt dt dt
2 2 2
KI KI KI
      M1g − + =0 M2g − = 0   
X1
2
(X 3
− X1 )
2
(X 3
− X1 )
2

       Solving for I, with  X 1 = 1, we have 

⎛ ( M1 + M 2 ) g ⎞  
1/ 2
⎛ M + M2 ⎞
1/ 2

      Y2 = X 3 = 1 + ⎜ 1 ⎟ I =⎜ ⎟
⎝ M2 ⎠ ⎝ K ⎠

  (b)  Nonlinear state equations: 
2 2
dx1 dx2 B K Ki dx3 dx4 B Ki
= x2 =g− x2 − i + = x4 =g− x4 −
2
                    
M 1 ( x3 − x1 ) M 2 ( x3 − x1 )
2 2 2
dt dt M1 M 1 x1 dt dt M2

    

  (c)  Linearization: 

∂ f1 ∂ f1 ∂ f1 ∂ f1 ∂ f1
=0 =0 =0 =0 =0
∂ x1 ∂ x2 ∂ x3 ∂ x4 ∂i
          
∂ f2 ∂ f2 ∂ f2 −2 KI ∂ f2
2 2 2
2 KI 2 KI B
= + =− = =0
∂ x1 M1 ( X 3 − X1 ) ∂ x2 ∂ x3 M1 ( X 3 − X1 ) ∂ x4
3 3 3
M 1 x1 M1

∂ f2 2 KI⎛ −1 1 ⎞ ∂ f3 ∂ f3 ∂ f3 ∂ f3 ∂ f3
         = ⎜ 2+ 2 ⎟
=0 =0 =0 =1 =0 
∂i M1 ⎝ X1 ( X 3 − X1 ) ⎠ ∂ x1 ∂ x2 ∂ x3 ∂ x4 ∂i

∂ f4 −2 KI ∂ f4 ∂ f4 ∂ f4 ∂ f4 −2 KI
2 2
2 KI B
        = =0 = =− =  
∂ x1 M 2 ( X 3 − X1 ) ∂ x2 ∂ x3 M 2 ( X 3 − X1 ) ∂ x4 ∂i M 2 ( X 3 − X1 )
3 3 2
M2

            Linearized state equations:    M1 = 2, M 2 = 1, g = 32.2, B = 0.1, K = 1. 

4‐65 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

1/ 2
⎛ 32.2(1 + 2) ⎞ X = 96.6 X = 9.8285 X
        I = ⎜ X1 =
1
= 1 
  ⎟
⎝ ⎠
1 1 1
1 9.8285

  ( )
        X 3 = 1 + 1 + 2 X 1 = 2.732 X 1 = Y2 = 2.732 X 3 − X 1 = 1.732  

⎡ 0 1 0 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 2 KI ⎛⎜ 1 + ⎞ −B −2 KI ⎡ 0 0 ⎤
2 2
1 1 0
3 ⎟
0 ⎥
⎢ M1 ⎝ X1 ( X 3 − X1 ) ⎠
3
M1 M1 ( X 3 − X1 )
3
⎥ ⎢ 115.2 −0.05 −18.59 0 ⎥
          A = ⎢

⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ 
⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎥
⎢ ⎢ ⎥
−2 KI − B ⎥ ⎣ −37.18 0 37.18 −0.1⎦
2 2
2 KI
⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢⎣ M 2 ( X 3 − X1 ) M 2 ( X 3 − X1 ) M 2 ⎥⎦
3 3

⎡ 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥
⎢ 2 KI ⎛⎜ −1 + 1 ⎞⎥ ⎡ 0 ⎤
⎢ M 1 ⎝ X 12 ( X 3 − X 1 )2 ⎟⎠ ⎥ ⎢ −6.552 ⎥
⎥=⎢ ⎥ 

           B = ⎢
⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢ −2 KI ⎥ ⎣ −6.552 ⎥⎦

⎢ ⎥
⎣⎢ M 2 ( X 3 − X1 ) ⎦⎥
2

4-59) a)

F3
θ
F1 F2

b) The equation of the translational motion is:

4‐66 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

The equation of rotational motion is:

where

Also, the relation between rotational and translational motion defines:

Therefore, substituting above expression into the first equation gives:

2
The resulted state space equations are:
2
2

c) According to generalized elements:


1) Viscous friction can be replaced by a resistor where R = B
2) Spring can be replaced by a capacitor where
3) Mass M and m can be replaced by two inductors where and . Then the
angular velocity is measured as a voltage of the inductor L2
4) The gear will be replaced by a transformer with the ratio of
5) The term Mg is also replaced by an input voltage of

4‐67 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-60) As the base is not moving then the model can be reduced to:

Therefore:

1) As , they can be replaced by a inductor with L = m


2) Friction B can be replaced by a resistor where R = B
3) Spring can be replaced by a capacitor where
4) The force F is replaced by a current source where Is = F

4-61)

V2

| |

A
C
ρg

4‐68 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-62) Recall Eq. (4-324)

Z (s) −1
= 2
&&
Y ( s ) s + 2ζω n s + ω n 2

ω = 1,
Set Y&&( s ) = impulse , pick n for simplicity.
ς =1

clear all
G=tf([-1],[1 2 1])
figure(1)
impulse(G)

Transfer function:
-1
-------------
s^2 + 2 s + 1

4‐69 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 4 Solutions     Golnaraghi, Kuo 

4-63)

Use Eq. (4-329).

Kmr
Ra
Z (s) = Va ( s )
⎛ La ⎞ 2 K m Kb
⎜ s + 1⎟ ( Js + Bs + K ) + s
⎝ Ra ⎠ Ra
⎛ La ⎞
⎜ s + 1⎟ r
− ⎝ Ra ⎠ mrY&&( s )
⎛ La ⎞ 2 K m Kb
⎜ s + 1⎟ ( Js + Bs + K ) + s
R
⎝ a ⎠ R a

La
For =0 (very small) the format of the equation is similar to Eq. (4-324), and we expect the same
Ra
Kmr
Ra
response for the disturbance input. Except, Z ( s ) = Va ( s ) can be used to reduce the
K K
( Js + Bs + K ) + m b s
2

Ra
effects of disturbance. See Chapter 6.

4‐70 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Chapter 5

5‐1  (a)  ζ ≥ 0.707 ω n ≥ 2 rad / sec         (b)   0 ≤ ζ ≤ 0.707 ω n ≤ 2 rad / sec  

   
 

       (c)  ζ ≤ 0.5 1 ≤ ω n ≤ 5 rad / sec         (d)   0.5 ≤ ζ ≤ 0.707 ω n ≤ 0.5 rad / sec  

 
 

5‐2  (a)  Type 0              (b)  Type 0            (c)  Type 1            (d)  Type 2            (e)  Type 3            (f)  Type 3 

(g) type 2 (h) type 1

 
2
5‐3  (a)   K p = lim G ( s ) = 1000     K v = lim sG ( s ) = 0     K a = lim s G ( s ) = 0  
s→ 0 s→ 0 s→ 0

 
2
       (b)   K p = lim G ( s ) = ∞     K v = lim sG ( s ) = 1    K a = lim s G ( s ) = 0  
s→ 0 s→ 0 s→ 0

5‐1 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

 
2
       (c)   K p = lim G ( s ) = ∞     K v = lim sG ( s ) = K     K a = lim s G ( s ) = 0  
s→ 0 s→ 0 s→ 0

 
2
       (d)   K p = lim G ( s ) = ∞     K v = lim sG ( s ) = ∞     K a = lim s G ( s ) = 1 
s→ 0 s→ 0 s→ 0

 
2
       (e)   K p = lim G ( s ) = ∞     K v = lim sG ( s ) = 1    K a = lim s G ( s ) = 0  
s→ 0 s→ 0 s→ 0

2
       (f)   K p = lim G ( s ) = ∞     K v = lim sG ( s ) = ∞     K a = lim s G ( s ) = K  
s→ 0 s→ 0 s→ 0

5‐4  (a)   Input         Error Constants     Steady‐state Error   

          ________________________________________________________________________________ 

        u s ( t )                  K p = 1000                    1 1001 

       tu s ( t )                   K v = 0              ∞ 

     ∞ 
2
    t us (t ) / 2                 K a = 0        

         (b)      Input         Error Constants      Steady‐state Error 

          ________________________________________________________________________________ 

        u s ( t )                   K p = ∞                    0 

       tu s ( t )                    K v = 1                          1 

      ∞ 
2
    t us (t ) / 2                  K a = 0        

          (c)   Input          Error Constants        Steady‐state Error 

          ________________________________________________________________________________ 

        u s ( t )                     K p = ∞                0 

5‐2 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

       tu s ( t )                       K v = K                     1/ K  

       ∞ 
2
    t us (t ) / 2                    K a = 0        

    The above results are valid if the value of K corresponds to a stable closed‐loop system. 

          (d)   The closed‐loop system is unstable. It is meaningless to conduct a steady‐state error analysis. 

           (e)       Input           Error Constants         Steady‐state Error 

           ________________________________________________________________________________ 

        u s ( t )         K p = ∞                0 

       tu s ( t )         K v = 1                1 

        ∞ 
2
    t us (t ) / 2                     Ka = 0               

            (f)    Input           Error Constants          Steady‐state Error 

           ________________________________________________________________________________ 

        u s ( t )          Kp = ∞              0 

       tu s ( t )            K v = ∞                0 

2
    t us (t ) / 2          K a = K              1/ K  

    The closed‐loop system is stable for all positive values of K. Thus the above results are valid. 

G( s) s +1
5‐5  (a)   K H = H ( 0) = 1    M ( s) = = 3 2
   
1+ G( s) H ( s) s + 2 s + 3s + 3

          a0 = 3, a1 = 3, a2 = 2, b0 = 1, b1 = 1. 

     Unit‐step Input: 

1⎛ b0 K H ⎞ 2
        ess = ⎜1 − a ⎟= 3 
KH ⎝ 0 ⎠

5‐3 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

      Unit‐ramp input: 

        a0 − b0 K H = 3 − 1 = 2 ≠ 0. Thus e ss = ∞.  

         

  Unit‐parabolic Input: 

        a0 − b0 K H = 2 ≠ 0 and a1 − b1 K H = 1 ≠ 0. Thus e ss = ∞. 

        

       (b)   K H = H ( 0) = 5  

G( s) 1
      M ( s) = = 2
  a0 = 5, a1 = 5, b0 = 1, b1 = 0.  
1+ G( s) H ( s) s + 5s + 5

       Unit‐step Input: 

1 ⎛ b0 K H ⎞ 1⎛ 5⎞
        ess = ⎜1 − a ⎟ = 5 ⎜1 − 5 ⎟ = 0  
KH ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

         Unit‐ramp Input: 

        i = 0: a0 − b0 K H = 0 i = 1: a1 − b1 K H = 5 ≠ 0  

a1 − b1 K H 15
        e ss = = =  
a0 K H 25 5

         Unit‐parabolic Input: 

        e ss = ∞  

        (c)   K H = H ( 0) = 1 / 5 

G( s) s+5
         M ( s ) = = 4 3 2
        The system is stable. 
1+ G( s) H ( s) s + 15s + 50 s + s + 1

        a0 = 1, a1 = 1, a2 = 50, a3 = 15, b0 = 5, b1 = 1  

          Unit‐step Input: 

1 ⎛ b0 K H ⎞ ⎛ 5/5⎞
        ess = ⎜1 − a ⎟ = 5 ⎜1 − 1 ⎟ = 0  
KH ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

          Unit‐ramp Input: 

5‐4 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

        i = 0: a0 − b0 K H = 0 i = 1: a1 − b1 K H = 4 / 5 ≠ 0  

a1 − b1 K H 1− 1/ 5
        e ss = = = 4 
a0 K H 1/ 5

          Unit‐parabolic Input: 

        e ss = ∞  

        (d)   K H = H ( 0 ) = 10  

G( s) 1
           M ( s ) = = 3 2
  The system is stable. 
1+ G( s) H ( s) s + 12 s + 5s + 10

        a0 = 10, a1 = 5, a2 = 12, b0 = 1, b1 = 0, b2 = 0  

          Unit‐step Input: 

1 ⎛ b0 K H ⎞ 1 ⎛ 10 ⎞
        ess = ⎜1 − a ⎟ = 10 ⎜ 1 − 10 ⎟ = 0  
KH ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

          Unit‐ramp Input: 

        i = 0: a0 − b0 K H = 0 i = 1: a1 − b1 K H = 5 ≠ 0  

a1 − b1 K H 5
        e ss = = = 0.05  
a0 K H 100

          Unit‐parabolic Input: 

        e ss = ∞  

s+4
5‐6  (a)   M ( s ) = 4 3 2
  K H = 1    The system is stable. 
s + 16 s + 48 s + 4 s + 4

      a0 = 4, a1 = 4, a2 = 48, a3 = 16, b0 = 4, b1 = 1, b2 = 0, b3 = 0  

     Unit‐step Input: 

1 ⎛ b0 K H ⎞ ⎛ 4⎞
           ess = ⎜1 − a ⎟ = ⎜1 − 4 ⎟ = 0  
KH ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

      Unit‐ramp input: 

           i = 0: a0 − b0 K H = 0 i = 1: a1 − b1 K H = 4 − 1 = 3 ≠ 0  

5‐5 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

a1 − b1 K H 4 −1 3
           e ss = = =  
a0 K H 4 4

      Unit‐parabolic Input: 

        e ss = ∞  

K ( s + 3)
         (b)   M ( s ) = 3 2
   K H = 1    The system is stable for  K > 0.  
s + 3s + ( K + 2) s + 3K

            a0 = 3 K , a1 = K + 2, a2 = 3, b0 = 3 K , b1 = K  

      Unit‐step Input: 

1 ⎛ b0 K H ⎞ ⎛ 3K ⎞
           ess = ⎜1 − a ⎟ = ⎜ 1 − 3K ⎟ = 0  
KH ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

      Unit‐ramp Input: 

           i = 0: a0 − b0 K H = 0 i = 1: a1 − b1 K H = K + 2 − K = 2 ≠ 0  

a1 − b1 K H K + 2− K 2
           e ss = = =  
a0 K H 3K 3K

      Unit‐parabolic Input: 

         e ss = ∞  

    The above results are valid for K > 0. 

s+5 10 s H ( s)
         (c)   M ( s ) = 4 3 2
H ( s) = K H = lim = 2 
s + 15 s + 50 s + 10 s s+5 s→ 0 s

        a0 = 0, a1 = 10, a2 = 50, a3 = 15, b0 = 5, b1 = 1 

     Unit‐step Input: 

1 ⎛ a2 − b1 K H ⎞ 1 ⎛ 50 − 1 × 2 ⎞
          ess = ⎜ a ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ = 2.4  
KH ⎝ 1 ⎠ 2⎝ 10 ⎠

      Unit‐ramp Input:   

5‐6 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

           e ss = ∞  

      Unit‐parabolic Input: 

        e ss = ∞  

K ( s + 5)
         (d)   M ( s ) = 4 3 2
K H = 1               The system is stable for 0 < K < 204. 
s + 17 s + 60 s + 5 Ks + 5 K

      a0 = 5 K , a1 = 5K , a2 = 60, a3 = 17, b0 = 5K , b1 = K  

      

   Unit‐step Input: 

⎛ b0 K H
1 ⎞ ⎛ 5K ⎞
          ess = ⎜1 − a ⎟ = ⎜ 1 − 5K ⎟ = 0  
KH ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

      Unit‐ramp Input: 

           i = 0: a0 − b0 K H = 0 i = 1: a1 − b1 K H = 5 K − K = 4 K ≠ 0  

a1 − b1 K H 5K − K 4
          e ss = = =  
a0 K H 5K 5

      Unit‐parabolic Input:   

          e ss = ∞  

     

    The results are valid for 0 < K < 204. 

5‐7 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-7)

1
3 2 5 1
5 1 5 11 5
1
2 3

Ö Type of the system is zero

Pole: s = -2.2013 + 1.8773i, s = -2.2013 - 1.8773i, and s = -0.5974

Zero: s = -1

5-8)

5( s + 1)
s ( s + 2)( s + 3)

5 1
2 3

a) Position error: lim G s lim ∞

b) Velocity error: lim lim

c) Acceleration error: lim lim 0

5-9) a) Steady state error for unit step input:

Referring to the result of problem 5-8, ∞Î 0

b) Steady state error for ramp input:

5‐8 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Regarding the result of problem 5-8, Î ∞

c) Steady state error for parabolic input:

Regarding the result of problem 5-8, 0Î ∞ ∞

5-10)

4( s + 1)
s 2 ( s + 2)

a) Step error constant: lim ∞

b) Ramp error constant: lim ∞

c) Parabolic error constant: lim 2

5-11) 3 4

where x1 is a unit step input, x2 is a ramp input, and x3 is a unit parabola input. Since the system
is linear, then the effect of X(s) is the summation of effect of each individual input.

That is: ∞ ∞ 3 ∞ 4 ∞

So:

Ö 4 2

5‐9 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-12) The step input response of the system is:

1 1 1 1
1

Therefore:
1
1
1
The rise time is the time that unit step response value reaches from 0.1 to 0.9. Then:

1 . .
1
It is obvious that tr > 0, then:

1 . .
0
1

As |k| < 1, then 0

. . . .
Therefore 0 or

which yields: 0

5‐13)   

Y ( s) KG p ( s ) 20 s 100 K
    G( s) = = =   Type‐1 system. 
E ( s) 1 + Kt G p ( s ) 20 s(1 + 0.2 s + 100 Kt )

5K
  Error constants:    K p = ∞, K v = , Ka = 0 
1 + 100 Kt

           

1
         (a)   r ( t ) = u s ( t ):     e ss = = 0 
1+ K p

1 1 + 100 Kt
       (b)   r ( t ) = tu s ( t ):     e ss = =  
Kv 5K

1
       (c)   r ( t ) = t 2u s ( t ) / 2: e ss = = ∞ 
Ka

5‐10 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐14     

100 Y ( s) KG p ( s )
    G p ( s) = G( s) = =  
(1 + 0.1s )(1 + 0.5s ) E ( s) 20 s 1 + Kt G p ( s )

100 K
    G( s) =    
20 s (1 + 0.1s )(1 + 0.5 s ) + 100 Kt

5K
  Error constants:    K p = ∞, K v = , Ka = 0 
1 + 100 Kt

1
         (a)   r ( t ) = u s ( t ):     e ss = = 0 
1+ K p

1 1 + 100 Kt
       (b)   r ( t ) = tu s ( t ):     e ss = =  
Kv 5K

1
       (c)   r ( t ) = t 2u s ( t ) / 2: e ss = = ∞ 
Ka

   Since the system is of the third order, the values of K and  Kt  must be constrained so that the system is  

    stable. The characteristic equation is 

s + 12 s + ( 20 + 2000 K t ) s + 100 K = 0  
3 2
       

      Routh Tabulation: 

3
s 1 20 + 2000 Kt
2
s 12 100 K
       240 + 24000 Kt − 100 K  
1
s
12
0
s 100 K

1 + 100 K t 1
        Stability Conditions:  K > 0     12 (1 + 100 K t ) − 5 K > 0 or >  
5K 12

      Thus, the minimum steady‐state error that can be obtained with a unit‐ramp input is 1/12. 

   

5‐11 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐15  (a)  From Figure 3P‐29, 

K1 K 2 K i K b + KK1 K i K t
1+ +
Θo ( s) Ra + La s (R + La s )( Bt + J t s )
      = a
 
Θr (s) K1 K 2 K i K b + KK1 K i K t KK s K1 K i N
1+ + +
Ra + La s (Ra
+ La s )( Bt + J t s ) s ( Ra + La s )( Bt + J t s )

Θo (s) s [( Ra + La s )( Bt + J t s ) + K1 K 2 ( Bt + J t s ) + K i K b + KK1 K i K t ]
        =  
Θr (s) La J t s + ( La Bt + Ra J t + K1 K 2 J t ) s + ( Ra Bt + K i K b + KK i K1 K t + K1 K 2 Bt ) s + KK s K1 K i N
3 2

1
        θ r ( t ) = u s ( t ), Θ r ( s ) = lim sΘ e ( s ) = 0     
s s→ 0

        Provided that all the poles of  sΘ e ( s )  are all in the left‐half s‐plane. 

2
          (b)  For a unit‐ramp input,  Θ r ( s ) = 1 / s . 

Ra Bt + K1 K 2 Bt + Ki Kb + KK1 Ki Kt
      e ss = lim θ e ( t ) = lim sΘ e ( s ) =  
t →∞ s→ 0 KK s K1 Ki N

      if the limit is valid. 

   

5‐12 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐16  (a)  Forward‐path transfer function:  [n(t) = 0]: 

K (1 + 0.02 s )
Y ( s) s ( s + 25)
2
K (1 + 0.02 s )
      G (s) = = =    Type‐1 system. 
E (s)
1+ 2
KK t s (
s s + 25s + KK t
2
)
s ( s + 25)

1
      Error Constants:  K p = ∞, Kv = , Ka = 0  
Kt

1 1
      For a unit‐ramp input,  r ( t ) = tu s ( t ), R( s ) = 2
, e ss = lim e( t ) = lim sE ( s ) = = Kt  
s t →∞ s→ 0 Kv

    Routh Tabulation: 

KK t + 0.02 K
3
s 1
2
s 25 K
   
1 25 K ( K t + 0.02 ) − K  
s
25
0
s K

    Stability Conditions:  K >0 25 ( K t + 0.02 ) − K > 0 or K t > 0.02  

           (b)  With r(t) = 0,  n( t ) = u s ( t ), N ( s ) = 1 / s.  

     System Transfer Function with N(s) as Input: 

K
Y (s) s ( s + 25) K
2

        = = 3  
K (1 + 0.02 s ) KK t s s + 25 s + K ( K t + 0.02 ) s + K
2
N (s)
1+ 2 + 2
s ( s + 25) s ( s + 25)

     Steady‐State Output due to n(t): 

           y ss = lim y ( t ) = lim sY ( s ) = 1     if the limit is valid. 


t →∞ s→ 0

5‐13 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐17  You may use MATLAB in all Routh Hurwitz calculations. 

1. Activate MATLAB 

2. Go to the directory containing the ACSYS software.  

3. Type in  

Acsys 

4. Then press the “transfer function Symbolic” and enter the Characteristic equation 

5. Then press the “Routh Hurwitz” button 

6. For example look at below Figures 

 
 

   

5‐14 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

(a)   n( t ) = 0, r ( t ) = tu s ( t ).  

     Forward‐path Transfer function: 

Y (s) K ( s + α )( s + 3)
      G(s) = =    Type‐1 system. 
E ( s) n=0 (
s s −1
2
)
      Ramp‐error constant:    K v = lim sG ( s ) = −3 Kα  
s→ 0

1 1
      Steady‐state error:    e ss = =−  
Kv 3Kv

3 2
      Characteristic equation:  s + Ks + [ K ( 3 + α ) − 1] s + 3αK = 0  

      Routh Tabulation: 

3
s 1 3 K + αK − 1
2
s K 3αK
       K ( 3 K + αK − 1) − 3αK  
1
s
K
0
s 3αK

1 + 3K
3 K + αK − 1 − 3α > 0 or K>
       Stability Conditions:  3+α  
αK > 0

             (b)  When r(t) = 0,  n( t ) = u s ( t ), N ( s ) = 1 / s.  

K ( s + 3)
Y (s) s −1
2
Ks ( s + 3)
          Transfer Function between n(t) and y(t):   = =  
N (s) K ( s + α )( s + 3) s 3 + Ks 2 + [ K ( s + α ) − 1]s + 3α K
r =0
1+
s s −1
2
( )
            Steady‐State Output due to n(t): 

        y ss = lim y ( t ) = lim sY ( s ) = 0     if the limit is valid. 


t →∞ s→ 0

   

5‐15 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐18   
− πζ
2
1−ζ
      Percent maximum overshoot = 0.25 = e  
  Thus 

πζ 1 − ζ = − ln 0.25 = 1.386 π ζ = 1.922 (1 − ζ ) 


2 2 2 2
     

  Solving for ζ  from the last equation, we have ζ  = 0.404. 

π π
  Peak Time t max = = 0.01 sec.     Thus,       ω n = = 343.4 rad / sec  
2 2
ω n 1− ζ 0.01 1 − ( 0.404)

  Transfer Function of the Second‐order Prototype System: 

2
Y ( s) ωn 117916
        = 2 2
= 2
 
R( s ) s + 2ζω n s + ω n s + 277.3s + 117916

   

5‐16 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Extended MATLAB solutions of problems similar to 5‐19‐5‐27 appear later 
on – e.g. 5‐58 
5‐19   Closed‐Loop Transfer Function:      Characteristic equation: 

Y (s) 25 K
= s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K = 0  
2
      
s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K
2
R(s)

            For a second‐order prototype system, when the maximum overshoot is 4.3%,  ζ = 0.707. 

      ω n = 25 K , 2ζω n = 5 + 500 Kt = 1.414 25 K  

           Rise Time:   

2
1 − 0.4167ζ + 2.917ζ 2.164
    tr = = = 0.2 sec Thus ω n = 10.82 rad / sec  
ωn ωn

2
ωn (10.82)
2
10.3
  Thus,  K= = = 4.68 5 + 500 Kt = 1.414ω n = 15.3          Thus       Kt = = 0.0206  
25 25 500

  With   K = 4.68 and Kt = 0.0206, the system transfer function is  

Y ( s) 117
          = 2
 
R( s ) s + 15.3s + 117

           Unit‐step Response: 

                 

y = 0.1 at t = 0.047  sec. 

                y = 0.9 at t = 0.244  sec. 

t r = 0.244 − 0.047 = 0.197   sec.                     


 
            y max = 0.0432 ( 4.32% max. overshoot)  

5‐17 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐20  Closed‐loop Transfer Function:        Characteristic Equation: 

Y (s) 25 K
= s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K = 0  
2
        
s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K
2
R(s)

πζ
= − ln 0.1 = 2.3 π ζ = 5.3 (1 − ζ )
2 2 2
  When Maximum overshoot = 10%,     
1−ζ
2

  Solving for ζ , we get  ζ  = 0.59. 

  The Natural undamped frequency is  ω n = 25K Thus, 5+ 500 Kt = 2ζω n = 118


. ω n 

  Rise Time: 

2
1 − 0.4167ζ + 2.917ζ 17696
.
    tr = = 0.1 = sec. Thus ω n = 17.7 rad / sec  
ωn ωn

2
ωn 15.88
    K= = 12.58 Thus Kt = = 0.0318  
25 500

  With K = 12.58  and   Kt = 0.0318,  the system transfer function is 

Y ( s) 313
          = 2
 
R( s ) s + 20.88 s + 314.5

  Unit‐step Response: 

                      y = 0.1 when t = 0.028 sec. 

                      y = 0.9 when t = 0.131 sec. 

                       t r = 0.131 − 0.028 = 0.103  sec. 

                       

                       y max = 11
. (10% max. overshoot )  

5‐18 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐21  Closed‐Loop Transfer Function:      Characteristic Equation: 

Y ( s) 25 K
= s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K = 0  
2
  2
     
R( s ) s + ( 5 + 500 Kt ) s + 25 K

πζ
= − ln 0.2 = 1.61 π ζ = 2.59 (1 − ζ ) 
2 2 2
  When Maximum overshoot = 20%,   
1−ζ
2

  Solving for ζ , we get  ζ = 0.456.  

  The Natural undamped frequency  ω n = 25 K 5 + 500 Kt = 2ζω n = 0.912ω n  

  Rise Time: 

2
1 − 0.4167ζ + 2.917ζ 1.4165 1.4165
    tr = = 0.05 = sec. Thus, ω n = = 28.33  
ωn ωn 0.05

2
ωn
    K= = 32.1 5 + 500 Kt = 0.912ω n = 25.84 Thus, Kt = 0.0417  
25

    With K = 32.1  and   Kt = 0.0417,   the system transfer function is 

Y ( s) 802.59
          = 2
 
R( s ) s + 25.84 s + 802.59

Unit‐step Response: 

                y = 0.1  when  t = 0.0178  sec. 

                y = 0.9  when  t = 0.072  sec. 

                t r = 0.072 − 0.0178 = 0.0542 sec. 

                y max = 1.2 ( 20% max. overshoot )  

5‐19 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐22  Closed‐Loop Transfer Function:      Characteristic Equation: 

Y (s) 25 K
= s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K = 0  
2
      
s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K
2
R(s)

2
. + 0.125ζ + 0.469ζ
11
  Delay time   t d ≅ = 0.1 sec.  
ωn

1.423
  When Maximum overshoot = 4.3%,  ζ = 0.707. td = = 0.1 sec.       Thus   ω n = 14.23 rad/sec. 
ωn

2 2

K =⎜
⎛ ω n ⎞ = ⎛ 14.23 ⎞ = 8.1 5 + 500 K = 2ζω = 1.414ω = 20.12      Thus    K = 1512
.
= 0.0302  
  ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ t
t n n
500

  With  K = 20.12  and   Kt = 0.0302 , the system transfer function is 

Y ( s) 202.5
          = 2
 
R( s ) s + 20.1s + 202.5

  Unit‐Step Response: 

                When y = 0.5,  t = 0.1005  sec. 

                Thus,   t d = 0.1005   sec. 

                 

                y max = 1043
. ( 4.3% max. overshoot )  

   

5‐20 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐23  Closed‐Loop Transfer Function:        Characteristic Equation: 

Y (s) 25 K
= s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K = 0  
2
        
s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K
2
R(s)

2
. + 0.125ζ + 0.469ζ
11 1337
. 1337
.
  Delay time    t d ≅ = 0.05 =         Thus, ω n = = 26.74  
ωn ωn 0.05

2 2
⎛ ω ⎞ ⎛ 26.74 ⎞ = 28.6   5 + 500 K = 2ζω = 2 × 0.59 × 26.74 = 3155
K =⎜ n ⎟ =⎜ Thus Kt = 0.0531 
  ⎟ .
⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎝ 5 ⎠ t n

  With K = 28.6  and   Kt = 0.0531, the system transfer function is  

Y ( s) 715
        = 2
 
R( s ) s + 3155
. s + 715

  Unit‐Step Response: 

                y = 0.5  when  t = 0.0505  sec. 

                Thus,   t d = 0.0505  sec. 

                y max = 11007
. (10.07% max. overshoot )  

   

5‐21 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐24  Closed‐Loop Transfer Function:        Characteristic Equation: 

Y (s) 25 K
= s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K = 0  
2
        
s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K
2
R(s)

  For Maximum overshoot = 0.2,  ζ = 0.456 . 

2
. + 0.125ζ + 0.469ζ
11 1.2545
  Delay time   t d = = = 0.01  sec. 
ωn ωn

  Natural Undamped Frequency  ω n =
1.2545 ⎛ ω ⎞ 15737.7 = 629.5  
= 125.45  rad/sec.   Thus,   K = ⎜ n ⎟ =
0.01 ⎝ 5 ⎠ 25

  5 + 500 Kt = 2ζω n = 2 × 0.456 × 125.45 = 114.41  Thus,   Kt = 0.2188  

  With K = 629.5  and  Kt = 0.2188 , the system transfer function is 

Y ( s) 15737.7
          = 2
 
R( s ) s + 114.41s + 15737.7

  Unit‐step Response: 

                  y = 0.5  when  t = 0.0101 sec. 

                  Thus,   t d = 0.0101  sec. 

                  y max = 1.2 ( 20% max. overshoot )  

5‐22 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐25  Closed‐Loop Transfer Function:        Characteristic Equation: 

Y (s) 25 K
= s + ( 5 + 5000 K t ) s + 25 K = 0  
2
        
s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K
2
R(s)

    ζ = 0.6 2ζω n = 5 + 500 Kt = 1.2ω n  

3.2 3.2 3.2


  Settling time   t s ≅ = = 0.1  sec.  Thus,  ω n = = 53.33 rad / sec  
ζω n 0.6ω n 0.06

2
1.2ω n − 5 ωn
      Kt = = 0.118 K= = 113.76  
500 25

  System Transfer Function: 

Y ( s) 2844
          = 2
 
R( s ) s + 64 s + 2844

  Unit‐step Response: 

                y(t) reaches 1.00 and never exceeds this 

                value at t = 0.098 sec.   

                Thus,  t s = 0.098  sec. 

   

5‐23 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐26  (a)  Closed‐Loop Transfer Function:      Characteristic Equation: 

Y (s) 25 K
= s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K = 0  
2
              
s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K
2
R(s)

       For maximum overshoot = 0.1,  ζ = 0.59. 5 + 500 Kt = 2ζω n = 2 × 0.59ω n = 118


. ω n 

3.2 3.2 3.2


       Settling time:     t s = = = 0.05   sec.    ωn = = 108.47  
ζω n 0.59ω n 0.05 × 0.59

2
. ωn −5
118 ωn
           Kt = = 0.246 K= = 470.63  
500 25

     System Transfer Function: 

Y ( s) 11765.74
          = 2
 
R( s ) s + 128 s + 11765.74

     Unit‐Step Response: 

                y(t) reaches 1.05 and never exceeds  

                this value at t = 0.048 sec. 

                Thus,   t s = 0.048  sec. 

            (b)  For maximum overshoot = 0.2,  ζ = 0.456. 5 + 500 Kt = 2ζω n = 0.912ω n  

3.2 3.2 3.2


        Settling time   t s = = = 0.01 sec. ω n = = 701.75 rad / sec  
ζω n 0.456ω n 0.456 × 0.01

0.912ω n − 5
        Kt = = 1.27       
500

        System Transfer Function: 

Y ( s) 492453
        = 2
 
R( s ) s + 640 s + 492453

        Unit‐Step Response: 

5‐24 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

       

                y(t) reaches 1.05 and never  

                exceeds this value at t = 0.0074 sec. 

                Thus,   t s = 0.0074 sec. This is less 

                than the calculated value of 0.01 sec. 

   

5‐25 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐27  Closed‐Loop Transfer Function:        Characteristic Equation: 

Y (s) 25 K
= s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K = 0  
2
        
s + ( 5 + 500 K t ) s + 25 K
2
R(s)

4.5ζ 3.1815
  Damping ratio  ζ = 0.707.  Settling time   t s = = = 0.1  sec.  Thus,  ω n = 31815
.   rad/sec. 
ωn ωn

2
ωn
      5 + 500 Kt = 2ζω n = 44.986 Thus, Kt = 0.08   K= = 40.488  

  System Transfer Function: 

Y ( s) 1012.2
          = 2
 
R( s ) s + 44.986 s + 1012.2

  Unit‐Step Response:    The unit‐step response reaches 0.95 at  t = 0.092  sec. which is the measured  t s . 

   

                 

               

5‐26 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐28  (a)  When ζ = 0.5 , the rise time is 


2
1 − 0.4167ζ + 2.917ζ 1521
.
      tr ≅ = = 1  sec.    Thus  ω n = 1.521  rad/sec. 
ωn ωn

      The second‐order term of the characteristic equation is written 

2 2 2
      s + 2ζω n s + ω n = s + 1521
. s + 2.313 = 0  

3 2
      The characteristic equation of the system is        s + ( a + 30 ) s + 30 as + K = 0  

2
       Dividing the characteristic equation by    s + 1521
. s + 2.313,  we have 

   

         

     For zero remainders,     28.48 a = 45.63 Thus, a = 16


.        K = 65.874 + 2.313a = 69.58  

       Forward‐Path Transfer Function: 

69.58
          G( s) =  
s( s + 16
. )( s + 30)

       Unit‐Step Response: 

                  y  = 0.1 when t = 0.355  sec. 

                  y  = 0.9 when t = 1.43  sec. 

                   

                  Rise Time:   

                  t r = 1.43 − 0.355 = 1075


.   sec. 

5‐27 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

        

              (b)  The system is type 1. 

          (i)  For a unit‐step input,   e ss = 0. 

K 60.58 1
             (ii)  For a unit‐ramp input,          K v = lim sG ( s ) = = = 1.45 e ss = = 0.69  
s→ 0 30 a 30 × 16
. Kv

5‐29  (a)  Characteristic Equation: 
3 2
                     s + 3 s + ( 2 + K ) s − K = 0  

       Apply the Routh‐Hurwitz criterion to find the range of K for stability. 

    Routh Tabulation: 

3
s 1 2+ K
2
s 3 −K
    6 + 4K  
1
s
3
0
s −K

    Stability Condition:  ‐1.5 < K < 0        This simplifies the search for K for two equal roots. 

          When K = −0.27806, the characteristic equation roots are: −0.347,  

          −0.347, and −2.3054. 

          (b)  Unit‐Step Response:  (K = −0.27806) 

   

5‐28 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

          (c)  Unit‐Step Response  (K = −1) 
 
 

   The step responses in (a) and (b) all have a negative undershoot for small values of t. This is due to the 

   zero of G(s) that lies in the right‐half s‐plane. 

   

5‐29 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐30  (a)  The state equations of the closed‐loop system are: 

dx1 dx 2
    = − x1 + 5x 2 = −6 x1 − k1 x1 − k 2 x 2 + r  
dt dt

       The characteristic equation of the closed‐loop system is 

s +1 −5
Δ= = s + (1 + k 2 ) s + ( 30 + 5k1 + k 2 ) = 0  
2
     
6 + k1 s + k2

2
       For ω n = 10 rad / sec, 30 + 5k1 + k 2 = ω n = 100. Thus 5k1 + k 2 = 70  

k2
           (b)  For ζ = 0.707, 2ζω n = 1 + k 2 . Thus ω n = 1 + . 
1.414

(1 + k ) 2

ωn = = 30 + 5k1 + k 2 k 2 = 59 + 10 k1  
2 2 2
      Thus
2

           (c)  For  ω n = 10 rad / sec and ζ = 0.707,  

      5k1 + k 2 = 100 and 1 + k 2 = 2ζω n = 14.14 Thus k 2 = 1314


.  

      Solving for  k1 , we have k1 = 1137


. . 

           (d)  The closed‐loop transfer function is 

Y (s) 5 5
      = =  
s + ( k 2 + 1) s + ( 30 + 5k1 + k 2 ) s + 14.14 s + 100
2 2
R(s)

5
       For a unit‐step input,  lim y ( t ) = lim sY ( s ) = = 0.05  
t →∞ s→ 0 100

           (e)  For zero steady‐state error due to a unit‐step input, 

      30 + 5k1 + k 2 = 5 Thus 5k1 + k 2 = −25  

5‐30 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

       Parameter Plane  k1 versus  k 2 : 

5‐31  (a)  Closed‐Loop Transfer Function      (b)  Characteristic Equation: 

Y (s) 100 ( K P + K D s ) 2
        =                   s + 100 K D s + 100 K P = 0  
s + 100 K D s + 100 K P
2
R(s)

       The system is stable for  K P > 0 and K D > 0.  

           (b)  For  ζ = 1, 2ζω n = 100 K D . 

    ω n = 10 K P Thus 2ω n = 100 K D = 20 K P K D = 0.2 K P  

           (c)  See parameter plane in part (g). 

5‐31 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

           (d)  See parameter plane in part (g). 

−2
           (e)  Parabolic error constant    K a = 1000 sec  

K a = lim s G ( s ) = lim100 ( K P + K D s ) = 100 K P = 1000 Thus K P = 10  


2
   
s→0 s →0

           (f)  Natural undamped frequency  ω n = 50   rad/sec. 

      ω n = 10 K P = 50 Thus K P = 25  

  

           (g)  When  K P = 0,  

100 K D s 100 K D
      G( s) = 2
=   (pole‐zero cancellation) 
s s

   

5‐32 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐32  (a)  Forward‐path Transfer Function: 

Y (s) KK i 10 K
                      G ( s ) = = =  
E (s) s [ Js (1 + Ts ) + K i K t ] (
s 0.001s + 0.01s + 10 K t
2
)
K 1 Kt
       When  r ( t ) = tu s ( t ), K v = lim sG ( s ) = e ss = =  
s→ 0 Kt Kv K

            

         (b)  When r(t) = 0 

Y (s) 1 + Ts 1 + 0.1s
      = =  
Td ( s ) s [ Js (1 + Ts ) + K i K t ] + KK i (
s 0.001s + 0.01s + 10 K t + 10 K
2
)
1 1
         For   Td ( s ) = lim y ( t ) = lim sY ( s ) =      if the system is stable. 
s t →∞ s→ 0 10 K

           (c)  The characteristic equation of the closed‐loop system is 

3 2
        0.001s + 0.01s + 0.1s + 10 K = 0  

       The system is unstable for K > 0.1.  So we can set K to just less than 0.1. Then, the minimum value of  

       the steady‐state value of y(t) is 

1 +
          =1  
10 K K = 0.1

       However, with this value of K, the system response will be very oscillatory. The maximum overshoot 

       will be nearly 100%. 

           (d)  For K = 0.1, the characteristic equation is 

3 2 3 2 4
             0.001s + 0.01s + 10 Kt s + 1 = 0 or s + 10 s + 10 Kt s + 1000 = 0  

5‐33 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

       For the two complex roots to have real parts of −2/5. we let the characteristic equation be written as 

    (
         ( s + a ) s + 5s + b = 0
2
) or s + ( s + 5) s + (5a + b) s + ab = 0  
3 2

4
       Then,   a + 5 = 10 a=5 ab = 1000 b = 200 5a + b = 10 Kt Kt = 0.0225  

       The three roots are:  s = − a = −5 s = − a = −5 s = −2.5 ± j13.92  

. . . . .
5-33) Rise time: 0.56

.
Peak time: 0.785
√ .

.
Maximum overshoot: . 0.095
.
Settling time: 0 0.69

.
Ö 1.067
.

5‐34 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-34)

K
s ( Js + a + KK f )

Ö exp 0.2 Î ξ = 0.456


Ö 0.1 Î ω n = 0.353

0.125
Ö
2 5.42
. .
Ö 5.49
.
Ö 19.88

5‐35 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-35) a)

6.5

1
6.5 2

.
Ö 1
Ö 6.5 1
Ö
. .

Substituting into equation (2) gives:


7.5 6.5
6.5 6.5
Since the system is multi input and multi output, there are 4 transfer functions as:

, , ,

To find the unit step response of the system, let’s consider


6.5
6.5 2
6.5 √6.5
1 1
2 1
2 2√6.5

By looking at the Laplace transform function table:

1
1 sin 1
1

where cos

b)

5‐36 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Therefore:

As a result:

which means:

1
1
The unit step response is:
1
1
Therefore as a result:
1
1 sin 1
1
where ω n = 1 and ξ ω n = 1 / 2

c)

Therefore:

1 1

As a result, the step response of the system is:

1
1

By looking up at the Laplace transfer function table:

5‐37 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

where ω n = 1, and 2ξ ω n = 1 Î ξ = 1 / 2

sin 1

where θ = cos-1 (2ξ 2 -1) = cos-1(0.5), therefore,

2 √3
1 sin
√3 2

5-36) MATLAB CODE


(a)

clear all
Amat=[-1 -1;6.5 0]
Bmat=[1 1;1 0]
Cmat=[1 0;0 1]
Dmat=[0 0;0 0]
disp(' State-Space Model is:')
Statemodel=ss(Amat,Bmat,Cmat,Dmat)
[mA,nA]=size(Amat);
rankA=rank(Amat);
disp(' Characteristic Polynomial:')
chareq=poly(Amat);

% p = poly(A) where A is an n-by-n matrix returns an n+1 element


%row vector whose elements are the coefficients of the characteristic
%polynomialdet(sI-A). The coefficients are ordered in descending powers.

[mchareq,nchareq]=size(chareq);
syms 's';

poly2sym(chareq,s)
disp(' Equivalent Transfer Function Model is:')

Hmat=Cmat*inv(s*eye(2)-Amat)*Bmat+Dmat

Since the system is multi input and multi output, there are 4 transfer functions as:

, , ,

To find the unit step response of the system, let’s consider

6.5
6.5

5‐38 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Let’s obtain this term and find Y2(s) time response for a step input.

H22=Hmat(2,2)
ilaplace(H22/s)
Pretty(H22)
H22poly=tf([13/2],chareq)
step(H22poly)

H22 =

13/(2*s^2+2*s+13)

ans =

1-1/5*exp(-1/2*t)*(5*cos(5/2*t)+sin(5/2*t))

13
---------------
2
2 s + 2 s + 13

Transfer function:
6.5
-------------
s^2 + s + 6.5

To find the step response H11, H12, and H21 follow the same procedure.
Other parts are the same.

5‐39 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-37) Impulse response:


.
a) and 1 , therefore,
.

sin 1
1
b)

sin 1
1
c)
1
1 sin 1
1
where α = cos-1 ξ

5-38) Use the approach in 5-36 except:


H22=Hmat(2,2)
ilaplace(H22)
Pretty(H22)
H22poly=tf([13/2],chareq)
impulse(H22poly)

H22 =

13/(2*s^2+2*s+13)

ans =

13/5*exp(-1/2*t)*sin(5/2*t)

13
---------------
2
2 s + 2 s + 13

Transfer function:
6.5
-------------
s^2 + s + 6.5

5‐40 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Other parts are the same.

5-39) a) The displacement of the bar is:

sin

Then the equation of motion is:

As x is a function of θ and changing with time, then

cos

If θ is small enough, then sin θ ≈ θ and cos θ ≈ 1. Therefore, the equation of motion is
rewritten as:

5‐41 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

(b) To find the unit step response, you can use the symbolic approach shown in Toolbox 2-1-1:

clear all
%s=tf(‘s’);
syms s B L K
Theta=B*s/s/L/(B*s+K)
ilaplace(Theta)

Theta =
B/L/(B*s+K)

ans =
1/L*exp(-K*t/B)

Alternatively, assign values to B L K and find the step response – see solution to problem 5-36.

5‐40  (a)   Kt = 10000 oz - in / rad  

      The Forward‐Path Transfer Function: 

9 × 10 K
12

G(s) =
     
(
s s + 5000 s + 1.067 × 10 s + 50.5 × 10 s + 5.724 × 10
4 3 7 2 9 12
)  
9 × 10 K
12

=
s ( s + 116)( s + 4883)( s + 41.68 + j 3178.3)( s + 41.68 − j 3178.3)

      Routh Tabulation: 

5 7 12
s 1 1.067 × 10 5.724 × 10
4 9 12
s 5000 50.5 × 10 9 × 10 K
        
3 5 12 9
s 5.7 × 10 5.72 × 10 − 18
. × 10 K 0
2 8 7 12
s 2.895 × 10 + 1579
. × 10 K 9 × 10 K

13 12 9 2
1 16.6 × 10 + 8.473 × 10 K − 2.8422 × 10 K
s
                    29 + 1579
. K  
0 12
s 9 × 10 K

5‐42 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

 
1 2
       From the  s  row, the condition of stability is  165710 + 8473 K − 2.8422 K > 0  

2
       or      K − 298114
. K − 58303.427 < 0 or ( K + 19.43)( K − 3000.57 ) < 0  

       Stability Condition:    0 < K < 3000.56 

       The critical value of K for stability is 3000.56.  With this value of K, the roots of the characteristic 

       equation are:  −4916.9,     −41.57 + j3113.3,     −41.57 + j3113.3,   −j752.68,  and  j752.68 

           (b)   K L = 1000   oz‐in/rad.  The forward‐path transfer function is 

9 × 10 K
11

G(s) =
          
(
s s + 5000 s + 1.582 × 10 s + 5.05 × 10 s + 5.724 × 10
4 3 6 2 9 11
)  
9 × 10 K
11

=
s (1 + 116.06)( s + 4882.8)( s + 56.248 + j1005)( s + 56.248 − j1005)

           (c)  Characteristic Equation of the Closed‐Loop System: 

5 4 6 3 9 2 11 11
    s + 5000 s + 1.582 × 10 s + 5.05 × 10 s + 5.724 × 10 s + 9 × 10 K = 0  

   

       Routh Tabulation: 

5 6 11
s 1 1.582 × 10 5.724 × 10
4 9 11
s 5000 5.05 × 10 9 × 10 K
         
3 5 11 8
s 5.72 × 10 5.724 × 10 − 18
. × 10 K 0
2 7 6 11
s 4.6503 × 10 + 15734
. × 10 K 9 × 10 K

18 15 14 2
1 26.618 × 10 + 377.43 × 10 K − 2.832 × 10 K
s 7 6
        4.6503 × 10 + 15734
. × 10 K  
0 11
s 9 × 10 K

5‐43 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

1 4 2
       From the  s  row, the condition of stability is  26.618 × 10 + 3774.3 K − 2.832 K > 0  

2
       Or,  K − 1332.73 K − 93990 < 0 or ( K − 1400 )( K + 67.14 ) < 0  

       Stability Condition:    0 < K < 1400 

       The critical value of K for stability is 1400.  With this value of K, the characteristic equation root are: 

    −4885.1,     −57.465 + j676,       −57.465 − j676,    j748.44,    and    −j748.44 

           (c)   K L = ∞. 

      Forward‐Path Transfer Function: 

nK s K i K
G(s) = JT = J m + n J L  
2
     
s ⎡⎣ La J T s + ( Ra J T + Rm La ) s + Ra Bm + K i K b ⎤⎦
2

891100 K 891100 K
                = =  
(
s s + 5000 s + 566700
2
) s ( s + 116)( s + 4884)

       Characteristic Equation  of the Closed‐Loop System: 

     

3 2
      s + 5000 s + 566700 s + 891100 K = 0  

     

   Routh Tabulation: 

3
s 1 566700
2
s 5000 891100 K
     
1
s 566700 − 178.22 K
0
s 8991100 K

1
       From the  s  row, the condition of K for stability is  566700 − 178.22K > 0.   

5‐44 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

       Stability Condition:    0 < K < 3179.78 

       The critical value of K for stability is  3179.78.  With K = 3179.78, the characteristic equation roots are 

          −5000,   j752.79,  and  −j752.79.   

       When the motor shaft is flexible,  K L  is finite, two of the open‐loop poles are complex.  As the shaft 

       becomes stiffer,   K L  increases, and the imaginary parts of the open‐loop poles also increase. When 

        K L = ∞ ,  the shaft is rigid, the poles of the forward‐path transfer function are all real. Similar effects 

       are observed for the roots of the characteristic equation with respect to the value of  K L .  

5‐41  (a)   

100( s + 2 )
    Gc ( s ) = 1 G( s) = 2
K p = lim G ( s ) = −200  
s −1 s→ 0

       When d(t) = 0, the steady‐state error due to a unit‐step input is 

1 1 1
        e ss = = =− = −0.005025 
1+ K p 1 − 200 199

           (b) 

s +α 100( s + 2)( s + α )
    Gc ( s ) = G(s) = Kp = ∞ ess = 0  
s (
s s −1
2
)
 

         (c)  
α =5 maximum overshoot = 5.6%
         α = 50 maximum overshoot = 22%  
α = 500 maximum overshoot = 54.6%

5‐45 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

        As the value of α  increases, the maximum overshoot increases because the damping effect of the 

          zero at   s = −α  becomes less effective. 

    Unit‐Step Responses: 

1
  (d)    r ( t ) = 0 and Gc ( s ) = 1. d ( t ) = u s ( t ) D( s ) =  
s

       System Transfer Function: (r = 0) 
 

Y ( s) 100( s + 2)
      = 3 2
 
D( s ) r =0
s + 100 s + (199 + 100α ) s + 200α

         Output Due to Unit‐Step Input: 

100( s + 2 )
         Y ( s) =  
3 2
s s + 100 s + (199 + 100α ) s + 200α

200 1
                      y ss = lim y ( t ) = lim sY ( s ) = =  
t →∞ s→ 0 200α α

           (e)    r ( t ) = 0, d ( t ) = u s ( t )  

s +α
          Gc ( s ) =  
s

5‐46 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

      System Transfer Function [r(t) = 0] 

Y ( s) 100 s( s + 20 1
      = 3 2
D( s ) =  
D( s ) r =0
s + 100 s + (199 + 100α ) s + 200α s

     

          y ss = lim y ( t ) = lim sY ( s ) = 0  
t →∞ s→ 0

           (f)  

Y ( s) 100 s( s + 2 )
α =5 = 3 2
D( s ) r =0
s + 100 s + 699 s + 1000

Y ( s) 100 s( s + 2)
       α = 50 = 3 2
 
D( s ) r =0
s + 100 s + 5199 s + 10000

Y ( s) 100 s( s + 2)
α = 5000 = 3 2
D( s ) r =0
s + 100 s + 50199 s + 100000

   

Unit‐Step Responses: 

           (g)  As the value of α  increases, the output response y(t) due to r(t) becomes more oscillatory, and the 

       overshoot is larger.  As the value of α  increases, the amplitude of the output response y(t) due to d(t)  

       becomes smaller and more oscillatory. 

5‐47 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐42  (a)  Forward‐Path Transfer function:     Characteristic Equation: 

H ( s) 10 N N 2
        G ( s ) = = ≅   s + s + N = 0 
E ( s) s( s + 1)( s + 10) s( s + 1)

        

2
       N=1:   Characteristic Equation:  s + s + 1 = 0     ζ = 0.5 ω n = 1  rad/sec. 

− πζ
1−ζ
2
π
        Maximum overshoot = e = 0.163   (16.3%)     Peak time   t max = = 3.628   sec. 
2
ω n 1− ζ

2
          N=10:  Characteristic Equation:  s + s = 10 = 0 ζ = 0.158 ω n = 10  rad/sec. 

− πζ
1−ζ
2
π
       Maximum overshoot = e = 0.605   (60.5%)      Peak time   t max = = 1006
.   sec. 
2
ω n 1− ζ

          (b)  Unit‐Step Response:  N = 1 

        

5‐48 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

       

Second‐order System    Third‐order System 

  Maximum overshoot           0.163                0.206 

  Peak time             3.628   sec.                3.628  sec. 

    Unit‐Step Response:  N = 10 

        Second‐order System    Third‐order System 

  Maximum overshoot               0.605                  0.926 

  Peak time                 1.006  sec.                1.13    sec. 

   

5‐49 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐43    Unit‐Step Responses: 

       When  Tz  is small, the effect is lower overshoot due to improved damping. When Tz  is very large, the 

       overshoot becomes very large due to the derivative effect.  Tz  improves the rise time, since 1 + Tz s  is a 

       derivative control or a high‐pass filter. 

5‐50 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐44   Unit‐Step Responses 

1
  The effect of adding the pole at  s = −  to G(s) is to increase the rise time and the overshoot. The system is 
Tp

  less stable. When  T p > 0.707 , the closed‐loop system is stable. 

   

5‐51 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-45) You may use the ACSYS software developed for this book. For description refer to Chapter 9. We
use a MATLAB code similar to toolbox 2-2-1 and those in Chapter 5 to solve this problem.

(a) Using Toolbox 5-9-3


clear all
num = [];
den = [0 -0.55 -1.5];
G=zpk(num,den,1)
t=0:0.001:15;
step(G,t);
hold on;
for Tz=[1 5 20];
t=0:0.001:15;
num = [-1/Tz];
den = [0 -0.55 -1.5];
G=zpk(num,den,1)
step(G,t);
hold on;
end
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')

Zero/pole/gain:
1
------------------
s (s+0.55) (s+1.5)

Zero/pole/gain:
(s+1)
------------------
s (s+0.55) (s+1.5)

Zero/pole/gain:
(s+0.2)
------------------
s (s+0.55) (s+1.5)

Zero/pole/gain:
(s+0.05)
------------------
s (s+0.55) (s+1.5)

5‐52 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

(b)
clear all
for Tz=[0 1 5 20];
t=0:0.001:15;
num = [Tz 1];
den = [1 2 2];
G=tf(num,den)
step(G,t);
hold on;
end
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')

Transfer function:
1
-------------
s^2 + 2 s + 2

Transfer function:
s + 1
-------------
s^2 + 2 s + 2

Transfer function:
5 s + 1
-------------
s^2 + 2 s + 2

5‐53 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Transfer function:
20 s + 1
-------------
s^2 + 2 s + 2

Follow the same procedure for other parts.

5-46) Since the system is linear we use superposition to find Y, for inputs X and D

First, consider D = 0

k K
Js + a

Kf

Then

;
1

5‐54 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Kk
s ( Js + a + KK f k )

 
According to above block diagram:

1
1 1

Now consider X = 0, then:


K Kf
+1
Js + a s

Accordingly,

and

In this case, E(s) = D-KY(s)


1
1 1

5‐55 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Now the steady state error can be easily calculated by:


1
1/ : lim
1
1
lim lim 0
1

1 1
: lim –
1
1
lim
1

lim –

(c) The overall response is obtained through superposition

Y ( s) = Y ( s) D =0 + Y ( s ) X =0
y (t ) = y (t ) d (t ) =0 + y (t ) x (t ) =0

MATLAB
clear all
syms s K k J a Kf
X=1/s;
D=1/s^2
Y=K*k*X/(s*(J*s+a+K*k*Kf)+K*k)+k*(Kf+s)*D/(s*(J*s+a)+k*(Kf+s)*K)
ilaplace(Y)
D =
1/s^2
Y =
K*k/s/(s*(J*s+a+K*k*Kf)+K*k)+k*(Kf+s)/s^2/(s*(J*s+a)+k*(Kf+s)*K)
ans =

1+t/K+1/k/K^2/Kf/(a^2+2*a*K*k+K^2*k^2-
4*J*K*k*Kf)^(1/2)*sinh(1/2*t/J*(a^2+2*a*K*k+K^2*k^2-4*J*K*k*Kf)^(1/2))*exp(-
1/2*(a+K*k)/J*t)*(a^2+a*K*k-2*J*K*k*Kf)-cosh(1/2*t/J*(a^2+2*a*K*k*Kf+K^2*k^2*Kf^2-
4*J*K*k)^(1/2))*exp(-1/2*(a+K*k*Kf)/J*t)-(a+K*k*Kf)/(a^2+2*a*K*k*Kf+K^2*k^2*Kf^2-
4*J*K*k)^(1/2)*sinh(1/2*t/J*(a^2+2*a*K*k*Kf+K^2*k^2*Kf^2-4*J*K*k)^(1/2))*exp(-
1/2*(a+K*k*Kf)/J*t)+1/k/K^2/Kf*a*(-1+exp(-
1/2*(a+K*k)/J*t)*cosh(1/2*t/J*(a^2+2*a*K*k+K^2*k^2-4*J*K*k*Kf)^(1/2)))

5‐56 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 


5-47)    (a)  Find the  ∫ e(t )dt when e(t) is the error in the unit step response. 
0


As the system is stable then ∫0
e(t )dt will converge to a constant value: 

∞ E ( s)

0
e(t )dt = lim s
s →0 s
= lim E ( s )  
s →0

Y ( s) G ( s) ( A s + 1)( A2 s + 1)...( An s + 1)
= = 1 n≤m  
X ( s) 1 + G ( s) ( B1 s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1)      

Try to relate this to Equation (5-40).

G ( s) 1
E ( s ) = X ( s) − Y ( s) = X (s) − X (s) = X (s)
1 + G ( s) 1 + G (s)
⎛ ( A s + 1)( A2 s + 1)...( An s + 1) ⎞ ⎛ ( B1s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1) − ( A1s + 1)( A2 s + 1)...( An s + 1) ⎞
= ⎜1 − 1 ⎟ X (s) = ⎜ ⎟ X (s)
⎝ ( B1s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1) ⎠ ⎝ ( B1s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1) ⎠
1 ⎛ ( B s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1) − ( A1s + 1)( A2 s + 1)...( An s + 1) ⎞
lim E ( s ) = lim ⎜ 1 ⎟
s →0 s →0 s
⎝ ( B1s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1) ⎠
= ( B1 + B2 + L + Bm ) − ( A1 + A2 + L + An )

⎛ ( B1s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1) ⎞


G ( s) = ⎜ ⎟ −1
⎝ ( B1s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1) − ( A1s + 1)( A2 s + 1)...( An s + 1) ⎠
⎛ ( A1s + 1)( A2 s + 1)...( An s + 1) ⎞
G ( s) = ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ( B1s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1) − ( A1s + 1)( A2 s + 1)...( An s + 1) ⎠

1 ⎛ ( A s + 1)( A2 s + 1)...( An s + 1) ⎞
ess = lim s ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟=0
s →0 s ⎝ ( B1s + 1)( B2 s + 1)...( Bm s + 1) ⎠

5‐57 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

1 1
(b) Calculate  =  
K lim sG ( s )
s→ 0

Recall 

G ( s) 1
E ( s ) = X ( s) − Y ( s) = X ( s) − X (s) = X (s)
1 + G(s) 1 + G(s)
Hence
 
1 1 1 1
lim E ( s ) = lim X ( s ) = lim = lim =
s →0 s →0 1 + G ( s ) s → 0 s + sG ( s ) s →0 sG ( s ) Kv
Ramp Error Constant

5‐58 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-48)

10 10
25 10 35 25 10

Comparing with the second order prototype system and matching denominators:

25 10
35 2

exp 0.25 1.386 0.210


1 1
3.2
0.1 80, 0 0.69

Let ξ = 0.4 and ω n = 80

Then

2 35 29
56.25

clear all
p=29;
K=56.25;
num = [10 10*K];
den = [1 35+p 25*p+10*K];
G=tf(num,den)
step(G);
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')

Transfer function:
10 s + 562.5
-----------------
s^2 + 64 s + 1288

5‐59 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-49) According to the maximum overshoot:

which should be less than t, then

or 1

π /t
ωn 1 − ξ 2

−π /t ωn 1 − ξ 2

5‐60 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-50) Using a 2nd order prototype system format, from Figure 5-15, ωn is the radial distance from the
complex conjugate roots to the origin of the s-plane, then ωn with respect to the origin of the
shown region is ωn≈ 3.6.

Therefore the natural frequency range in the region shown is around 2.6 ≤ ωn ≤ 4.6

On the other hand, the damping ratio ζ at the two dashed radial lines is obtained from:
ζ cos /2 sin
ζ cos /2 sin

The approximation from the figure gives:

ζ 0.56
ζ 0.91

Therefore 0.56 ≤ ζ ≤ 0.91

b)

As Kp=2, then:

2
2 1 2

If the roots of the characteristic equations are assumed to be lied in the centre of the shown
region:

3 2
Ö 6 13 0
3 2

Comparing with the characteristic equation:

2 1 6 2
2 13 3.25

c) The characteristic equation

2 0

is a second order polynomial with two roots. These two roots can be determined by two terms
2(p+KKp) and KKpKI which includes four parameters. Regardless of the p and Kp values, we can
always choose K and so that to place the roots in a desired location.

5‐61 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-51) a)

By substituting the values:

0.2
0.109

b) Speed of the motor is

0.2
0.109
.
lim 10 19.23
.

(c)
0.2
0.109

d)
0.2
0.109
0.2
0.109

As a result:

0.2
0.109 0.2

e) As exp 0.2 , then, ξ = 0.404


.
According to the transfer function, 2 0.109, then 0.14 /
.

where 0.2 Ö K<0.0845

. . .
f) As , then 0.6,
as 0.2 , therefore; 1

5‐62 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

g) MATLAB
clear all
for K=[0.5 1 2];
t=0:0.001:15;
num = [0.2*K];
den = [1 0.109 0.2*K];
G=tf(num,den)
step(G,t);
hold on;
end
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')

Transfer function:
0.1
-------------------
s^2 + 0.109 s + 0.1

Transfer function:
0.2
-------------------
s^2 + 0.109 s + 0.2

Transfer function:
0.4
-------------------
s^2 + 0.109 s + 0.4

5‐63 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Rise time decreases with K increasing.

Overshoot increases with K.

5‐64 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-52) exp 0.1, therefore, ξ = 0.59

. .
As , then, 3.62
. .

1 3

3 3

Therefore: 

3 3 2

If p is a non-dominant pole; therefore comparing both sides of above equation and:

2 3
2 3

If we consider p = 10a (non-dominant pole), ξ = 0.6 and ωn = 4, then:

4.8 10 3
48 16 3
160 160
8.3
89.8
83
clear all
K=160;
a=8.3;
b=89.8;
p=83;
num = [K K*a];
den = [1 3+b 3*b+K K*a];
G=tf(num,den)
step(G);
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')

Transfer function:
160 s + 1328
-------------------------------
s^3 + 92.8 s^2 + 429.4 s + 1328

5‐65 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Both Overshoot and settling time values are met. No need to adjust parameters.

5-53) For the controller and the plant to be in series and using a unity feedback loop we have:

MATLAB

USE toolbox 5-8-3

clear all 
num=[‐1 ‐2 ‐3]; 
denom=[‐3+sqrt(9‐40) ‐3‐sqrt(9‐40) ‐0.02+sqrt(.004‐.07) ‐0.02‐sqrt(.004‐.07) ‐10]; 
G=zpk(num,denom,60) 
rlocus(G) 
 
Zero/pole/gain: 
             60 (s+1) (s+2) (s+3) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+10) (s^2  + 0.04s + 0.0664) (s^2  + 6s + 40) 
 

5‐66 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

 
Note the system has two dominant complex poles close to the imaginary axis. Lets zoom in the root locus diagram and 
use the cursor to find the parameter values. 

5‐67 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

 
 
As shown for K=0.933 the dominant closed loop poles are at ‐0.46±j 0.626 AND OVERSHOOT IS 
ALMOST 10%. 
 
Increasing K will push the poles closer towards less dominant zeros and poles. As a process the design process becomes less 
trivial and more difficult. 
 
To confirm use  

M=feedback(G*.933,1) %See toolbox 5‐4‐2 
step(M) 
Zero/pole/gain: 

                 55.98 (s+3) (s+2) (s+1) 

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 

(s+7.048) (s^2  + 0.9195s + 0.603) (s^2  + 8.072s + 85.29) 

5‐68 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

 
 
To reduce rise time, the poles have to move to left to make the secondary poles more dominant. As  
a result the little bump in the left hand side of the above graph should rise. Try K=3: 
 
>> M=feedback(G*3,1) 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
                 180 (s+3) (s+2) (s+1) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+5.01) (s^2  + 1.655s + 1.058) (s^2  + 9.375s + 208.9) 
  
>> step(M) 

**Try a higher K value, but looking at the root locus and the time plots, it appears that the
overshoot and rise time criteria will never be met simultaneously.

5‐69 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

 
 
K=5

M=feedback(G*5,1) %See toolbox 5-4-2


step(M)

Zero/pole/gain:
300 (s+3) (s+2) (s+1)
---------------------------------------------------------
(s+4.434) (s^2 + 1.958s + 1.252) (s^2 + 9.648s + 329.1)

5‐70 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐71 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-54) Forward‐path Transfer Function: 
M ( s) K
    G( s) = = 3 2
 
1− M ( s) s + ( 20 + a ) s + ( 200 + 20a ) s + 200a − K

            For type 1 system,    200a − K = 0          Thus       K = 200a 

            Ramp‐error constant: 

K 200 a
           K v = lim sG ( s ) = = = 5  Thus     a = 10  K = 2000 
s→ 0 200 + 20a 200 + 20 a

MATLAB Symbolic tool can be used to solve above. We use it to find the roots for the next part: 

>> syms s a K 

>>solve(5*200+5*20*a‐200a) 

ans = 

10 

>> D=(s^2+20*s+200)*s+a)) 

 D = 

(s^2+20*s+200)*(s+a) 

>> expand(D) 

ans = 

s^3+s^2*a+20*s^2+20*s*a+200*s+200*a 

>> solve(ans,s) 

ans = 

       ‐a 

 ‐10+10*i 

 ‐10‐10*i           

            The forward‐path transfer function is     The controller transfer function is 

5‐72 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

       G ( s ) =
2000
         Gc ( s ) =
G(s)
=
(
20 s + 10 s + 100
2

(
s s + 30 s + 400
2
) Gp (s) (s 2
+ 30 s + 400 )
 

             The maximum overshoot of the unit‐step response is 0 percent. 

MATLAB
clear all
K=2000;
a=10;
num = [];
den = [-10+10i -10-10i -a];
G=zpk(num,den,K)
step(G);
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')

Zero/pole/gain:
2000
-------------------------

(s+10) (s^2 + 20s + 200)

Clearly PO=0.

5‐73 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-55)

Forward‐path Transfer Function: 

M ( s) K
    G( s) = = 3 2
 
1− M ( s) s + ( 20 + a ) s + ( 200 + 20a ) s + 200a − K

            For type 1 system,    200a − K = 0          Thus       K = 200a 

            Ramp‐error constant: 

K 200 a
           K v = lim sG ( s ) = = = 9  Thus     a = 90  K = 18000 
s→ 0 200 + 20a 200 + 20 a

MATLAB Symbolic tool can be used to solve above. We use it to find the roots for the next part: 

>> syms s a K 

solve(9*200+9*20*a‐200*a) 

 ans = 

 90 

>>D=(s^2+20*s+200)*s+a)) 

 D = 

(s^2+20*s+200)*(s+a) 

>> expand(D) 

ans = 

s^3+s^2*a+20*s^2+20*s*a+200*s+200*a 

>> solve(ans,s) 

ans = 

       ‐a 

 ‐10+10*i 

 ‐10‐10*i           

 The forward‐path transfer function is      The controller transfer function is 

5‐74 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

       G ( s ) =
18000
         Gc ( s ) =
G(s)
=
(
180 s + 10 s + 100
2

(
s s + 110 s + 2000
2
) Gp ( s) ( s + 110s + 2000 )
2

             The maximum overshoot of the unit‐step response is 4.3 percent. 
             From the expression for the ramp‐error constant, we see that as a or K goes to infinity,  Kv  approaches 10.  
             Thus the maximum value of  Kv  that can be realized is 10.  The difficulties with very large values of K and 
             a are that a high‐gain amplifier is needed and unrealistic circuit parameters are needed for the controller. 
clear all
K=18000;
a=90;
num = [];
den = [-10+10i -10-10i -a];
G=zpk(num,den,K)
step(G);
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')

Zero/pole/gain:
18000
-------------------------
(s+90) (s^2 + 20s + 200)

PO is less than 4.

5‐75 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-56) (a)  Ramp‐error Constant: 

MATLAB 

clear all 
syms s Kp Kd kv 
Gnum=(Kp+Kd*s)*1000 
Gden= (s*(s+10)) 
G=Gnum/Gden 
Kv=s*G 
s=0 
eval(Kv) 
 
Gnum = 
 1000*Kp+1000*Kd*s 
   
Gden = 
 s*(s+10) 
   
G = 
 (1000*Kp+1000*Kd*s)/s/(s+10) 
   
Kv = 
 (1000*Kp+1000*Kd*s)/(s+10) 
  
 s = 
     0 
  
ans = 
 100*Kp 
 

1000 ( K P + K D s ) 1000 K P
    K v = lim s = = 100 K P = 1000   Thus  K P = 10  
s →0 s ( s + 10) 10

Kp=10 

clear s 

syms s 

Mnum=(Kp+Kd*s)*1000/s/(s+10) 

Mden=1+(Kp+Kd*s)*1000/s/(s+10) 

5‐76 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Kp = 

    10 

Mnum = 

(10000+1000*Kd*s)/s/(s+10) 

Mden = 

1+(10000+1000*Kd*s)/s/(s+10) 

ans = 

(s^2+10*s+10000+1000*Kd*s)/s/(s+10) 

s + (10 + 1000 K D ) s + 1000 K P = 0  


2
      Characteristic Equation: 

Match with a 2nd order prototype system 

      ω n = 1000 K P = 10000 = 100  rad/sec    2ζω n = 10 + 1000 K D = 2 × 0.5 × 100 = 100  

solve(10+1000*Kd‐100) 

 ans = 

 9/100      

90
 Thus    KD = = 0.09  
1000

 Use the same procedure for other parts. 

 (b) For   K v = 1000 and ζ = 0.707 ,  and from part (a), ω n = 100  rad/sec,  

131.4
        2ζω n = 10 + 1000 K D = 2 × 0.707 × 100 = 141.4   Thus  KD = = 0.1314  
1000

            (c)  For   K v = 1000 and ζ = 1.0 , and from part (a), ω n = 100  rad/sec, 

190
        2ζω n = 10 + 1000 K D = 2 × 1 × 100 = 200     Thus  KD = = 0.19   
1000

5‐77 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-57)  The ramp‐error constant: 

1000 ( K P + K D s )
    K v = lim s = 100 K P = 10, 000 Thus K P = 100  
s →0 s ( s + 10)

1000 (100 + K D s )
             The forward‐path transfer function is:  G(s) =  
s ( s + 10)

clear all
for KD=0.2:0.2:1.0;
num = [-100/KD];
den = [0 -10];
G=zpk(num,den,1000);
M=feedback(G,1)
step(M);
hold on;
end
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')  

Zero/pole/gain: 

     1000 (s+500) 

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 

(s^2  + 1010s + 5e005) 

Zero/pole/gain: 

   1000 (s+250) 

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 

(s+434.1) (s+575.9) 

Zero/pole/gain: 

  1000 (s+166.7) 

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 

(s+207.7) (s+802.3)  

5‐78 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Zero/pole/gain: 

   1000 (s+125) 

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 

(s+144.4) (s+865.6) 

 Zero/pole/gain: 

   1000 (s+100) 

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 

(s+111.3) (s+898.7) 

               

Use the cursor to obtain the PO and tr values. 

For part b the maximum value of KD results in the minimum overshoot.

5‐79 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-58) (a)  Forward‐path Transfer Function: 

4500 K ( K P + K D s )
G ( s ) = Gc ( s )G p ( s ) =  
s ( s + 361.2)

4500 KK P
   Ramp Error Constant:  K v = lim sG ( s ) = = 12.458 KK P  
s→ 0 361.2

1 0.0802
        e ss = = ≤ 0.001         Thus      KK P ≥ 80.2           Let      K P = 1 and K = 80.2  
Kv KK P

clear all
KP=1;
K=80.2;
figure(1)
num = [-KP];
den = [0 -361.2];
G=zpk(num,den,4500*K)
M=feedback(G,1)
step(M)
hold on;
for KD=00.0005:0.0005:0.002;
num = [-KP/KD];
den = [0 -361.2];
G=zpk(num,den,4500*K*KD)
M=feedback(G,1)
step(M)
end
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')  

Zero/pole/gain:
360900 (s+1)
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
s (s+361.2)

Zero/pole/gain:
360900 (s+1)
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
(s+0.999) (s+3.613e005)

Zero/pole/gain:
180.45 (s+2000)
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
s (s+361.2)

Zero/pole/gain:
180.45 (s+2000)

5‐80 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
(s^2 + 541.6s + 3.609e005)

Zero/pole/gain:
360.9 (s+1000)
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
s (s+361.2)

Zero/pole/gain:
360.9 (s+1000)
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
(s^2 + 722.1s + 3.609e005)

Zero/pole/gain:
541.35 (s+666.7)
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
s (s+361.2)

Zero/pole/gain:
541.35 (s+666.7)
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
(s^2 + 902.5s + 3.609e005)

Zero/pole/gain:
721.8 (s+500)
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
s (s+361.2)

Zero/pole/gain:
721.8 (s+500)
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
(s^2 + 1083s + 3.609e005)

5‐81 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

            KD            tr   (sec)         ts   (sec)   Max Overshoot (%) 

            0          0.00221        0.0166                 37.1

        0.0005          0.00242        0.00812                 21.5

        0.0010            0.00245        0.00775                 12.2

        0.0015          0.0024         0.0065                   6.4

        0.0016          0.00239        0.00597                   5.6

        0.0017          0.00238        0.00287                   4.8

        0.0018          0.00236        0.0029                   4.0

        0.0020          0.00233        0.00283                   2.8

5‐82 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-59) The forward‐path Transfer Function:  N = 20 

200 ( K P + K D s )
        G(s) =  
s ( s + 1)( s + 10)

  To stabilize the system, we can reduce the forward‐path gain.  Since the system is type 1, reducing the 

  gain does not affect the steady‐state liquid level to a step input.  Let   K P = 0.05  

200 ( 0.05 + K D s )
        G(s) =  
s ( s + 1)( s + 10)

ALSO try other Kp values and compare your results.

clear all
figure(1)
KD=0
num = [];
den = [0 -1 -10];
G=zpk(num,den,200*0.05)
M=feedback(G,1)
step(M)
hold on;
for KD=0.01:0.01:0.1;
KD
num = [-0.05/KD];
G=zpk(num,den,200*KD)
M=feedback(G,1)
step(M)
end
xlabel('Time(secs)')
ylabel('y(t)')
title('Unit-step responses of the system')

 
 
KD = 
     0 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
      10 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
                10 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+10.11) (s^2  + 0.8914s + 0.9893) 
 
KD = 
    0.0100 
  

5‐83 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Zero/pole/gain: 
   2 (s+5) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
 
Zero/pole/gain: 
             2 (s+5) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+9.889) (s^2  + 1.111s + 1.011) 
  
KD = 
    0.0200 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
  4 (s+2.5) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
            4 (s+2.5) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+9.658) (s^2  + 1.342s + 1.035) 
 
 
KD = 
    0.0300 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
 6 (s+1.667) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
           6 (s+1.667) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+9.413) (s^2  + 1.587s + 1.062) 
  
KD = 
    0.0400 
 
 
Zero/pole/gain: 
  8 (s+1.25) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
  
 
Zero/pole/gain: 
           8 (s+1.25) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+9.153) (s^2  + 1.847s + 1.093) 
  

5‐84 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

KD = 
    0.0500 
 
Zero/pole/gain: 
   10 (s+1) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
        10 (s+1) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+8.873) (s+1.127) (s+1) 
  
KD = 
    0.0600 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
12 (s+0.8333) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
        12 (s+0.8333) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+8.569) (s+1.773) (s+0.6582) 
  
KD = 
    0.0700 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
14 (s+0.7143) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
        14 (s+0.7143) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+8.232) (s+2.221) (s+0.547) 
  
KD = 
    0.0800 
 
Zero/pole/gain: 
 16 (s+0.625) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
        16 (s+0.625) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+7.85) (s+2.673) (s+0.4765) 
  

5‐85 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

KD = 
    0.0900 
 
Zero/pole/gain: 
18 (s+0.5556) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
  
 
Zero/pole/gain: 
        18 (s+0.5556) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+7.398) (s+3.177) (s+0.4255) 
  
KD = 
    0.1000 
 
Zero/pole/gain: 
  20 (s+0.5) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
s (s+1) (s+10) 
  
Zero/pole/gain: 
          20 (s+0.5) 
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 
(s+0.3861) (s+3.803) (s+6.811) 
 

5‐86 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

   Unit‐step Response Attributes: 

            KD             ts      (sec) Max Overshoot  (%)

          0.01            5.159              12.7

          0.02            4.57                7.1

          0.03            2.35                3.2

          0.04            2.526                0.8

          0.05            2.721                0

          0.06            3.039                0

          0.10            4.317                0

   When   K D = 0.05  the rise time is 2.721 sec, and the step response has no overshoot.   

5‐87 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-60) (a)   For   e ss = 1,  

200 ( K P + K D s )
      K v = lim sG ( s ) = lim s = 20 K P = 1            Thus     K P = 0.05  
s →0 s→0 s ( s + 1)( s + 10)

        

       Forward‐path Transfer Function: 

200 ( 0.05 + K D s )
              G ( s ) =  
s ( s + 1)( s + 10)

Because of the choice of Kp this is the same as previous part.

5-61)

(a)  Forward‐path Transfer Function: 


100 ⎜ K P +
KI ⎞
⎟ 100 ( K P s + K I )
        G ( s ) =
⎝ s ⎠  For  K v = 10, K v = lim sG ( s ) = lim s = K I = 10  
s + 10 s + 100
2
s →0 s →0
(
s s + 10 s + 100
2
)
   

       Thus    K I = 10.  

100 ( K P s + K I ) 100 ( K P s + 10 )
Gcl ( s ) = =  
s + 10 s + 100 s + 100 ( K P s + K I )
2 2
s + 10 s + 100(1 + K P ) s + 1000
3 3

        (b)  Let the complex roots of the characteristic equation be written as    s = −σ + j15 and s = −σ − j15. 

       The quadratic portion of the characteristic equation is 
2
(
s + 2σ s + σ + 225 = 0  
2
)
s + 10 s + (100 + 100 K P ) s + 1000 = 0  
3 2
       The characteristic equation of the system is 

       The quadratic equation must satisfy the characteristic equation. Using long division and solve for zero 

       remainder condition. 

5‐88 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

s + (10 − 2σ )

     s + 2σ s + σ + 225 s + 10 s + (100 + 100 K P ) s + 1000  


2 2 3 2
 

s + 2σ s + σ + 225 s
3 2
( 2
)

(
(10 − 2σ ) s + 100 K P − σ − 125 s + 1000
2
) 2

                    
(10 − 2σ ) s + ( 20σ − 4σ ) s + (10 − 2σ ) ( s + 225 )
2 2 2

        (100 K P )
+ 3σ − 20σ − 125 s + 2σ − 10σ + 450σ − 1250  
2 3 2

3 2
       For zero remainder,  2σ − 10σ + 450σ − 1250 = 0         (1) 

2
       and      100 K P + 3σ − 20σ − 125 = 0         (2) 

       The real solution of Eq. (1) is  σ = 2.8555 .  From Eq. (2), 

2
125 + 20σ − 3σ
        KP = = 15765
.  
100

       The characteristic equation roots are:    s = −2.8555 + j15, − 2.8555 − j15, and s = −10 + 2σ = −4.289  

         (c)  Root Contours: 

    Dividing both sides of  s + 10 s + (100 + 100 K P ) s + 1000 = 0 by the terms that do not contain Kp we have: 


3 2
 

100 K P s
  1+ = 1 + Geq    
s + 10 s + 100 s + 1000
3 2

100 K P s 100 K P s
Geq ( s ) = =      
s + 10 s + 100 s + 1000
3 2
( s + 10 ) ( s 2
+ 100 )
Root Contours: See Chapter 9 toolbox 9‐5‐2 for more information 

clear all
Kp =.001;
num = [100*Kp 0];
den = [1 10 100 1000];
rlocus(num,den)

5‐89 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5‐90 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-62) (a)  Forward‐path Transfer Function:


100 ⎜ K P +
KI ⎞
⎟ 100 ( K P s + K I )
       G ( s ) =
⎝ s ⎠          For  K = 10, K v = lim sG ( s ) = lim s = K I = 10  
s + 10 s + 100
2 v
s →0 s →0
(
s s + 10 s + 100
2
)
       Thus the forward‐path transfer function becomes 

100 (10 + K P s )
             G(s) =  
(
s s + 10 s + 100
2
)
100 ( K P s + K I ) 100 ( K P s + 10 )
Gcl ( s ) = =  
s + 10 s + 100 s + 100 ( K P s + K I )
2 2
s + 10 s + 100(1 + K P ) s + 1000
3 3

 
clear all
for Kp=.4:0.4:2;
num = [100*Kp 1000];
den =[1 10 100 0];
[numCL,denCL]=cloop(num,den);
GCL=tf(numCL,denCL);
step(GCL)
hold on;
end
 

5‐91 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Use the curser to find the maximum overshoot and rise time.  For example when  Kp = 2, PO=43 and  tr100%=0.152 
sec.  

Transfer function: 

       200 s + 1000 

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 

s^3 + 10 s^2 + 300 s + 1000 

5‐92 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-63)

  (a)  Forward‐path Transfer Function: 

100 ( K P s + K I )
      G(s) =  
(
s s + 10 s + 100
2
)
        For   K v = 100,  

100 ( K P s + K I )
           K v = lim sG ( s ) = lim s = K I = 100   Thus    K I = 100.  
s →0 s →0
(
s s + 10 s + 100
2
)
s + 10 s + (100 + 100 K P ) s + 100 K I = 0  
3 2
           (b)  The characteristic equation is 

       Routh Tabulation: 

3
s 1 100 + 100 K P
2
s 10 10,000
               For stability,   100 K P − 900 > 0 Thus KP > 9 
1
s 100 K P − 900 0
0
s 10,000

7. Activate MATLAB 

8. Go to the directory containing the ACSYS software.  

9. Type in  

Acsys 

10. Then press the “transfer function Symbolic” and enter the Characteristic equation 

11. Then press the “Routh Hurwitz” button 

5‐93 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

 
RH = 

  

[                                   1,                          100+100*kp] 

[                                  10,                               10000] 

[                         ‐900+100*kp,                                   0] 

[ (‐9000000+1000000*kp)/(‐900+100*kp),                                   0] 

           

   

5‐94 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

    Root Contours: 

100 K P s 100 K P s
        Geq ( s ) = 3 2
=  
s + 10 s + 100 s + 10,000 ( s + 23.65)( s − 6.825 + j19.4)( s − 6.825 − j19.4)

Root Contours: See Chapter 9 toolbox 9‐5‐2 for more information 

clear all
Kp =.001;
num = [100*Kp 0];
den = [1 10 100 10000];
rlocus(num,den)

5‐95 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

  (c)   K I = 100  

100 ( K P s + 100 )
        G(s) =  
(
s s + 10 s + 100
2
)
          The following maximum overshoots of the system are computed for various values of  K P .  

clear all
Kp=[15 20 22 24 25 26 30 40 100 1000];
[N,M]=size(Kp);
for i=1:M
num = [100*Kp(i) 10000];
den = [1 10 100 0];
[numCL,denCL]=cloop(num,den);
GCL=tf(numCL,denCL);
figure(i)
step(GCL)
end
 

     KP       15      20     22      24     25     26     30     40     100    1000

5‐96 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

     ymax    1.794    1.779  1.7788     1.7785 1.7756 1.779 1.782 1.795  1.844    1.859

        When  KP = 25,      minimum ymax = 1.7756 

Use: close all to close all the figure windows.

5‐97 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-64) MATLAB solution is the same as 5-63.

(a)  Forward‐path Transfer Function: 

100 ( K P s + K I ) 100 K I
    G(s) =   For   K v = = 10, K I = 10  
(
s s + 10 s + 100
2
) 100

              (b)  Characteristic Equation:  ( )
s3 + 10 s 2 + 100 K + 1 s + 1000 = 0  
P

          Routh Tabulation: 

   

3
s 1 100 + 100 K P
2
s 10 1000
                For stability,    KP > 0 
1
s 100 K P 0
0
s 1000

          Root Contours:   

100 K P s
        Geq ( s ) = 3 2
 
s + 10 s + 100 s + 1000

   

5‐98 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

  (c)  The maximum overshoots of the system for different values of  K P  ranging from 0.5 to 20 are  

           computed and tabulated below. 

    KP     0.5      1.0     1.6     1.7    1.8   1.9   2.0   3.0   5.0     10             20

   ymax  1.393  1.275  1.2317  1.2416  1.2424 1.2441 1.246  1.28 1.372  1.514  1.642

           

          When  KP = 1.7,    maximum ymax = 1.2416 

5-65)  

KDs + KPs + KI ⎛ KI 2 ⎞
2
KI
      Gc ( s ) = K P + K D s + = = (1 + K D 1 s ) ⎜ K P 2 + ⎟ 
s s ⎝ s ⎠

      where 
      K P = K P 2 + K D1 K I 2 K D = K D1 K P 2 KI = KI 2  

     Forward‐path Transfer Function: 

G ( s ) = Gc ( s )G p ( s ) =
100 (K D s2 + KP s + KI )
      (
s s + 10 s + 100
2
)      

     And rename the ratios:  K D / K P = A, KI / KP = B  

Thus   

KI
K v = lim sG ( s ) = 100 = 100
      s →0 100  
K I = 100

5‐99 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

ForKD being sufficiently small: 

    Forward‐path Transfer Function:             Characteristic Equation: 

100 ( K P s + 100 )
            G ( s ) = s + 10 s + (100 + 100 K P ) s + 10, 000 = 0  
3 2
       
(
s s + 10 s + 100
2
)
   For stability, Kp>9.  Select Kp =10 and observe the response. 

clear all
Kp=10;
num = [100*Kp 10000];
den =[1 10 100 0];
[numCL,denCL]=cloop(num,den);
GCL=tf(numCL,denCL)
step(GCL)

Transfer function:
1000 s + 10000
-----------------------------
s^3 + 10 s^2 + 1100 s + 10000

Obviously by increasing Kp more oscillations will occur. Add KD to reduce oscillations. 

clear all
Kp=10;
Kd=2;
num = [100*Kd 100*Kp 10000];
den =[1 10 100 0];
[numCL,denCL]=cloop(num,den);
GCL=tf(numCL,denCL)
step(GCL)
 

5‐100 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Transfer function:
200 s^2 + 1000 s + 10000
------------------------------
s^3 + 210 s^2 + 1100 s + 10000
     

    Unit‐step Response      

The rise time seems reasonable. But we need to increase Kp to improve approach to steady state. 

Increase Kp to Kp=30. 

clear all
Kp=30;
Kd=1;
num = [100*Kd 100*Kp 10000];
den =[1 10 100 0];
[numCL,denCL]=cloop(num,den);
GCL=tf(numCL,denCL)
step(GCL)

Transfer function:
100 s^2 + 3000 s + 10000
------------------------------
s^3 + 110 s^2 + 3100 s + 10000
 

5‐101 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

To obtain a better response continue adjusting KD and KP.

5‐102 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-66) This problem has received extended treatment in Chapter 6, Control Lab – see Section 6-6.

For the sake simplicity, this problem we assume the control force f(t) is applied in parallel to the
spring K and damper B. We will not concern the details of what actuator or sensors are used.

Lets look at Figure 4-84 and equations 4-322 and 4-323.

xc
mc
mc
ks cs
ks cs x
xw m
mw

mw k c
kw kw cw
  y y
cw

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 4-84 Quarter car model realization: (a) quarter car, (b) 2 degree of

freedom, and (c) 1 degree of freedom model.

The equation of motion of the system is defined as follows: 

mx&&(t ) + cx& (t ) + kx (t ) = cy& (t ) + ky (t ) (4-322)

which can be simplified by substituting the relation z(t) = x(t)‐y(t) and non‐dimensionalizing the coefficients to 

the form 

z (t ) + 2ζω n z& (t ) + ω n 2 z (t ) = − &&


&& y (t ) (4-323)

The Laplace transform of Eq. (4‐323) yields the input output relationship 

5‐103 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Z (s) −1
= 2 (4-324)
Y&&( s ) s + 2ζω n s + ω n 2

Now let’s apply control – see section 6-6 for more detail.

x
m

k c
k f(t)
y

For simplicity and better presentation, we have scaled the control force as kf(t) we rewrite (4-324) as:

mx&&(t ) + cx& (t ) + kx(t ) = cy& (t ) + ky (t ) + kf (t )


z (t ) + 2ζωn z& (t ) + ωn 2 z (t ) = − &&
&& y (t ) + ωn 2 f (t )
(4-324)
s 2 + 2ζωn s + ωn 2 = − A( s ) + ωn 2 F ( s )
A( s ) = Y&&( s )

Setting the controller structure such that the vehicle bounce Z ( s ) = X ( s ) − Y ( s ) is minimized:
⎛ K ⎞
F (s) = 0 − ⎜ K P + K D s + I ⎟ Z (s)
⎝ s ⎠

Z (s) −1
=
A( s ) ⎛ K ⎞
s 2 + 2ζωn s + ωn 2 ⎜ 1 + K P + K D s + I ⎟
⎝ s ⎠

Z (s) −s
= 3
A( s ) s + 2ζωn s + ωn ( (1 + K P ) s + K D s 2 + K I )
2 2

See Equation (6-4).

For proportional control KD=KI=0.

5‐104 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Pick ς = 0.707 and ωn = 1 for simplicity. This is now an underdamped system.

Use MATLAB to obtain response now.


clear all
Kp=1;
Kd=0;
Ki=0;
num = [-1 0];
den =[1 2*0.707+Kd 1+Kp Ki];
G=tf(num,den)
step(G)

Transfer function:
-s
---------------------
s^3 + 1.414 s^2 + 2 s

Adjust parameters to get the desired response if necessary.

The process is the same for parts b, c and d.

5‐105 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-67) Replace F(s) with

⎛ K ⎞
F ( s ) = X ref − ⎜ K P + K D s + I ⎟ X ( s )
⎝ s ⎠
B
2ζωn =
M
K
ωn 2 =
M
X ( s) 1
=
X ref ( s ) ⎛ K ⎞
s 2 + 2ζωn s + ⎜ ωn 2 + K P + K D s + I ⎟
⎝ s ⎠

Use MATLAB to obtain response now.


clear all
Kp=1;
Kd=0;
Ki=0;
B=10;
K=20;
M=1;
omega=sqrt(K/M);
zeta=(B/M)/2/omega;
num = [1 0];
den =[1 2*zeta*omega+Kd omega^2+Kp Ki];
G=tf(num,den)
step(G)
ransfer function:
s
-------------------
s^3 + 10 s^2 + 21 s

T0 achieve the proper response, adjust controller gains accordingly.

5‐106 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-68) From problem 4-3

a) Rotational kinetic energy:

Translational kinetic energy:

Relation between translational displacement and rotational displacement:

1
2

Potential energy:

As we know , then:

1 1 1
2 2 2

By differentiating, we have:
0

Since cannot be zero, then 0

b)

c)

5‐107 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

1 1 1
2 2 2

where at the maximum energy.

1 1
2 2
Then:

1 1
2 2
Or:

J
d) G (s) =  
(ms + K )
2

% select values of m, J and K


K=100;
J=5;
m=25;
G=tf([J],[m 0 K])
Pole(G)
impulse(G,10)
xlabel( 'Time(sec)');
ylabel('Amplitude');

Transfer function:
5
------------
25 s^2 + 100

ans =
0 + 2.0000i
0 - 2.0000i

5‐108 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Uncontrolled

With a proportional controller one can adjust the oscillation amplitude the transfer function is
rewritten as:

JK p
Gcl ( s ) =  
(ms + K + JK p )
2

% select values of m, J and K


Kp=0.1
K=100;
J=5;
m=25;
G=tf([J*Kp],[m 0 (K+J*Kp)])
Pole(G)
impulse(G,10)
xlabel( 'Time(sec)');
ylabel('Amplitude');

5‐109 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Kp =
0.1000

Transfer function:
0.5
--------------
25 s^2 + 100.5

ans =
0 + 2.0050i
0 - 2.0050i

A PD controller must be used to damp the


oscillation and reduce overshoot. Use Example
5-11-1 as a guide.

5‐110 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

5-69) From Problem 4-6 we have:

a)

y2 y1
K ( y1 − y 2 )
K ( y1 − y 2 )

μmgy& 2 μMgy&1

b) From Newton’s Law:

If y1 and y2 are considered as a position and v1 and v2 as velocity variables

Then:

The output equation can be the velocity of the engine, which means

c)

Obtaining requires solving above equation with respect to Y2(s)

From the first equation:

Substituting into the second equation:

5‐111 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

By solving above equation:

1
2

Replace Force F with a proportional controller so that F=K(Z-Zref):

KP   
Zref                  _                               F                                              Z 

1
2

1
2 1

5-70) Also see derivations in 4-9.

x(t) 

            F 

     M   

θ 

Here is an alternative representation including friction (damping) μ. In this case the angle θ is
measured differently.

Let’s find the dynamic model of the system:

5‐112 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

1)
2)

Let . If Φ is small enough then 1 and , therefore

which gives:
Φ s
F s

Ignoring friction 0.
Φ s
F s
where

Ignoring actuator dynamics (DC motor equations), we can incorporate feedback control using a
series PD compensator and unity feedback. Hence,

KP+KDs   
R                   _                                   F                                              Φ 

F ( s) = K p ( R ( s ) − Φ ) − K D s ( R ( s ) − Φ )

The system transfer function is:

Φ A( K p + KDs)
= 2
R (s + K D s + A ( K p − B )

Control is achieved by ensuring stability (Kp>B)

5‐113 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Use Routh Hurwitz to establish stability first. Use Acsys to do that as


demonstrated in this chapter problems. Also Chapter 2 has many examples.

Use MATLAB to simulate response:


clear all
Kp=10;
Kd=5;
A=10;
B=8;
num = [A*Kd A*Kp];
den =[1 Kd A*(Kp-B)];
G=tf(num,den)
step(G)

Transfer function:
50 s + 100
--------------
s^2 + 5 s + 20

Adjust parameters to achieve desired response. Use THE PROCEDURE in Example 5-11-1.

You may look at the root locus of the forward path transfer function to get a better perspective.

5‐114 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

Φ A ( K p + K D s ) AK D ( z + s )
= =
E s 2 − AB s 2 − AB
fix z and vary K D .

clear all
z=100;
Kd=0.01;
A=10;
B=8;
num = [A*Kd A*Kd*z];
den =[1 0 -(A*B)];
G=tf(num,den)
rlocus(G)

Transfer function:
0.1 s + 10
----------
s^2 – 80

For z=10, a large KD=0.805 results in: 

5‐115 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition  Chapter 5 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 

clear all
Kd=0.805;
Kp=10*Kd;
A=10;
B=8;
num = [A*Kd A*Kp];
den =[1 Kd A*(Kp-B)];
G=tf(num,den)
pole(G)
zero(G)
step(G)

Transfer function:
8.05 s + 80.5
-------------------
s^2 + 0.805 s + 0.5

ans =

-0.4025 + 0.5814i
-0.4025 - 0.5814i

ans =

-10

Looking at dominant poles we expect to see an oscillatory response with overshoot


close to desired values.

For a better design, and to meet rise time criterion, use Example 5-
11-1.

5‐116 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Chapter 6 THE CONTROL LAB

Part 1) Solution to Lab questions within Chapter 6

6-4-1 Open Loop Speed

1. Open loop speed response using SIMLab:


a. +5 V input:

The form of response is like the one that we expected; a second order system response with overshoot and
oscillation. Considering an amplifier gain of 2 and K b = 0.1 , the desired set point should be set to 2.5 and as
seen in the figure, the final value is approximately 50 rad/sec which is armature voltage divided by K b . To find
the above response the systems parameters are extracted from:

Ra J m Ra J m − k b k mτ m
τm = , B= = 0.000792kg ⋅ m 2 / sec
Ra B + k b k m Raτ m

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

b. +15 V input:

c. –10 V input:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

2. Study of the effect of viscous friction:

The above figure is plotted for three different friction coefficients (0, 0.001, 0.005) for 5 V armature input. As
seen in figure, two important effects are observed as the viscous coefficient is increased. First, the final steady
state velocity is decreased and second the response has less oscillation. Both of these effects could be predicted
from Eq. (5-114) by increasing damping ratio ζ.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

3. Additional load inertia effect:

As the overall inertia of the system is increased by 0.005 / 5.2 2 and becomes 1.8493 × 10 −3 kg.m2, the
mechanical time constant is substantially increased and we can assume the first order model for the motor
(ignoring the electrical sub-system) and as a result of this the response is more like an exponential form. The
above results are plotted for 5 V armature input.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

4. Reduce the speed by 50% by increasing viscous friction:

As seen in above figure, if we set B=0.0075 N.s/m the output speed drop by half comparing with the case that
B=0 N.s/m. The above results are plotted for 5 V armature input.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

5. Study of the effect of disturbance:

Repeating experiment 3 for B=0.001 N.s/m and TL =0.05 N.m result in above figure. As seen, the effect of
disturbance on the speed of open loop system is like the effect of higher viscous friction and caused to decrease
the steady state value of speed.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6. Using speed response to estimate motor and load inertia:

Using first order model we are able to identify system parameters based on unit step response of the system. In
above plot we repeated the experiments 3 with B=0.001 and set point voltage equal to 1 V. The final value of the
speed can be read from the curve and it is 8.8, using the definition of system time constant and the cursor we read
63.2% of speed final value 5.57 occurs at 0.22 sec, which is the system time constant. Considering Eq. (5-116),
and using the given value for the rest of parameters, the inertia of the motor and load can be calculated as:

τ m ( Ra B + K m K b ) 0.22(1.35 × 0.001 + 0.01)


J= = = 1.8496 × 10 −3 kg.m2
Ra 1.35

We also can use the open loop speed response to estimate B by letting the speed to coast down when it gets to the
steady state situation and then measuring the required time to get to zero speed. Based on this time and energy
conservation principle and knowing the rest of parameters we are able to calculate B. However, this method of
identification gives us limited information about the system parameters and we need to measure some parameters
directly from motor such as Ra , K m , K b and so on.
So far, no current or voltage saturation limit is considered for all simulations using SIMLab software.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

7. Open loop speed response using Virtual Lab:


a. +5 V:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

b. +15 V:

c. –10 V:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Comparing these results with the part 1, the final values are approximately the same but the shape of responses is
closed to the first order system behavior. Then the system time constant is obviously different and it can be
identified from open loop response. The effect of nonlinearities such as saturation can be seen in +15 V input with
appearing a straight line at the beginning of the response and also the effects of noise and friction on the response
can be observed in above curves by reducing input voltage for example, the following response is plotted for a 0.1
V step input:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

8. Identifying the system based on open loop response:

Open loop response of the motor to a unit step input voltage is plotted in above figure. Using the definition of
time constant and final value of the system, a first order model can be found as:

9
G(s) = ,
0.23s + 1

where the time constant (0.23) is found at 5.68 rad/sec (63.2% of the final value).

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-4-2 Open Loop Sine Input

9. Sine input to SIMLab and Virtual Lab (1 V. amplitude, and 0.5, 5, and 50 rad/sec frequencies)

a. 0.5 rad/sec (SIMLab):

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

b. 5 rad/sec (SIMLab):

c. 50 rad/sec (SIMLab):

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

d. 0.5 rad/sec (Virtual Lab):

e. 5 rad/sec (Virtual Lab):

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

f. 50 rad/sec (Virtual Lab):

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

10. Sine input to SIMLab and Virtual Lab (20 V. amplitude)


a. 0.5 rad/sec (SIMLab):

b. 5 rad/sec (SIMLab):

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

c. 50 rad/sec (SIMLab):

d. 0.5 rad/sec (Virtual Lab):

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

e. 5 rad/sec (Virtual Lab):

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

f. 5 rad/sec (Virtual Lab):

In both experiments 9 and 10, no saturation considered for voltage and current in SIMLab software. If
we use the calculation of phase and magnitude in both SIMLab and Virtual Lab we will find that as
input frequency increases the magnitude of the output decreases and phase lag increases. Because of
existing saturations this phenomenon is more sever in the Virtual Lab experiment (10.f). In this
experiments we observe that M = 0.288 and ϕ = −93.82 o for ω = 50.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-4-3 Speed Control


11. Apply step inputs (SIMLab)
In this section no saturation is considered either for current or for voltage.

a. +5 V:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

b. +15 V:

c. -10 V:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

12. Additional load inertia effect:


a. +5 V:

b. +15 V:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

c. -10 V:

13. Study of the effect of viscous friction:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

As seen in above figure, two different values for B are selected, zero and 0.0075. We could change the
final speed by 50% in open loop system. The same values selected for closed loop speed control but as
seen in the figure the final value of speeds stayed the same for both cases. It means that closed loop
system is robust against changing in system’s parameters. For this case, the gain of proportional
controller and speed set point are 10 and 5 rad/sec, respectively.

14. Study of the effect of disturbance:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Repeating part 5 in section 6-4-1 for B=0.001 and TL =0.05 N.m result in above figure. As seen, the effect of
disturbance on the speed of closed loop system is not substantial like the one on the open loop system in part 5,
and again it is shown the robustness of closed loop system against disturbance. Also, to study the effects of
conversion factor see below figure, which is plotted for two different C.F. and the set point is 5 V.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

By decreasing the C.F. from 1 to 0.2, the final value of the speed increases by a factor of 5.

15. Apply step inputs (Virtual Lab)


a. +5 V:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

b. +15 V:

c. –10 V:
6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

As seen the responses of Virtual Lab software, they are clearly different from the same results of
SIMLab software. The nonlinearities such as friction and saturation cause these differences. For
example, the chattering phenomenon and flatness of the response at the beginning can be considered as
some results of nonlinear elements in Virtual Lab software.

6-4-4 Position Control

16. 160 o step input (SIMLab)

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

17. –0.1 N.m step disturbance

18. Examine the effect of integral control

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

In above figure, an integral gain of 1 is considered for all curves. Comparing this plot with the previous
one without integral gain, results in less steady state error for the case of controller with integral part.

19. Additional load inertia effect (J=0.0019, B=0.004):

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

20. Set B=0:

21. Study the effect of saturation

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

The above figure is obtained in the same conditions of part 20 but in this case we considered ± 10 V. and
± 4 A. as the saturation values for voltage and current, respectively. As seen in the figure, for higher
proportional gains the effect of saturations appears by reducing the frequency and damping property of
the system.

22. Comments on Eq. 5-126

After neglecting of electrical time constant, the second order closed loop transfer function of position
control obtained in Eq. 5-126. In experiments 19 through 21 we observe an under damp response of a
second order system. According to the equation, as the proportional gain increases, the damped
frequency must be increased and this fact is verified in experiments 19 through 21. Experiments16
through 18 exhibits an over damped second order system responses.

23. In following, we repeat parts 16 and 18 using Virtual Lab:

Study the effect of integral gain of 5:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Ch. 6 Problem Solutions

Part 2) Solution to Problems in Chapter 6

6-1. In order to find the current of the motor, the motor constant has to be separated from the electrical
component of the motor.

The response of the motor when 5V of step input is applied is:

a) The steady state speed: 41.67rad/sec


b) It takes 0.0678 second to reach 63% of the steady state speed (26.25rad/sec). This is the time
constant of the motor.
c) The maximum current: 2.228A
6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

11.2

The steady state speed at 5V step input is 50rad/sec.

a) It takes 0.0797 seconds to reach 63% of the steady state speed (31.5rad/sec).
b) The maximum current: 2.226A
c) 100rad/sec

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-3

a) 50rad/sec
b) 0.0795 seconds
c) 2.5A. The current
d) When Jm is increased by a factor of 2, it takes 0.159 seconds to reach 63% of its steady state
speed, which is exactly twice the original time period . This means that the time constant has
been doubled.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-4

Part 1: Repeat problem 6-1 with TL = -0.1Nm

a) It changes from 41.67 rad/sec to 25 rad/sec.


b) First, the speed of 63% of the steady state has to be calculated.
41.67 - (41.67 - 25) × 0.63 = 31.17 rad/sec.
The motor achieves this speed 0.0629 seconds after the load torque is applied
c) 2.228A. It does not change

Part 2: Repeat problem 6-2 with TL = -0.1Nm

a) It changes from 50 rad/sec to 30 rad/sec.


b) The speed of 63% of the steady state becomes
50 - (50 - 30) × 0.63 = 37.4 rad/sec.
The motor achieves this speed 0.0756 seconds after the load torque is applied
c) 2.226A. It does not change.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Part 3: Repeat problem 6-3 with TL = -0.1Nm

a) It changes from 50 rad/sec to 30 rad/sec.


b) 50 - (50 - 30) × 0.63 = 37.4 rad/s
The motor achieves this speed 0.0795 seconds after the load torque is applied. This is the same
as problem 6-3.
c) 2.5A. It does not change
d) As TL increases in magnitude, the steady state velocity decreases and steady state current
increases; however, the time constant does not change in all three cases.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-4 The steady state speed is 4.716 rad/sec when the amplifier input voltage is 5V:

6-6

a) 6.25 rad/sec.
b) 63% of the steady state speed: 6.25 × 0.63 = 3.938 rad/sec
It takes 0.0249 seconds to reach 63% of its steady state speed.
c) The maximum current drawn by the motor is 1 Ampere.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-7
a) 9.434 rad/sec.
b) 63% of the steady state speed: 9.434 × 0.63 = 5.943 rad/sec
It takes 0.00375 seconds to reach 63% of its steady state speed.
c) The maximum current drawn by the motor is 10 Amperes.
d) When there is no saturation, higher Kp value reduces the steady state error and decreases the rise
time. If there is saturation, the rise time does not decrease as much as it without saturation.
Also, if there is saturation and Kp value is too high, chattering phenomenon may appear.

6-8

a) The steady state becomes zero. The torque generated by the motor is 0.1 Nm.
b) 6.25 - (6.25 - 0) × 0.63 = 2.31 rad/sec. It takes 0.0249 seconds to reach 63% of its new steady
state speed. It is the same time period to reach 63% of its steady state speed without the load
torque (compare with the answer for the Problem 6-6 b).

11-9 The SIMLab model becomes

The sensor gain and the speed input are reduced by a factor of 5. In order to get the same result as
Problem 6-6, the Kp value has to increase by a factor of 5. Therefore, Kp = 0.5.
The following graphs illustrate the speed and current when the input is 2 rad/sec and Kp = 0.5.
6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-10

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

a) 1 radian.
b) 1.203 radians.
c) 0.2215 seconds.

6-11

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

a) The steady state position is very close to 1 radian.


b) 1.377 radians.
c) 0.148 seconds.
It has less steady state error and a faster rise time than Problem 6-10, but has larger overshoot.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-12

Different proportional gains and their corresponding responses are shown on the following graph.

As the proportional gain gets higher, the motor has a faster response time and lower steady state error,
but if it the gain is too high, the motor overshoot increases. If the system requires that there be no
overshoot, Kp = 0.2 is the best value. If the system allows for overshoot, the best proportional gain is
dependant on how much overshoot the system can have. For instance, if the system allows for a 30%
overshoot, Kp = 1 is the best value.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-13 Let Kp = 1 is the best value.

As the derivative gain increases, overshoot decreases, but rise time increases.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-14

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-15

There could be many possible answers for this problem. One possible answer would be
Kp= 100
Ki= 10
Kd= 1.4

The Percent Overshoot in this case is 3.8%.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-16
0.1 Hz

0.2 Hz

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

0.5 Hz

1 Hz

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

2Hz

5Hz

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

10Hz

50Hz

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

As frequency increases, the phase shift of the input and output also increase. Also, the amplitude of the
output starts to decrease when the frequency increases above 0.5Hz.

6-17

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

As proportional gain increases, the steady state error decreases.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-18

Considering fast response time and low overshoot, Kp=1 is considered to be the best value.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-19 It was found that the best Kp = 1

As Kd value increases, the overshoot decreases and the rise time increases.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-20 From the “Experiment” Menu select the Open Loop Sine Input” option.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Double click on the “Sine wave” block and choose the input values.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Run simulation in SIMULINK.


Change run time to 20 sec (default is
5 sec)

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Calculate the Gain and Phase values by entering the input frequency. Repeat the process for other
frequency values and use the calculated gain and phase values to plot the frequency response of the
system.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-21)

Select the Speed Control option in Virtual Lab Experiment Window.


Enter the Step Input and Controller Gain values by double clicking on their respective blocks.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Run simulation, and repeat the process for different gain values. Observe the steady state value change
with K.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-22)

Select the Position Control option in Virtual Lab Experiment Window.


Enter the Step Input and Controller Gain values by double clicking on their respective blocks.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Run simulation, and repeat the process for different gain values.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-23) If we choose Kp= 1, Ki= 0, and Kd= 0, we get

Increase Kd=0.1 we get:

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-24) Here Kp=275 and Kd=12.

Next Kp=275 and Kd=20.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

You may try other parts and make observations.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-25) a)

Change variables displayed using “Setup Axes” if desired.


b) Next use the Model Parameters button and change k to 15 as shown. Simulate the response and
show the desire variables.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

c) A sample response

d)

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

Other parts are trivial and follow section 6-6.

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition Chapter 6 Solutions Golnaraghi, Kuo

6-1
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Chapter 7

7-1 (a) P ( s ) = s 4 + 4 s 3 + 4 s 2 + 8 s Q( s ) = s + 1

Finite zeros of P(s): 0, −3.5098, −0.24512 ± j1.4897

Finite zeros of Q(s): −1

Asymptotes: K > 0: 60 o , 180 o , 300 o K < 0: 0 o , 120 o , 240 o

Intersect of Asymptotes:
−3.5 − 0.24512 − 0.24512 − ( −1)
σ1 = = −1
4 −1

(b) P ( s ) = s 3 + 5 s 2 + s Q( s ) = s + 1

Finite zeros of P(s) : 0, −4.7912, −0.20871

Finite zeros of Q(s): −1

Asymptotes: K > 0: 90 o , 270 o K < 0: 0 o , 180 o

Intersect of Asymptotes:
−4.7913 − 0.2087 − ( −1)
σ1 = = −2
3−1

(c) P ( s ) = s 2 3 2
Q( s ) = s + 3s + 2 s + 8

Finite zeros of P(s): 0, 0

Finite zeros of Q(s): −3.156, 0.083156 ± j15874


.

Asymptotes: K > 0: 180 o K < 0: 0 o

7‐1 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

(d) P ( s ) = s 3 + 2 s 2 + 3 s ( )
Q( s) = s − 1 ( s + 3)
2

Finite zeros of P(s): 0, − 1 ± j1.414

Finite zeros of Q(s): 1, −1, −3

Asymptotes: There are no asymptotes, since the number of zeros of P(s) and
Q(s) are

equal.

(e) P ( s ) = s 5 + 2 s 4 + 3 s 3 2
Q( s ) = s + 3s + 5

Finite zeros of P(s): 0, 0, 0, − 1 ± j1.414

Finite zeros of Q(s): −15


. ± j16583
.

Asymptotes: K > 0: 60 o , 180 o , 300 o K < 0: 0 o , 120 o , 240 o

Intersect of Asymptotes:
−1 − 1 − ( −15)
. − ( −15)
. 1
σ1 = =
5− 2 3

(f) P ( s ) = s 4 + 2 s 2 + 10 Q( s ) = s + 5

Finite zeros of P(s): −1.0398 ± j1.4426, 10398


. ± j1.4426

Finite zeros of Q(s): −5

Asymptotes: K > 0: 60 o , 180 o , 300 o K < 0: 0 o , 120 o , 240 o

Intersect of Asymptotes:
−10398
. − 10398
. + 10398
. + 10398
. − ( −5) −5
σ1 = =
4 −1 3

 
7‐2 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-2(a) MATLAB code:


s = tf('s')
num_GH=(s+1);
den_GH=(s^4+4*s^3+4*s^2+8*s);
GH_a=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(1);
rlocus(GH_a)
GH_p=pole(GH_a)
GH_z=zero(GH_a)
n=length(GH_p) %number of poles of G(s)H(s)
m=length(GH_z) %number of zeros of G(s)H(s)
%Asymptotes angles:
k=0;
Assymp1_angle=+180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
Assymp2_angle=-180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
k=1;
Assymp3_angle=+180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
%Asymptotes intersection point on real axis:
sigma=(sum(GH_p)-sum(GH_z))/(n-m)

Root Locus
6

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6
-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4
Real Axis

Assymp1_angle = 60
Assymp2_angle = -60
Assymp3_angle = 180

7‐3 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

sigma = -1.0000 (intersect of asymptotes)


7-2(b) MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')
'Generating the transfer function:'
num_GH=(s+1);
den_GH=(s^3+5*s^2+s);
GH_a=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(1);
rlocus(GH_a)
GH_p=pole(GH_a)
GH_z=zero(GH_a)
n=length(GH_p) %number of poles of G(s)H(s)
m=length(GH_z) %number of zeros of G(s)H(s)
%Asymptotes angles:
k=0;
Assymp1_angle=+180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
Assymp2_angle=-180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
%Asymptotes intersection point on real axis:
sigma=(sum(GH_p)-sum(GH_z))/(n-m)

Root Locus
10

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

Assymp1_angle = 90
Assymp2_angle = -90

7‐4 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

sigma = -2 (intersect of asymptotes)

7-2(c) MATLAB code:


s = tf('s')
'Generating the transfer function:'
num_GH=(s^3+3*s^2+2*s+8);
den_GH=(s^2);
GH_a=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(1);
rlocus(GH_a)
GH_p=pole(GH_a)
GH_z=zero(GH_a)
n=length(GH_p) %number of poles of G(s)H(s)
m=length(GH_z) %number of zeros of G(s)H(s)
%Asymptotes angles:
k=0;
Assymp1_angle=+180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
%Asymptotes intersection point on real axis:
sigma=(sum(GH_p)-sum(GH_z))/(n-m)

Root Locus
2

1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

7‐5 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Assymp1_angle = 180
sigma = -3.0000 (intersect of asymptotes)

7-2(d) MATLAB code:


s = tf('s')
'Generating the transfer function:'
num_GH=((s^2-1)*(s+3));
den_GH=(s^3+2*s^2+3*s);
GH_a=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(1);
rlocus(GH_a)
GH_p=pole(GH_a)
GH_z=zero(GH_a)
n=length(GH_p) %number of poles of G(s)H(s)
m=length(GH_z) %number of zeros of G(s)H(s)

Root Locus
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
Real Axis

No asymptotes

7‐6 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-2(e) MATLAB code:


s = tf('s')
'Generating the transfer function:'
num_GH=(s^2+3*s+5);
den_GH=(s^5+2*s^4+3*s^3);
GH_a=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(1);
rlocus(GH_a)
GH_p=pole(GH_a)
GH_z=zero(GH_a)
n=length(GH_p) %number of poles of G(s)H(s)
m=length(GH_z) %number of zeros of G(s)H(s)
%Asymptotes angles:
k=0;
Assymp1_angle=+180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
Assymp2_angle=-180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
k=1;
Assymp3_angle=+180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
%Asymptotes intersection point on real axis:
sigma=(sum(GH_p)-sum(GH_z))/(n-m)

Root Locus
6

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6
-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4
Real Axis

Assymp1_angle = 60

7‐7 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Assymp2_angle = -60
Assymp3_angle = 180
sigma = 0.3333 (intersect of asymptotes)

7-2(f) MATLAB code:


s = tf('s')
'Generating the transfer function:'
num_GH=(s+5);
den_GH=(s^4+2*s^2+10);
GH_a=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(1);
rlocus(GH_a)
xlim([-20 20])
ylim([-20 20])
GH_p=pole(GH_a)
GH_z=zero(GH_a)
n=length(GH_p) %number of poles of G(s)H(s)
m=length(GH_z) %number of zeros of G(s)H(s)
%Asymptotes angles:
k=0;
Assymp1_angle=+180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
Assymp2_angle=-180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
k=1;
Assymp3_angle=+180*(2*k+1)/(n-m)
%Asymptotes intersection point on real axis:
sigma=(sum(GH_p)-sum(GH_z))/(n-m)

7‐8 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
20

15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15

-20
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Real Axis

Assymp1_angle = 60
Assymp2_angle = -60
Assymp3_angle = 180
sigma = 1.6667 (intersect of asymptotes)

7-3) Consider

As the asymptotes are the behavior of G(s)H(s) when |s|Æ∞ , then

|s| > |zi| for i = 1,2,…,m and |s| > |pi| for i = 1,2,…,n

therefore ‫ ס‬G(s)H(s)

According to the condition on angles:

‫ ס‬G(s)H(s) =

7‐9 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

If we consider , then:

‫ ס‬G(s)H(s) =

or

7-4) If , then each point on root locus must satisfy the characteristic equation of

If and , then

or

If the roots of above expression is considered as si for i = 1,2,…,(n-m), then

since the intersect of (n-m) asymptotes lies on the real axis of the s-plane and is
real, therefore

7-5) Poles of GH is s = 0, -2, -1 + j, -1 – j, therefore the center of asymptotes:

The angles of asymptotes:

7‐10 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 


σ × σ

7‐11 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-6 (a) Angles of departure and arrival.

K > 0: −θ 1 − θ 2 − θ 3 + θ 4 = −180o

−θ 1 − 90 − 45 + 90 = −180
o o o o

θ 1 = 135
o

K < 0: −θ 1 − 90o − 45o + 90o = 0o  

θ 1 = −45
o

(b) Angles of departure and arrival.

−θ 1 − θ 2 − θ 3 + θ 4 = −180
o
K > 0:

−θ 1 − 135 − 90 + 90 = 0
o o o o
K < 0:

θ 1 = −135
o

7‐12 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

(c) Angle of departure:

−θ 1 − θ 2 − θ 3 + θ 4 = −180
o
K > 0:

−θ 1 − 135 − 90 − 45 = −180
o o o o

θ 1 = −90
o

(d) Angle of departure

−θ 1 − θ 2 − θ 3 − θ 4 = −180
o
K > 0:

−θ 1 − 135 − 135 − 90 = −180


o o o o

θ 1 = −180
o

7‐13 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

(e) Angle of arrival

θ 1 + θ 6 − θ 2 − θ 3 − θ 4 − θ 5 = −360
o
K < 0:

θ 1 + 90 − 135 − 135 − 45 − 26.565 = −360


o o o o o o

θ 1 = −108.435
o

7‐14 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-7) a) ‫ ס‬G(s)H(s) =  

we know that

therefore

As a result, θ D = ‫ ס‬G(s)H’(s) – 180o = 180 + , when -180o = 180o

b) Similarly:

‫ ס‬G(s)H(s) =

Therefore:

As a result, θ =180 –

7-8) zeros: and poles:

Departure angles from:

7‐15 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Arrival angles at

7-9)  (a)            (b) 

       (c)              (d) 

7‐16 
 

 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐17 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐18 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-10) The breaking points are on the real axis of and must satisfy

If and α is a breakaway point, then

Finding α where K is maximum or minimum , therefore

or

5 4 3 2
7-11) (a) Breakaway-point Equation: 2 s + 20 s + 74 s + 110 s + 48 s = 0

Breakaway Points: −0.7275, − 2.3887

6 5 4 3 2
(b) Breakaway-point Equation: 3 s + 22 s + 65 s + 100 s + 86 s + 44 s + 12 = 0

Breakaway Points: −1, − 2.5

6 5 4 3 2
(c) Breakaway-point Equation: 3 s + 54 s + 347.5 s + 925 s + 867.2 s − 781.25 s − 1953 = 0

7‐19 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Breakaway Points: − 2.5, 109


.

6 5 4 3 2
(d) Breakaway-point Equation: − s − 8 s − 19 s + 8 s + 94 s + 120 s + 48 = 0

Breakaway Points: −0.6428, 2.1208

7-12) (a) 

K ( s + 8)
      G( s) H ( s) =  
s( s + 5)( s + 6)

     
o o o o
    Asymptotes:  K > 0:  90 and 270     K < 0:   0 and 180  

     Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 5 − 6 − ( −8 )
          σ1 = = −15
.    
3−1

    Breakaway‐point Equation: 

3 2
          2 s + 35 s + 176 s + 240 = 0  

    Breakaway Points:    −2.2178, − 5.5724, − 9.7098  

  Root Locus Diagram: 

7‐20 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

   

7‐12  (b) 

K
      G( s) H ( s) =            
s( s + 1)( s + 3)( s + 4 )

o o o o o o o o
    Asymptotes:  K > 0:  45 , 135 , 225 , 315   K < 0:  0 , 90 , 180 , 270  

    Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 1− 3 − 4
          σ1 = = −2  
4

3 2
    Breakaway‐point Equation:  4 s + 24 s + 38 s + 12 = 0  

    Breakaway Points:    −0.4189, − 2, − 3.5811 

       Root Locus Diagram:   

7‐21 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐12  (c)   

K( s + 4)
    G( s) H ( s) = 2 2
 
s ( s + 2)

     

    Asymptotes:  K > 0:  60 o , 180 o , 300 o     K < 0: 


o o o
0 , 120 , 240  

     Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 + 0 − 2 − 2 − ( −4 )
          σ1 = = 0   
4 −1

     Breakaway‐point Equation:   

4 3 2
          3 s + 24 s + 52 s + 32 s = 0  

     Breakaway Points:    0, − 1085
. , − 2, − 4.915  

     Root Locus Diagram:     

      

7‐22 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐12  (d)   

K ( s + 2)
    G( s) H ( s) = 2
 
s( s + 2 s + 2 )

    Asymptotes:  K > 0:  90 o , 270 o    


o
K < 0:    0 , 180  
o

     Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 1 − j − 1 − j − ( −2 )
          σ1 = = 0 
3−1

3 2
                 Breakaway‐point Equation:  2s + 8s + 8s + 4 = 0  

    Breakaway Points:    −2.8393   The other two solutions are not breakaway points. 

     

7‐23 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
Root Locus Diagram 

   

7‐12  (e)   

K ( s + 5)
    G(s) H (s) =  
(
s s + 2s + 2
2
)
    Asymptotes:  K > 0:   90 o , 270 o     K < 0: 
o o
0 , 180  

     Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 1 − j − 1 − j − ( −5)
             σ 1 = = 15
.  
3−1

     Breakaway‐point Equation: 

3 2
                 2 s + 17 s + 20 s + 10 = 0  

     Breakaway Points:           −7.2091                  The other two solutions are not breakaway points. 

7‐24 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

        

7‐12  (f) 

K
    G(s) H (s) =  
(
s ( s + 4 ) s + 2s + 2
2
)
o o o o o o o o
    Asymptotes:   K > 0:  45 , 135 , 225 , 315   K < 0:   0 , 90 , 180 , 270  

     Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 1− j − 1+ j − 4
          σ1 = = −15
.  
4
3 2
     Breakaway‐point Equation:  4 s + 18 s + 20 s + 8 = 0  

     Breakaway Point:    −3.0922    The other solutons are not breakaway points.   

         

7‐25 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

7‐12  (g) 
2
K( s + 4)
    G( s) H ( s) = 2 2
 
s ( s + 8)

     Asymptotes:  K > 0:  90 o , 270 o   o


    K < 0:       0 , 180  
o

      Intesect of Asymptotes: 

0 + 0 − 8 − 8 − ( −4 ) − ( −4 )
          σ1 =  
4−2

      

5 4 3 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 20 s + 160 s + 640 s + 1040 s = 0  

      Breakaway Points:  0,   −4,   −8,    −4 − j4,   −4 + j4 

7‐26 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

   

7‐12  (h) 

K
    G( s) H ( s) = 2 2
 
s ( s + 8)

      

     Asymptotes:  K > 0:    45o , 135o , 225o , 315o                  K < 0:    0 o , 90 o , 180 o , 270 o  

      Intersect of Asymptotes: 

−8 − 8
          σ1 = = −4  
4
3 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 12 s + 32 s = 0  

      Breakaway Point:    0,   −4,   −8 

7‐27 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐12  (i)   

    G(s) H (s) =
(
K s + 8s + 20
2

s ( s + 8)
2 2

    Asymptotes:   K > 0:    90 o , 270 o  K < 0:    0 o , 180 o  

     Intersect of Asymptotes: 

−8 − 8 − ( −4 ) − ( −4 )
          σ1 = = −4  
4−2

5 4 3 2
     Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 20 s + 128 s + 736 s + 1280 s = 0  

     Breakaway Points:    −4, − 8, − 4 + j 4.9, − 4 − j 4.9  

7‐28 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

         (j)   

2
Ks
    G(s) H (s) =  
(s 2
−4 )
 

     Since the number of finite poles and zeros of  G ( s ) H ( s )  are the same, there are no asymptotes. 

     Breakaway‐point Equation:    8 s = 0  

     Breakaway Points:          s = 0 

7‐29 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐12  (k) 

    G(s) H (s) =
K s −4 ( 2
)  
(s 2
+1 )( s 2
+4 )
     Asymptotes:  K > 0:    90 o , 270 o     K < 0: 
o o
0 , 180  

−2 + 2
      Intersect of Asymptotes:  σ1 = = 0 
4−2
6 4 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  s − 8 s − 24 s = 0  

      Breakaway Points:    0, 3.2132, − 3.2132, j15246


. , − j15246
.  

7‐30 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐12  (l) 

K ( s − 1)
2

    G(s) H (s) =  
(s 2
+1 )( s 2
+4 )
o o o o
     Asymptotes:   K > 0:  90 , 270     K < 0:    0 , 180  

      Intersect of Asymptotes: 

−1 + 1
          σ1 = = 0 
4−2

5 3
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  s − 2s − 9s = 0  

      Breakaway Points:    −2.07, 2.07, − j1.47, j1.47  

7‐31 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

         (m)   

K ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3)
    G( s) H ( s) = 3
 
s ( s − 1)

     

7‐32 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
o o
    Asymptotes:   K > 0:  180    K < 0:        0  

6 5 4 3 2
    Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 12 s + 27 s + 2 s − 18 s = 0  

    Breakaway Points:    −1.21,    −2.4,    −9.07,    0.683,    0,    0 

7‐33 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

          (n)   

K ( s + 5)( s + 40)
    G( s) H ( s) = 3
 
s ( s + 250)( s + 1000)

   

      Asymptotes:  K > 0:  60 o , 180 o , 300 o   K < 0: 


o o
0 , 120 , 240  
o

       Intersect of asymptotes: 

0 + 0 + 0 − 250 − 1000 − ( −5) − ( −40 )


          σ1 = = −40167
.  
5− 2

6 5 8 4 10 3 11 2
       Breakaway‐point Equation:    3750 s + 335000 s + 5.247 × 10 s + 2.9375 × 10 s + 1875
. × 10 s = 0  

       Breakaway Points:  −7.288,    −712.2,    0,    0 

7‐34 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐12  (o)   

K ( s − 1)
    G( s) H ( s) =  
s( s + 1)( s + 2 )

     Asymptotes:  K > 0:  90 o , 270 o     K < 0: 


o o
0 , 180  

       

7‐35 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
      Intersect of Asymptotes:   

−1 − 2 − 1
          σ1 = = −2  
3−1

3
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  s − 3s − 1 = 0  

      Breakaway Points;    −0.3473,    −1.532,    1.879 

7‐36 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
7-13(a) MATLAB code: 10

num=[1 7]; 8
den=conv([1 0],[1 5]);
6
den=conv(den,[1 6]);
mysys=tf(num,den) 4

rlocus(mysys); 2

Imaginary Axis
0

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10
-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

Root Locus
10

7-13(b) MATLAB code: 4

num=[0 1]; 2
Imaginary Axis

den=conv([1 0],[1 1]);


0
den=conv(den,[1 3]);
den=conv(den,[1 4]); -2
mysys=tf(num,den)
-4
rlocus(mysys);
-6

-8

-10
-12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8
Real Axis

7‐37 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
15

10

Imaginary Axis
7-13(c) MATLAB code: 0

num=[1 4];
-5
den=conv([1 0],[1 0]);
den=conv(den,[1 2]);
den=conv(den,[1 2]); -10

mysys=tf(num,den)
rlocus(mysys); -15
-12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8
Real Axis

Root Locus
10

2
Imaginary Axis

-2
7-13(d) MATLAB code:
-4
num=[1 2];
-6
den=conv([1 0],[1
(1+j)]); -8

den=conv(den,[1 (1-
-10
j)]); -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5
Real Axis
mysys=tf(num,den)
rlocus(mysys);

7‐38 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
25

20

15

10

5
Imaginary Axis
0

-5

-10

-15

7-13(e) MATLAB code: -20

num=[1 5]; -25


-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
den=conv([1 0],[1 Real Axis
(1+j)]);
den=conv(den,[1 (1-
j)]);
mysys=tf(num,den)
rlocus(mysys);

7‐39 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
5

7-13(f) MATLAB code: 4

num=conv([1 4],[1 4]); 3


den=conv([1 0],[1 0]);
2
den=conv(den,[1 8]);
den=conv(den,[1 8]); 1

Imaginary Axis
mysys=tf(num,den) 0
rlocus(mysys);
-1

-2

-3

-4

-5
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
Real Axis

Root Locus
10

8
7-13(g) MATLAB code:
6
num=conv([1 4],[1 4]);
den=conv([1 0],[1 0]); 4

den=conv(den,[1 8]); 2
Imaginary Axis

den=conv(den,[1 8]);
0
mysys=tf(num,den)
rlocus(mysys); -2

-4

-6

-8

-10
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

7‐40 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
25

20

15

7-13(h) MATLAB code: 10

num=[0 1]; 5

Imaginary Axis
den=conv([1 0],[1 0]);
den=conv(den,[1 8]); 0

den=conv(den,[1 8]); -5
mysys=tf(num,den)
-10
rlocus(mysys);
-15

-20

-25
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Real Axis

Root Locus
15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

7-13(i) MATLAB code:


0
num=conv([1 4-2j],[1
4+2j])
-5
den=conv([1 0],[1 0]);
den=conv(den,[1 8]);
den=conv(den,[1 8]); -10
mysys=tf(num,den)
rlocus(mysys);
-15
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

7‐41 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

Imaginary Axis 0

7-13(j) MATLAB code: -0.05

num=conv([1 0],[1 0]); -0.1


den=conv([1 2],[1 -2]);
-0.15
mysys=tf(num,den)
rlocus(mysys); -0.2

-0.25
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Real Axis

7-13(k) MATLAB code:


num=conv([1 2],[1 -2]);
den=conv([1 -j],[1 j]);
den=conv(den,[1 -2j]);
den=conv(den,[1 2j]);
mysys=tf(num,den)

7‐42 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

rlocus(mysys);
Root Locus
5

Imaginary Axis
0

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Real Axis

7-13(l) MATLAB code:


num=conv([1 1],[1 -1]); Root Locus
5
den=conv([1 -j],[1 j]);
den=conv(den,[1 -2j]); 4

den=conv(den,[1 2j]); 3
mysys=tf(num,den)
rlocus(mysys); 2

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
Real Axis

7‐43 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
7-13(m) MATLAB code: 6

num=conv([1 1],[1 2]);


4
num=conv(num,[1 3]);
den=conv([1 0],[1 0]);
den=conv(den,[1 0]); 2

den=conv(den,[1 -1]);

Imaginary Axis
mysys=tf(num,den) 0
rlocus(mysys);
-2

-4

-6
-18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2
Real Axis

Root Locus
1500

1000
7-13(n) MATLAB code:
num=conv([1 5],[1 40]); 500
den=conv([1 0],[1 0]);
Imaginary Axis

den=conv(den,[1 0]);
0
den=conv(den,[1 100]);
den=conv(den,[1 200]);
mysys=tf(num,den) -500

rlocus(mysys);
-1000

-1500
-1400 -1200 -1000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600
Real Axis

7‐44 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
10

Imaginary Axis
7-13(o) MATLAB code: 0

num=conv([1 5],[1 40]); -2


den=conv([1 0],[1 0]);
-4
den=conv(den,[1 0]);
den=conv(den,[1 100]); -6
den=conv(den,[1 200]);
-8
mysys=tf(num,den)
rlocus(mysys); -10
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
Real Axis

7-14)  (a)     Q( s ) = s + 5 ( )
P ( s ) = s s + 3s + 2 = s ( s + 1)( s + 2)  
2

     Asymptotes:  K > 0:  90 o , 270 o     K < 0: 


o
0 , 180  
o

      Intersect of Asymptotes: 

−1 − 2 − ( −5)
          σ1 = = 1 
3−1

3 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 9 s + 15 s + 5 = 0  

      Breakaway Points:    −0.4475,    −1.609,     −6.9434 

7‐45 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐14  (b)    Q( s ) = s + 3 ε 2
ϕ
P( s) = s s + s + 2  

7‐46 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
o o o o
     Asymptotes:  K > 0:  90 , 270     K < 0:    0 , 180  

     Intersect of Asymptotes:   

−1 − ( −3)
          σ1 = = 1 
3−1

   

3 2
     Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 5s + 3s + 3 = 0  

     Breakaway Points:    −4.4798   The other solutions are not breakaway points. 

7‐47 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

   

2
7‐14  (c)  Q( s ) = 5s P ( s ) = s + 10  

o o
     Asymptotes:  K > 0:  180     K < 0:  0  

7‐48 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
2
     Breakaway‐point Equation:  5 s − 50 = 0  

     Breakaway Points:    −3.162,      3.162 

7‐49 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

7‐14  (d)  (
Q( s ) = s s + s + 2
2
) P ( s ) = s + 3s + s + 5s + 10  
4 3 2

 
o o
     Asymptotes:   K > 0:  180     K < 0:  0  

6 5 4 3 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 2 s + 8 s + 2 s − 33 s − 20 s − 20 = 0  

      Breakaway Points:    −2,    1.784.  The other solutions are not breakaway points. 

7‐50 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐14  (e)  ( )
Q( s ) = s − 1 ( s + 2 )
2
(
P( s) = s s + 2s + 2  
2
)

7‐51 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

     Since Q( s )  and  P ( s )  are of the same order, there are no asymptotes. 

   

3 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  6 s + 12 s + 8 s + 4 = 0  

      Breakaway Points:    −1.3848 

7‐52 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐14  (f)   Q ( s ) = ( s + 1)( s + 4) ( )
P(s) = s s − 2  
2

7‐53 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

o o
     Asymptotes:  K > 0:  180     K < 0:  0  

4 3 2
     Breakaway‐point equations:  s + 10 s + 14 s − 8 = 0  

     Breakaway Points:    −8.334,    0.623 

     

7‐54 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

7‐14  (g)  Q( s ) = s + 4 s + 5
2
P( s ) = s
2
(s 2
)
+ 8s + 16  

     Asymptotes:  K > 0:  90 o , 270 o   o o


      K < 0:          0 , 180  

      Intersect of Asymptotes:   

−8 − ( −4 )
          σ1 = = −2  
4−2

5 4 3 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 10 s + 42 s + 92 s + 80 s = 0  

      Breakaway Points:    0, − 2, − 4, − 2 + j 2.45, − 2 − j 2.45  

7‐55 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐14  (h)  (
Q( s ) = s − 2
2
) ( s + 4) (
P( s) = s s + 2s + 2  
2
)
 

    Since  Q ( s ) and P ( s )  are of the same order, there are no asymptotes. 

7‐56 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

    Breakaway Points:  −2,    6.95 

7‐57 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

7‐14  (i)    Q( s ) = ( s + 2 )( s + 0.5) ε ϕ 
2
P( s) = s s − 1

     Asymptotes:  K > 0:  180 o     K < 0: 


o
0  

4 3 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 5s + 4 s − 1 = 0  

       

      Breakaway Points:     −4.0205,    0.40245  The other solutions are not breakaway points. 

7‐58 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐59 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐14  (j)    Q( s) = 2s + 5 P(s) = s
2
(s 2
)
+ 2s + 1 = s
2
( s + 1)  
2

     Asymptotes:  K > 0:  60 o , 180 o , 300 o   o o


K < 0:      0 , 120 , 240  
o

      Intersect of Asymptotes;   

0 + 0 − 1 − 1 − ( −2.5) 0.5
          σ1 = = = 0.167  
4 −1 3

4 3 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  6 s + 28 s + 32 s + 10 s = 0  

      Breakaway Points:    0,    −0.5316,    −1,    −3.135 

7‐60 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-15 ) MATLAB code:


clear all;
close all;
s = tf('s')

%a)
num_GH_a=(s+5);
den_GH_a=(s^3+3*s^2+2*s);
GH_a=num_GH_a/den_GH_a;
figure(1);
rlocus(GH_a)

7‐61 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

%b)
num_GH_b=(s+3);
den_GH_b=(s^3+s^2+2*s);
GH_b=num_GH_b/den_GH_b;
figure(2);
rlocus(GH_b)

%c)
num_GH_c= 5*s^2;
den_GH_c=(s^3+10);
GH_c=num_GH_c/den_GH_c;
figure(3);
rlocus(GH_c)

%d)
num_GH_d=(s^3+s^2+2);
den_GH_d=(s^4+3*s^3+s^2+15);
GH_d=num_GH_d/den_GH_d;
figure(4);
rlocus(GH_d)

%e)
num_GH_e=(s^2-1)*(s+2);
den_GH_e=(s^3+2*s^2+2*s);
GH_e=num_GH_e/den_GH_e;
figure(5);
rlocus(GH_e)

%f)
num_GH_f=(s+4)*(s+1);
den_GH_f=(s^3-2*s);
GH_f=num_GH_f/den_GH_f;
figure(6);
rlocus(GH_f)

%g)
num_GH_g=(s^2+4*s+5);
den_GH_g=(s^4+6*s^3+9*s^2);
GH_g=num_GH_g/den_GH_g;
figure(7);
rlocus(GH_g)

%h)
num_GH_h=(s^2-2)*(s+4);
den_GH_h=(s^3+2*s^2+2*s);
GH_h=num_GH_h/den_GH_h;

7‐62 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

figure(8);
rlocus(GH_h)

%i)
num_GH_i=(s+2)*(s+0.5);
den_GH_i=(s^3-s);
GH_i=num_GH_i/den_GH_i;
figure(9);
rlocus(GH_i)

%j)
num_GH_j=(2*s+5);
den_GH_j=(s^4+2*s^3+2*s^2);
GH_j=num_GH_j/den_GH_j;
figure(10);
rlocus(GH_j)

%k)
num_GH_k=1;
den_GH_k=(s^5+2*s^4+3*s^3+2*s^2+s);
GH_k=num_GH_k/den_GH_k;
figure(11);
rlocus(GH_k)

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(a):

Root Locus
20

15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15

-20
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

7‐63 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(b):

Root Locus
15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(c):

7‐64 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
2

1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(d):

Root Locus
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(e):

7‐65 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(f):


poles:

Asymptotes angle:

Therefore,

Departure angle from:

7‐66 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
5

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5
-18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(g):


Poles: and zeroes:

Asymptotes angles:

Departure angles from:

7‐67 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(h):


Poles: and zeros:

The break away points:

which means:

or

7‐68 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(i):


Poles:

breaking points:

which means :

Departure angles from:

Asymptotes angles:
or θ =

7‐69 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
2.5

1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(j):

Root Locus
10

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10
-10 -5 0 5
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-15(k):

7‐70 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
6

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
Real Axis

7-16) (a)   Asymptotes:  K > 0:  45o , 135o , 225o , 315o  

      Intersect of Asymptotes: 

−2 − 2 − 5 − 6 − ( −4 )
          σ1 = = −2.75  
5−1

5 4 3 2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  4 s + 65 s + 396 s + 1100 s + 1312 s + 480 = 0  

   

      Breakaway Points:    −0.6325,        −5.511        (on the RL) 

      When ζ = 0.707,   K  = 13.07 

7‐71 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐16  (b)    Asymptotes:  K > 0:  45o , 135o , 225o , 315o  

       Intersect of Asymptotes: 

7‐72 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
0 − 2 − 5 − 10
          σ1 = = −4.25  
4

3 2
       Breakaway‐point Equation:  4 s + 51s + 160 s + 100 = 0  

       When ζ = 0.707,     K = 61.5 

7‐73 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

7‐16  (c)    Asymptotes:   K > 0:    180 o  

4 3 2
       Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 4 s + 10 s + 300 s + 500 = 0  

       Breakaway Points:  −1.727    (on the RL) 

       When ζ = 0.707,   K = 9.65 

7‐74 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐75 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

o o
7‐16  (d)    K > 0:  90 , 270  

       Intersect of Asymptotes:   

−2 − 2 − 5 − 6
          σ1 = = −7.5  
4−2

       

        When ζ = 0.707,   K = 8.4  

7‐76 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-17) MATLAB code:


clear all;
close all;
s = tf('s')

%a)
num_G_a=(s+3);
den_G_a=s*(s^2+4*s+4)*(s+5)*(s+6);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
figure(1);
rlocus(G_a)

%b)

7‐77 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

num_G_b= 1;
den_G_b=s*(s+2)*(s+4)*(s+10);
G_b=num_G_b/den_G_b;
figure(2);
rlocus(G_b)

%c)
num_G_c=(s^2+2*s+8);
den_G_c=s*(s+5)*(s+10);
G_c=num_G_c/den_G_c;
figure(3);
rlocus(G_c)

%d)
num_G_d=(s^2+4);
den_G_d=(s+2)^2*(s+5)*(s+6);
G_d=num_G_d/den_G_d;
figure(4);
rlocus(G_d)

%e)
num_G_e=(s+10);
den_G_e=s^2*(s+2.5)*(s^2+2*s+2);
G_e=num_G_e/den_G_e;
figure(5);
rlocus(G_e)

%f)
num_G_f=1;
den_G_f=(s+1)*(s^2+4*s+5);
G_f=num_G_f/den_G_f;
figure(6);
rlocus(G_f)

%g)
num_G_g=(s+2);
den_G_g=(s+1)*(s^2+6*s+10);
G_g=num_G_g/den_G_g;
figure(7);
rlocus(G_g)

%h)
num_G_h=(s+3)*(s+2);
den_G_h=s*(s+1);
G_h=num_G_h/den_G_h;
figure(8);
rlocus(G_h)

7‐78 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

%i)
num_G_i=1;
den_G_i=s*(s^2+4*s+5);
G_i=num_G_i/den_G_i;
figure(9);
rlocus(G_i)

Root Locus diagram – 7-17(a):


By using “Data Cursor” tab on the figure window and clicking on the root locus diagram, gain and
damping values can be observed. Damping of ~0.707 can be observed on intersection of the root locus
diagram with two lines originating from (0,0) by angles of ArcCos(0.707) from the real axis. These
intersection points are shown for part (a) where the corresponding gain is 19. In the other figures for
section (b) to (i), similar points have been picked by the “Data Cursor”, and the gains are reported here.

Root Locus
15

10
System: G_a
Gain: 19
Pole: -0.584 + 0.589i
5 Damping: 0.704
Overshoot (%): 4.43
Imaginary Axis

Frequency (rad/sec): 0.829

System: G_a
Gain: 19
-5 Pole: -0.584 - 0.589i
Damping: 0.704
Overshoot (%): 4.43
Frequency (rad/sec): 0.829
-10

-15
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-17(b): (K = 45.5 @ damping = ~0.0707)

7‐79 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
25

20

15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-17(c): (K = 12.8 @ damping = ~0.0707)

Root Locus
3

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3
-18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-17(d): (K = 8.3 @ damping = ~0.0707)

7‐80 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
30

20

10
Imaginary Axis

-10

-20

-30
-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-17(e): (K = 0 @ damping = 0.0707)

Root Locus
20

15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15

-20
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-17(f): (K = 2.33 @ damping = ~0.0707)

7‐81 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
5

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5
-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-17(g): (K = 7.03 @ damping = ~0.0707)

Root Locus
10

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-17(h): (no solution exists for damping =0.0707)

7‐82 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
Imaginary Axis

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1
-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-17(i): (K = 2.93 @ damping = ~0.0707)

Root Locus
4

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

o o o
7-18)   (a)   Asymptotes:  K > 0:  60 , 180 , 300  

7‐83 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
      Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 10 − 20
          σ1 = = −10  
3
2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:   3 s + 60 s + 200 = 0   Breakaway Point:  (RL)      −4.2265,    K = 384.9 

 
o o o o
         (b)  Asymptotes:  K > 0:  45 , 135 , 225 , 315  

     Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 1− 3 − 5
          σ1 = = −2.25  
4
3 2
     Breakaway‐point Equation:    4 s + 27 s + 46 s + 15 = 0     

     Breakaway Points:  (RL)       −0.4258  K = 2.879,  −4.2537          K = 12.95 

7‐84 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

c) Zeros: and poles:

Angle of asymptotes:

The breakaway points: Î

Then and

d) Poles:

Angle of asymptotes:

breakaway points:

e) Zeros: and poles:

Angle of asymptotes:

7‐85 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

breakaway points: Î

f) Poles:

Angles of asymptotes:

breakaway point:

7-19) MATLAB code:


clear all;
close all;
s = tf('s')

%a)
num_G_a=1;
den_G_a=s*(s+10)*(s+20);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
figure(1);
rlocus(G_a)

%b)
num_G_b= 1;
den_G_b=s*(s+1)*(s+3)*(s+5);
G_b=num_G_b/den_G_b;
figure(2);
rlocus(G_b)

%c)
num_G_c=(s-0.5);
den_G_c=(s-1)^2;
G_c=num_G_c/den_G_c;
figure(3);
rlocus(G_c)

%d)

7‐86 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

num_G_d=1;
den_G_d=(s+0.5)*(s-1.5);
G_d=num_G_d/den_G_d;
figure(4);
rlocus(G_d)

%e)
num_G_e=(s+1/3)*(s+1);
den_G_e=s*(s+1/2)*(s-1);
G_e=num_G_e/den_G_e;
figure(5);
rlocus(G_e)

%f)
num_G_f=1;
den_G_f=s*(s^2+6*s+25);
G_f=num_G_f/den_G_f;
figure(6);
rlocus(G_f)

Root Locus diagram – 7-19(a):

Root Locus
60

40
System: G_a
Gain: 385
20 Pole: -4.23 - 1.45e-007i
Damping: 1
Overshoot (%): 0
Imaginary Axis

Frequency (rad/sec): 4.23


0

-20

-40

-60
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-19(b):

7‐87 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
15

10
System: G_b
Gain: 2.88
5 Pole: -0.426 - 1.02e-008i
Damping: 1
Overshoot (%): 0
Imaginary Axis

Frequency (rad/sec): 0.426


0
System: G_b
Gain: 13
Pole: -4.25 + 0.0278i
-5 Damping: 1
Overshoot (%): 0
Frequency (rad/sec): 4.25
-10

-15
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-19(c):

Root Locus
0.8

0.6

System: G_c
0.4
Gain: 2
Pole: 0
0.2 Damping: -1
Overshoot (%): 0
Imaginary Axis

Frequency (rad/sec): 0
0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8
-0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-19(d):

7‐88 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
1.5

1
System: G_d
Gain: 1
0.5 Pole: 0.5
Damping: -1
Overshoot (%): 0
Imaginary Axis

Frequency (rad/sec): 0.5


0

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-19(e):

Root Locus
1.5

1
System: G_e System: G_e
Gain: 5.34 Gain: 0.211
0.5 Pole: -2.24 - 3.95e-008i Pole: 0.383
Damping: 1 Damping: -1
Overshoot (%): 0 Overshoot (%): 0
Imaginary Axis

Frequency (rad/sec): 2.24 Frequency (rad/sec): 0.383


0

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-19(f): (No breakaway points)

7‐89 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
25

20

15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15
Real Axis

7‐90 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-20)

7‐91 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-21) MATLAB code:


clear all;
close all;
s = tf('s')

%a)
n=1;
num_G_a= 1;
den_G_a=(s+4)^n;
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
figure(n);
rlocus(G_a)

%b)
n=2;
num_G_b= 1;
den_G_b=(s+4)^n;
G_b=num_G_b/den_G_b;
figure(n);
rlocus(G_b)

%c)
n=3;
num_G_c= 1;
den_G_c=(s+4)^n;
G_c=num_G_c/den_G_c;
figure(n);
rlocus(G_c)

%d)
n=4;
num_G_d= 1;
den_G_d=(s+4)^n;
G_d=num_G_d/den_G_d;
figure(n);
rlocus(G_d)

%e)
n=5;
num_G_e= 1;
den_G_e=(s+4)^n;
G_e=num_G_e/den_G_e;
figure(n);
rlocus(G_e)

Root Locus diagram – 7-21(a):

7‐92 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
Imaginary Axis

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8
-16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-21(b):

Root Locus
2.5

1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5
-4.5 -4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5
Real Axis

7‐93 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus diagram – 7-21(c):

Root Locus
4

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

Root Locus diagram – 7-21(d):

Root Locus
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

7‐94 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus diagram – 7-21(e):

Root Locus
5

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

7‐95 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-22)   P ( s ) = s 3 + 25 s 2 + 2 s + 100 Q ( s ) = 100 s  

o o
   Asymptotes:  Kt > 0: 90 , 270  

    Intersect of Asymptotes:  

−25 − 0
          σ1 = = −12.5  
3−1

3 2
    Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 12.5 s − 50 = 0  

    Breakaway Points:  (RL)  −2.2037,   −12.162 

7-23) MATLAB code:

7‐96 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

s = tf('s')
num_G= 100;
den_G=s^3+25*s+2*s+100;
G=num_G/den_G;
figure(1);
rlocus(G)

Root Locus diagram – 7-23:

Root Locus
30

20

10
Imaginary Axis

-10

-20

-30
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
Real Axis

7-24)    Characteristic equation:     s 3 + 5s 2 + Kt s + K = 0  

           (a)   K t = 0 : P(s) = s
2
( s + 5) Q(s) = 1  

        

o o o
      Asymptotes:    K > 0:  60 , 180 , 300  

      Intersect of Asymptotes:   

−5 − 0
          σ1 = = −1667
.  
3

7‐97 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
      

2
      Breakaway‐point Equation:  3 s + 10 s = 0         Breakaway Points:  0,    −3.333 

7‐98 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
3 2
 7‐24  (b)  P ( s ) = s + 5 s + 10 = 0 Q( s ) = s  

         Asymptotes:    K > 0:        90 o , 270 o  

            Intersect of Asymptotes:     

−5 − 0
            σ1 = = 0 
2 −1
3
            Breakaway‐point Equation:  2 s + 5 s − 10 = 0  

            There are no breakaway points on RL. 

7‐99 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-25)
By collapsing the two loops, and finding the overall close loop transfer function, the characteristic
equation (denominator of closed loop transfer function) can be found as:

s 3 + 5s 2 + K t s + K
1 + GH =
s 2 ( s + 5) + K t s

For part (a): Root locus diagram, part (a):


Kt =0. Therefore, assuming 15
Root Locus

Den(GH)= s 3 + 5s 2 and
10
Num(GH) =1, we can use rlocus
command to construct the root 5

locus diagram.
Imaginary Axis

For part (b): -5

K =10. Therefore, assuming


-10
Den(GH)= s 3 + 5 s 2 + 10 and
Num(GH) = s , we can use rlocus -15
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10
command to construct the root Real Axis

locus diagram. Root locus diagram, part (b):


Root Locus
15

MATLAB code (7-25): 10

s = tf('s')
5
%a)
Imaginary Axis

num_G_a= 1;
den_G_a=s^3+5*s^2; 0

GH_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
figure(1); -5
rlocus(GH_a)
-10
%b)
num_G_b= s;
den_G_b=s^3+5*s^2+10; -15
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
GH_b=num_G_b/den_G_b; Real Axis
figure(2);
rlocus(GH_b)

7‐100 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-26)     P ( s ) = s 2 + 116.84 s + 1843 2


Q ( s ) = 2.05 s ( s + 5)  

o
  Asymptotes:  J L = 0: 180  

4 3 2
  Breakaway‐point Equation:  −2.05 s − 479 s − 12532 s − 37782 s = 0  

  Breakaway Points:  (RL)  0,    −204.18 

7-27) MATLAB code:

7‐101 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

s = tf('s')
num_G = (2.05*s^3 + 10.25*s^2);
den_G = (s^2 + 116.84*s + 1843);
G = num_G/den_G;
figure(1);
rlocus(G)

Root locus diagram:

Root Locus
150

100

50
Imaginary Axis

-50

-100

-150
-400 -350 -300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50
Real Axis

7‐102 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-28) (a)    P( s ) = s ( s 2 − 1) Q ( s ) = ( s + 5)( s + 3)  

o
       Asymptotes:     K > 0:    180  

   

4 3 2
         Breakaway‐point Equation:  s + 16 s + 46 s − 15 = 0  

         Breakaway Points:  (RL)  0.5239,    −12.254    

7‐103 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐28  (b)    P( s ) = s ( s 2 + 10 s + 29 ) Q ( s ) = 10( s + 3)  

       Asymptotes:    K > 0:     90 o , 270 o  

         Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 10 − ( −3)
          σ1 = = −3.5  
3−1

3 2
         Breakaway‐point Equation:  20 s + 190 s + 600 s + 870 = 0      

         There are no breakaway points on the RL. 

7‐104 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-29)
Root locus diagram, part (a):
MATLAB code (7-29):
s = tf('s')
%a)
num_G_a = (s+5)*(s+3);
den_G_a = s*(s^2 - 1);
G_a = num_G_a/den_G_a;
figure(1);
rlocus(G_a)

7‐105 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

K=10;
%b) Root Locus
8
num_G_b = (3*K+K*s);
den_G_b =
6
(s^3+K*s^2+K*3*s-s);
G_b = num_G_b/den_G_b; 4
figure(2);
rlocus(G_b) 2

Imaginary Axis
0

-2

-4

-6

-8
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5
Real Axis

Root locus diagram, part (b):

Root Locus
20

15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15

-20
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

7-30) Poles: zeros:

7‐106 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Angles of asymptotes:

breakaway points:

Ö Î

MATLAB code:

s = tf('s')
num_G=(s+0.4);
den_G=s^2*(s+3.6);
G=num_G/den_G;
figure(1);
rlocus(G)

Root locus diagram: 
Root Locus
5

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5
-4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5
Real Axis  
 

7‐31  (a)  P ( s ) = s( s + 12.5)( s + 1) Q( s ) = 83.333  

7‐107 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

 
o o o
    Asymptotes:  N > 0:  60 , 180 , 300  

    Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 12.5 − 1
            σ1 = = −4.5  
3

     

2
    Breakaway‐point Equation:  3s + 27 s _12.5 = 0  

    Breakaway Point:    (RL)  −0.4896 

 
2 2
7‐31  (b)  P ( s ) = s + 12.5 s + 833.333 Q ( s ) = 0.02 s ( s + 12.5)  

7‐108 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

 
o
    A > 0:      180  

4 3 2
    Breakaway‐point Equation:  0.02 s + 0.5 s + 53.125 s + 416.67 s = 0  

    Breakaway Points:      (RL) 0 

7‐31 c)  P ( s ) = s 3 + 12.5 s 2 + 1666.67 = ( s + 17.78 )( s − 2.64 + j 9.3)( s − 2.64 − j 9.3)  

7‐109 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

    Q( s ) = 0.02 s( s + 12.5)  

 
o
    Asymptotes:  Ko > 0: 180  

4 3 2
    Breakaway‐point Equation:  0.02 s + 0.5 s + 3.125 s − 66.67 s − 416.67 = 0  

    Breakaway Point:    (RL)  −5.797 

7‐110 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-32) MATLAB code:

s = tf('s')
%a)
A=50;
K0=50;
num_G_a = 250;
den_G_a = 0.06*s*(s + 12.5)*(A*s+K0);
G_a = num_G_a/den_G_a;
figure(1);
rlocus(G_a)

%b)
N=10;
K0=50;
num_G_b = 0.06*s*(s+12.5)*s
den_G_b = K0*(0.06*s*(s+12.5))+250*N;
G_b = num_G_b/den_G_b;
figure(2);
rlocus(G_b)

%c)
A=50;
N=20;
num_G_c = 0.06*s*(s+12.5);
den_G_c = 0.06*s*(s+12.5)*A*s+250*N;
G_c = num_G_c/den_G_c;
figure(3);
rlocus(G_c)

Root locus diagram, part (a):

7‐111 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
30

20

10
Imaginary Axis

-10

-20

-30
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20
Real Axis

Root locus diagram, part (b):

Root Locus
30

20

10
Imaginary Axis

-10

-20

-30
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5
Real Axis

Root locus diagram, part (c):

7‐112 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
10

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10
-35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5
Real Axis

7-33) (a)   A = Ko = 100:   P ( s ) = s( s + 12.5)( s + 1) Q( s ) = 4167


.  

o o o
      Asymptotes:    N > 0:     60 180 300  

       Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 − 1 − 12.5
          σ1 = = −4.5  
3

2
       Breakaway‐point Equation:  3 s + 27 s + 12.5 = 0  

       Breakaway Points:     (RL)  −0.4896 

7‐113 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐33  (b)    P ( s ) = s 2 + 12.5 + 1666.67 = ( s + 6.25 + j 40.34 )( s + 6.25 − j 40.34 )  

         Q ( s ) = 0.02 s 2 ( s + 12.5)  

7‐114 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

   

        Asymptotes:      A > 0: 180 o  
4 3 2
          Breakaway‐point Equation:  0.02 s + 0.5 s + 103.13 s + 833.33 s = 0  

          Breakaway Points:  (RL)   0 

7‐115 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

7‐33  (c)   P ( s ) = s 3 + 12.5 s 2 + 833.33 = ( s + 15.83)( s − 1.663 + j 7.063)( s − 1.663 − j 7.063)  

       Q( s ) = 0.01s( s + 12.5)        

      Asymptotes:  Ko > 0: 180o  

4 3 2
       Breakaway‐point Equation:  0.01s + 0.15 s + 1.5625 s − 16.67 s − 104.17 = 0  

       Breakaway Point:  (RL)  −5.37 

7‐116 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-34) MATLAB code:

s = tf('s')
%a)
A=100;
K0=100;
num_G_a = 250;
den_G_a = 0.06*s*(s + 12.5)*(A*s+K0);
G_a = num_G_a/den_G_a;
figure(1);
rlocus(G_a)

%b)
N=20;
K0=50;

7‐117 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

num_G_b = 0.06*s*(s+12.5)*s
den_G_b = K0*(0.06*s*(s+12.5))+250*N;
G_b = num_G_b/den_G_b;
figure(2);
rlocus(G_b)

%c)
A=100;
N=20;
num_G_c = 0.06*s*(s+12.5);
den_G_c = 0.06*s*(s+12.5)*A*s+250*N;
G_c = num_G_c/den_G_c;
figure(3);
rlocus(G_c)

Root locus diagram, part (a):


Root Locus
30

20

10
Imaginary Axis

-10

-20

-30
-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20
Real Axis

Root locus diagram, part (b):

7‐118 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
50

40

30

20

10
Imaginary Axis

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10
Real Axis

Root locus diagram, part (c):

Root Locus
8

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8
-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5
Real Axis

7-35) a) zeros: , poles:

7‐119 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Angle of asymptotes:

Breakaway points:

Ö Î

b) There is no closed loop pole in the right half s-plane; therefore the system is stable for all K>0

c) MATLAB code:
num_G=25*(s+2)^2;
den_G=(s^2+4)*(s+5)^2;
G_a=num_G/den_G;
figure(1);
rlocus(G_a)

Root locus diagram:


Root Locus
10

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Real Axis

7‐120 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
2
7-36) (a)  P ( s ) = s ( s + 1)( s + 5) Q ( s ) = 1 

o o o o
    Asymptotes:   K > 0:  45 , 135 , 225 , 315  

    Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 + 0 − 1− 5
            σ1 = = −15
.  
4
3 2
    Breakaway‐point Equation:     4 s + 18 s + 10 s = 0       Breakaway point:  (RL)   0,   −3.851 

2
        (b)    P ( s ) = s ( s + 1)( s + 5) Q ( s ) = 5 s + 1 

o o o
    Asymptotes:  K > 0:  60 , 180 , 300  

    Intersect of Asymptotes:   

0 + 0 − 1 − 5 − ( −0.2) 5.8
          σ1 = =− = −193
.  
4 −1 3
4 3 2
    Breakaway‐point Equation:  15 s + 64 s + 43 s + 10 s = 0  

    Breakaway Points:     (RL)  −3.5026 

7‐121 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

   

7-37) Root locus diagram, part (a):


MATLAB code (7-37):
Root Locus
s = tf('s') 15
%a)
num_GH_a= 1;
10
den_GH_a=s^2*(s+1)*(s+
5);
GH_a=num_GH_a/den_GH_a 5

;
Imaginary Axis

figure(1); 0
rlocus(GH_a)
-5
%b)
num_GH_b= (5*s+1);
den_GH_b=s^2*(s+1)*(s+ -10
5);
GH_b=num_GH_b/den_GH_b
-15
; -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15

figure(2); Real Axis

rlocus(GH_b)
Root locus diagram, part (b):

7‐122 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
20

15

10

Imaginary Axis
0

-5

-10

-15

-20
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10
Real Axis

7-38) a) can be approximated by ( easy way to verify is to compare both funtions’ Taylor
series expansions)

Therefore:

Zeros: and poles:


Angle of asymptotes :

Breakaway points:
Which means: Î

b) Î

S2 1 2+2k
7‐123 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

S 3-k 0
S0 (3-k)(2+2k)
 
As a result:

Since K must be positive, the range of stability is then

c) In this problem, e −Ts term is a time delay. Therefore, MATLB PADE command is used for pade

approximation, where brings e −Ts term to the polynomial form of degree N.

s = tf('s')
T=1
N=1;
num_GH= pade(exp(-1*T*s),N);
den_GH=(s+1);
GH=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(5);
rlocus(GH)

Root locus diagram:

7‐124 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
4

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Real Axis

7-39)
(a) P ( s ) = s 2 ( s + 1)( s + 5) + 10 = ( s + 4.893)( s + 1896
. )( s − 0.394 + j 0.96 )( s − 0.394 + j 0.96 )  

  Q( s ) = 10 s  

o o o
  Asymptotes:  Td > 0: 60 , 180 , 300  

−4.893 − 1896
. + 0.3944 + 0.3944
  Intersection of Asymptotes:    σ1 = = −2  
4 −1

  There are no breakaway points on the RL. 

7‐125 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

(b) MATLAB code:


s = tf('s')
num_GH= 10*s;
den_GH=s^2*(s+1)*(s+5)+10;
GH=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(1);
rlocus(GH)

Root locus diagram:

7‐126 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
15

10

5
Imaginary Axis

-5

-10

-15
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10
Real Axis

7-40) (a)  K = 1:  P ( s ) = s 3 ( s + 117.23)( s + 4882.8 ) Q ( s ) = 1010( s + 1.5948 )( s + 114.41)( s + 4884 )    

o o
    Asymptotes:  K L > 0: 90 , 270  

    Intersect of Asymptotes:   

−117.23 − 4882.8 + 15948


. + 114.41 + 4884
          σ1 = = −0.126  
5− 3

    Breakaway Point:   (RL)     0 

7‐127 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

      
   

3
7‐40  (b)  K = 1000:  P ( s ) = s ( s + 117.23)( s + 4882.8 )  

3 2 5
Q ( s ) = 1010( s + 5000 s + 5.6673 × 10 s + 891089110 )
       
= 1010( s + 4921.6 )( s + 39.18 + j 423.7 )( s + 39.18 − 423.7 )

o o
       Asymptotes:  K L > 0: 90 , 270  

       Intersect of Asymptotes: 

−117.23 − 4882.8 + 49216


. + 39.18 + 39.18
          σ1 = = −0.033  
5− 3

       Breakaway‐point Equation: 

7 7 6 10 5 13 4 16 3 18 2
                       2020 s + 2.02 × 10 s + 5.279 × 10 s + 1.5977 × 10 s + 18655
. × 10 s + 1.54455 × 10 s = 0  

       Breakaway points:  (RL)  0,    −87.576 

7‐128 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-41) MATLAB code:


s = tf('s')
Ki=9;
Kb=0.636;
Ra=5;
La=.001;
Ks=1;
n=.1;
Jm=0.001;
Jl=0.001;
Bm=0;
%a)

7‐129 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

K=1;
num_G_a=((n^2*La*Jl+La*Jm)*s^3+(n^2*Ra*Jl+Ra*Jm+Bm*La)*s^2+Ra*Bm*s+Ki
*Kb*s+n*Ks*K*Ki);
den_G_a=((La*Jm*Jl)*s^5+(Jl*Ra*Jm+Jl*Bm*La)*s^4+(Ki*Kb*Jl+Ra*Bm*Jl)*s
^3);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
figure(1);
rlocus(G_a)
%b)
K=1000;
num_G_b=((n^2*La*Jl+La*Jm)*s^3+(n^2*Ra*Jl+Ra*Jm+Bm*La)*s^2+Ra*Bm*s+Ki
*Kb*s+n*Ks*K*Ki);
den_G_b=((La*Jm*Jl)*s^5+(Jl*Ra*Jm+Jl*Bm*La)*s^4+(Ki*Kb*Jl+Ra*Bm*Jl)*s
^3);
G_b=num_G_b/den_G_b;
figure(2);
rlocus(G_b)

Root locus diagram, part (a):


Root Locus
1000

800

600

400

200
Imaginary Axis

-200

-400

-600

-800

-1000
-3500 -3000 -2500 -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 0 500
Real Axis

Root locus diagram, part (b):

7‐130 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
Root Locus
1000

800

600

400

200
Imaginary Axis

-200

-400

-600

-800

-1000
-4000 -3500 -3000 -2500 -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 0 500
Real Axis

7-42
(a) Characteristic Equation:       s + 5000 s + 572,400 s + 900,000 + J L 10 s + 50,000 s
3 2
( 3 2
)= 0 
3 2 2
  P ( s ) = s + 5000 s + 572, 400 s + 900,000 = ( s + 1.5945)( s + 115.6 )( s + 4882.8 )        Q ( s ) = 10 s ( s + 5000 )  

  Since the pole at −5000 is very close to the zero at −4882.8,  P ( s ) and Q( s )  can be approximated as: 

2
  P ( s ) ≅ ( s + 1.5945)( s + 115.6 ) Q ( s ) ≅ 10.24 s  

2
  Breakaway‐point Equation:  1200 s + 3775 s = 0   Breakaway Points:  (RL):  0,   −3.146 

7‐131 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

(b) MATLAB code:


s = tf('s')
K=1;
Jm=0.001;
La=0.001;
n=0.1;
Ra=5;
Ki=9;
Bm=0;
Kb=0.0636;
Ks=1;

num_G_a = (n^2*La*s^3+n^2*Ra*s^2);
den_G_a = (La*Jm*s^3+(Ra*Jm+Bm*La)*s^2+(Ra*Bm+Ki*Kb)*s+n*Ki*Ks*K);
G_a = num_G_a/den_G_a;
figure(1);
rlocus(G_a)

Root locus diagram:

Root Locus
300

200

100
Imaginary Axis

-100

-200

-300
-6000 -5000 -4000 -3000 -2000 -1000 0 1000
Real Axis

7‐132 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-43)  (a)  α = 12: P ( s ) = s 2 ( s + 12 ) Q ( s ) = s + 1 

o o o o
       Asymptotes:  K > 0:  90 , 270     K < 0:  0 , 180  

       Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 + 0 − 12 − ( −1)
          σ1 = = −5.5 
3−1
3 2
       Breakaway‐point Equation:  2 s + 15 s + 24 s = 0   Breakaway Points:    0,   −2.314,   −5.186 

2
7‐43  (b)  α = 4: P( s) = s ( s + 4) Q ( s ) = s + 1 

o o o o
       Asymptotes:  K > 0:   90 , 270     K < 0:   0 , 180      

       Intersect of Asymptotes: 

0 + 0 − 4 − ( −10
          σ1 = = −15
.  
3−1
3 2
       Breakaway‐point Equation:   2 s + 7 s + 8 s = 0      Breakaway Points:  K > 0  0.  None for K < 0. 

   

7‐133 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

2
2 α +3 (α + 3) − 16α
        (c)  Breakaway‐point Equation:  2 s + (α + 3) s + 2 s = 0     Solutions:    s = − ± , s = 0 
4 4

      For one nonzero breakaway point, the quantity under the square‐root sign must equal zero.  

2
      Thus,   α − 10α + 9 = 0, α = 1 or α = 9. The answer is α = 9.   The α = 1 solution represents pole‐zero 

      cancellation in the equivalent  G ( s ).   When α = 9,  the nonzero breakaway point is at  s = −3.   σ 1 = −4.  

7‐134 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-44)
For part (c), after finding the expression for:

dk − 3 − α ± (α − 1)(α − 9)
= ,
ds 4
there is one acceptable value of alpha that makes the square root zero ( α = 9 ). Zero square root means
one answer to the breakaway point instead of 2 answers as a result of ± sign. α = 1 is not acceptable
dk 0
since it results in s = −1@ = 0 and then k = .
ds 0

MATLAB code:

s = tf('s')

%(a)
alpha=12
num_GH= s+1;
den_GH=s^3+alpha*s^2;
GH=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(1);
rlocus(GH)

%(b)
alpha=4
num_GH= s+1;
den_GH=s^3+alpha*s^2;
GH=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(2);
rlocus(GH)

%(c)
alpha=9
num_GH= s+1;
den_GH=s^3+alpha*s^2;
GH=num_GH/den_GH;
figure(3);
rlocus(GH)

Root locus diagram, part (a):

7‐135 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root Locus
10

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10
-14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2
Real Axis

Root locus diagram, part (b):

Root Locus
10

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10
-4.5 -4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5
Real Axis

7‐136 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Root locus diagram, part (c): (alpha=9 resulting in 1 breakaway point)

Root Locus
8

2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6

-8
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2
Real Axis

7-45)  (a)   P ( s ) = s 2 ( s + 3) Q( s ) = s + α  

3
      Breakaway‐point Equation:     2 s + 3(1 + α ) s + 6α = 0  

       The roots of the breakaway‐point equation are: 

2
−3(1 + α ) 9(1 + α ) − 48α
        s= ±  
4 4

2
       For no breakaway point other than at  s = 0 ,  set       9(1 + α ) − 48α < 0  or  ‐ 0.333 < α < 3  

       Root Locus Diagram with No Breakaway Point other than at s = 0. 

7‐137 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐45  (b)  One breakaway point other than at s = 0:   α = 0.333, Breakaway point at s = −1.  

7‐138 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐139 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7‐45 (d)   Two breakaway points:    α > 3 :  

7-46) First we can rearrange the system as:

H 1 (s) e − st

where

Now designing a controller is similar to the designing a controller for any unity feedback system.

7‐140 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 7 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

7-47) Let the angle of the vector drawn from the zero at  s = j12 to a point   s1  on the root locuss near the zero 

             be  θ .     Let 

θ 1 = angle of the vector drawn from the pole at j10 to s1 .


θ 2 = angle of the vector drawn from the pole at 0 to s1 .
   
θ 3 = angle of the vector drawn from the pole at − j10 to s1 .
θ 4 = angle of the vector drawn from the zero at − j12 to s1 .

            Then the angle conditions on the root loci are:      

θ = θ 1 − θ 2 − θ 3 + θ 4 = odd multiples of 180


o

     
o
θ 1 = θ 2 = θ 3 = θ 4 = 90 θ =0
o
Thus,
 
 

            The root loci shown in (b) are the correct ones. 

Answers to True and False Review Questions:

6. (F) 7. (T) 8. (T) 9. (F) 10. (F) 11. (T) 12. (T) 13. (T) 14. (T)

7‐141 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Chapter 8

6.54
8‐1  (a)  K = 5    ω n = 5 = 2.24 rad / sec ζ= = 1.46 Mr = 1 ω r = 0 rad / sec  
4.48

6.54 1
         (b)  K = 21.39      ω n = 2139
. = 4.62 rad / sec ζ = = 0.707 M r = =1  
9.24 2
2ζ 1 − ζ

2
               ω r = ω n 1 − ς = 3.27 rad / sec  

6.54
         (c)  K = 100         ω n = 10 rad / sec ζ = = 0.327 M r = 1618
. ω r = 9.45 rad / sec  
20

8-2 Bode diagram (a) – k=5: data points from top to bottom indicate
MATLAB code: bandwidth BW, resonance peak Mr, and resonant frequency ωr.
% Question 8-2, System: CL_a
clear all; Frequency (rad/sec): 0.855
Bode Diagram Magnitude (dB): -3
close all; 0

s = tf('s') -10
System: CL_a
Magnitude (dB)

-20 Frequency (rad/sec): 2.25


%a) Magnitude (dB): -9.4

num_G_a= 5; -30

den_G_a=s*(s+6.54); -40
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
-50
CL_a=G_a/(1+G_a)
0
BW = bandwidth(CL_a)
bode(CL_a)
-45
Phase (deg)

%b)
figure(2); -90
System: CL_a
num_G_b=21.38; Frequency (rad/sec): 2.25
den_G_b=s*(s+6.54); -135 Phase (deg): -90.2
-1 0
10 10
G_b=num_G_b/den_G_b; Frequency (rad/sec)
CL_b=G_b/(1+G_b)
BW = bandwidth(CL_b) Bode diagram (b) – k=21.38: data points from top to bottom
bode(CL_b)
indicate bandwidth BW, resonance peak Mr, and resonant frequency
%c) ωr.
figure(3);
num_G_c=100;
den_G_c=s*(s+6.54);
G_c=num_G_c/den_G_c;

8‐1 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

CL_c=G_c/(1+G_c) System: CL_b


Frequency (rad/sec): 4.6
BW = bandwidth(CL_c) Magnitude (dB): -3
Bode Diagram
0
bode(CL_c)
System: CL_b
-20 Frequency (rad/sec): 4.62
Magnitude (dB)
Magnitude (dB): -3.03
-40

-60

-80

-100
0

-45
Phase (deg)

-90
System: CL_b
-135 Frequency (rad/sec): 4.62
Phase (deg): -89.9

-180
0 1 2
10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)

Bode diagram (c) – k=100: data points from top to bottom indicate
resonance peak Mr, bandwidth BW, and resonant frequency ωr.

Bode Diagram
20

0
System: CL_c
Magnitude (dB)

Frequency (rad/sec): 9.99 System: CL_c


-20 Frequency (rad/sec): 14.3
Magnitude (dB): 3.62
Magnitude (dB): -2.96
-40

-60

-80
0

-45
Phase (deg)

-90
System: CL_c
-135 Frequency (rad/sec): 10
Phase (deg): -90

-180
-1 0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)

8‐2 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

8-3) If is the input, then

where

and

Therefore:

As a result:

8-4  (a)   Mr = 2.944 ( 9.38 dB) ω r = 3 rad / sec BW = 4.495 rad / sec  

       (b)   M r = 15.34 ( 23.71 dB) ω r = 4 rad / sec BW = 6.223 rad / sec  

       (c)   M r = 4.17 (12.4 dB) ω r = 6.25 rad / sec BW = 9.18 rad / sec  

       (d)   M r = 1 ( 0 dB) ω r = 0 rad / sec BW = 0.46 rad / sec  

       (e)   M r = 157
. ( 3.918 dB) ω r = 0.82 rad / sec BW = 1.12 rad / sec  

8‐3 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

       (f)   Mr = ∞ ( unstable) ω r = 15
. rad / sec BW = 2.44 rad / sec  

       (g)   M r = 3.09 ( 9.8 dB) ω r = 1.25 rad / sec BW = 2.07 rad / sec  

       (h)   M r = 4.12 (12.3 dB) ω r = 3.5 rad / sec BW = 5.16 rad / sec  

8‐5)   

  Maximum overshoot = 0.1 Thus, ζ = 0.59  

2
1 1 − 0.416ζ + 2.917ζ
  Mr = = 105
. tr = = 0.1 sec    
2ζ 1 − ζ
2 ωn

  Thus, minimum ω n = 17.7 rad / sec Maximum M r = 105


.  

((1 − 2ζ )+ )
1/ 2

Minimum BW =  ω n 4ζ − 4ζ + 2 = 20.56 rad/sec  


2 4 2
 

8‐6)   
− πζ
2
1−ζ
  Maximum overshoot = 0.2   Thus,    0.2 = e   ζ = 0.456  

2
1 1 − 0.416ζ + 2.917ζ
  Mr = = 1.232           t r = = 0.2       Thus, minimum ω n = 14.168  rad/sec 
2ζ 1 − ζ
2 ωn

   

(( )+ )
1/ 2

Maximum  M r = 1.232   Minimum BW =  1 − 2ζ 4ζ − 4ζ + 2 = 18.7  rad/sec 


2 4 2
 

− πζ
2
1−ζ
8-7)   Maximum overshoot = 0.3   Thus,  0.3 = e   ζ = 0.358  

   

2
1 1 − 0.416ζ + 2.917ζ
  Mr = = 1.496         t r = = 0.2     Thus, minimum ω n = 6.1246  rad/sec 
2ζ 1 − ζ
2 ωn

8‐4 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

(( )+ )
1/ 2

Maximum  M r =  1.496  Minimum BW =  1 − 2ζ 4ζ − 4ζ + 2 = 1.4106  rad/sec 


2 4 2
 

8-8) (a)

At the gain crossover:

Therefore:

at ω = 1.5 Ö

(b)
MATLAB code:

%solving for k:
syms kc
omega=1.5
sol=eval(solve('0.25*kc^2=0.7079^2*((-0.25*omega^3+omega)^2+(-
0.375*omega^2+0.5*kc)^2)',kc))
%ploting bode with K=1.0370
s = tf('s')
K=1.0370;
num_G_a= 0.5*K;
den_G_a=s*(0.25*s^2+0.375*s+1);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
CL_a = G_a/(1+G_a)
BW = bandwidth(CL_a)
bode(CL_a);

Bode diagram: data point shows -3dB point at 1.5 rad/sec frequency which is the closed loop
bandwidth

8‐5 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
Bode Diagram
0
System: CL_a
-20
Frequency (rad/sec): 1.5
Magnitude (dB): -3.01
Magnitude (dB) -40

-60

-80

-100

-120
0

-90
Phase (deg)

-180

-270
-2 -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)

8-9) θ=

α = 90 – θ = 63o

Therefore:

As a result:

8‐6 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Therefore:

To change the crossover frequency requires adding gain as:

(b) MATLAB code:


s = tf('s')
%(b)
K = 0.95*2;
num_G_a = 0.5*K;
den_G_a = s*(0.25*s^2+0.375*s+1);
G_a = num_G_a/den_G_a;
CL_a = G_a/(1+G_a)
bode(CL_a);
figure(2);
sisotool

Peak mag = 2.22 can be converted to dB units by: 20*Log(2.22)= 6.9271 dB

8‐7 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

By using sisotool and importing the loop transfer function, the overall gain (0.5K) was changed until the
magnitude of the resonance in Bode was about 6.9 dB. At 0.5K=~0.95 or K=1.9, this resonance peak
was achieved as can be seen in the BODE diagram of the following figure:
Root Locus Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1) Open-Loop Bode Editor for Open Loop 1 (OL1)
6 20

4 0

2 -20

0 -40

-2 -60

-4 -80
G.M.: 4.48 dB
-6 -100 Freq: 2 rad/sec
-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4
Stable loop
Bode Editor for Closed Loop 1 (CL1) -120
-90
6

4 -135

2
-180
0

-225
-180
P.M.: 59.1 deg
Freq: 1.11 rad/sec
-360 -270
-2 -1 0 1 2 -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec) Frequency (rad/sec)

8-10)  
− πζ
1 1−ζ
2
  M r = 1.4 = Thus, ζ = 0.387    Maximum overshoot =  e = 0.2675  (26.75%) 
2
2ζ 1 − ζ

2 3
  ω r = 3 rad / sec = ω n 1 − 2ζ = 0.8367ω n  rad/sec      ω n = = 3.586 r ad/sec 
0.8367

   

π π
  t max = = = 0.95  sec    At  ω = 0, M = 0.9. 
2 2
ω n 1− ζ 3.586 1 − ( 0.387 )

8‐8 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
  This indicates that the steady‐state value of the unit‐step response is 0.9. 

  Unit‐step Response: 

8-11) a) The closed loop transfer function is:

as ,which means ξ = 0.387

According to the transfer function: ξ ω n = 0.1 Ö ω n = 0.129 rad/s


As ωn2 = 0.1K ; then, K = 10 ωn2 = 0.1669

b)

As K = 0.1664, then
which means
Accordingly PM = 42o

As , then

8‐9 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

8-12)  

    T      BW  (rad/sec)      Mr 

                    ________________________________________________________________ 

    0      1.14        1.54 

    0.5      1.17        1.09 

    1.0      1.26        1.00 

    2.0      1.63        1.09 

    3.0      1.96        1.29 

    4.0      2.26        1.46 

    5.0      2.52        1.63 

       _________________________________________________________________ 

8‐13) 

                 T                  BW  (rad/sec)      Mr 

                    _________________________________________________________________ 

                 0      1.14        1.54 

    0.5      1.00        2.32 

    1.0      0.90        2.65 

    2.0      0.74        2.91 

    3.0      0.63        3.18 

    4.0      0.55        3.37 

    5.0      0.50        3.62 

       _________________________________________________________________ 

8-14) The Routh array is:

8‐10 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

S3 0.25 1
S2 0.375 0.5K
S1 1-1/3 0
S0 0.5K

Therefore:

As , if GH is rearranged as:

then

which gives

where

therefore,

(c)
MATLAB code: Bode diagram:
s = tf('s')
%c)
K = 1.03697;
num_G_a = 0.5*K;
den_G_a =
s*(0.25*s^2+0.375*s+1
);
%create closed-loop
system
G_a =
num_G_a/den_G_a;

8‐11 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

CL_a = G_a/(1+G_a)
bode(CL_a); Bode Diagram
0
System: CL_a
-20
Frequency (rad/sec): 1.5
Magnitude (dB): -3.01

Magnitude (dB)
Notes: -40

-60

1 - BW is verified by finding - -80


3dB point at Freq = 1.5 rad/sec -100
in the Bode graph at calculated -120
k. 0

2- By comparison to diagram of Phase (deg)


-90

typical 2nd order poles with


different damping ratios, -180

damping ratio is approximated


as: -270
-2 -1 0 1 2
ξ = ~ .707 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)

8‐12 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

8‐15  (a) 

20
     L( s ) = Pω = 1, P = 0  
s(1 + 0.1s )(1 + 0.5s )

    When ω = 0: ∠L( jω ) = −90o L( jω ) = ∞   When ω = ∞: ∠L( jω ) = −270


o
L( j ω ) = 0  

     L ( jω ) =
20
=
20 ⎡⎣ −0.6ω − jω 1 − 0.05ω
2
( 2
)⎤⎦                 Setting   Im L( jω ) = 0 
2
(
−0.6ω + jω 1 − 0.05ω
2
) 0.36ω + ω
4 2
(1 − 0.05ω )
2 2

2
     1 − 0.05ω = 0 Thus, ω = ±4.47 rad / sec    L( j 4.47 ) = −1667
.  

360
o

    Φ11 = 270 = ( Z − 0.5 Pω − P ) 180 = ( Z − 0.5 ) 180 Thus, Z = = 2   


o o o
 
180
o

     The closed‐loop system is unstable. The characteristic equation has two roots in the right‐half  

     s‐plane. 

MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')
%a)
figure(1);
num_G_a= 20;
den_G_a=s*(0.1*s+1)*(0.5*s+1);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
nyquist(G_a)
 

  Nyquist Plot of  L( jω ): 

8‐13 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

         (b)   

10
      L( s ) =   Based on the analysis conducted in part (a), the intersect of the negative 
s(1 + 0.1s )(1 + 0.5s )

       

      real axis by the  L( jω )  plot is at −0.8333, and the corresponding ω  is 4.47 rad/sec. 

   
o
δ ι o
Φ 11 = −90 = Z − 0.5 Pω − P 180 = 180 Z − 90
o
Thus, Z = 0.    The closed‐loop system is stable. 

      

MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')
%b)
figure(1);
num_G_a= 10;
den_G_a=s*(0.1*s+1)*(0.5*s+1);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
nyquist(G_a)
 

     Nyquist Plot of  L( jω ): 

8‐14 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

         (c)   

100(1 + s )
      L( s ) =   Pω = 1, P = 0.  
s(1 + 0.1s )(1 + 0.2 s )(1 + 0.5s )

      When  ω = 0: ∠L( j 0) = −90o L( j 0) = ∞     When ω = ∞: ∠L( j∞ ) = −270 o     L( j∞ ) = 0  

     When  ω = ∞: ∠L( jω ) = −270 L( j ω ) = 0       When  ω = ∞: ∠L( jω ) = −270 L( j ω ) = 0  


o o
 

       L ( jω ) =
100(1 + jω )
=
(
100(1 + jω ) ⎡⎣ 0.01ω − 0.8ω
4 2
) − jω (1 − 0.17ω )⎤⎦  
2

( 0.01ω 4
− 0.8ω
2
) + jω (1 − 0.17ω ) 2
( 0.01ω 4
− 0.8ω
2
) + ω (1 − 0.17ω )
2 2 2 2

4 2 2 4 2
       Setting  Im L( jω ) = 0 0.01ω − 0.8ω − 1 + 0.17ω = 0     ω − 63ω − 100 = 0 

2
       Thus,  ω = 64.55 ω = ±8.03  rad/sec 

⎛ 100 ⎣⎡( 0.01ω 4 − 0.8ω 2 ) + ω 2 (1 − 0.17ω 2 ) ⎦⎤ ⎞


    L( j8.03) = ⎜ ⎟ = −10  
⎜ ( 0.01ω 2 − 0.8ω 2 )2 + ω 2 (1 − 0.17ω 2 )2 ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ω =8.03

8‐15 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

     Φ 11 = 270 = ( Z − 0.5 Pω − P ) 180 = ( Z − 0.5 ) 180 Thus, Z = 2     The closed‐loop system is  


o o o
 

                   unstable. 

      The characteristic equation has two roots in the right‐half s‐plane. 

MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')
%c)
figure(1);
num_G_a= 100*(s+1);
den_G_a=s*(0.1*s+1)*(0.2*s+1)*(0.5*s+1);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
nyquist(G_a)
 

      Nyquist Plot of  L( jω ): 

        

       

   

8‐16 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

         (d)   

10
       L( s ) = 2
    Pω = 2 P = 0 
s (1 + 0.2 s )(1 + 0.5s )

      When  ω = 0: ∠L( jω ) = −180o L( jω ) = ∞          When  ω = ∞: ∠L( jω ) = −360


o
L( jω ) = 0  

        L ( jω ) =
10
=
(
10 0.1ω − ω + j 0.7ω
4 2 3

( 0.1ω 4
−ω
2
) − j 0.7ω 3
( 0.1ω 4
−ω
2
)
2
+ 0.49ω
6

       Setting  Im L( jω ) = 0, ω = ∞.   The Nyquist plot of  L( jω )  does not intersect the real axis except at the 

       origin where ω = ∞.  

Φ 11 = ( Z − 0.5 Pω − P ) 180 = ( Z − 1) 180 Thus, Z = 2.  


o o
     

        

       The closed‐loop system is unstable.  The characteristic equation has two roots in the right‐half s‐plane. 

MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')
%d)
figure(1);
num_G_a= 10;
den_G_a=s^2* (0.2*s+1)*(0.5*s+1);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
nyquist(G_a)
 

        

Nyquist Plot of  L( jω ): 

8‐17 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

8‐15  (e) 

3( s + 2)
       L( s ) = Pω = 1 P = 2 
(
s s + 3s + 1
3
)
 

      When  ω = 0: ∠L( j 0) = −90o L( j 0 ) = ∞      When  ω = ∞: ∠L( j∞ ) = −270


o
L( j∞ ) = 0  

        L ( jω ) =
3( jω + 2)
=
3( jω + 2) ⎡⎣ ω − 3ω( 4 2
) − jω ⎤⎦           Setting  Im L( jω ) = 0,         
(ω 4
− 3ω
2
) + jω (4 4
− 3ω
2
)
2

2

4 2 2
       ω − 3ω − 2 = 0 or ω = 3.56 ω = ±189
.  rad/sec.  . ) = 3 
L( j189

Φ11 = ( Z − 0.5 Pω − P ) 180 = ( Z − 2.5 ) 180 = −90 Thus, Z = 2  


o o o
   

        

       The closed‐loop system is unstable.  The characteristic equation has two roots in the right‐half s‐plane. 

MATLAB code:

8‐18 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

s = tf('s')
%e)
figure(1);
num_G_a= 3*(s+2);
den_G_a=s*(s^3+3*s+1);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
nyquist(G_a)
 

Nyquist Plot of  L( jω ): 

8‐15  (f) 

0.1
        L( s ) = Pω = 1 P = 0 
(
s ( s + 1) s + s + 1
2
)
 

      When  ω = 0: ∠L( j 0) = −90    When  ω = ∞: ∠L( j∞ ) = −360


o o
  L( j 0 ) = ∞   L( j∞ ) = 0  

        L ( jω ) =
0.1
=
(
0.1 ⎡⎣ ω − 2ω
4 2
) − jω (1 − 2ω )⎤⎦   2

Settiing   Im L( jω ) = 0  
(ω 4
− 2ω
2
) + jω (1 − 2ω ) 2
(ω 4
− 2ω
2
) + ω (1 − 2ω )
2 2 2 2

2
       ω = ∞ or ω = 0.5 ω = ±0.707 rad / sec L( j 0.707 ) = −0.1333  

                    Φ11 = ( Z − 0.5 Pω − P ) 180 = ( Z − 0.5 ) 180 = −90 Thus, Z = 0     The closed‐loop system is stable. 


o o o

8‐19 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')
%f)
figure(1);
num_G_a= 0.1;
den_G_a=s*(s+1)*(s^2+s+1);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
nyquist(G_a)

       Nyquist Plot of  L( jω ): 

        

8‐15  (g) 

100
       L( s ) = Pω = 3 P = 0 
(
s ( s + 1) s + 2
2
)
     When  ω = 0: ∠L( j 0) = −90    When  ω = ∞: ∠L( j∞ ) = −360
o o
  L( j 0 ) = ∞   L( j∞ ) = 0  

       The phase of  L( jω )  is discontinuous at  ω = 1.414  rad/sec. 

o
 
o
(
      Φ11 = 35.27 + 270 − 215.27
o o
) = 90
o
Φ11 = ( Z − 1.5 ) 180 = 90    Thus,   P11 =
o o 360
o
= 2 
180

       The closed‐loop system is unstable.  The characteristic equation has two roots in the right‐half s‐plane. 

8‐20 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')
%g)
figure(1);
num_G_a= 100;
den_G_a=s*(s+1)*(s^2+2);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
nyquist(G_a)
 

       Nyquist Plot of  L( jω ): 

8‐15  (h)  

10( s + 10)
       L( s ) =       Pω = 1 P = 0 
s( s + 1)( s + 100)

   

      When  ω = 0: ∠L( j 0) = −90o L( j 0 ) = ∞      When  ω = ∞: ∠L( j∞ ) = −180


o
L( j∞ ) = 0  

    L ( jω ) =
10( jω + 10)
=
(
10( jω + 10) ⎡⎣ −101ω − jω 100 − ω
2 2
)⎤⎦  
−101ω + jω (100 − ω ) (100 − ω )
2 2 2
10201ω + ω
4 2 2

8‐21 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

       Setting   Im L( jω ) = 0, ω = 0  is the only solution.  Thus, the Nyquist plot of  L( jω )  does not intersect 

       the real axis, except at the origin.  

     

     Φ 11 = ( Z − 0.5 Pω − P ) 180 = ( Z − 0.5 ) 180 = −90 Thus, Z = 0.     


o o o
 

       The closed‐loop system is stable.   

MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')
%h)
figure(1);
num_G_a= 10*(s+10);
den_G_a=s*(s+1)*(s+100);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
nyquist(G_a)
        

8‐22 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 Nyquist Plot of  L( jω ): 

        

8-16
MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')
%a)
figure(1);
num_G_a= 1;
den_G_a=s*(s+2)*(s+10);
G_a=num_G_a/den_G_a;
nyquist(G_a)

%b)
figure(2);
num_G_b= 1*(s+1);
den_G_b=s*(s+2)*(s+5)*(s+15);
G_b=num_G_b/den_G_b;
nyquist(G_b)

%c)
figure(3);
num_G_c= 1;
den_G_c=s^2*(s+2)*(s+10);
G_c=num_G_c/den_G_c;
nyquist(G_c)

%d)
figure(4);
num_G_d= 1;
den_G_d=(s+2)^2*(s+5);
G_d=num_G_d/den_G_d;

8‐23 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

nyquist(G_d)

%e)
figure(5);
num_G_e= 1*(s+5)*(s+1);
den_G_e=(s+50)*(s+2)^3;
G_e=num_G_e/den_G_e;
nyquist(G_e)

Nyquist graph, part(a):

Nyquist Diagram
1.5

0.5
Imaginary Axis

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-1 -0.9 -0.8 -0.7 -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0
Real Axis

Nyquist graph, part(b):

8‐24 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Nyquist Diagram
4

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4
Real Axis

Nyquist graph, part(c):

Nyquist Diagram
0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1
Imaginary Axis

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

-0.4

-0.5
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2
Real Axis

Nyquist graph, part(d):

8‐25 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

Nyquist Diagram
0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01
Imaginary Axis

-0.01

-0.02

-0.03

-0.04
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4
Real Axis

Nyquist graph, part (e):

Nyquist Diagram
0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002
Imaginary Axis

-0.002

-0.004

-0.006

-0.008

-0.01
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4
Real Axis

8‐26 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

8-17  (a)   

K
         G ( s ) = 2
  Pω = 0 P = 0 
( s + 5)

     

o K
∠G ( 0) = 180 ( K < 0) G ( j 0) =
o
    ∠G ( j 0 ) = 0 ( K > 0 )     
25

G ( j∞ ) = 0  
o o
    G ( j∞ ) = −180    (K > 0)    ∠G ( j∞ ) = 0      (K < 0) 

         For stability,  Z = 0.       

       Φ 11 = − ( 0.5 Pω + P ) 180 = 0  


o o
 

o
         0 < K < ∞      Φ11 = 0      Stable 

o
         K < −25          Φ11 = 180  Unstable 

o
        −25 < K < 0   Φ11 = 0      Stable 
 
 

         The system is stable for  −25 < K <  ∞ . 

8‐17  (b) 

K
         G ( s ) = 3
Pω = 0 P = 0 
( s + 5)

o K
∠G ( 0) = 180 ( K < 0) G ( j 0) =
o
    ∠G ( j 0 ) = 0 ( K > 0 )     
125

∠G ( j∞ ) = 270      (K < 0)  G ( j∞ ) = 0  
o o
    G ( j∞ ) = −270    (K > 0)   

8‐27 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
       

     For stability,  Z = 0. 

    Φ 11 = − ( 0.5 Pω + P ) 180 = 0  


o o
 

o
     0 < K < 1000  Φ11 = 0   Stable 

o
     K > 1000   Φ11 = 360   Unstable 

o
     K < −125   Φ11 = 180   Unstable 

o  
    −125 < K < 0   Φ11 = 0   Stable 

    The system is stable for  −125 < K < 0. 

8‐17  (c)  

K
        G ( s ) = 4
Pω = P = 0  
( s + 5)

o K
∠G ( 0 ) = 180 ( K < 0) G ( j 0) =
o
    ∠G ( j 0 ) = 0 ( K > 0 )     
625

∠G ( j∞ ) = 180   (K < 0)      G ( j∞ ) = 0  


o o
    G ( j∞ ) = 0      (K > 0)   

8‐28 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

        For stability,  Z = 0. 

       Φ 11 = − ( 0.5 Pω + P ) 180 = 0  


o o
 

o
         0 < K < 2500         Φ11 = 0   Stable 

o
         K > 2500         Φ11 = 360     Unstable 

o
          K < −625         Φ11 = 180      Unstable 
 
o
         −625 < K < 0        Φ11 = 0   Stable 

        The system is stable for −625 < K < 2500. 

   

8-18) The characteristic equation:

or

if , the cross real axis at s = 0.1. Ö For stability

if K < 0, the Nyquist cross the real axis at .So, for stability,

therefore, the rage of stability for the system is

MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')

K=1
G= K/(s^2+2*s+2);
H=1/(s+1);
GH=G*H;

sisotool

8‐29 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

K=10.15
G2= K/(s^2+2*s+2);
H2=1/(s+1);
GH2=G2*H2;
nyquist(GH2)
xlim[(-1.5,.5)]
ylim[(-1,1)]

After generating the feed-forward (G) and feedback (H) transfer functions in the MATLAB code, these
transfer functions are imported to sisotool. Nyquist diagram is added to the results of sisotool. The
overall gain of the transfer function is changed until Nyquist diagram passes through -1+0j point. Higher
values of K resulted in unstable Nyquist diagram. Therefore K<10.15 determines the range of stability
for the closed loop system.
Nyquist at margin of stability:

Nyquist Diagram
4

1
Imaginary Axis

-1

-2

-3

-4
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Real Axis

8-19)  

( )
s s + 2s + s + 1 + K s + s + 1 = 0  
3 2
( 2
)

8‐30 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

       Leq ( s ) =
(
K s + s +1
2
) Pω = 1 P = 0   Leq ( j 0 ) = ∞∠ − 90
o
Leq ( j∞ ) = 0∠180
o
 
(
s s + 2s + s + 1
3 2
)

       Leq ( jω ) =
(
K ⎡⎣ 1 − ω ) + jω ⎤⎦ = K ⎡⎣− (ω
2 6

4
) − jω (ω − 2ω + 1)⎤⎦  
4 2

(ω 4
−ω
2
) + jω (1 − 2ω ) 2
(ω 4
−ω
2
) + ω (1 − 2ω )
2 2 2 2

      Setting   Im Leq ( jω ) = 0  

    

4 2
       ω − 2ω + 1 = 0           

       Thus,   ω = ±1 rad/sec  are the real solutions. 

         

        Leq ( j1) = − K  

        For stability,   

o o
 
       Φ11 = − ( 0.5Pω + P )180 = −90  

       When  K = 1 the system is marginally stable. 

   

o
        K > 0   Φ11 = −90      Stable 

o
        K < 0   Φ11 = +90   Unstable 

       

   

8‐31 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
 

Routh Tabulation 

4
s 1 K +1 K
3
s 2 K +1

  2 K +1
s K K > −1  
2
2 2
1 K − 2K + 1 ( K − 1)
s =
K +1 K +1

0
  s              K                  K > 0 

1 2
  When K = 1 the coefficients of the  s  row are all zero.  The auxiliary equation is   s + 1 = 0   The solutions  

  are  ω = ±1 rad/sec.  Thus the Nyquist plot of  Leq ( jω )  intersects the −1 point when K = 1, when ω = ±1 

  rad/sec.  The system is stable for 0 < K <  ∞ , except at K = 1. 

8-20) Solution is similar to the previous problem. Let’s use Matlab as an alternative approach
MATLAB code:
s = tf('s')

figure(1);
K=8.09
num_GH= K;
den_GH=(s^3+3*s^2+3*s+1);
GH=num_GH/den_GH;
nyquist(GH)
xlim([-1.5,.5])
ylim([-1,1])

sisotool;

8‐32 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

After generating the loop transfer function and analyzing Nyquist in MATLAB sisotool, it was found
that for values of K higher than ~8.09, the closed loop system is unstable. Following is the Nyquist
diagram at margin of stability.

Part(a), Nyquist at margin of stability:

Nyquist Diagram
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
Imaginary Axis

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5
Real Axis

Part(b), Verification by Routh-Hurwitz criterion:


Using Routh criterion, the coefficient table is as follows:
S3 1 3
S2 3 K+1
S1 (8-K)/3 0
S0 K+1 0

The system is stable if the content of the 1st column is positive:


(8-K)/3>0 Æ K<8

8‐33 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

K+1>0 Æ K>-1
which is consistent with the results of the Nyquist diagrams.

8-21)  

Parabolic error constant   K a = lim s G ( s ) = lim10 ( K P + K D s ) = 10 K P = 100 Thus K P = 10  


2
 
s →0 s →0

   

2
  Characteristic Equation:        s + 10 K D s + 100 = 0  

   

10 KD s
  Geq ( s ) = 2
Pω = 2 P = 0 
s + 100

  For stability, 

o o
  Φ11 = − ( 0.5 Pω + P )180 = −180  

   

  The system is stable for   0 < K D < ∞ . 

 
 
 

8‐34 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

8‐22  (a)   The characteristic equation is    1 + G ( s ) − G ( s ) − 2 G ( s ) 2 = 1 − 2 G ( s ) 2 = 0  

 
2
2 −2 K
         Geq ( s ) = −2 G ( s ) = 2 2
Pω = 0 P = 0 
( s + 4 ) ( s + 5)

         Geq ( jω ) =
−2 K
2

=
2
(
−2 K ⎡⎣ 400 − 120ω + ω
2 2
) − jω ( 360 − 18ω )⎤⎦  
2

( 400 − 120ω 2

4
) + jω ( 360 − 18ω ) 2
( 400 − 120ω 2

2
) + ω ( 360 − 18ω )
2 2 2

2
K
         Geq ( j 0) = ∠180
o
Geq ( j∞ ) = 0∠180
o
    Setting   Im Geq ( jω ) = 0  
200
2
K
          ω = 0 and ω = ±4.47 rad / sec Geq ( j 4.47 ) =  
800

         For stability,   

         Φ 11 = − ( 0.5 Pω + P ) 180 = 0  


o o
  

2
       The system is stable for   K < 200  

          or    K < 200  


 
 

8‐35 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

8‐22 (b) 
4 3 2 2
Characteristic Equation:     s + 18 s + 121s + 360 s + 400 − 2 K = 0  

  Routh Tabulation 

4 2
s 1 121 400 − 2 K
3
s 18 360
  2 2  
s 101 400 − 2 K
2
1 29160 - 36 K 2
s 29160 + 36 K > 0
101

                s 0            400 − 2 K 2                                                        K 2 < 200  

  Thus for stability,    K < 200  

8‐23  (a)   
Nyquist Plot 
83.33N
         G ( s ) =  
s( s + 2)( s + 11767
. )

        For stability,   N < 3.89 

          Thus    N < 3  since N must be an integer. 

 
 
 

       

           

8‐36 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 

  (b) 

2500
         G ( s) =    
s( 0.06 s + 0.706)( As + 100)

        Characteristic Equation:  0.06 As 3 + ( 6 + 0.706 A) s 2 + 70.6 s + 2500 = 0    


2
As ( 0.06 s + 0.706 )
         Geq ( s ) = 2
   Since Geq ( s )  has more zeros than poles, we should sketch the Nyquist 
6 s + 70.6 s + 2500

          plot of 1/ Geq ( s )  for stability study. 

          
1
=
( 2500 − 6ω ) + j 70.6ω = ⎡⎣( 2500 − 6ω ) + j 70.6ω ⎤⎦ ( −0.706ω + j 0.06ω )  
2 2 2 3

Geq ( jω ) A ( −0.706ω − j 0.06ω ) A ( 0.498ω + 0.0036ω )


2 3 4 6

⎡ 1 ⎤
⎥ = 0    
o o
         1 / Geq ( j 0 ) = ∞∠ − 180      1 / Geq ( j∞ ) = 0∠ − 90  Setting   Im ⎢            
⎣ Geq ( jω ) ⎦
2 1 −4.23
100.156 − 0.36ω = 0 ω = ±16.68  rad/sec    =  
Geq ( j16.68) A

  For stability, 

Φ 11 = − ( 0.5 Pω + P ) 180 = −180  


o o
 

o
  For  A > 4.23 Φ11 = 180      Unstable 

   

o
  For   0 < A < 4.23     Φ11 = −180     Stable   

  The system is stable for  0 < A < 4.23. 

(c) 

8‐37 
 
Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition   Chapter 8 Solutions   Golnaraghi, Kuo 
 
2500
        G ( s ) =  <