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CHAPTER 4 : THERMOCHEMISTRYcc

An exothermic reaction is a reaction that releases heat into the


surroundings.The dilution of concentrated acid using water is an example of an
endothermic reaction.The energy level diagram is a graph that shows the
energy content of the reactants and products of the reaction.c

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Table 13.1 Heat is released from the chemicals into its surroundings during
an exothermic reactionc

The energy level diagram is a graph that shows the energy content of the
reactants and products of the reaction.Heat energy is absorbed when chemical
bonds of a compound are broken.

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ccccTable 13.2 Energy level diagram of an endothermic reaction
On the other hand,heat energy is released when the chemical bonds are
reformed.The exothermic and endothermic reaction are used in the making of
hot and cold packs.Heat of reaction is defined as the heat change that occurs
when 1 mol of substance reacts or when 1 mol of product is formed.
A negatively marked heat of reaction, cshows an exothermic reaction.A
positively marked heat of reaction shows an endothermic reaction,Heat
change is the quantity of heat that is released or absorbed in a reaction. c

Heat change in a reaction can be calculated using yhe following formula:c

Heat changec

= solution mass x specific heat capacity x


temperature changec

= mcøc

The heat of reaction can be calculated using the formula:c

Heat of precipitation is the heat change when 1 mol of precipitate


forms.Heat of displacement is the heat that is released when 1 mol of metal
is displaced from its salt solution by more electropositive metal.c

Table 13.3 Types of heat of reactionc

The heat of displacement that is obtained from the laboratory activity is


less than the actual value because part of the heat has been c

a) lost to the surroundingsc


b) absorbed by the containerc

Heat of neutralisation is the heat that is released when 1 mol of


hydrogen ions,H+, neutralises 1 mol of hydroxide ion,OH-, to form 1 mol of
hydroxide ion,OH-, to form 1 mol of water,H2O.The heat of neutralisation
value of a reaction that involves a diprotic acid is twice that of the heat of
neutralisation value for a reaction that involves a monoprotic acid.c

The heat of neutralisation of a reaction between a weak acid and a


strong alkali .This is because heat must be absorbed to overcome the bonds in
a weak acid molecule,in order to ionise it.Heat of combustion is the heat that
is released when 1 mol of substanc is fully burned in excess oxygen c

Heat of combustion is the heat that is released when 1 mol of substanc is


fully burned in excess oxygen .The more carbon and hydrogen atoms per
molecule of alcohol, the more heat that is released when 1 mol of fuel is
combusted.The fuel value is a measurement of the energy content of a
fuel.The fuel value is a measurement of the energy content of a fuel.The fuel
that is chosen must be one that has a high fuel value but low fuel price.c

cccccc c cccTable 13.4 Fuel values of various types of fuelc


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