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.

Gram

Refrig__:__er___:_a_ti___;_o_n_®

YORK INTERNATIONAL A/S

• • •

Operating and Maintenance Directions


1

Reciprocating Compressor HC/HCL/HCH


6100/8100
Artikelnr. 82 - 600 - 0041 - 00

Gram Refrigeration Aage Gramsvej 1 DK-65oo Vojens

Telephone: + 45 74541421 Telex: 50523 gramv Telefax: + 45 7459 0290

Division of Gram NS Reg.no. 10902

Shipping/Spare parts Telefax: + 45 74590399 Giro account: 7 00 61 60 Bankers: Den Dilnske Bank


Contents
1. In General: 1.1. Introduction
1.2. 1.3.

1.4.

• • •

1.5. 1.6. 1.7.

Marking of External Connections, Front....................................................................... Marking of External Connections, Shaft End :..................... Safety and Environment.... Technical Specifications HC........... Technical Specifications HCL....................................................................................... Technical Specifications HCH

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2. Operating and Maintenance Directions:


2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8. 2.9. 2.10. 2.11. 2.12. 2.13. 2.14. 2.15. 2.16. 2.17. Check Prior to Start of Compressor Unit Oil Charging and Oil Change Operating Instructions.... Maintenance Programme Relief og trouble-shooting Motor and Direct Driven Compressor Motor and V-belt Driven Compressor Survey of Belt Tension for V-Belts, 50 Hz, 4-pole Motors, HC/HCLJHCH/HCT 61 00/81 00 Survey of Belt Tension for V-Belts, 60 Hz, 4-pole Motors, HC/HCLJHCH/HCT 61 00/81 00 Automatic Oil Recovery Oil for Reciprocating Compressors Electrical Heater Oil System Capacity control Recommended Setting Values for Pressure Controls and Thermostats Pressure and Leakage Test plus Evacuation Survey of Torque Values 9 10 12 15 17 23 25 28 30 32 33 38 39 40 42 43 44

Futher documentation: Technical Data lnstallafion Directions HC/HCUHCH 6100/8100 Service Directions HC/HCLJHCH 6100/8100 Spare Parts Ust HC/HCL/HCH 6100/8100 Design Data

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1.1. Introduction

• • •

Application "01is manual is used for operation and maintenance of the compressor. If the operating range of the compressor is changed, or if the refrigerant is chanqed, the supplyer has to be contacted because of the risk of damaging the c?mpressor. Compressors of the HC type are intended for normal COld-storage rooms. HCH compressors are intended for higher pressure and temperature conditions, e.g. air conditioning and heat pumps. HCL compressors are used as low-pressure compressors at two-stage plants. Projecting and calculation Projecting and calculation of refrigerating compressors are made in accordance with Gram Technical Data and the PC programme "Datcom". Both can be ordered by Gram NS or your agent. Service Maintenance and repairs calling for technical skill are described in the service manual. Avoid overloading Always take care that the refrigerating plant is well-dimensioned and correctly adjusted. Information about permissible operating conditions is stated in technical specifications (1.5 - 1.7). Avoid liquid slug-over To avoid liquid slug-over it is important that the suction gas is superheated at the inlet of the compressor. A superheating of at least 5·C is recommended.

It is also important that the electrical heater is connected during standstill - and at least 2 hours before starting up. Legislation It is important that installation and operation is carried out in accordance with local rules which are different from one country to another. Pressure controls must be approved and set in accordance with legislation. See diagram with recommended adjusting values (2.15). Starting up filter At delivery the compressor is provided with a starting up filter mounted in the suction filter. The filter has to be removed after approx. 50 running hours. It is recommended to use starting up filter after repairs and considerable alterations of the refrigerating plant. Further information Please address inquiries about service, operation, maintenance and spare parts to your agent. Identification The compressor is provided with a name plate showing manufacturing year, serial number, type, refrigerant etc. The oil separator is provided with a plate, among others indicating size and permissible pressure. Order for spare parts In case of inquiries and orders for spare parts, please always give model, serial number, refrigerant, and order number, if indicated.

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1.2. Marking of External Connections, Front

• • •

cenneenon
K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K12 K13 K14 K17 P8 P11 C1-3-5-7

Number
1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3

Description
Suction flange Oil charging/-draining Gasequalization crankcase Sight glass Electrical heater Oil thermostat Oil cooler Oil cooler Water-cooled topcovers Oil recovery Suction pressure Oil pressure Cylinder

Technical data
See technical data DN15 RP 1 1/2" RC 3/4" RC 1/2" R 3/8" R 3/8" RC 3/8" RC 1/8" RC 1/8" RC 1/8"

...

inlet outlet (from oil separator) (for gauge) (oil pressure)

1
4

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1.3. Marking of External Connections, Shaft End

• •
'Connection
K2 K20 K21 P10 C2-4-6-8

Number
1 1 1 1 4

Description
Discharge flange Cover for pressure manifold Cover for pressure manifold Condenser pressure (discharge pressure) Cylinder

Technical data
See technical data

.RC 1/8", (for gauge)


1.4.
Safety and Environment
Breathing apparatus There should always be breathing apparatus at the entrance of the machine room." Emergency stop The compressor should always be provided with an easily accessible and distinctly visible emergency stop. Legislation The plant must always be installed in accordance with local rules and regulations. Refrigerant leakage Large amount of gaseous or liquid refrigerant is dangerous and all safety precautions should be taken. Refrigerant Containers of refrigerant should be opened slowly and carefully. They must never be exposed to impact and should be protected against overturning, rolling, and heat radiation. Refrigerant leakage Machine rooms should be provided with effective ventilation as refrigerants have-a tendency to displace air, and thus causinqlack of oxygen which at worst may prove fatal. This especially applies to the (H)CFC refrigerants as they are odourless. In case of doubt breathing protection should be used. First aid with injury involving R717 (Ammonia) Wash immediately with clean water. Call for a doctor and ambulance with an oxygen inhalator.

In general Eye protection Due to the presence of liquid refrigerant, eye protection'must be worn at all times when dismantling the compressor. Discharge valve Never operate the compressor with the discharge valve closed.
',!

Safety Guards (V-belts) Never operate the compressor without the appropriate safety guard(s) in place. Safety Guards (Coupling) Never operate the compressor without the appropriate safety guard(s) in place. Closed compressor A closed compressor which has not been evacuated is always at pressure. The pressure can be read from the manometers. A closed compressor must never be heated. Refrigerants (H)CFC refrigerants containing chlorine (Cl) must not come into contact with fire due to the risk ot toxic gases, in extreme cases causing death. In case of noxious concentrations, there will be a warning odour. Avoid smoking (or naked flame) if there is a risk of (H)CFC gases present. Ammonia R717 (NH3) must not get close to a naked flame. There is a of danger of explosion when mixed with air. (Explosion point 108 - 201 g/m3). Furthermore see liAR bulletin No. 110. Fastening At regular intervals check foundation bolts for compressor and motor.

• • •

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• • • •

Inhalation of ammonia gases involving difficulty in breathing Till arrival of an ambulance the injured should be moved into a heated room and placed in a lying position with head and shoulders slightly raised. The breathing of the injured and the cough arisen can be eased by loosening the clothes o.f,the upper part of the body. This is often referred to as "jocking lateral position" Persons who breathed in great amounts of 'ammonia gas most have oxygen supply as soon as possible, and be kept quiet if possible. Unconscious other drinks. persons must not have water or

Normally the refrigerants are not caustic. Injury to eyes Normally refrigerant vapours will not cause injury to eyes. If liquid is spattered in the eyes the injured should be taken to a hospital or a doctor as soon as possible. Avoid rubbing the eyes. The following first aid is recommended: Put drops of sterile mineral oil (refrigerator oil or paraffin oil) in the eyes, and rinse with water. Faint There is ariskof.suffocation with a large spillage of refrigerant in badly ventilated rooms. As quickly as possible the. injured is .to be taken into fresh air, and tight clothes loosened. If breathing has stopped: Immediately effect artificial respiration with the "mouth-to-mouth" method and continue until expert assistance is able to give the injured pure oxygen. Environment Refrigeration oil When charging and draining of refrigeration oil, comply with the guidelines of the authorities. Used refrigeration oil is to be returned to the oil supplier treated according to local rules.

If the injured is conscious it would help to give them water or thinned orange juice with sugar or glycerol. Cauterization of eyes Uft eyelids and rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Cauterization of skin Rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes - if possible even before the clothes are removed. Cauterized skin should not be covered with clothes, bandaging, oil, or liniment. Take the injured to a doctor or a hospital as soon as possible. .Swallowing of liquid ammonia. Let the injured drink great quantities .of water eventually with a mixture of vinegar in a proportion of 1 part of vinegar to 5 of water. Milk, eventually with a raw egg has also a neutralizing effect. First aid in case of injury with (H)CFC refrigerants etc. (R12, R22, R502, and R134a) Frost injury Direct contact with liquid refrigerant may cause frost-bite as a result of the strong evaporation of the liquid. Cover the frozen area with clothing or blankets, and send for an ambulance. If necessary, heat the frozen area with lukewarm water (not hot).

or

Refrigerant leakage Never let refrigerant escape to the atmosphere on purpose. Used refrigerant should be gathered up into cylinders and returned to the refrigerant supplier or treated according to local rules.

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1.5.
Technical Specifications

He

HC compressors
'. r __ •.• ,

are single stage compressors used at normal operating conditions. HC 6100 HC 8100 '100/100
I ...

!:~

Borel Str,oke Swepf volume at 1000 rpm Number of cylinders Max speed 1) ........ Min. speed Capacity-control Suction pipe Discharge pipe Max. operating pressure, suction Design pressure: crankcase and suction manifold Design pressure: cylinder head and discharge manifold" Suction pressure, minimum 2) Max. operating pressure, discharge Max. differential pressure, continuously Oil viscosity, minimum 3) Max. discharge pipe temperature 4) Min. oil pressure Oil charge Net Weight Gross weight Pressures are stated as absolute pressures. 1) Max. speed is dependent on the operating conditions and may thus be lower than stated. Permissible speed can be informed by your agent. 2) Minimum suction temperature is dependent on refrigerant and operating conditions, and can in each case be informed by your agent.

mm m3/h pcs. min. -1 min. -1

100/100 282 6 1600 700

376 8 1600 700

ON ON bar bar bar bar bar bar cst ·C bar dm3 kg kg

1/1-2/3-1/3
100 50

1/1-3/4-1/2-1/4
100 65

• • •

8
18,5 25 0,6

8
18,5 25 0,6

22
18
20 140 2,2 42 915 1200

22
18
20 140 2,2 45 990 1300

3) See section about oil which is also stating maximum oil temperature. 4),"The discharge pipe temperature is dependent on the operating conditions, and is determining if the compressor is to be provided with oil cooling andl or top cooling. For more information contact your agent.

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1.6. Technical SpecificationsHCL
HCL' compressors. are generally. used as 'low ... pressure compressors inbooster systems.

The HCLcompressor'is constructed as the HC, but it -has- been' provided with other' suction and discharge valves.
- ....

.,

·HCL6100
100/100

.'

·HCL8100
100/100

• • •

Borel Stroke
Swept volume at "Max speed 1) Min. speed Capacity control Suction pipe Discharge pipe

",

mm m3/h pcs. min. -1 min. -1

1000 rpm

Number of cylinders

282 6 ,,·1600 700


·1/1-213-1/3

376 8 ·,·1600 '·700


1/1-3/4-1/2-1/4

ON ON bar bar bar bar bar bar cst ·C bar dm3 kg kg

Max. operating pressure, suction Design pressure: crankcase and suction manifold Design pressure: cylinder head and discharge manifold Suction pressure, minimum 2) Max. operating pressure, discharge Max. differential pressure, continuously Oil viscosity, minimum 3) Max. discharge pipe temperature 4) Min. oil pressure Oil charge Net Weight 'Gross weight Pressures are stated as absolute pressures. 1) Max. speed is dependent on the operating conditions and may thus be lower than stated. Permissible speed can be informed by your agent. 2) Minimum suction temperature is dependent on refrigerant and operating conditions, and can in each case be informed by your agent. .

100 50 4 18,5 25
0,2 8 10

100 65 4 18,5 25
0,2 8 10
..

20 140 2,2 42 915 1200

20 140 2,2 45 990 1300


IS

3) See section about 011 which maximum oil temperature.

also stating

4) The discharge pipe temperature is dependent on the operating conditions, and is determining if the compressor is to be provided with oil cooling and! or top cooling. For more information contact your agent.

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Technical Specifications HCH
The HCH compressor is constructed as the HCl, but it has been provided with other suction and discharge valves. . HCH 6100 mm m3/h pcs. min. -1 min. -1 100/100 282 6 1600 700 1/1-2/3-1/3 100 50 HCH 8100 100/100 376 8 1600 700 1/1-3/4-1/2-1/4 100 65
~.

HCH compressors are generally used as highpressure compressors, e.g. for air conditioning systems or heat pumps.
1

.
Borel Stroke

Swept volume at 1000 rpm Number of cylinders Max speed 1) Min. speed Capacity control Suction pipe Discharge pipe Max. operating pressure, suction Design pressure: crankcase and suction manifold Design pressure: cylinder head and discharge manifold Suction pressure, minimum 2) Max. operating pressure, discharge Max. differential pressure, continuously Oil viscosity, minimum 3) Max. discharge pipe temperature 4) Min. 'oil pressure Oil charge Net Weight Gross weight Pressures are stated as absolute pressures. 1) Max. speed is dependent on the operating conditions and may thus be lower than stated. Permissible speed can be informed by your agent. 2) Minimum suction temperature is dependent on refrigerant and operating conditions, and can in each case be informed by your agent.

• • •

DN DN bar bar bar bar bar bar cst ·C bar dm3 kg kg

15
18,5 25

15
18,5 25

2 25

2 25

20
20 140 2,2 42 915 1200

20
20 140 2,2 45 990 1300

3) See section about oil which is also stating maximum oil temperature. 4) The discharge pipe temperature is dependent on the operating conditions, and is determining if the compressor is to be provided with oil cooling and! or top cooling. For more information contact your agent.

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2.1. Check Prior to Start of Compressor Unit
Check prior to starting up V-belt drive Check that the V-belt drive has been installed and tighteneq according to instructions:

Check Check-that pressure controls and thermostats have been connected and set correctly. See diagram for recommended setting values. Oil differential pressure control Check that the automatic oil pressure control has been connectedand, set correctly ..The pressure control.is-checkingcthedifferentialpressure over the pump, and is set.to.ia .brsakinq value of approx.2.2 bar. The pressure control has a built-in time . relay which -starts automatically when the compressor' is started. If the differential pressure does .not-exceed 2.2 bar before the time relay is stopped again the compressor will stop, and cannot be'started again until the "reset" button is .acuveted, The electrical connection is tested by keeping the "test" button pressed for approx. 45 seconds after which the compressor must stop. The compressor is started again by activating the "reset" button. Heater in crankcase The heater in the crankcase is connected and switched on 1 to 2 hours prior to starting up, so that possible refrigerant in the oil is evaporating.

• • •

Direct coupling qheck that the coupling has been aligned .correctly according to instructions. Direction of rotation The factory supplies the compressor' with clockwise' rotation (looking towards the shaft end). The direction of rotation can be changed by turning the cover of the oil pump. Oil Oil must be filled up to the middle of the inspection glass. Maximum level: top of the inspection glass. Minimum level: bottom of the inspection glass. See also section about Oil charging, Oil draining, and Oil choice. Plant The plant must be leakage tested, evacuated and filled with refrigerant.

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10


2.2.
Oil Charging and Oil Change
The normal oil level is the middle of the inspection glass. The maximum oil level is the top of the inspection glass, and the minimum oil level is the bottom of the inspection glass. Oil charging pump The method requires a suitable oil pump. Normally, your agent can advise you when choosing an oil pump. Connect hose from the oil charging pump to the oil charging valve. Lower the pump suction pipe into a vessel containing refrigerator oil, and pump the oil into the compressor. The normal oil level is the middle of the inspection glass. The maximum oil level is the top of the inspection glass, and the minimum 011 level is the bottom of . the inspection glass. Oil charge - during operation After charging with oil and starting the compressor, check oil level at regular intervals. If oil level falls below the bottom of the inspection glass, oil can be charged during operation. Oil charging pump with non-return valve Connect the pump to the oil charging valve. Lower the suction pipe into a vessel containing refrigerator oil, and pump the oil into the compressor. Open the oil charging valve and pump the oil into the compressor. The normal oil level is the middle of the inspection glass. The maximum oil level is top of the inspection glass, and the minimum oil level is bottom of the inspection glass. Throttling the suction valve Connect the hose to the oil charging valve and fill with refrigeration oil, then lower it into a tank containing refrigerator oil.

In general A number-of oil types which can be used for the reciprocating compressor installed, have been stated under section 2.13 "Oil for Reciprocating Compressors". The contractor of the reciprocating compressor has chosen one of these oils from an estimate of refrigerant and operating conditions. Therefore, it is emphasized that the compressor has to filled up with the same oil type which has already been filled into the plant. Never mix two different oil types. Oil charging has to take place when the oil level in the compressor is lower than the bottom of the sight glass. Oil charging can take place during standstill or during operation. Both methods are menfioned in the following. Your agent can give instructions or supply equipment such as hoses, vacuum pump, oil charging pump etc. Always charge oil from closed containers. Oil charging during standstill

• • •

Vacuum method This method requires a vacuum pump which can normally be supplied by your agent. The suction and pressure stop valves must be closed. Connect a hose to the oil charging valve and connect it to a vessel containing refrigerator oil. After this connect the vacuum pump to the crankcase through the Schrader-Valve of the compressor, and reduce the pressure to a little less than atmospheric pressure. Now carefully open the oil charging valve, and the oil will flow into the 'compressor. Prevent air from being drawn into the unit.

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The compressor suction stop valve can be throttled by reducing the pressure in the crankcase to a little below atmospheric pressure. Then open the oil charging valve carefully, and the oil will flow into the compressor. Prevent air ftom being drawn into the compressor. - Do not use cotton waste.

11

Remember to drain the oil from the plant, too. The side cover is tightened with a torque of 70

Nm.
After cleaning, charge oil Jrom closed containers ..

• • •

The normal oil level is the middle of the inspecEquipment -tlon glass. The maximum oil levet.is.thetop of the .The refrigeration contractor will be able to supply . . ,inspection gldss,and the minimumoillevelis the .~ "the necessary equipment for oil charging and oil bottom of the inspection glass. change, such as suitable hoses, required fittings, vacuum pump etc.

Oil change
Change or filter and analyse the oil according to the number of hours specified. After evacuation, drain off the oil and dismount side cover, then clean crankcase using a fluff-free cloth.

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2.3. Operating Instructions
Suction pressure Condenser pressure Oil differential pressure Oil level Superheat Discharge pipe temperature Oil temperature Number of connected capacity steps Power_consumption The compressor must not be opened until the pressure has been equalized which means that the display of the suction and pressure manometer must not deviate more than 0.2 to 0.3 bar. This pressure level should be as close to the atmospheric pressure as possible. If not, the procedure is repeated.

If the plant is not monitored electronically by means ora microprocessor the following routines are recommended:

Daily

Oil change and oil filter


Evacuate compressor, then drain off the oil. Dismount side cover, then loosen union nut on the screwed connection, and remove filter. At the same time the solenoid filter can be removed and cleaned. After mounting the solenoid filter and a new oil filter, gasket and side cover are mounted. If the gasket is damaged it has to be replaced. Bolts are tightened with a torque wrench in accordance with table for torque values, then fill up with oil.

• •

Tlrner"
Oil filling

Generally,· it is recommended that a journal for oil consumption is worked out for the whole plant. The journal is to inform about charged and drained oil quantities. When monitoring by a microprocessor it is recommended that the above values (excl. oil level) are registered all the 24 hours, and printed out, if possible. The oH level and oil accumulation vessel ought to be controlled visually after each 100 hours of operation.

Additional control and inspection


To be carried out according maintenance programme. to the following

Dismantling the compressor


No covers must be loosened, and no components must be dismantled until the compressor has been evacuated. Close suction stop valve. The compressor must be running until maximum vacuum has been obtained or till it is stopped by the evacuation pressure control. Then close pressure stop valve quickly.

Oil filter, complete

Starting up filter
From factory the compressor has been provided with a starting up filter, mounted in the suction filter. The starting up filter is filtering off impurity down to a particle size of 50 Jim. The filter is causing a lower suction pressure and thus a reduction of compressor capacity.

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• • •

13

The starting up filter has to be approx. 50 hours working.

removed after

Oil pressure safety system, manual and automatic


In order to protect the compressor from damage resulting from the failure of the lubrication system the compressor must be fitted with a differential pressure .control.connected to the. crankcase of the compressor.andthe,.dischar.ge of the oil pump. The oil pressure is. set to, approx- 2.2 bar. If the oil pressure drops below this value the current" supply for the compressor motor is switched off. When the compressor ls started there is no oil pressure. Therefore, the differential pressure controlhas.a.built-in time relay so .. that the pressure control does. not function until.the compressor has established the requested oil pressure. Normally,.thetime lag is 45 seconds. If the differential pressure control. switches the compressor motor off. it cannot be started again until the "reset" button has been activated. As the heater needs some time to be cooled it takes a few minutes before it is possible to restart the compressor. The electrical system is tested by keeping the "test" button depressed for approx. 45 seconds, after which the compressor motor should stop. The compressor motor is started again by pressing the "reset" button. This can only be effected after approx. 2 min.

This is done by evacuating the compressor, then dismantle flange for suction manifold.' Draw out cartridge for suction filter, and the starting up fil-. ter (2) can be removed. The filter is fastened to the suction filter by a spring. The inlet of the filter always has to turn towards the suction stop valve. It is recommended to mount a new starting up filter after repairs and in case of other changes of the refrigerating plant.

Suction filter

By-pass valve
The compressor is protected by one ore more by-pass valves connecting suction and discharge sides. The valve has been set to open at 25 bar. The valve has been adjusted and sealed, and no attempts should be made to adjust it. If the valve is adjusted the guarantee no longer applies.

Suction filter
The suction filter is cleaned at the same intervals as the oil filter is changed. This is done by evacuating the compressor, then dismantle flange for suction manifold. Then it is easy to take out the filter cartridge (marked "1" in the drawing) and it can be cleaned by e.g. compressed air. Before mounting the suction flanges the gaskets are checked and changed, if necessary.

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14


For (H)CFC units, use an electronic leak detection system.

Leak test
After repair or inspection, check all joints for leaks before starting the compressor. Large leaks can be found by means of a concentrated soap solution which should be applied by brusb 1Q joints and welds. Small leaks at R717 (ammonia) plants are found by meansjot litmus paper. In case of leaks it will change colour to blue.

Break-down
Section 2.5 shows how to remedy any defect that might occur.

~·.l

... _

• • •

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2.4.
Maintenance Programme
,
1 2 3 4 5 6

15

1. Normal maintenance, not calling for technical qualifications


Operating hours Check of V-belts for wear Checl( of belt tension Disassembling of start-up filter Visual checking of coupling Tightening up of bolts Oil change Cleaning of crankcase Oil filter change Cleaning of suction filter Check for leaks Check of oil return Cleaning of filter for oil return 5 x x x 50 x x x x x x x x x x x x 500" x x x 4000 " 8000· ,12000 16000 24000 x (x) x x x (x) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (x) (x) (x) (x) (x) (x) (x) (x) (x)

• • •

7
8 9 10 11 12

x x x x

x x x x

The maintenance programme does not replace the daily routines described under point 2.3 Operating instructions (x) indicates that the maintenance should be done in cooperation with the refrigerating firm in charge of the rest of the maintenance. The maintenance programme is repeated every 24000 operating hours.

Maintenance ofvrnotor i must be effected, according to the directions of the manufacturer. Oil filters can be ordered from your agent. A set of spare parts consisting of gaskets, O-rings, aluminium rings etc. can be ordered too. An oil change can be replaced by a finefiltration 3 J.lm beta <75, and an analysis certifying the continued use of the oil.

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16


2. Compressor inspection, calling for technical qualifications x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x "x x x Operating hours Alignment of coupling Change of V-belts Check of pulleys / flywheels Check of main and thrust bearings Check of connecting rods

4000
x x

8000
x x

16000 24000 32000 40000 48000


x x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

and.bearinqs
Check of piston pins Check of suction and discharge valves New suction and discharge valve plates New suction and discharge valve springs Check of valve seats and guides Check of piston rings Check of cylinders Check of pistons Check of Crankshaft Check of shaft seal Check of oil pump Check of oil system Check of capacity control Check of by-pass valves Check of oil regulating valve Check of pressure control function Check of thermostat function Check of oil return Check of oil cooling Check of water cooled top covers the following standard

• • •

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

It is possible to order spare parts sets: -

Sets of gaskets Sets of spare parts, mini Sets of spare parts, maxi

At high speed and/ or high pressure conditions it may be expedient to reduce the maintenance intervals. The opposite applies to compressors with a low speed. Service during the guarantee period has to be carried out by the refrigerating firm in charge of the installation. Besides, some countries demand statutory inspections by an authorized refrigerating firm. The maintenance programme is repeated at the same intervals as in the above table. Inspections have to be carried out according to the compressor service manual.

For particulars, apply to your agent. Further spare parts can be ordered according to the spare parts list. In case of a total damage of the compressor some hand-picked agents have a complete set of spare parts for a total compressor renovation. The intervals indicated loaded compressors. only apply to normal

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2.5.
Relief of trouble-shooting
•Symptom or difficulty
High condenser pressure
1

17

Possible reason
Insufficient water passaqe+-v-: through condenser, condenser" pipes clogged up.
i

Remedy

Check whether water supply to . condenser has been, turned off. Set cooling water control valves. Check and if necessary, clean condenser pipes and filter in " water.line.


Compressor short cycling (at connection and disconnection of low pressure control).

"

..,

Spaces between fins of air-'" , cooled condenser have been fouled up. , Incorrect setting of highpressure cut-out. ,

'Cle,an spaces between fins and check fan.

Check whether high-pressure cut-out is switching off at correct pressure. Defrost evaporators. Clean filters.

Evaporator coils frosted up. Filters of liquid valves, suction valves, or regulation valves clogged up. Phial of regulating valve has lost its charge, or insufficient liquid charge in plant.


The compressor starts and stops too often (at the high .pressure switch).

Remove phial from suction line. Hold it in one hand and feel on suction line with the other. If the suction line does not get colder, add more refrigerant.

The system is overfilled with refrigeant.

"

The high pressure switch switches in and out bedause the condenser is overfilled and partly inactive as a large number of the condenser pipes are submerged in the refrigerant.

Drain off refrigerant

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Possible reason Lack of refrigerant Remedy Check charge. If insufficient, add the necessary quantity. Check for leaks. Check valves, if dammaged or worn away, repair or replace .

Symptom or difficulty Compressor running continuously

~._. _t.:..


._ -. ,_
,

<.~-

"
..

Compressor discharge and / or suction valves damaged or worn away. Air or non-condensable in system. gases

~
Purge at condenser and/ or receiver. Install air purger.

High condenser pressure

<---

~'.-,

._

Too warm cooling water or insufficient passage through condenser.

Check and clean water valve and water filter. Check whether water valve has been sufficiently open. Clean condenser pipes.

• • •

Pipes in water condenser fouled or furred up. Spaces between fins of aircooled condenser fouled up. Too much liquid in receiver and condenser. Low condenser pressure Condenser receiving too much cooling water. Leaky discharge and/ or suction valves

Clean spaces between fins, and check fan. Drain refrigerant and fill it into empty drum. Regulate water supply.

Remove top covers, check valve plates and valve springs, replace if required. See service instructions.

Unloading system has put some of the cylinders out of operation.

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Symptom or difficulty High suction pressure Possible reason Leaky suction valves. Remedy

19

Remove top cover, check valve plates and valve springs, replace if required.


Low suction pressure ..~ 1
,-

Unloading system has put some .;See service instructions. of the cylinders out of operation . '. Clogging of liquid line, regulating : .Evacuate, check; and clean valve, or suction filters. 'filters.
.
,

..


Noisy compressor

Insufficient refrigerant charge. Too much oil circulating in system (HCFCIHCF).

Add refrigerant. ;Check whether excessive oil is found in system, drain superfluous oil. . Set regulating valves for correct flow. Unfreeze regulating valve by means of warm, soaked rags, and let freon from receiver pass through the drying filter. Never add antifreeze to freon. Check oil level.

Incorrect setting of regulating valves. Regulating valve frozen (HCFCIHCF).

Excessive oil circulation resulting in liquid slug-over. Uquid slug-over as a result of not evaporated refrigerant being drawn back to compressor.
... ,..
,-

• •

Regulating valves opening to much - close a little.

Phial placed incorrectly or loose . Move or fasten the phial of regulating valve.

82-8)0-0041-00

20


Possible reason Uquid refrigerant returning to compressor. Remedy Set regulating valves correctly so that the compressor will work at a suitable superheating. Replace piston rings, and replace pistons, and cylinder liners, if necessary.
.-

Symptom or difficulty Oil disappearing from crankcase

•~
.
_.

Piston rings or cylinder liner worn .

"

Possible oil return line from oil separator to crankcase clogged up. Regulating valve admitting insufficient liquid to evaporator. Filter for solenoid valve in oil return pipe clogged up. Solenoid valve coil in oil return line burned.

Clean oil filter in return line.


.,

Oil does not return to crankcase (HCFC/HCF)

Set expansion valve to admit more liquid. Clean filter.

• • •

Replace coil.

Compressor will not start

Oil pressure cut out interrupted current, safety fuses have fused

Adjust oil pressure cut out, fit new fuses, and locate cause of trouble. Switch on current. Add oil.

Main switch not switched on. Compressor starts, but stops again at once Insufficient oil in compressor (oil differential pressure control). Oil differential pressure control defective.

Repair or replace pressure control. Check whether liquid refrigerant is drawn into crankcase. Check oil level, and correct.

Oil Slug-over.

82-SOO-<1041-«l


Symptom or difficulty
V-belts are turning in groves

21

Possible reason
Pulleys not in line. Wrong belV pulley profile.

Remedy
Check alignment of pulleys. Check whether pulley and belt match. -Replace V-belt pulleys. Tighten up. . Replace or machine pulleys. ' Replace pulleys. .:.,:~":~,,: ~Checkalignment.", Tighten up. Align belt drive to prevent dragging.
e

Defective keyways. Insufficient V-belt tension.

• • •

Abnormal wear on V-belt slopes

Incorrect groove angle. Defective keyways. Pulleys out of line.

Insufficient V-belt tension. Belts run againsV hit belt guard.

'Abnormal noise level

Pulleys out of line.

, • ",

..,'

Check ,alignment. Tighten up. Replace pulleys. Replace all V-belts.

Insufficient V-belt tension. Irregular V-belt elongation Defective pulley grooves. New and old V-belts in same belt drive. Different belt makes in same belt drive.

Replace all belts by belts of same make.

82-1lOO-0041..<l()

22


Possible reason Incorrect installation of V-belts. Remedy When fitting V -belts on pulleys, comply strictly with instructions for installation of V-belts. Find reason for blocking. Check belt tension. Protect V-belt drive against ,., heating stress. Have V-belts warmed before fitting. Tighten up. Balance pulleys at correct speed. Replace by shorter V-belts.

Symptom or difficulty V-belts breaking after few hours of operation


Fractures in bottom part of V-belts

Belt drive has been blocked . Abnormal belt slip. Excessive heating stress.

Excessive cold stress.

Excessive vibrations in V-belts

Insufficient V-belt tension. Pulleys not dynamically balanced.

• • •

Further tensioning of V-belts no possible

Incorrect length of V-belts in belt drive.

82-600-0041-00


2.6.
Motor and Direct Driven Compressor

23


Spare Parts List: 1. 2. 3. 4. 11. 12. 13. 14. '15. Coupling hub for compressor Split bushing for motor Coupling, complete Connecting link Bush Bolt Disc Split Slotted nut Checking the direction of rotation Before the start it must be checked that the direction of rotation is as shown on above drawing. Split bushing for motor shaft is supplied for more shaft diameters. When replacing motors at the mounting place the following instructions are to be observed: Paint Remove the paint from beneath the feet of motor and from the top of motor rails to ensure reliable, safe positioning.

• •

82-600-0041-00

24

Attachment

Checking of parallelism

Attach the motor to the console, using the spacers required for the motor in question.
Adjustment blocks

Weld on four adjustment blocks with screws to adjust the horizontal position of the motor. Checkin9~ofdistance Control the distance between the shaft end of the 1 compressor and the shaft end of the motor. At 100 mm cylinder diameter the distance is to between 70-110 mm.
~J'

By means of the drift it is checked that the flanges are in line. The drift must be movable both forwards and backwards. After the first checking the flanges are turned and the drift must again be movable. This procedure is repeated several times until the shaft has turned 360· so that it is quite certain that the flanges are exactly opposite each other and in line.
Torque

The coupling bolts are tightened with a torque of


220 Nm (NV 27). Safety guard

Assembling

'"

The split .bushinq (pas. 1) is inserted in the flange. Place the screws in the threaded holes in the hub. Place the unit on the shaft and tighten the screws with a torque of 115 Nm (NV 3/8"). The split bushing and the flange of the motor are mounted in the same way.
Checking of distance

Mount safety guard.


Disassembling of split bushing

When disassembling the split bushing the screws are removed after which one screw is inserted into the threaded hole in the bush. When tightening the screw the bush will be loosened.
Dismantling Qf shaft seal When dismantling the shaft seal it is not necessary to remove the motor. The coupling and split bushing on the motor shaft are dismounted, and the coupling hub can be pushed back towards the motor. Then there is sufficient space for dismounting the other parts of the coupling and shaft seal.

After installation the distance between the flanges is checked and it has to be as indicated in the drawing.

Cl

r-l

1=63.5

s-

B2-600~41~


2.7.
Motor and V-belt Driven Compressor
It is important that V-belt drive is mounted ac-'cording to the following instructions and by use of the correct tools; Too bad alignment and wrong belt tensioning will result in: - reduced life for belts and pulleys - too heavy loads of main bearings in motor and compressor - reduced efficiency and thus increased power consumption Units Factory mounted units with motor are supplied with Optibelt Super XPB - TX M S narrow Vbelts and with a measuring gauge for checking of belt tensioning. When delivered the pulleys are aligned and the belts have the correct tension. To ensure safety always check alignment and tensioning prior to the first start of the compressor.
1

25

Supply as' single "parts ': If pulley andV-"belts'havenotbeen"mounted on the unit when delivered the below procedure is to . be followed. When supplying single parts there will be no sign. Mounting of flywheel The flywheel is mounted on the crank shaft by means of the groove 82. The thrust plate 83 is mounted so that the 2 pins are placed in the . corresponding holes :in tbe shaft;' Rnally the bolt 85 is mounted.

• • •

Checking of units After 2 to 4 hours operation at full load the belts are checked in inmost and outermost grooves by means of the measuring gauge supplied. The belt tension is indicated in a sign on the V-belt guard. After this the belts are checked in accordance with the maintenance programme.

KONTROLLER REMSP~NDINGEN EFTER 2-4 TIMERS DRIFT. CHECK THE BELT TENSION AFTER 2-4 HOUR'S OF RUNING.

MIN.

N; MAX.

72-005-07~

N.

82-600-0041-00

26


Mounting of belts
to the The distance between the shafts is to be reduced so that the V-belts can be placed loosely on the pulleys. After this the belts are tightened so that the required pre-tensioning is achieved (see tables. Measure inmost and outermost belts. Use correct measuring tools, and use the values for belt tensioning from the following table.

Mounting of belt pulley


Belt pulley is mounted according instructions of the motor supplier.

Alignment
Shafts and pulleys are aligned so that they are at the same level, and so that the groves are in line, .. ' i.g.a=b .. ;


o

o=b

• •

82-600"'()041-OO


Checking After the belt tensioning the pulleys will not be in line, e.g. a ~ b. Ii.. correct alignment is re-established as soon as the motor starts. After 2 to 4 hours operation at full load the belts; are to be checked for the first time and tightened Lip, if necessary The belt tension is indicated in the following survey.

27

Avoid force Do not use force when fitting the V-belts as they will bedarnaqedand have to be discarded. V-belt guard After the mounting or measuring 'has finished the V-belt guard:is ,to, be. mounted .. Never start the compressor without belt protection .... Belt spray etc. Never use belt spray,· belt Wax or the like as this will damage the V-belts. Damaged V-belt If a V-belt in a drive with more belts is damaged all belts are to be replaced.


o

o>b

• •

82-flOO-OO41-OO

28


2.8.
Survey of Belt Tension for V-Belts, 50 Hz, 4-pole Motors,
HC/HCl/HCH/HCT 6100/8100
Motor pulley

Compr. rpm.

Compr. flywheel

Belt length (mm)

Numberog key seats on motor pulley

Installation effectkW

Installation of new belts fmln (N)

Installation of new belts fmax (N)

ControlRetensioning fmln (N)

ControlRetensioning fmax(N)

700

0224

0463

2800

3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8

18,5,22,30,37 45 55,75 90,110 18,5, 22,30,37 45,55, 75 90,110 18,5,22,30,37,45 55 75,90 110,132 18,5,22,30,37,45 55 75,90 110,132 22,30,37,45 55 75,90 110,132,160 22,30,37,45,55 75 90,100 132,160 22,30,37,45,55 75 90,100 132,160 30,37,45,55 75 90,110,132 160,200 30,37,45,55 75,90 110,132 160,200 37,45,55,75 90 110,132 160,200

650 650 650 700 650 700 700 700 700 750 750 800 650 700 750 800 700 700 700 800 750 850 800 850 750 800 800 800 750 750 850 900 700 850 850
900

740

0236

0463

2800

780

0250

0463

2800

750 700 750 800 700 800 750 800 800 800 800 850 750 750 800 850 750 750 750 900 850 900 850 900 800 850 850 850 800 800 900 950 800
900

500' 550 500 550 500 550 550 550


600 600 600 600

600 600
600 600

550
600 600

830 830 880 880 950 950 1000 1000

0265 0265 0280 0280 0300 0300 0315 0315.

0463 0463 0463 0463 0463 0463 0463 0463

2800 3000 800 3000 2800 3000 2800 3000

550 550 550


600

600 650 650 650 650 600 600


600

• • •

650 600 600


600

550 550 550 650 600 650 600 650


600

700 650 700 650 700 650 700 700 700 650 650 700 750
600

650 650 650 600


600

1060

0335

0463

3000

1120 .

0355

0463

3000

1180 1180

0375 0375

0463 0463

3000 3150

900 900 850


900

900 950 950 950 900 950

650 700 550 650 650 700 700 700 650 700

700 700 750 750 750 700 750

82-800-0041-00


Compr.

29

rpm.

Motor pulley

Compr. ftywheel

Belt length (nvo)

Numberog key seats on motor pulley

Installation effectkW

Installation - Installation of new belts of new belts fmln (N) fmax (N)

Control RetensionIng fmln (N)

Control RetensIonIng fmax (N)

1270 1270

0400 0400 0425 0425

0463 0463 0463 0463

3000 3150 3000 3150

3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8

37,45,55,75 90 110,132,160 200,250 37,45,55,75 90,110 132,160 200,250 45,55,75,90 110 132,160 200,250 45,55,75,90 110 132,160 200,250,315

900 850
900

950 900 1000 1000


#,. ~ ,

700 650 700 750_ 700 750 700 _750 800 750 700 800 750 800 700 850

750 700 750 800 750 800 750 800 850 800 750 850 800 850 750 900

950
900 "900---

1340 1340

.-1000
1000 1000 900 1000 1000 - 1050 950 1050

900

950 - 1000 1000 -1050 1050 1050 950 1050 1050 ,1100 1000 .1100_ *

• • •

1420

0450

0463

3150

1560 1560

0500 0500

0463 0463

3150 3350

The stated values only apply to Optibelt Super XPB - TX M =S narrow V-belts

82-aJ()~41~

30


2.9.
Survey of Belt Tension for V-Belts, 60 Hz, 4-pole Motors, HC/HCL/HCH/HCT 6100/8100
Motor pulley Compr. flywheel Belt length (mm)

Compr. rpm.

,
700 700 740 740 780 0190 0190 0200 0200 0212 0463 0463 0463 0463 0463 2650 2800 2650 2800 2650

Numberog key seats on motor pulley

InstallaUon effectkW

InstallaUon of new belts fmln (N)

InstallaUon of new belts fmax (N)

Control Retensioning fmln (N)

Control Retensioning fmax(N) 600

3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4

22.2. 26.4. 36 44 54.56 90.108 22.2. 26.4. 36 44.54 66 90.108 22.2. 26.4.36. 44 54 66 90.108.132 22.2. 26.4. 36. 44 54 66.90 108.132 22.2.26.4. 36.44 54.66 90 108.132 26.4. 36,44.54 66 90.108 132.158 26.4. 36.44.54 66 90.108 132.158 26.4. 36.44.54 66 90.108 132.158.192

700 650 650 700 650 700


600

750 700 700 750 700 750 650 750 800 750 650 800 750 750 750 800 750 800 750 800 850 800 850 850 800 800 850 900 800 800 800 900

550. .. 500 450 550 500 550 500 550


600

550 500
600

550
600

550
600

700 750 700


600

• • •

650
600

780

0212

0463

2800

750 700 700 700 750 700 750 700 750 800 750 800 800 750 750 800 850 750 750 750 850

550 450 550 550 550 550 SOO 550


600

500
600

830 830 880

0224 0224 0236

0463 0463 0463

2650 2800 2650

SOO
600 600

6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3

650 600 650


600

880

0236

0463

2800

550 SOO 600


600 600

950 950 1000 1000 10SO • 1060

0250 0250 0265 0265 0280 0280

0463 0463 0463 0463 0463 0463

2800 3000 2800 3000 2800 3000

650 600 SOO SOO 650 600


600

650 650 650 650 700 650 650 . 650 700 650 650 650 700

6 8 3 4 6 8

600 650

82-000-0041-00


Cornpr. rpm. Motor pulley Compr. ftywheel Belt length
(mm)

31

Numberog Installation key Beats on effectkW motor pulley

Installation of new belts fmln (N)

Installation of new belts fmax(N)

Control Retensioning fmln(N)

Control Retensioning fmaxJNJ-

1120

0300

0463

2800

3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 8

26.4. 36.44. 54.66 90 108.132 158.192 36.44.54.66 90 108.132 158.192 36.44.54.66 90 108.132 158.192.240 44.54.66 90.108 132.158 192.240 44.54.66 90.108' 132.158 192.240 44.54.66.90 108 132.158 192.240.288

800 900 900


900

900 950 950 950


' 900

650 700 700 700 650 650 650 700 650 650 650 700 650 750 750 750 650 750 750 750 800 750 700 800

700 750 750 750 700 700 700 750 700 700 700 750 700 800 800 800 700 800 800 800 850 800 750 850

1120

0300

0463

3000


1180 1180 0315 tJ315 0335 0335 0355 0355 0463 0463 0463 0463 0463 0463 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

850 850 850 -900 800 800 800


900

900
900

• • •

1270 1270 1340 1340

1420 1420 1560 1560

0375 0375 0400 0400

0463 0463 0463 0463

3000 3150 3000 3150

850 950 950 950 850 950 950 950 950 950
900

'- 950 850 850 850 1000 900 ' 1000 1000 -1000 900 ' 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 950 1100

1000

The stated values only apply to Optlbelt Super XPB - TX M = S narrow V-belts

82-«lO-OO41-OO

32


2.10. Automatic Oil Recovery
Timer type RT48 has the following ranges:
0,3 - 3 sek. 1,2 - 12 sek. 2,5 - 45 sek. 0,3 - 3 min. min. min.

Units which are to be supplied with oil recovery '" ",' system- are in standard design provided with oil '~'7 separator and automatic oil recovery system.

,_. Factory Mounted Qil Separator with Auto,.~,:"matic Oil Recovery Oil Separator and Oil Recovery
The oil separated in the oil separator is automatically conducted back to the crankcase of the compressor. In the oil recovery unit a nozzle is ·C;' fitted which ensures a slow recovery of the oil. , .' The thermostat KP77 is set in such a way that the solenoid valve will not open until the tem,,-. perature of the oil separator is at least 35·C. The thermostat sensor is secured to a contact plate on the side of the oil separator. If necessary, apply thermal mastic between sensor and oil separator to improve the heat transfer.

1,2 -12. 2,5 -45

r=

The setting is done by means of a 6-position selector. Adjustment is made on the scale divided by 10 on the front of the timer. When the supply voltage is connected (2 - 10) and the adjusted pause time has expired the relay is activated. The relay remains activated until the set pulse time has expired. The pulse sequence continues until the supply voltage is interrupted. Wiring diagram:

• •

The solenoid valve is controlled by a timer. As initial value it is recommended to set the pulse time to 2.5 minutes and the pause time to 45 minutes. If necessary one or both times can be altered. The filter must be cleaned at regular intervals, see maintenance programme.

4 t------.

Thormoslal

KPn

Supply voltage: 12~- 50 V III og 48 - 250 V B! Reset time: max. 100 ms Frequency of operation: Max. 1800 operations/h at nominal load.


82-600~041~


2.11.' Oil for Reciprocating Compressors·
Oil in the refrigerating plant Gil in a refrigerating plant must protect· the compressor using all types of refrigerant· and during all working conditions (pressure and temperatures) .

33

• • •

Today, the following' oil types 'are used 'for refrigerating plants: - Mineral Oil - Synthetic Oil - Mixtures of the two types R717 (NHa) Oil is only miscible with- R71T to a very limited degree, and because of its higher density it-will always separate under the level of R717. The oil conducted into the plant cannot be recycled immediately, and therefore it is necessary to fit the compressor with an efficient oil separator and automatic oil recovery. In case of plants with reciprocating compressors, and with a high discharge gas temperature it is important to choose an oil with high oxidation stability. R22 Dependent on the state, the refrigerant is partly or completely miscible with oil. In the refrigerating .plant there will always be a certain quantity of oil which wi" return to the compressor,and therefore it is important that the properties of the oil are good at low temperatures (low floc-point). In the crankcase of the reciprocating compressor the oil will be mixed with some refrigerant, typically from -5 '"" 30%, This means .that the properties 'of the oil are changed' considerably compared with the data stated by the oil companies. Alternative refrigerants R134a is not miscible with the refrigerator oils normally used. For such plants an oil based on polyalkylen glycol (PAG) or an ester based synthetic oil can be used.

Normally,.an ester based oil is employed for use in HC/HCT:compressors.-·Because of-the rapid development fhesuppller.has to approve the oil for use;in:'R134a-;systems --and.systsrns with other alternative refrigerants to be able to give the normal guarantee for the compressors. Oil quality . Always .use-oll of.first .quality, e.g. :in accordance with' 01N51503;"Fdr-reciprocating: compressors the viscosity 'must beat-least 20cst,-also if there is a certainquantityotrefrigerantinthe oil. Oil of different brands 'and qualities must not be mixed. Change-of qualifyand/sorbrand. should only .be done after consulting your oil supplier. Mineral Oil Mineral oil-is 'designated with· the .'letter 'M and made from crude oil of a good quality-.The oil consists of hydrocarbons of different molecular sizes and structures. The most important are paraffin, naphthalene, and aromatics. With the modern refining process the. refrigeration oil is produced in such a way that it contains a great deal of paraffin and naphthalene, whereas the undesirable content of aromatics is kept as low as possible. MN MN a naphthene based oil with good properties for use in R22 plants. MP MP a paraffin based oil, used only for R717 plants where it is very suitable, e.g. because of a low oil consumption. Synthetic Oil Synthetic oil is available in various types, such as: A
A, a refrigerator oil based on alkyl benzene or

alkyl aromatics, and characterized by its high miscibility with R22 at low temperatures .

82-000-0041-00

34

However, the flow characteristics are relatively poor at low temperatures which may entail reduced evaporator performance and require mounting of a suction gas superheater. The oil is more stable than mineral oil, and stands high temperatures without oxidizing. MA • MA, a mixture of synthetic A oil and mineral oil. MA can be mixed in different ways, but generally MA has the same properties as the best mineral '1 1 OIS. PAO PAO, a polyalfaolifin based synthetic oil, characterized .t:>ya high chemical and thermal stability, andra high viscosity index. This makes it suitable for operating conditions calling for high oil and discharge pipe temperatures, for instance in heat pumps.

measuring takes place at an oil temperature of 40·C. For instance ISO VG No. 68 means that the viscosity is 68 cst at 40·C. When measuring R22 compressors, where there is a mixture of oil and R22 in the crankcase the viscosity of the mixture has to be considered. This can be determined by means of a diagram showing the viscosity compared to temperature and pressure. Viscosity Index 150 2909 The index indicates the dependence of viscosity on temperature. A high index figure means a small change in viscosity within the area 40 100·C. For use in refrigerating plants an oil with a high viscosity index is recommended. Other properties The oil suppliers are specifying a great number of other properties for refrigerator oils, e.g. flash point, pour point, floc point, aniline point, colour, acid content, and glyde properties. This information appears from Technical Data or it can be ordered from the oil supplier. Permissible temperatures Dependent on viscosity there are the following maximum temperatures for reciprocating compressors:

• • • •

,,'il A:r ..

The oil has a low pour point which makes it suitable for R717 plants with low suction temperatures. The miscibility with CFC and HCFC is low, and therefore the plant must have an ef,.;. ficient oil separator and an effective oil return from the evaporators. The oil is relatively expensive, but it has a long life. Normally, the oil drained from the plant can be reused after filtration. Often oil changes are based on analyses of the oil carried out by the oil suppliers. AP . AP, a mixture of alkyl benzene oil (type A) and polyalfaolifin oil (type PAO) with a medium miscibility with R22, making it more suitable for such plants than oil of the PAO type. The oil is also suitable for R717 plants.

150VG No.

Oil temperature

46 68~ 100

SO·C 60·C 6S·C

Max. Discharge pipe temperature 120·C 130·C 130·C


,,",.",

G
G, a polyglycol based synthetic oil used in connection with e.g. R290 (propane), R600 (butane), and other chemical substances. However, the oil is not suitable for R22 and R717. Oil Properties Kinematic viscosity The viscosity is measured in cst (centistoke) and classified to ISO VG which means that the

When in doubt, please contact the supplier of the . refrigerating plant or the oil supplier. The data in the following diagrams are based on information from the oil companies, and valid from 1993.01.01.

82-6j(Hl041-OO


I company Oil type ISOVG No. Used for Approved operating

35

·c

Viscocity cst

Viscocity index

R717

R22

lowest (R12, pres-. . R502) sure Evap-

• • •

68 100·' 46 68 150 68 220

+ + + +

+ +

-35/0 -20/0 -60/0 -55/0 -45/15 -20/10 -5/20

60.0 135.0 46.0 67.0 149.0 68.7 219.0

+ (+) (+) (+) (+)


1) Oil types marked with + are to be preferred.

+ + + +

82~-OO41-OO

36


Oil type ISOVG No. for Approved operating

Oil company

·C

Viscocity cst

Viscocity index

R717 lowest pressure

R221) (R12)

R22 (R12, R502) Evaporation lowest! highest

·C

• •

of:

..........,..

+ + +

-45 -40

-35/0 -35/0 -20/10 -60/0 -60/0 -50/10

Polaris

1) Oil types marked with

+ are to be preferred.

+ +

+ +

-45 -40


82-600-0041-00


Oil company Oil type ISOVG No. Used for . Approved operating

37

·c

~Viscocity cst

Viscocity index

R717

lowest pressure
R221) (R12)

R22 (R12, R502)

• • •
M M A A A PAO PAO

Evaporation lowest! highest

·C

+ +

+
+ +

+ + + + (+) (+)

-35/0 -20/0 -60/0 -55/0 -45/15 -20/10 -5/20

60.0 135.0 46.0 67.0 149.0 68.7 219.5

6.30 7.90 12.60 10.60 25.30

18 32 76 79 70 142 146

1) Oil types marked with + are to be preferred.

38


2.12. Electrical Heater
... ~ Often boiling may cause oil being conducted into the cylinder with the suction gas. Since oil, as other liquids, cannot be compressed some very strong mechanical forces will arise, and this may result in serious damage of the compressor.

>_

During operation the oil temperature will be higher than the evaporation temperature. During standsfill periods the oil will gradually adopt the ambient temperature, and there may be cases where the oil temperature will be lower than the temperature of the refrigerant which may cause condensation of the refrigerant. At plants with R717 the oil will gradually collect at the bottom of the compressor. At plants with R22 and R134a the refrigerant will be mixed with the oil. In both cases there will be a heavy boiling when the compressor is started as the pressure in the crankcase will very soon approach the evaporation pressure.

r-~)

Therefore, it is important that the compressor is provided with an electrical heater which has to be so connected that the heat is on when the compressor is out of operation. After stop of the plant because of repairs or the like the heater must be on for at least 2 hours before the compressor is started.


82-tlOO-OO41-OO


2.13. Oil System

39

'The oil in the crankcase is passing a magnetic filter and a strainer (normally called oil filter) before it is drawn into the oil pump. Most of the oil is pressed into the crankshaft from where main bearings and connecting rod bearings are lubricated. Finally, the oil is pressed to the shaft seal for lubrication and cooling. The oil is conducted from the shaft seal back to the crankcase through an oil control valve which opens when the oil pressure exceeds 3 bar. The oil differential pressure switch and the oil differential pressure gauge are connected at the shaft seal of the compressor giving the greatest possible certainty for optimum lubrication of all bearings.

Small part of the oil is condlJcted to the solenoid valves for capacity control. If a solenoid valve is activated the oil will continue out to the piston for capacity control. The oil will move the piston downwards which will again have the effect that the suction valves will not be unloaded any longer. As a minimum 2 bar is required to activate the capacity control. In case of capacity unloading the solenoid valve is not energized. By this the oil supply for the capacity control is closed, and a bore is opened conducting the oil from the oil pump back to the crankcase.

82-eoCl-()()41-OO

40


2.14. Capacity control
The compressors are capacity controlled by means of solenoid valves mounted on the oil pump of the compressor. Connection according to the below programme:

In general In principle, the function is described under the section about the oil system.

HC/HCIJHCH 6100

C\J

\.Q

LO U

• •

776006580001002

Capacity

Connected cylinders C1+2 C1+2+C5+6 Connected solenoid valves

82-eclO-()()41-OO

• •

41

HC/HCLJHCH 8100

(lJ

uu

'-.0 + LO

ex)

r---

776006581001002

Capacity

• •

75 50

C7+8

Connected cylinders C7+8+C1+2 C7+8+C1+2 . C5+6 Connected solenoid valves

The order of connection can be controlled by checking whether the solenoid valves are

activated as they will then be magnetic and attract steel (a screwdriver can be used).

82-800-0041-00

42


2.15. Recommended Setting Values for Pressure Controls and Thermostats
Type control KP5,KP5A RT5, RT5A
1)

Function
High-pressure

HC 14-16 bar

HCL
'·'i';;'·'

HCH Max. 25 bar

8 bar
(0,5 bar) 0,5 bar B=17bar S = 23 bar 2,2 bar

Low-pressure

control

KP1, KP1A RT1, RT1A KP1, KP1A KP7ABS MP55, MP55A

1 bar 0,5 bar B=17bar S = 23 bar 2,2 bar

Min. 2 bar 0,5 bar B =23 bar S=25bar 2,2 bar

Pressure control for oil filling Safety pressure control

• • •

Oil differential pressure control


Thermostat for protection against return of refrigerant from oil separator to compressor Thermostat for protection against too high oil temperature in crankcase Thermostat for protection against too high discharge pipe temperature

KP77

35·C

35·C

35·C

KP79

65·C

65·C

65·C

RT107

130·C difference 7

100·C difference 7

130·C difference 7

Pressures are stated as absolute pressures.

Note:
Normally, pressure controls and thermostats are pre-set from factory. After starting of the plant pressure controls and thermostats are checked, and if necessary, adjusted according to the values stated in the diagram and the following instructions: Normally, the high-pressure control is set to 2 bar above maximum standard condensing pressure. Normally, the low-pressure control is set to a pressure corresponding to a suction temperature which is approx. 5·C lower than minimum standard suction pressure. The compressor is provided with a safety bypass valve opening at a suction pressure of 25 bar. The valve is sealed and no attempts must be made to adjust it. The compressor is provided with an oil pressure regulator which is set for a value of 2.5 - 3.5 bar. This setting cannot be altered. Note, because of wear it is normal if the oil pressure is dropping a little after the runningin. 1) Instead of separate high- and low-pressure controls a combined high- and low-pressure control KP15 or KP15A may be used.

82-600-0041-00


2.16. Pressure and Leakage Test plus Evacuation

43

• • •

The compressor and! or compressor unit has been pressure tested when it is delivered. If later the compressor is to be pressure tested this should be carried out by an experienced refrigerating firm, and according to the instructions of ttte manufacturer. The compressor has to be shut off from the rest of the refrigerating system when this is pressure tested. The compressor and! or compressor unit has also been leakage tested when delivered. In case a leakage test is required before start of the plant this should be carried out by means of nitrogen N2. Before filling up with refrigerant the air has to be removed from the plant which is done by evacuation.

Normally, this is done at a few places of the plant, and therefore the suction and discharge valve must beopeh during the evacuation. . If the compressor alone has been opened, i.g. in connection with service, there is a Schrader valve on the discharge and the suction side which can be connected to a vacuum pump. Leakage test of the compressor during operation can for instance be.done.by ,m~r1s:ofa detector, and in case of ammonia machines,"by means of moist litmus paper.

82-600-0041-00

44


2.17. Survey of Torque Values

Steel bolts

Grade 8.8

,
II
~

4
Nm
I(b.ft.)

6 8
(5,8)

8 18
(13)

10 40
(29)

12 70
(51)

14 120
(87)

0
~

-I
-I

II

~{t}

2,5
(1,8)

1N m= 01k pm; 1k , rpm = ONm

Steel bolts M M M M M

• • •

16

18 250
(181)

20 350
(253)

22 480
(347)

24 600
(434)

0
~

-I
-

II I
Ii

~@)
~~

Nm
(Ib.ft.)

190
(137)

-m
Cylinder bore Steel bolt

Connecting rod bolts

Central screw

75
M

100
M

125
M

152
M

75/100
M

125
M

152
M

8x1 Grade 10.9


Nm
(Ib.ft)

10x1,25 12x1,25 14x1,5 50


(36)

12x1,75 100
(72)

14x1,5 140
(100)

16x1,5 190
(137)

25
(18)

90
(65)

140
(100)

Where two nuts are used, both should be tightened to the torque given.

82-600-0041-00