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Edik if jH cm;ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf tajccHpum;ajym

jrefrmo'g
(q&mq&mrrsm;ESifh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;twGuf)

a'gufwmudak v; (Ph.D)

jyKpkonf/

2
10? 9? 2004 wGif pwifjyKpkonf/
15? 7? 2005 wGif a&;om;jyKpk NyD;pD;onf/

Edik if jH cm;ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf tajccHpum;ajym

jrefrmo'g
(q&mq&mrrsm;ESifh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;twGuf)

a'gufwmudak v; (Ph.D)

jyKpkonf/

3
ed'gef;
Edik if jH cm;ausmif;om;rsm;onf jrefrmpmESihf bmompum;udk oif,Ml u&m wu
ov
dk f
tqifh a&mufrSom oif,lMuonfudk trsm;qk;H awGU&ygonf/ xdYak Mumifh jrefrm
o'
gudk

EdkifiHjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf

jyKpk&m todOmPf

&ifu
h sufNyD;aom

ausmif;om; tG,frsm;twGufom txl;&nfG,f jyKpkxm;jcif; jzpfaMumif; OD;pGm


azmfjyvdyk gonf/ pmoifjyolwpfO;D taejzifh rdrd\ tawGUtBuKHt& ajym&ygu
Ekid if jH cm;ausmif;om;rsm;onf jrefrmbmompum;xuf jrefrmhordkif;ESihf jrefrmEdik fiH
taMumif;udk odcsifolu trsm;pk jzpfonfudk awGU&ygonf/ odYt
k wGufaMumifh ,if;
ausmif;olausmif;om; trsm;pkonf jrefrmo'
gudk wul;wu oif,l&ef 0efav;
wwfMuonfudk awGU&onf/ o'g[lonf oif,l&onfh bmom&yfrsm;wGif oif,l&ef
ysif;&dz,
G f&m taumif;qkH;vnf; jzpfaewwfjyef&m jrefrmo'
gudk oif,l&rnfh
Edik if jH cm;ausmif;om;tzdYk ydk yif pdwfyg0ifpm;rI enf;aewwfonfudk awGY&ygonf/
jrefrmbmompum;onf Oa&myrS t*Fvdyfbmompum;? jyifopfbmom
pum;? pydefbmompum;? *smrefbmompum; ponfwYdak vmuf vnf;aumif;? tm&SrS
*syefbmompum;? wkwfbmompum;? ud&k ;D ,m;bmompum; ponfwYdak vmuf
vnf;aumif; vkyfief;tokH;jyKrI rsm;jym;jcif; r&Sad y&m jrefrmo'
gudk oif,l vdak om
Edik if jH cm;ausmif;om;rsm;rSm enf;oxuf enf;aeayawmhonf/ bmomaA'udk pdw0f if
pm;aom ausmif;om;tcsKdUomvQif jrefrmo'
gudk pepfwus avhvmMuonfudk awGU&
ygonf/
odYjk zpf&m jrefrmo'gpmtkyfi,fwGif jrefrmo'
gudk trsm; em;vnfvG,f
atmif ynm&SifwYdk avhvmykrH sKd; r[kwfbJ? jrefrmbmompum;udk oif,l&if; c&D;oGm;
[efvGJ owdjyKoifhonfwYdu
k dk okyfazmfxm;onfh o'
gqdik &f mtcsuftvufrsm; yg0if
aeonf[k ajymxm;cJhcsifygonf/

4
tcef; 1
jrefrmo&rsm;
1? 1/ jrefrmbmompum;wGif tajccHo& 7 vk;H &Sdonf/ ,if;wdYrk Sm
tD ( -D )
at

(a- )

t,f ( -,f )
tm ( -m )
atmf ( a-mf )
tdk ( -dk )
tl ( -l )
wdYk jzpfygonf/
1? 2/ ,if;tajccHo& 7vk;H udk wufusoH 3 oH (oH&Snf (-)? oHwdk ( -h ^ -d )? oHav;
(-; ^ -J ^ a-m )) jzifh Gwfqydk gu wpfrsKd;vQif ok;H oHpD jzpfvmum pkpak ygif;
tajccHo&oH 21 oH &onf/ ,if;wdkYudk atmufygtwdik ;f jyEdkifonf/
tD ( -D )^

td ( -d ) ^\^

tD; ( -D; )

at ( a- )^ {

ath ( a-h )

at; ( a-; )

t,f ( -,f )

t,f^h tJh ( -,f^h -Jh )

tJ ( -J )

tm ( -m )

tmh^t ( -mh ^ - )

tm; ( -m; )

atmf ( a-mf ) ^aMomf

atmh ( a-mh )

atm ( a-m )^ Mo

tdk ( -dk )

tdYk ( -dYk )

td;k ( -d;k )

tl ( -l )^ OD

tk ( -k )^ O

tl; ( -l; )^ OD;

5
1? 3/ tD? tm? tl o& 3 vk;H udk ESmoHjzifh Gwfqydk gu tif? tef? tGef [l
ESmoHygo&rsm; jzpfvmonf/ jrefrmpum;vk;H rsm;udk pmvk;H aygif;&mwGif
tif ^ tOf
tef ^ trf ^ tH
tGef ^ tGrf ^ tGH
[l a&;xm;aom pmvk;H aygif;rsm;onf tqdyk g ESmoHygo&rsm; jzpfonf/ ,if;wdkYudk
vnf; oH&Snf? oHwdk? oHav;[laom wufusoH 3 oHjzifh Gwfqydk gu ESmoHygo&d;k dk;
9 oH &onf/ ,if;wdYu
k dk atmufygtwdik ;f jyEdik o
f nf/
tif^tOf (-if^ -Of )
tef^ trf ^ tH (-ef ^
-rf ^ -H )
tGef ^ tGrf ^ tGH ( -Gef ^
-Grf ^ -GH )

tifh^tOfh ( -if ^ -Ofh )


tefY ^ trfh ^ tHh (-efY ^
-rfh ^ -Hh )
tGefY ( -GeYf )

tif;^ tOf; ( -if;^ -Of;)


tef; ^ trf; (-ef; ^-rf; )
tGef; ^ tGrf; ( -Gef; ^
-Grf; )

1? 4/ ESmoHygo&ESifh tjcm;o& ESpcf u


k dk wGpJ yf Gwfq&dk aom ESmoHygo&wGJ 4 ck
&Sdonf/ ,if;wdrkY mS atmufygtwdkif; jrefrmpmvkH; aygif;xm;aom ta&;ykHpHrsm; jzpf
onf/
(a- + -if) = tdef ^ tdrf ^ t( -def ^ -drf ^ - )
( -dk + -Gef ) = tkef ^ tkrf ^ tkH ( -kef ^ -krf ^ -kH )
( -m + -if ) = tdik f ( -dik f )
( -m + -Gef ) = atmif ( a-mif )
,if;wdYkuv
dk nf; oH&Snf? oHwdk? oHav;[laom wufusoH 3 oHjzifh Gwfqydk gu
ESmoHygo&wGJ 12 oH &onf/
tdef ^ tdrf ^ t( -def ^
tdef; ^ tdrf; ( -def; ^
tdefY ^ tdrfh ( -defY ^ -drhf )
-drf ^ - )
-drf; )
tkef ^ tkrf ^ tkH ( -kef ^ tkefY ^ tkrfh ^ tkYH ( -kefY ^ tkef; ^ tkrf; ^ tk;H ( -kef;
-krf ^ -kH )
-krfh ^ -kYH )
^ -krf; ^ -k;H )

6
tdik f ( -dik f )

tdik hf ( -dik hf )

tdik ;f ( -dik ;f )

atmif ( a-mif )

atmifh ( a-mifh )

atmif; ( a-mif; )

1? 5/ tD? t,f? tm? tl o& 4 vk;H udk vnfacsmif;twGif; &yf Gwfqydk gu &yfoH
o&rsm; jzpfvmonf/ jrefrmpmvk;H aygif;&mwGif
tpf ( -pf )
tuf ( -uf )
twf ( -wf )
tGwf ^ tG#f ^ tGyf ( -Gwf ^ -G#f ^ -Gyf )
[l a&;xm;aom pmvk;H aygif;rsm;onf tqdyk g &yfoHo&rsm; jzpfonf/ ,if;wdYu
k dk
wufusoH 3 oHjzifh Gwfqdk r&ay/
1? 6/ &yfoHo&ESifh tjcm;o& ESpcf kudk wGpJ yf Gwfq&dk aom &yfoHo&wGJ 4 ck
&Sdonf/ ,if;wdYrk Sm atmufygtwdik ;f jrefrmpmvkH;aygif;xm;aom ta&;ykHpHrsm; jzpf
onf/
(a- + -pf ) = tdwf ( -dwf )
( -dk + -Gwf ^ -G#f ^-Gyf ) = tkwf ^ tk#f ^ tkyf ( -kwf ^ -k#f ^ -kyf )
( -m + -pf ) = tdu
k f ( -dkuf )
( -m + -Gwf ^ -G#f ^-Gyf) = atmuf ( a-muf )
avhusifh&ef
1/ atmufygwdYu
k dk Gwfqydk g/
tD? at? tm? atmf? td?k t,f? tl/
t? at;? tk? atm? td?kY tm;? td/
atmh? tm? tD;? td;k ? tmh? t,f?h tJ/

7
2/ atmufygwdYu
k dk oH&Snf? oHw?dk oHav; tpOftwdik ;f jznfh Gwfqydk g/
---? td? tD;
atmf? atmh? --t,f? ---? tJ
tdef? ---? tdef;
---? ---? tk;H
3/ atmufyg &yfoHo&rsm;udk Gwfqydk g/
tpf? tdwf? tdkuf? tGwf? tky/f
4/ atmufyg ESmoHygo&rsm;udk Gwfqydk g/
tif? tdef? tkH? atmif? tef?Y tdik ;f /

8
tcef; 2
jrefrmAsnf;rsm;
2? 1/ jrefrmAsnf;rsm;wGif ta&;tu
&mtm;jzifh 33 vk;H &So
d nf/ ,if;wdYu
k dk atmufyg
twdik ;f Z,m;jzifh jyEdik o
f nf/
u
p
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2? 2/ toHtm;jzifrh l jrefrmAsnf;rsm;udk wl&m pk jyEdik o


f nf/ ,if;udk Z,m;jzifh
jyygu atmufygtwdik ;f 21 oH jzpfonf/
u
p
#^w
y

(rSwfcsuf/

c
q
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z
, ^ &
[

*^C
Z ^ ps
! ^ ^ ' ^ "
A^b
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t

i
n
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/ (1) & ^r^ oHudk EdkifiHjcm;bmompum;rsm;rS pum;vk;H rsm;udk arG;pm;

onft
h cg rl&if;oHwGif ^r^oH yg ygu jrefrmpum;wGifvnf; & ^r^ oHjzifh ajymavh
&Sdygonf/
(2) t - ]t} udk ta&;wGif vG,fulap&eftwGufomvQif Asnf;[k
azmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ pifppf ]t} onf o&om jzpfonf/)

9
2? 3/ ta&; Asnf;wGjJ zifh a&;aomfvnf; tajymwGif Asnf;wpfcw
k nf; toHxGufaom
Asnf;rsm;rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfonf/
iS ( i + -S )
n( n + -S )
ES ( e + -S )
rS ( r + -S )
vS ( v + -S )
,S ( , + -S ^ & + -S )
us ( u + -s ^ u + M - )
cs ( c + -s ^ c + M - )
*s ( * + -s ^ * + M - )
tqdyk gAsnf;wdYt
k jyif o^^ Asnf; \ oHjyif;Asnf; jzpfaom oS^^ vnf; &Sdonf/
odYk&mwGif ta&; o jzifo
h m a&;onf/
2? 4/ jrefrmpm ta&; awGU&aom Asnf;wGrJ sm;udk atmufygtwdik ;f Z,m;jzifh jyEdik f
onf/
us

cs

*s

ws

Es

ys

zs

As

rs

,s

vs

Mu

jc

j*

ji

Mw

j'

jy

jz

jA

jr

uG

cG

*G

iG

pG

qG

ZG

wG

xG

'G

"G

EG

yG

10
zG

AG

bG

rG

,G

vG

oG

[G

tG

iS

ES

rS

,S

&S

vS

0S

uR

cR

*R

<u

>c

>y

>r

rQ

jr

vQ

oQ

ET

rT

&T

vT

jrT
,if;wdYkudk toHxGuf wl&mpk jy&aomf atmufygtwdik ;f jy &onf/

us ^ Mu cs ^ jc

*s ^ j*

ws

Es

ys ^ jy zs ^ jz

As ^ jA

rs ^ jr

,s

vs

ji

Mw

j'

uG

cG

*G

iG

pG

qG

ZG

wG

xG

'G ^ "G

EG

yG

zG

AG ^ bG

rG

,G ^ G

vG

oG

[G ^ 0S

tG

iS

O^ S

ES

rS

,S ^ &S
uR ^
^oQ ^ vS ^ V
<u
vQ

cR ^ >c

*R

>y

>r

rQ ^ jr

rT

&T

vT

jrT

vQ

ET

11
txufyg Asnf;wGrJ sm;udk aocsmpGm avhvmNyD; avhusifhygu jrefrmpm ta&;twGuf
vkaH vmufygonf/

12
tcef; 3
jrefrmpmta&;pepf tac:ta0:rsm;
3? 1/ jrefrmpmta&;pepfwGif a&;om;onfh tu
&mwdY\
k vu
Pmudk ac:a0: onfh
tac:ta0:rsm;&Sdonf/ a&S;OD;pGm o&ta&;vu
Pmrsm;\ tac:ta0:rsm;udk
wifjyygrnf/
vuPm^ykHoPmef toHxGuf

tac:^Gwfqydk kH

t^ tmh

a&;

-m

tm

a&;cs

-m;

tm;

a&;cs 0p
EpS v
f ;kH ayguf

-d^

td

vk;H BuD;wif

-D^

tD

vk;H BuD;wif qHcwf

-D;

tD;

vk;H BuD;wif qHcwf 0p


EpS v
f ;kH ayguf

-k^ O

tk

wpfacsmif;iif

-l^ OD

tl

ESpaf csmif;iif

-l;^ OD;

tl;

ESpaf csmif;iif0p
EpS v
f ;kH ayguf

a-^ {

at

oa0xd;k

a-h

ath

oa0xd;k atmufujrpf

a-;

at;

oa0xd;k 0p
EpS v
f ;kH ayguf

-J

tJ

aemufypf

-Jh

tJh

aemufypf atmufujrpf

a-m^ Mo

atm

oa0xd;k a&;cs

a-mh

atmh

oa0xd;k a&;cs atmufujrpf

13
a-mf^ aMomf

atmf

oa0xd;k a&;cs a&SUxd;k

-H

tH

ao;ao;wif

-Hh

tHh

ao;ao;wif atmufujrpf

-dk

tdk

vk;H (BuD;)wif acsmif;iif

-dYk

tdYk

vk;H (BuD;)wif acsmif;iif atmufujrpf

-d;k

td;k

vk;H (BuD;)wif acsmif;iif 0p


EpS v
f ;kH ayguf

3? 2/ qufvuf jrefrmoifyek ;f BuD; oifdk;Asnf; tu


&m 33 vk;H wdk\
Y tac:ta0:
rsm;udk azmfjy xm;ygonf/
vuPm^ykHoPmef toHxGuf

trnf

trnfGwfqydk kH

umh

uBuD;

umh*sD;

cgh

cacG;

cgha*G;

*gh

*i,f

*ghi,f

*gh

*BuD;

*gh*sD;

igh

igh

pmh

pvk;H

pmhv;kH

qmh

qvdrf

qmhvdrf

Zmh

ZuGJ

Zmh*JG

ps

Zmh

psrsOf;qGJ

ZmhjrifZJG

Omh

Omh

Omh

Ouav;

Omhav;

wmh

#oefvsif;csdwf wmhwvif;csdwf

xmh

X0rf;bJ

xmh0efbJ

'gh

!&ifaumuf

'gh,ifa*guf

14

'gh

a&rIwf

'gh,rIwf

emh

PBuD;

emh*sD;

wmh

w0rf;yl

wmh0ef;Al

xmh

xqifxl;

xmhqif';l

'

'gh

'a'G;

'gha'G;

"

'gh

"atmufcsKdifh

'gh0csKduf

emh

ei,f

emhi,f

ygh

yapmuf

yghaZmuf

zmh

zOD;xkyf

zmh0xkwf

Amh

AxufcsKdifh

AmhvcsKduf

Amh

bukef;

Amh*ek ;f

rmh

rmh

,mh

,yufvuf

,mhyvuf

&

,mh

&aumuf

,mha*guf

vmh

vmh

0gh

0(vkH;)

0gh(vk;kH )

omh

omh

[mh

[mh

vmh

VBuD;

vmh*sD;

tmh

tmh

3? 3/ tcef;wGif jrefrmta&;pepf tygt0ifjzpfaom towfrsm;udkvnf;


jynfph HkrI &Sdatmif wpfygwnf; xnfo
h Gif;ay;vdu
k fygonf/ towfrsm;udk azmfjy&m
ta&;udk zwfwwfap&ef Oyrmrsm;jzifh jyxm;ygonf/

15
jrefrmta&;wGif txufyg jrefrmoifyek ;f BuD; oif;dk o& trsm;pkrmS towf
jzpfEdik o
f nf/ towf ykHoPmefESifh towf ac:a0:ykHrsm;udk atmufwGif azmfjyxm;
ygonf/
towfyo
kH Pmef

trnfGwfqydk kH

uf

umh*sD;owf^umhowf

cf

cgha*G;owf^cghowf

*f

*ghi,fowf^*ghowf

Cf

*gh*sD;owf

if

ighowf

pf

pmhv;kH owf^pmhowf

Zf

Zmh*o
GJ wf^ Zmhowf

nf

Omhowf

Of

Omhav;owf

#f

wmhwvif;csdwfowf

!f

'gh,ifa*gufowf

Pf

emh*sD;owf

wf

wmh0ef;Alowf^wmhowf

'f

'gha'G;owf^'ghowf

ef

emhi,fowf^ emhowf

yf

yghaZmufowf^ yghowf

Af

AmhvcsKdufowf

bf

Amh*ek ;f owf^Amhowf

rf

rmhowf

,f

,mhyvufowf^ ,mhowf

16
&f

,mha*gufowf

vf

vmhowf

0f

0gh(vk;kH )owf

of

omhowf

[f

[mhowf

Vf

vmh*sD;owf

tf

tmhowf

tok;H rsm;aom towfrsm;rSm ]]uf? if? pf? Of? nf? Pf? wf? ef? yf? rf? ,f}} wdYk jzpfonf/
useftowfrsm;rSm txl;ojzifh arG;pm;pum;vk;H rsm; (Oyrm? ygVd? ou
w? rGe?f
t*Fvdyf)udk a&;om;&mom wpfcgwpf&H awGU&rnf/
ta&;wGif (o&+Asnf;+towf)wGJ pmvk;H aygif;Gwfqydk Hu
k dk Oyrmrsm;jzifh
atmufwGif azmfjyxm;onf/
om"uta&;yko
H Pmef

pmvk;H aygif;Gwfqydk Hk

uuf

umh*sD;a&;umhowf uuf

aumuf

oa0xd;k umh*sD;a&;csumhowf aumuf

udu
k f

umh*sD;vk;H wifacsmif;iifumhowf udu


k f

uif

umh*sD;a&;ighowf uif

aumif

oa0xd;k umh*sD;a&;csighowf aumif

udik f

umh*sD;vk;H wifacsmif;iifighowf udik f

{nfh

tu&m{a&;Omhowft,f atmufujrpf tJh

onf

omha&;Omhowf oD

17
wkwf

wmh0ef;Alwpfacsmif;iif wmhowf wkwf

rde;f

rmhv
h ;kH wifemhowfrdef 0p
EpS v
f ;kH ayguf rde;f

vdrfh

vmhv;kH wifrmhowfvdef atmufujrpf vdefY

3? 4/ jrefrmpmta&;wGif awGU&rnf jzpfaom Asnf;wGw


J Ydk\ oauFwESihf tac:
ta0:wdYu
k v
dk nf; wpfqufwnf; azmfjyvdkufygonf/
vuPm^ykHoPmef trnf

Gwfqydk Hk

-s

,yifh

,mhyifh

M-

&&pf

,mh,pf

-G

0qGJ

0ghqGJ

-S

[xd;k

[mhx;dk

-R

,yifh 0qGJ

,mhyifh 0ghqGJ

>- ^ < -

&&pf 0qGJ

,mh,pf 0ghqGJ

-Q

,yifh [xd;k

,mhyifh [mhx;dk

M -

&&pf [xd;k

,mh,pf [mhx;dk

-T

0qGJ [xd;k

0ghqGJ [mhx;dk

-Ts

,yifh 0qGJ [xd;k

,mhyifh 0ghqGJ [mhxdk;

< -

&&pf 0qGJ [xd;k

,mh,pf 0ghqGJ [mhxdk;

18
3? 5/ atmufyg pmvk;H aygif;rsm;udk avhusifh GwfqMdk unfyh g/
ouf? vGwf? vyf? ppf? 'Pf? rke;f ? cspf? &Sp?f Iyf? wke?fY armif;? oD;? awG;? jrif?h
ausmif;? oGef? aoG;? BudKuf? arT;? &rf;? pef;? wdwf? rSuf? rId? rsKd;? ysuf? a[h? zGHU/

19

tcef; 4
jrefrm pum;oHrsm;
4? 1/ jrefrmpum;oHrsm;qdo
k nfrSm jrefrmAsnf;ESihf o&rsm;udk aygif; Gwfqadk om
toHrsm;udk qdv
k ydk gonf/ o&csnf;oufoufvnf; toH jzpfEidk fygonf/ odY&k mwGif
o&rsm;\ tac:ESifh Gwfqydk Hw
k Gif azmfjyNyD; jzpf&m ae&mwGif xyfrH razmfjy
awmhyg/
4? 2/ OD;pGm d;k d;k o& 22 vk;H ESihf Asnf;rsm;udk aygif;pyfxm;onfh pum;oHrsm;udk jyrnf/
Asnf;

o&

pum;oH

u^ umh

-m

um

-m;

um;

-d

rd

-D

rD

-D;

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20
w

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4? 2/ atmufyg pum;oHrsm;udk Gwfqdk avhusifh Munfyh g/


jym? usm;? aomf? rdk;? Gm? ZG?J zGUJ ? aEG? axG;? BudK;? ysHU? wH? arsm? wD;? usL;/
4? 3/ qufvuf (Asnf;+o&+towf) aygif;pyfxm;onfh pum;oHrsm;udk jyrnf/
Asnf;

o&

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21
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22
t

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23
rSwfcsuf/

/ txufyg towfrsm;ESihf wGv


J sufpum;oHrsm;udk avhusifh GwfqEdk idk f

ygu jrefrmtu&mjzifh a&;xm;aom jrefrmpmtm;vk;H udk zwf&Ieidk yf gvdrfhrnf/ xyfrH


avhusifh&eftwGuf Asnf;rsm;udk tpmxd;k Gwfqdkjcif; jyKvkyfEidk yf gonf/

24
tcef; 5
jrefrm emrfpum;vk;H rsm;
5? 1/ jrefrm emrfpum;vk;H rsm;udk azmfjy&m tok;H rsm;aom emrfpum;vk;H rsm;udo
k m
aG;cs,fxm;ygonf/ ,if;odakY G;cs,f&m avhvmolwYdk tcef;csif; qufpyfr&I daS tmif
o&csnf;&Sdaeaom emrfpum;vk;H rsm;? o&ESifh Asnf; wGaJ eaom emrfpum;vk;H rsm;[l
cGJjcm; pkpnf;xm;ygonf/
5? 2/ o&csnf;om &Sdaom emrfpum;vkH;rsm;udk pkpnf;xm;ygonf/
jrefrmemrfpum;vk;H

t"dy
m,f

tt
ttdk
tm
tD;
O
tl
OD;
tH
td;k
5? 3/ qufvuf jrefrmpum;&Sd o&ESifh Asnf; wGaJ eaom emrfpum;vk;H rsm;udk
pkpnf;&m toHwpfoHom &Sdaom emrfpum;vkH;rsm;ESihf toHwpfoHxuf ydkaom emrf
pum;vk;H rsm;[l cGJjcm; pkpnf;jyxm;ygonf/

25
5? 3? 1/ atmufwGif azmfjypkpnf;xm;aom emrfpum;vk;H rsm;rSm toHwpfoHom &Sd
aom emrfpum;vk;H rsm; jzpfygonf/
om"uum;

aumf

uH

uif;

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ukef

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usm;

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cg;

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csKdif;

Csnf

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xD

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26
ESyf

ESr;f

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ay

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27
a0S;

om;

ol

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k f

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5? 3? 2/ ae&mwGif toHESpfoHESit
fh xuf &Sdaom jrefrmemrfpum;vk;H rsm;udk azmfjy
&ef &Sdaomfvnf; jyKpkaom pmtkyf\ tqift
h wef;udk vdu
k f tqdyk g emrfpum;vk;H
rsKd;rsm;udk odomkrH Qom azmfjyvdu
k fawmhrnf/ txufazmfjyyg toHpepf? ta&;pepf?
Gwfqdyk Hpk epfwYdu
k dk uRrf;usifygu tbd"mefpmtkyfrsm;wGif &SmazG avhusifh jrefrm
pum;vk;H rsm; wd;k yGm;atmif rdru
d ,
dk fwdkif avhvm oif,lEidk yf gonf/
om"utudk (tpfu)dk tusKd;

tBuH

taMumif;

tMurf;

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tjcm;

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k ftcH

twdik ;f

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t"dy
m,f

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tif*sif

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k edk D

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acsmuvuf

csKdcsOf

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ajcaxmuf

acR;r

*VKef

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28
*D,m

a*:zDxkyf

*smuif

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N*dK[fom;

iaMumif

i&J

pum;

pum;vk;H

pMu0Vm

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L

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ppfom;

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pGyjf yKwf

pG,fawmf

q&m

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k fum;

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wHwm;

wHawG;

wd[
k l;

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k fzKdG uf

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k fcef;

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aeYcif;(aeYv,f) aeYpm;

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S fwrf;

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EdkifvGef

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edAmef

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ESv;kH

ESmacgif;

ESi;f qD

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f pful;

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EIwfcrf;

yck;H

ynm

y#dyu

y#doaE

yxr

yx0D

yaxG;

y&dowf

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yavmif

ygarmu

ygVd

yg;pyf

ykcuf

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ykvJykwD;

ydk;u&if

ydkufqH

yp
nf;

ykp
m

jymodv
k

za,mif;wdik f

zdeyf

zufqpf0g'

azmufonf

29
azmifwdef

zGm;at

Arm

Av

Avm

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Ak'[l;aeY

jA[
m

bm*sm

bmom

bmompum; bk&m;

bk&if

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bkef;BuD;

reuf

r,m;

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rif;wkyf

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L

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rde;f uav;

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rken
f if;Guf

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rkeY[
f if;cg;

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rsufcrf;

rsufcH;k

rsufpd

rsufEmS

jrefrm

jrefrmvlrsKd;

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a,m*D

a,musfm;

a,mu
r

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&xm;

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Kd;

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Pm

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vrf;nTef

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mo
f D;

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avSum;

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dw

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opfukvm;tkwf owfykH

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aoG;jyefaMum aoG;jzLO

[v0g

[mo

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a[mfrek ;f

[if;&nf

[dw
k ,f

30
5? 4/ avhusif&h ef/
txufyg vkcH sif;emrf (toHwpfoHwnf;&Sdaomemrf) ? vH;k wGeJ mrf (toHwpfoH
xuf ydkaomemrf)rsm;udk tokH;jyK ]]emrf+yg}} ykHpHudk avhusifhEidk o
f nf/
onf ]]'g bmvJ}} [laom tar;udk ajzqdo
k nfh tajzykpH w
H pfck jzpfonf/
om"u-

ar;/ 'g bmvJ/


'g oabFmyg/

'g bmvJ/
'g zm;yg/

'g bmvJ/
'g opfyifyg/

'g bmvJ/
'g pmtkyfyg/

'g bmvJ/

'g w,fvDzkef;yg/

'g bmvJ/

'g pmtdwfyg/

,if;ykHpH

31

'g bmvJ/

'g bwfpum;yg/

'g bmvJ/

'g qdzk myg/

'g bmvJ/

'g GufavSyg/
'g bmvJ/
'g aygifrek Yyf g/

32
tcef; 6
jrefrm Bud,mpum;vk;H rsm;
6? 1/ Bud,mpum;vk;H rsm;udrk l emrfpum;vkH;rsm;uJo
h Ydk trsKd;tpm; cGjJ cm; rjyawmhyg/
tbd"meftu&mpOftwdik ;f om tok;H rsm;&m aeYpOfo;kH Bud,mrsm;udk aG;cs,fppk nf;
wifjyxm;ygonf/ jrefrmBud,mpum;vk;H rsm;rSm rsm;aomtm;jzifh pum;oH wpfoHom
&Sdaom pum;vk;H u trsm;pk jzpfonf/ pum;oHwpfoH pum;vk;H wpfvkH;xuf ydkaom
Bud,mrsm;rSm aygif;pyfxm;aom Bud,mrsm; jzpfonf/ txl;ojzifh Bud,mtjzpf
tok;H jyKaom Bud,mpum;okH;rsm; jzpfMuonf/
om"u-

uvd

uvl

uvJph m;acs

uavm

um

um;

uJ

uJ&h UJ

aum

aumh

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aumuf

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k f

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uef;

ukef

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ukef;ydk;

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dk f

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urf;

urf;vSrf;

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H kH

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k fcsif;pm

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k fvufE;SD aESm

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k fvGwfkef;

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k f0efaqmif

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uscH

auseyf

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ausat;

aus;Zl;wif

ausm

ausmh

ausmf

ausmfwuf

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usuf

usufpm;

usufrd

ausmufcs

33
ausmuf(uef~)

usKdufusKdufql

usif(em~)

usif (uRrf;~)

usifvnf

usifh (usifh~)

usif;y

ausmif;qif;

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ausmif;ysuf

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ausmif;vTwf

usOf;

usdef; (tdy)f

usyf

usyfpnf;

usyfwu
dk f
(tom;? ig;)

usrf;udik f

usrf;usdef

usrf;Guf

usrf;aus

usrf;pl;

usrf;jyK

usKH;

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BuD;

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aMu

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k f

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BudK

BudKqdk

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dk f

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d f aMumifMh u

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MuOf

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MunfjzL

Munfh

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aMumuf

MunfndK

vMuwf)
BudwfrSw
d f

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Muyf

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Murf;

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BuKH

BuHKBudKuf

uG

uGm

34
uGmSif;

uGmwm;cs

auGU

auG;

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J Gm

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c&m

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cg;

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ck

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k f

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cif;

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k f

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35
acsmfvJ

csKd

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f m;udu
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tydk;usKd;

taygufq;dk

tyif;qdYk

tyif;vQKd

taygifcH

tydkifpD;

tykycf H

tykycf s

taysmfBuH

tysKdazmf0if

tysKd&nfysuf

taysmufu
dk f

tjym;cwf

tajymus,f

tajymBuD;

tjypfzdYk

tjypf&Sm

tjywf&Sif;

tyGBuH

tzwfwif

tzsm;SL;

tjzpfq;dk

trJzsuf

tarmqdYk

tarmazmuf

tarmvkH

trdeYjf yef

trdeY&f Sd

tNrD;ukyf

tarGjzwf

trSDjyK

trIqidk f

trIxrf;

trIvu
dk f

trSL;xm;

trSL;jyK

trSwfBuD;

trQa0

trQifwef;

trTr;f wif

t,lcH

t,loD;

ta,mifaqmif

t,ko
H Gif;

t&m0if

tl;x

ta&;BuD;

ta&;pdkuf

ta&;edrhf

ta&;ay;

ta&;,l

ta&;tcif;jzpf td;k pGJ

td;k xkwf

ta&mifwif

49
ta&mif;xdik ;f

tG,fa&muf

tG,f&Sd

tG,fvGef

t&SufBuD;

t&SufuGJ

t&SufcGJ

t&Sufenf;

tIu
d fxd

tSed ,
f l

t&Sdefavsmh

tSed v
f Gef

tSed af o

tSed o
f wf

tI;H cH

tI;H ay;

tTef;azmuf

tavvdu
k f

tav;ay;

tav;jyK

tavmwef

tvdv
k u
dk f

tvpfokwf

tvGwfkef;

tvGrf;o,f

tvSrf;us,f

t0g;0

toa&qnf

toa&ysuf

toa&zsuf

tom;us

tom;eDvef

today;

todtrSwfjyK

taoajzmifh

toHay;

toHviT hf

toH0if

toufiif

toufaph

toufSL

tonf;aMumif tonf;uGJ

tonf;em

tonf;at;

toGifajymif;

ttdyfBuD;

ttdyfqwf

t*wdvu
dk f

t"r
usifh

twdwfaumuf

twdwfaqmif

tm

tmus,f

tmMurf;

tmcH

tmap;xnfh

tm&Tif

tmvkwfusif;

tmoD;a&mif

tmrcH

tmrbaEcH

tmkpH ku
d f

tmkjH yK

tmkHajymif;

tm;

tm;ud;k

tm;aumif;

tm;xm;

tm;xkwf

tm;ay;

tm;NydKif

tm;arG;

tm;,l

tD

tD;ayguf

O'gef;wGif

Oya'xkwf

Oyrmay;

Oykofapmifh

tlwdk

tl&Tif

OD;

OD;cdkuf

OD;pD;

OD;aqmif

OD;nTwf

OD;aESmufajcmuf

OD;armh

at;

MoZmcH

MoZm&Sd

Mobmay;

atmhtef

atmf

atmf*vDqef

atmf'gay;

atmf'grSm

tH (pm ~ )

50
tHBudwf

tHacsmf

tdk

tdpk m

td;k pm;uGJ

td;k tdrfxl

tuf

atmufus

atmufuscH

atmufusKdU

atmufy;dk usKduf

atmufarh

atmuf(tpf ~)

tdu
k f

tifh

atmif

atmifoG,f

atmifh

atmif;

tdik f

tpf

{nfch H

tkwfjrpfcs

tef

tefcwf

tefpmypf

a`Eqnf

a`E
&

tefwk

tyf (ay; ~)

tdyf

tdyfarmus

tdyfrufruf

tkyf

trf;

tdrfaxmifus

tdrfaxmifcs

tdrfaxmifysuf

tdrfaxmifjyK

tdrfh

tkH

tk<H u

tkyH iG hf

tkUH (rd;k ~)

tk;H

txufwGif azmfjyxm;aom Bud,mpum;vk;H rsm;rSm pmtkyft&qdak omf ta&


twGuf twefyif rsm;ygonf/ odkY&mwGif tbd"mefvGwf avhusifh ajymqdv
k mEdik af p&ef
&nfG,f ,ckuo
Jh Ydk pkpnf; azmfjyay;xm;jcif; jzpfonf/ azmfjyyg jrefrmBud,m
pum;vk;H rsm;udk rdrw
d Ydk oufqidk f&m bmompum;jzifh bmomjyefqdk avhusifh&ef
jzpfonf/

51
tcef; 7
jrefrmemrftxl;jyKrsm;
7? 1/ jrefrmbmompum;wGif tif'kOd a&my bmompum;rsm;uJo
h Ydk emrftxl;jyK
pum;vk;H ppfppf[l

r&Sad y/ emrftxl;jyKrsm;jzpf&ef oufqidk &f memrfpum;vkH;ESifh

tjcm; pum;vk;H rsm;? pum;vk;H pkrsm;udk vdt


k yfovdk wGq
J ufay;&onf/ ,if;odYk
wGq
J uf&mwGif txl;jyK cH&rnfh emrf\ aemufrSvnf;aumif;? a&SUrSvnf;aumif;
wGq
J ufEidk o
f nf/
om"uyef;
rde;f r
vl
pmtkyf
um;
[laom emrfpum;vk;H rsm;udk tjyma&mif? vS? qd;k ? xlxl? ukefwif [laom
pum;vk;H rsm;jzifh a&SUrS? aemufrS wGq
J ufay;Edkifonf/ ,if;odYk wGq
J ufvdkufjcif;jzifh
tjyma&mif yef;
rde;f r vS
vl qd;k
pmtkyf xlxl
ukefwif um;
[laom emrfy'k pf rk sm; jzpfvmonf/ wGif tjyma&mif (emrf)? vS(Bud,m)?
qd;k (Bud,m)? xlxl(ESpfxyfjyKBud,m)? ukefwif(aygif;pyfBud,m) [laom pum;vk;H wdYk
onf yef;? rde;f r? vl? pmtkyf? um; [laom emrfpum;vk;H rsm;udk txl;jyKay;aom
pum;vk;H rsm; jzpfvmMuonf/

52
,if;odYk

pum;vk;H rsm;jzifh

oufqidk &f memrfudk

txl;jyKay;EdkifouJo
h Ydk

Bud,mrsm;udk wJ(h aom)? r,fh aemufqufrsm;ESihf wGu


J m oufqidk &f memrf\ a&SUrS
yl;wGaJ y;jcif;jzifh xdo
k ufqidk f&merfudk txl;jyKay;Edkio
f nf/
om"uyef;
rde;f r
vl
pmtkyf
um;
[laom emrfpum;vk;H rsm;udk jym? vS? qd;k ? xl? ukew
f if [laom Bud,mrsm; wJ?h r,fh
[laom aemufqufrsm;qufum a&SUrS yl;wGaJ y;jcif;jzifh
jymwJ(h aom)yef;
vSw(Jh aom)rdef;r
qd;k r,fv
h l
xlw(Jh aom)pmtkyf
ukefwifr,fu
h m;
[laom emrfy'k pf rk sm; jzpfvmonf/ wGif jymwJ(h aom)? vSw(Jh aom)? qd;k r,f?h
xlwJ(h aom)? ukefwifr,fh wdYo
k nf emrftxl;jyKyk'fpkrsm; jzpfonf/ odYak om
emrftxl;jyKyk'fpkrsm;rSm oufqidk &f m txl;jyKcHemrf\ a&SUom &Sd&ygonf/
7? 3/ Bud,mpum;vk;H rsm;udk a&SUquf ]]t}}udk qufay;jcif;jzifh Bud,memrf
&vmEdik o
f nf/
om"ua&SUquf

Bud,m

Bud,memrf

jref

tjref

53
t

iSm;

tiSm;

xdek mrfudk txl;jyKcHemrf\ a&SUwGif xm;jcif;jzifv


h nf; emrftxl;jyK jzpfvmEdik o
f nf/
om"utjrefum;
tiSm;,mOf

7? 4/ pum;vk;H rsm;jzifh emrfpum;vkH;rsm;udk txl;jyK&mwGif ar;cGe;f pum;vkH;rsm;jzifh


vnf;

txl;jyKEdik o
f nf/

tok;H jyKaom

ar;cGe;f pum;vk;H rSm

]bm}

jzpfonf/

xdpk um;vk;H udk oufqidk &f m a,bk,semrfwpfcck k\ a&SUwGif xm; tar;0gus jyK
vkyfjcif;jzifh oufqidk &f memrfudk txl;jyKonfh emrftxl;jyKykpH H &vmonf/
om"ubmpmtkyf (ar;/ tJ'g bmpmtkyfvJ/^ ajz/ tJ'g t*Fvdyfpmtkyfyg/)
bmvlrsKd; (ar;/ tJ'g bmvlrsKd;vJ/^ ajz/ tJ'g jrefrmvlrsKd;yg/)
bmum; (ar;/ tJ'g bmum;vJ/^ ajz/ tJ'g *syefum;yg/ (*syefEkid fiHu
jyKvkyfaomum;)
wGif ]]bm}}[lonfh tar;pum;vkH;onf t"duemrfudk txl;jyKonfh emrf odYrk [kwf
emr0daooeyk'fpk (om"u- *syefEkid fiHu jyKvkyfaom)udk &nfnTef;ygonf/
7? 5/ emrfukd txl;jyKaom tar;pum; tjcm;wpfcrk mS ]]b,f}} jzpfonf/ ]]b,f}}udk
tok;H jyK emrftxl;jyK tjzpf tar;0gus jyKvkyf&mvnf; ]]bm}}uJo
h Ydyk if oufqidk &f m
a,bk,semrfwpfcck \
k
a&SUwGif ]]b,f}}udk xm;

tar;0gus jyKvkyfjcif;jzifh

oufqdik &f memrfudk txl;jyKonfh emrftxl;jyKykpH H &vmonf/

54
om"ub,fpmtkyf (ar;/ b,fpmtkyfvJ/^ ajz/ t*Fvdyfpmtkyfyg/^ rSwfcsuf/
tjcm;bmompum;jzifh a&;xm;aom pmtkyfrsm; jzpfEidk o
f nf/)
b,fvl (ar;/ b,fvlvJ/^ ajz/ xdik af ewJh vlyg/ rSwfcsuf/ tjcm;vlrsm;rSm
rwfwyf&yfaumif; &yfaernf/)
b,fum;

(ar;/

b,fum;vJ/^

ajz/

teDa&mifum;yg/^

rSwfcsuf/

tjcm;um;rsm;rSm tjcm;ta&mifrsm; jzpfEkid fonf/)


wGif tar;pum; ]]b,f}}onf oufqidk &f m t"duemrfudk txl;jyK&m aG;cs,f
txl;jyKonfh emrftxl;jyKykHpHjzpfonf/ ]]b,f}}onfvnf; ]]bm}}uJo
h Ydyk if tajz emrf
(om"u-

t*Fvdyf)

&nfnTef;ygonf/

odYrk [kwf

emr0daooeyk'fpk

(om"u-

xdik af ewJ)h udk

55
tcef; 8
jrefrm Bud,mtxl;jyKpum;vk;H rsm;
8? 1/ jrefrmbmompum;wGif Bud,mtxl;jyKpum;vk;H [l oD;jcm; r&Sday/ rl&if;
Bud,mpum;vk;H udk ESpx
f yfjyK vnf;aumif;? Bud,mwGif aemufrS^ a&SUrS yp
nf;
wpfcck u
k dk quf vnf;aumif; Bud,mtxl;jyKpum;vk;H rsm; jyKvkyfEidk o
f nf/
om"uBud,m

Bud,mtxl;jyK (ESpfxyfjyKBud,m)

jref

jrefjref

Mum

MumMum

pm;aomuf

pm;pm;aomufaomuf

ajymqdk

ajymajymqdq
k dk

Bud,m

ypnf;

Bud,mtxl;jyK

vsifjref

pGm

vsifjrefpGm

vsifjref

tvsiftjref

xdBk ud,mtxl;jyKrsm;udk tok;H jyK atmufygtwdki;f Bud,mrsm;udk txl;jyKEdik o


f nf/
om"ujrefjref oGm;
MumMum tdyf
pm;pm;aomufaomuf vkyf
ajymajymqdq
k dk ae
vsifjrefpGm a&;
tvsiftjref ajy;

56
8? 2/ ae&mjy? tcsdefjyypnf;rsm;udk qufxm;aom emrfy'k rf sm;onfvnf; 0gus
twGif; Bud,mtxl;jyKwm0efudk xrf;aqmifwwfMuonf/
om"uraeYu vmw,f/
tdrfay:u Munfw
h ,f/

57
tcef; 9
jrefrm yp
nf;pum;vk;H rsm;

9? 1/ jrefrm ypnf;pum;vk;H rsm;udk t"dutm;jzifh ESprf sKd; cGJjcm;Edkifonf/ wpfrsKd;rSm


pum;vk;H zGyJY kH&Sd ypnf;pum;vk;H trsKd;tpm; jzpf usefwpfrsKd;rSm 0guszGJUyk&H dS yp
nf;pum;
vk;H trsKd;tpm; jzpfonf/
9? 2/ pum;vk;H zGyJY H&k Sd ypnf;pum;vk;H trsKd;tpm;rsm;wGif emrfajymif;yp
nf;ESihf Bud,m
txl;jyKajymif;ypnf;[l ESprf sKd;awGUEdkifonf/
9? 3/ emrfajymif; ypnf;rsm;rSm ]]t? rI? jcif;? csuf? zG,f? p&m}}ponfwYdk jzpfonf/ xdk
ypnf;rsm;udk Bud,mESifh qufay;jcif;jzifh jrefrm emrfpum;vk;H rsm; &vmonf/ ]]t}}
wpfcw
k nf;udo
k m Bud,m\ a&SUu quf usefyp
nf;rsm;udk Bud,m\ aemufu xm;
quf&onf/
om"u]]t}}

Bud,m

emrf

vkyf

tvkyf

jym

tjym

vGrf;

tvGrf;

usKd;

tusKd;

58
Bud,m

ypnf;

emrf

ausmfMum;

rI

ausmfMum;rI

vGwfvyf

jcif;

vGwfvyfjcif;

tm;om

csuf

tm;omcsuf

aysmf&Tif

zG,f

aysmf&TifzG,f

ae

p&m

aep&m

9? 4/ Bud,mtxl;jyKajymif; yp
nf;rsm;rSm a&SUquf ]]t}}vnf; jzpfEidk o
f nf/
Bud,mudk ]]t}} a&SUquf jzpfvmaom emrfudk &Hcg 0guswGif;&Sd oufqidk &f m
Bud,m\ a&SUwGif xm;jcif;jzifh xdek mrfonf xd0k gustwGif; Bud,mtxl;jyKwm0efudk
xrf;aqmifay;onf/
om"utjref oGm;onf/
tiSm; armif;onf/
tjcm; Bud,mtxl;jyKajymif;ypnf;tjzpf ok;H aom pum;vk;H rsm;rSm wpfv;kH wnf;
qufjcif;rsKd; r[kwfbJ ESpfv;kH tpkHvu
dk f qufjcif;rsKd; jzpfonf/ ,if; Bud,mtxl;jyK
ajymif;ypnf;tpkHwYdrk Sm ]]u u ? w w ? y y---? A---A---? r---r ? r
w?tt?tw?c-c-?p-p-?ZZ-?''-?ee-?
t - p - }} ponfwYdk jzpfonf/ ,if; Bud,mtxl;jyKajymif;yp
nf;tpkHrsm;udk ESpv
f kH;wGJ
Bud,mrsm;\ a&SUESifh Mum;wGif qufay;jcif;jzifh Bud,mtxl;jyKrsm; jzpfvmonf/

59

om"uBud,m

ypnf;

Bud,mtxl;jyK

acsmfcRwf

uu

uacsmfucRwf

wdrf;yg;
uGjJ ym;

uwdrf;uyg;
ww-

crf;em;?
&rf;wm

wcrf;wem;?
y y -

vkwfavmif;
kef;&if;

A A -

rr

rw

tt

tBuHtpnf
taESmifht,Suf

tw

a&m0if
aemfeYJ

rcdYw
k dUk
rwefwq

aESmif,
h Suf
yljyif;

ra&r&m
rtyfr&m

wefq
BuHpnf

Akef;A&if;
Aavmif;AvJ

tyf&m
cdkY dUk

y&rf;ywm
yvkwfyavmif;

avmif;vJ
a&&m

wuGw
J jym;

tylwjyif;
ta&mw0if

c-c-

caemfceJY

60
Edk;eJY

cEd;k ceJY

Ed;k aemifh

p-p-

pEd;k paemifh

Za0Z0g

ZZ-

Za0Z0g

,D;,dik f

''-

',D;',dik f

,drf;,dik f

',drf;',dik f

armfrhJ

ee-

earmferJh

d&k J

t-p

zdzk &J

9? 5/ 0guszGJU&m tok;H jyKaom yp


nf;rsmudk a,bk,stm;jzifh emrfyp
nf;ESihf Bud,m
ypnf;[l ESpfrsKd; cGjJ cm;Edkifonf/
9? 6/ 0guszGJU&m tokH;jyKaom emrfyp
nf;rsm;rSm tajccHtm;jzifh uw
m;yp
nf;?
uHyp
nf;ESihf tjznfyh 'k yf pnf; [l 3 rsKd; &So
d nf/
9?

7/

uwm;ypnf;rsm;rSm

tajympum;wGif

]]u?

[m}}wdYu
k dk

ok;H

ta&;pum;wGif ]]onf? u? rSm? um;}}wdYu


k dk tok;H jyKonf/
om"uemrf (uwm;)

ypnf;

tok;H jyKykH

q&m

q&mu

[m

q&m[m

tajympum;

61
emrf (uwm;)

ypnf;

tok;H jyKyk(H uw
m;yk'f)

q&m

onf

q&monf

q&mu

rSm

q&mrSm

um;

q&mum;

ta&;pum;

9? 8/ uHypnf;rSm tajympum;ESihf ta&;pum; ESpcf v


k ;kH wGif ]]ud}k }udk tok;H jyK onf/
om"uemrf (uH)

ypnf;

tok;H jyKyk(H uHyk'f)

q&m

udk

q&mhudk

ausmif;

ausmif;udk

tdrf

tdrfudk

aq;kH

aq;ku
H dk

9?

9/

tjznfyh 'k q
f o
dk nfrSm

wdY\
k
qufpyf

jrefrm0gustwGif;

tajym^ta&;pum;

t"duemrfEiS hf

t"duBud,m

0guszGJU&m t"dy
m,ft& jznfph u
G fay;&aomyk'f jzpfonf/

tjznfyh 'k rf sm;onf emrfy'k rf sm;aomfvnf;aumif; 0guscGrJ sm;aomfvnf;aumif; jzpfEikd f

rSwfcsuf/
/ vlyk*dKvfwdkY\ trnf^tac:ta0:rsm;ESihf uHy'k yf pnf; ]]ud}k }udk wGpJ yf
ajymqd&k mwGif xdk vlyk*
dKvfwYdk\ trnf^tac:ta0:rsm;wGif ]] m ? a- ? drf ? kH }} ponfh
oHajyo&rsm;jzifh tqk;H owfygu xdkoHajyo&wGif ]]atmufujrpf ( -h ) udk xnfh ajymqdak vh
&Sdonf/

62
onf/ xdYak Mumifh tjznfyh 'k yf p
nf;qdo
k nfrSm xdyk 'k w
f Ydk\ aemufqufyp
nf;rsm;
jzpfonf/ emrfy'k rf sm;rSm rsm;aomtm;jzifh ae&mjyyk'frsm;? tcsdejf yyk'frsm;? taMumif;jy
yk'rf sm; ponfwYdo
k nf tjznfyh 'k frsm; jzpfMuonf/ tjznf0h guscGJrsm;rSm taMumif;jy
0guscGJykpH EH iS hf txl;jyK0guscGJypkH w
H dkY jzpfonf/ tjznfyh 'k yf p
nf;rsm;\ om"ursm;udrk l
ae&mwGif rjyawmhyg/ tcef; 14 jrefrm0guswnfaqmufrItajccHyo
kH Pmefrsm;
a&mufrS wpfygwnf; jyxm;rnf/

9? 10/ 0guszGUJ &m tok;H jyKaom yp


nf;rsm;rSm emrftxl;jyKyk'fajymif;yp
nf;? Bud,m
txl;jyKyk'fajymif;ypnf;ESifh Bud,myk'fyp
nf;[l 3 rsKd; &Sdonf/ emrftxl;jyKyk'f
ajymif;ypnf;qdk&mwGif emrftxl;jyKpum;vk;H tqifh r[kwfawmhbJ 0guszGJU&m emrf
txl;jyKyk'f\ aemufquftjzpf tok;H jyKaom yp
nf;rsm;udk qdv
k o
dk nf/ xdkYtwl
Bud,mtxl;jyKyk'fajymif;ypnf;

qdo
k nfrSmvnf;

Bud,mtxl;jyKpum;vk;H tqifh

r[kwfawmhbJ 0guszGJU&m Bud,mtxl;jyKyk'f\ aemufquftjzpf tok;H jyKaom


ypnf;rsm;udk

qdv
k o
dk nf/

Bud,myk'fyp
nf;qdkonfrSmrl

0guswpfc&k dS

t"du

Bud,myk'f\ aemufqufyp
nf;udk qdv
k ydk gonf/ ,if;wdYk\ om"ursm;udv
k nf; tcef;
14 jrefrm 0guswnfaqmufrItajccHyo
kH P
mefrsm; a&mufrS wpfygwnf; jyxm;rnf/

63
tcef; 10
pum;qufrsm;
10? 1/ jrefrmpum;udk ajymqd&k mwGif pum;tquftpyftwGif; tokH;jyKaom
pum;qufypkH rH sm; &So
d nf/ ,if;wdYu
k dk tajymESihf ta&; ESpfrsKd; ,SofwjGJ yxm;onf/
om"u-

tajym

ta&;

'gayr,f^h odYak yr,f^h EdYak yr,fh

odYak omf^ odY&k mwGif^ odYak omfvnf;

uRefawmf

Adu
k frqmbl;/

'gayr,fh uRefawmf Adkufrqmyg/ odYak omf xrif;pm;

xrif;pm;r,f/

rnf/

'gaMumifh

xdYak Mumif^h odYjk zpf

ol &efukefudk ra&mufzl;bl;/ 'gaMumifh ol &efukefudk ra&mufzl;yg/ xdYak Mumifh


vrf; rodbl;/

vrf; rodyg/

'ghtjyif^ 'djyif ('gtjyif^'Dtjyif)

xdYt
k jyif^ xdUk jyif

rEav;udk oGm;r,f/ 'ghtjyif awmifBuD; rE


av;udk oGm;rnf/ xdYt
k jyif awmifBuD;
vnf; oGm;OD;r,f/

vnf; oGm;OD;rnf/

r[kwf&if

r--Bud,m--ygu

araru olUudk cspfw,f/ r[kwf&if araru olUudk cspfonf/ rcspfygu olUudk


olUudk du
k frSmaygh/

du
k fvdrrfh nf/

ayr,fh

aomfvnf;

azaz ajymayr,fh ol em;raxmifbl;/

azaz ajymaomfvnf; ol em;raxmifyg/

64
&if

vQif

q&m ajym&if aumif;r,f/

q&m ajymvQif aumif;rnf/

rS

rS

q&mr vmrS pma&;w,f/

q&mr vmrS pma&;onf/

r--Bud,m--bJ

r--Bud,m--bJ

ausmif;roGm;bJ upm;aew,f/

ausmif;roGm;bJ upm;aeonf/

r--Bud,m--cif

r--Bud,m--cif

&efukefudk rajymif;cif jynfrSm aecJw


h ,f/

&efukefudk rajymif;cif jynfrSm aecJo


h nf/

atmif

atmif

vlawG odatmif ajymxm;NyD/

vlawG odatmif ajymxm;NyD/

vdYk

rdk;GmvdkdY zm;atmfw,f/

rdk;Gm zm;atmfonf/

zdk^Y rvdYk

&ef^ &eftvdYik Sm

oli,fcsif;eJY awGUzdYk csde;f xm;w,f/

oli,fcsif;eJY awGU&ef csde;f xm;onf/

65
tcef; 11
jrefrm0gusrsm; 1
11? 1/ jrefrm0gusykHpHonf ]]emrf+Bud,m}}ykHpH jzpfonf/
om"uudu
k dk oGm;w,f/
uav; idw
k ,f/
arar vmNyD/
azaz pm;r,f/
rr rajymbl;/
11? 2/ qufvuf jrefrm0gusrsm;udk jy&m tar;tajz0gusrsm;jzifh jyxm;onfudk
awGU&rnf/ awG&Y rnfh tajccH tar;ykpH rH sm;rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfonf/ a&S;OD;pGm
tar;pum;vk;H ]]bm}} udk tok;H jyK ar;onfh tar;udk jyefvnf ajyqdo
k nfh azmfjy
csuf tajzykpH rH sm;udk wifjyxm;onf/
(1) bmvJ/
(2) 'g^'D[m bmvJ/
(3) tJ'g^tJ'D[m bmvJ/
(4) [d[
k m^[du
k [m bmvJ/
(5) (cifAsm;^ol) bm vkyfvJ^ovJ/
(6) (cifAsm;^ol) bm vkyrf vJ^rSmvJ/
(7) (cifAsm;^ol) bmeJY pm;ovJ^rvJ/

66
11? 3/ ]]bmvJ}} [laom ar;cGef;twGuf emrfwpfcck u
k dk ]yg}[laom tqufyp
nf;jzifh
aemufrS qufay;jcif;jzifh vdt
k yfaom tajzykpH H 0guswpfck &vmonf/ ,if;0gusykHpH
emrf + yg
udk
[l jyEdik fonf/
om"uar;/ bmvJ/
ajz/ pmtkyfyg/
cJwHyg/
um;yg/
puLyg/
tdrfyg/
11? 4/ ]]'g^'D[m bmvJ]] [laom ar;cGe;f twGuf emrfwpfcck kudk a&SUrS
ar;cGe;f yg ]'g^'D[m} udk xm;um? aemufrS ]yg} [laom tqufyp
nf;jzifh
qufay;jcif;jzifh vdt
k yf aom tajzykpH H 0guswpfck &vmonf/ ,if;0gusykHpH udk
'g^'D[m + emrf + yg
om"uar;/ 'g^'D[m bmvJ/
ajz/ 'g^'D[m pmtkyfyg/
'g^'D[m cJwHyg/
'g^'D[m um;yg/
'g^'D[m puLyg/
'g^'D[m tdrfyg/

[l jyEdik o
f nf/

67
11? 5/ ]]tJ'g^tJ'D[m bmvJ]] [laom ar;cGe;f twGuf emrfwpfckckudk a&SUrS
ar;cGe;f yg ]tJ'g^tJ'D[m} udk xm;um? aemufrS ]yg} [laom tqufyp
nf;jzifh
qufay;jcif;jzifh vdt
k yf aom tajzykpH H 0guswpfck &vmonf/ ,if;0gusykHpH udk
tJ'g^tJ'D[m + emrf + yg

[l jyEdik o
f nf/

om"uar;/ tJ'g^tJ'D[m bmvJ/


ajz/ tJ'g^tJ'D[m pmtkyfyg/
tJ'g^tJ'D[m cJwHyg/
tJ'g^tJ'D[m um;yg/
tJ'g^tJ'D[m puLyg/
tJ'g^tJ'D[m tdrfyg/
11? 6/ ]][d[
k m^[du
k [m bmvJ]] [laom ar;cGe;f twGuf emrfwpfcck u
k dk a&SUrS
ar;cGe;f yg ][dk[m^[du
k [m} udk xm;um? aemufrS ]yg} [laom tqufyp
nf;jzifh
qufay;jcif;jzifh vdt
k yfaom tajzykpH H 0guswpfck &vmonf/ ,if;0gusykHpH udk
[dk[m^[dku[m + emrf + yg

[l jyEdik o
f nf/

om"uar;/ [d[
k m^[du
k [m bmvJ/
ajz/ [d[
k m^[du
k [m ausmif;yg/
[d[
k m^[du
k [m wHwm;yg/
[d[
k m^[du
k [m aps;yg/
[d[
k m^[du
k [m rD;yGdKifhyg/
[d[
k m^[du
k [m opfyifyg/

68
11? 7/ ]] (cifAsm;^ol) bmvkyfvJ^ovJ}} [laom ar;cGe;f onf tar;cH&ol
\ tvkyfudk ar;jcif;jzpfonf/ xdYak Mumifh tar;cH&olonf ajzqdkol uk,
d fwidk f
aomfvnf;aumif;? tjcm;wpfO;D OD;aomfvnf;aumif; jzpfEidk o
f nf/ xdYak Mumifh
ar;cGe;f udk ajzqd&k mwGif rdrt
d wGufqydk gu qDavsmf&m emrfpm;udk tok;H jyK&rnf/
tjcm;oltwGuf qdyk gu ol odYrk [kwf xdkol\emrnftok;H jyK

ajymEdik o
f nf/

xdYkaMumifh ar;cGe;f twGuf tajz 0gusykHpHudk


uRefawmf^ol + emrf + yg
[l jyEdik o
f nf/
om"uar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bm vkyfvJ^ovJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) ausmif;q&myg/
(uRefawmf^ol) q&m0efyg/
(uRefawmf^ol) pma&;yg/
(uRefawmf^ol) kyf&Sifrif;om;yg/
(uRefawmf^ol) tqdak wmfyg/
11? 8/ ]](cifAsm;^ol) bm vkyfrvJ^rSmvJ/}} [laom ar;cGe;f onf tar;cH&ol
\ tvkyfudk ar;jcif;jzpfonf/ xdYak Mumifh tar;cH&olonf ajzqdo
k l uk,
d fwidk f
aomfvnf;aumif;? tjcm;wpfO;D OD;aomfvnf;aumif; jzpfEidk o
f nf/ xdYak Mumifh
ar;cGe;f udk ajzqd&k mwGif rdrt
d wGufqydk gu qDavsmf&m emrfpm;udk tokH;jyK&rnf/
tjcm;oltwGuf qdyk gu ol odYrk [kwf xdkol\emrnftok;H jyK

ajymEdik o
f nf/

xdYkaMumifh ar;cGe;f twGuf tajz 0gusykHpHudk


uRefawmf^ol + emrf + Bud,m + r,f^rSm
[l jyEdik o
f nf/ tajzykpH w
H Gif yg0ifaom Bud,mtwGuf ar;cGe;f wGif yg0ifonfh
Bud,mudyk if jyef tok;H jyK&onf/

69
om"uar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bm vkyfrvJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) ausmif;q&m vkyfr,f/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bm pm;rSmvJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) xrif; pm;rSm/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bm Munfrh vJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) kyf&Sif Munfrh ,f/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bm zwfrSmvJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) uAsm zwfrmS /
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bm aMumfrvJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) 0ufom; aMumfr,f/
11? 9/

]](cifAsm;^ol) bmeJY pm;ovJ^rvJ/}} [laom ar;cGe;f onf tar;cH&ol

twGuf wpfpHw
k pf&mudk jyKvky&f m rnfo
h nft
h &m(emrf)udk tok;H jyKonfudk odvdk
ar;jcif;jzpfonf/ xdYak Mumifh tar;cH&olonf ajzqdo
k l uk,
d fwidk f aomfvnf;aumif;?
tjcm;wpfO;D OD;aomfvnf;aumif; jzpfEidk fonf/ ar;cGe;f udk ajzqd&k mwGif rdrt
d wGuf
qdyk gu qDavsmf&m emrfpm;udk tok;H jyK&rnf/ tjcm;oltwGuf qdyk gu ol odYrk [kwf
xdo
k l\emrnftok;H jyK ajymEdik o
f nf/ ar;cGe;f udk ajzqd&k mwGif ta&;BuD;aom
tcsufrmS ]eJY] [lonfh pum;vk;H udk rdrad jzqdo
k nfh emrfEiS hf uyfxm;&efjzpfonf/
xdYkaMumifh tajz0gusykpH u
H dk
uRefawmf^ol + emrf + eJY + Bud,m + w,f^r,f
[l jyEdik o
f nf/ tajzykpH w
H Gif yg0ifaom Bud,mtwGuf ar;cGe;f wGif yg0ifonfh
Bud,mudyk if jyef tok;H jyK&onf/
om"uar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bmeJY pm;ovJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) uifcsDeYJ pm;w,f/

70
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bmeJY oGm;rvJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) bwfpum;eJY oGm;r,f/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bmeJY ydYo
k vJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) tD;ar;eJY ydw
kY ,f/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bmeJY tdyfrvJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) ukwifeJY tdyfr,f/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bmeJY azsmfovJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) Edq
kY DeJY azsmfw,f/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bmeJY du
k fovJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) wkwfeJY du
k fw,f/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) bmeJY jyefrvJ/
ajz/ (uRefawmf^ol) wupeD YJ jyefr,f/

71
tcef; 12
jrefrm0gusrsm; 2
12? 1/ qufvuf tar;pum;vk;H ]]b,f}} udk tok;H jyK ar;onfh tar;udk
jyefvnf ajyqdo
k nfh azmfjycsuf tajzykpH rH sm;udk wifjyxm;onf/
(1) (cifAsm;^ol) b,fol vJ/
(2) b,f^b,fudk vJ/
(3) b,fu vJ/
(4) b,frSm^b,fr vJ/
(5) b,fawmh vJ/
(6) b,fwkef;u vJ/
(7) b,favmuf vJ/
12? 2/ ]](cifAsm;^ol) b,fol vJ/}} [laom ar;cGe;f onf tar;cH&ol\ emrnf
odYkr[kwf tvkyftudik f odkYr[kwf vlrsKd; ponfudk odv
k dk ar;onfh ar;cGe;f jzpfonf/
xdak r;cGe;f twGuf tajzykpH rH mS
(uRefawmf^ol) + emrf(emrnf^tvkyftudik ^f vlrsKd;) + yg
[lonfh 0gusykHpH jzpfonf/
om"uar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) b,fol vJ/
ajz/ uRefawmf udak tmifaqG yg/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) b,fol vJ/
ajz/ ol udyk kid fZ yg/

72
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) b,fol vJ/
ajz/ ol roEm yg/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) b,fol vJ/
ajz/ ol ud&k ;D ,m;vlrsKd; yg/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) b,fol vJ/
ajz/ uRefawmf ausmif;om; yg/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) b,fol vJ/
ajz/ ol pma&;q&m yg/
ar;/ (cifAsm;^ol) b,fol vJ/
ajz/ ol tar&duefvlrsKd; q&m0ef yg/
12? 3/ ]]b,f^b,fudk vJ/}} [laom ar;cGef;onf tar;cH&ol OD;wnfoGm;onfh
ae&mudk odvdk ar;onfh ar;cGe;f jzpfonf/ xdak r;cGe;f twGuf tajzykpH rH mS
emrf (ae&m) + udk (yg)
[l jzpfonf/ Bud,myk't
f xl;jyKyp
nf; ]yg} udk xnfv
h Qifvnf; &onf/ rxnfv
h Qif
vnf; &onf/
om"uar;/ b,f^b,fudk vJ/
ajz/ ausmif; udk (yg)/
aps; udk (yg)/
tdrf udk (yg)/
aq;kH udk (yg)/
kyf&SifkH udk (yg)/
pmMunfw
h u
dk f udk (yg)/
pm;aomufqidk f udk (yg)/

73
12? 4/ ]]b,fu vJ/}} [laom ar;cGef;onf tar;cH&ol xGufcGmvm&m ae&m
odYkr[kwf aexdik &f mae&m^t&yfa'o^Edik if H ponfudk odvdk ar;onfh ar;cGe;f jzpf
onf/ xdak r;cGe;f twGuf tajzykpH rH mS
emrf (ae&m) + u (yg)
[l jzpfonf/ Bud,myk'ftxl;jyKyp
nf; ]yg} udk xnfv
h Qifvnf; &onf/ rxnfv
h Qif
vnf; &onf/
om"uar;/ ar;/ b,fu vJ/
ajz/ ausmif; u (yg)/
aq;kH u (yg)/
av,mOfuGif; u (yg)/
NrdKUxJ u (yg)/
Edik if jH cm; u (yg)/
&efuif; u (yg)/
ud&k ;D ,m; u (yg)/
jrefrmjynf u (yg)/
&Sr;f jynf u (yg)/
&cdik f u (yg)/
12? 5/ ]]b,frSm^b,fr vJ/}} [laom ar;cGe;f onf tar;cH&ol odEidk o
f nfh oufrJh
odYkr[kwf ouf&t
Sd &mwpfcck k &Sdaeonfh ae&m odYrk [kwf aexdik &f mae&m^ t&yf
a'o^ Edik if H ponfudk odvdk ar;onfh ar;cGe;f jzpf onf/ xdak r;cGe;f twGuf
tajzykpH rH mS
emrf (ae&m) + rSm (yg)

74
[l jzpfonf/ Bud,myk'ftxl;jyKyp
nf; ]yg} udk xnfv
h Qifvnf; &onf/ rxnfv
h Qif
vnf; &onf/
om"uar;/ b,frSm^b,fr vJ/
ajz/ ausmif; rSm (yg)/
aq;kH rSm (yg)/
av,mOfuGif; rSm (yg)/
NrdKUxJ rSm (yg)/
Edik if jH cm; rSm (yg)/
&efuif; rSm (yg)/
ud&k ;D ,m; rSm (yg)/
jrefrmjynf rSm (yg)/
&Sr;f jynf rSm (yg)/
&cdik f rSm (yg)/
12? 6/ ]]b,fawmh vJ/}} [laom ar;cGef;onf tar;cH&ol odEdkifonfh aemufrS
a&mufvmrnfh tcsdef1 udk odvdk ar;onfh ar;cGe;f jzpf onf/ xdak r;cGef;udk ajzqdk
&m vdt
k yfygu tcsdeef m&D^aeY^&ufpGJ ponfwYdu
k ydk g xnfo
h Gif; ajzqdEk kid fonf/
xdak r;cGe;f twGuf tajzykpH rH mS
emrf (tcsdef)e (tcsdefem&D)

(yg)

[l jzpfonf/ Bud,myk'ftxl;jyKyp
nf; ]yg} udk xnfv
h Qifvnf; &onf/ rxnfv
h Qif
vnf; &onf/

tcsdejf yemrfrsm;onf wpfckxufykd jzpfEkdifonf/ ,if;udk 0gusykpH H jy&m (tcsdef)e [l


jyxm;onf/

75
om"uar;/ b,fawmh vJ/
ajz/ reufjzef (yg)/
reufjzef reuf (yg)/
reufjzef nae (yg)/
reufjzef aeYv,f (yg)/
reufjzef nae 3-em&D (yg)/
aemufv 15&ufaeY aeYv,f 12-em&D (yg)/
aemufESpf 'DZifbmv (yg)/
2007-ckEpS f pufwifbm 1-&ufaeY (yg)/
12? 7/ ]]b,fwkef;u vJ/}} [laom ar;cGef;onf tar;cH&ol odEidk o
f nfh ,cifu
tcsdef udk odvdk ar;onfh ar;cGe;f jzpf onf/ xdak r;cGe;f udk ajzqdk &m vdt
k yfygu
tcsdeef m&D^aeY^&ufpGJ ponfwYdu
k ydk g xnfo
h Gif; ajzqdEk kid fonf/ tcsdejf yemrfwYdk
\

aemufwGif

,cifujzpfysufcaJh Mumif;jyyp
nf;

odYrk [kwf

twdwfjyemrf

ypnf; ]]u}}udk xnfh&onf/ tcsdejf yemrfrsm; wpfcx


k ufyydk gu tav;teufjyKvdk
aom twdwfjyemrf\

aemufwGif xdk yp
nf; ]]u}}udk xnf&h onf/ tjcm;emrfwYdk

\ aemufwGif xdyk pnf; ]]u}}udk rxnfv


h Qifvnf; &onf/ aemufq;kH emrf\ aemuf
wGif &Hcg ]]u}} tpm; ]]rS}} udk tcsdejf yyp
nf; tjzpf xnfEh kid fonf/ xdak r;cGef;twGuf
tajzykpH rH mS
emrf (tcsdef)e + u (tcsdefem&D)+ u^rSm (yg)
[l jzpfonf/ Bud,myk'ftxl;jyKyp
nf; ]yg} udk xnfv
h Qifvnf; &onf/ rxnfv
h Qif
vnf; &onf/
om"uar;/ b,fwkef;u vJ/
ajz/ raeYu (yg)/

76
raeY reufu (yg)/
wpfaeYu (yg)/
raeYu aeYv,f 1-em&Du (yg)/
rESpfu pufwifbmrSm (yg)/
rESpfu Mo*kwfv 30-&ufaeYu (yg)/
2000-jynfEh pS f atmufwb
dk mvu (yg)/
12? 8/ ]]b,favmuf vJ/}} [laom ar;cGef;onf ta&twGuf yrmPudk odvdk
ar;onfh ar;cGe;f jzpfonf/ xdak r;cGe;f udk ajzqdk &m oufqidk &f memrfEiS hf qDavsmfaom
rsKd;jypum;vk;H udk emrfaemufu aomfvnf;aumif;? emrfa&SUu aomf vnf;aumif;
xnfh ajzqdEk kid fonf/ xdak r;cGe;f twGuf tajzykpH rH mS
emrf + rsKd;jy (yg)
[l jzpfonf/ Bud,myk'ftxl;jyKyp
nf; ]yg} udk xnfv
h Qifvnf; &onf/ rxnfv
h Qif
vnf; &onf/
om"uar;/ b,favmuf vJ/
ajz/ (vl) 3 a,muf yg/
(wd&pmef) 5 aumif yg/
(cJwH^aywH^abmyif) tacsmif; 20 yg/
(abmvk;H ^pm;yGJ^xdik cf H)k tvk;H 50 yg/
(ydkufqH) 5 odef; ($) yg/

77
tcef; 13
jrefrm0gusrsm; 3
13? 1/ tcef;wGif tar;pum;vk;H ]]bm}} udk tok;H jyK ar;aom wd;k csJUar;cGe;f ykpH H
ESihf tajzykpH H 0gusrsm;udk wifjyxm;onf/ tok;H rsm;aom 0gusykHpHrsm;udk azmfjy
vdu
k fonf/
(1) bmjzpfvYdk vJ/^ bmjzpfvYdk vmwm vJ/
(2) bmaMumifh vJ/^ bmaMumifh awGUwm vJ/
(3) bmtwGufaMumifh vJ/^ bmtwGufaMumifh ajymwmvJ/
bmvkyfzYdak Mumifh vJ/^ bmvkyfzYdak Mumifh ajymwmvJ/
(4) bmjzpf&if vJ/^ bmjzpf&if vkyfrvJ/
(5) bmudk od&rS vJ/^ bmudk od&rS vkyfrSmvJ/
(6) bmu olUudk taESmuft,Suf ay;aewmvJ/
(7) bmu ydv
k S ovJ/
(8) bmeJY a&;&if ydkaumif; rvJ/
(9) bmudk pm;&if ydkoifhawmf rvJ/
ykHpHtcsKdUonf jrefrmbmompum;&Sd aeYpOfajymqdrk Ie,fy,fwGif tok;H rsm;&m ykHtcsKdU
om jzpfonf/ odY&k mwGif 0gusykHpHrsm;udk tok;H jyK ar;jref;jcif; ajzqdjk cif;rsm;
jyKwwfygu usef0gusykHpHrsm;udk qufvufavhvm&m vG,fulpGm csOf;uyf wwf
ajrmufEkid fayvdrrfh nf/
13? 2/ ]]bmjzpfvYdk vJ/^ bmjzpfvYdk vmwm vJ/}} [laom ar;cGe;f ykHpHonf ar;cGef;yg
t"du Bud,m (vm) udk jyKvky&f onfh taMumif; odvdk ar;jref;jcif; jzpfonf/
taMumif;jy&efrmS ykHpHrsKd;pkH jzpfEidk o
f nf/ t"duusaom taMumif;jyykpH t
H csKdUudk xkwfjy
xm;onf/

78
Bud,m + csif + vdYk
Bud,m + vdYk
Bud,m + atmif
tqdyk g

vdYk

taMumif;jyykpH rH sm;aemufrS

ar;cGef;yg

Bud,mudk

qufpyfay;jcif;jzifh

vdt
k yfaom tajzudk &&SEd kid fonf/ Bud,myk'ftxl;jyK yp
nf; ]]yg}} udk xnfhvQifvnf;
&onf/ rxnfv
h Qifvnf; &onf/ xdt
k cg vdktyfaom tajz0gusykpH u
H dk
taMumif;jyyk'f + Bud,m yg

[l jyEdik o
f nf/
om"uar;/ bmjzpfvYdk vJ/
ajz/ aeylvYd/k
ar;/ bmjzpfvYdk vmwm vJ/
ajz/ awGcY sifvYdv
k mwmyg/
ar;/ bmjzpfvYdk pm;wmvJ/
ajz/ Adu
k fqmvdYk pm;wmyg/
ar;/ bmjzpfvYdk oGm;rSmvJ/
ajz/ a&mufzl;atmif(vd)kY oGm;rSmyg/
ar;/ bmvdYk Munfw
h mvJ/
ajz/ vSvYdk Munfw
h myg/

79
13? 3/ ]] bmaMumifh vJ/^ bmaMumifh awGUwm vJ/}} [laom ar;cGe;f ykHpHonf
ar;cGe;f yg t"du Bud,m (awGU) udk jyKvky&f onfh taMumif; odvdk ar;jref;jcif;
jzpfonf/ taMumif;jy&efrmS ykHpHrsKd;pkH jzpfEidk o
f nf/ t"duusaom taMumif;jyykpH H
tcsKdUudk xkwfjy xm;onf/
Bud,m + csif + vdYk
Bud,m + vdYk
Bud,m + atmif
tqdyk g

vdYk

taMumif;jyykpH rH sm;aemufrS

ar;cGef;yg

Bud,mudk

qufpyfay;jcif;jzifh

vdt
k yfaom tajzudk &&SEd kid fonf/ Bud,myk'ftxl;jyK yp
nf; ]]yg}} udk xnfv
h Qifvnf;
&onf/ rxnfv
h Qifvnf; &onf/ xdt
k cg vdktyfaom tajz0gusykpH u
H dk
taMumif;jyyk'f + Bud,m yg

[l jyEdik o
f nf/ (15? 2/ yg ykpH EH iS ht
f wlwl jzpfygonf/)
13? 4/ ]] bmtwGufaMumifh vJ/^ bmtwGufaMumifh ajymwmvJ/}} [laom
ar;cGe;f ykHpHonf ar;cGe;f yg t"du Bud,m (ajym) udk jyKvkyf&onfh taMumif; odvdk
ar;jref;jcif; jzpfonf/ taMumif;jy&efrmS ykHpHrsKd;pkH jzpfEidk o
f nf/ ]]bmvkyfzdakY Mumifh vJ/^
bmvkyfzYdak Mumifh ajymwmvJ/}} [laom ar;cGef;ykHpHonf ar;cGe;f yg t"du Bud,m
(ajym)

udk

jyKvkyf&onfh

taMumif;

taMumif;jy&mwGifrl ]]bmvkyfzd}kY } [l

odvdk

ar;jref;jcif;

jzpfonf/

ar;xm;onft
h wGuf rdrjd yKvkycf sifonfh

Bud,mudk ]]zdY}k } ESihf wGaJ y;&aom taMumif;jyykHprH sKd;pkH jzpfEidk o


f nf/ t"duusaom
taMumif;jyykpH H tcsKdUudk xkwfjy xm;onf/
Bud,m + csif + vdYk
Bud,m + vdYk
Bud,m + atmif

vdYk

80
Bud,m + zdkY
]]Bud,m + vdYak Mumif}h }
tqdyk g

taMumif;jyykpH rH sm;aemufrS

ar;cGef;yg

Bud,mudk

qufpyfay;jcif;jzifh

vdt
k yfaom tajzudk &&SEd kid fonf/ Bud,myk'ftxl;jyK yp
nf; ]]yg}} udk xnfv
h Qifvnf;
&onf/ rxnfv
h Qifvnf; &onf/ xdt
k cg vdktyfaom tajz0gusykpH u
H dk
taMumif;jyyk'f + Bud,m yg

[l jyEdik o
f nf/ wGif ]]Bud,m + zd}kY } ESihf ]]Bud,m + vdYak Mumif}h } taMumif;jyykpH jH zifh
ajzqdak om tajzykpH rH sm;udo
k m Oyrm jyxm;onf/ ]]Bud,m + vdakY Mumif}h } ykHpH
wGif ]]aMumif}h }udk csefvSyf vnf; ajymEdkifonf/ usefyHpk Hrsm;rSm (15? 2/)yg ykHpHrsm;ESifh
twlwlyif jzpfonf/
om"uar;/ bmvkyfzYdak Mumifv
h J/ bmvkyfzYdak Mumifh ajymwmvJ/
ajz/ aecsifvYdk ajymwm/
ar;/ bmvkyfzYdak Mumifh ar;wmvJ/
ajz/ odcsifvYdak Mumifh ar;wmyg/
ar;/ bmvkyfzYdak Mumifh vmwmvJ/
ajz/ pm;zdkY vmwmyg/
ar;/ bmvkyfzYdk oGm;rSmvJ/
ajz/ awGUzdYk oGm;rSmyg/
ar;/ bmvkyfzYdk awGUwmvJ/
ajz/ pum;ajymzdYk awGUwmyg/

81
13? 5/ ]]bmjzpf&if vJ/^ bmjzpf&if vkyfrvJ/}} [laom ar;cGe;f ykHpHonf ar;cGe;f yg
t"duBud,m(vky)f udk jyKvkyf&ef arQmfreS ;f csuftaMumif; odvdk ar;jref;jcif; jzpf
onf/ arQmfrSef;csuftaMumif;onf ykHpHrsKd;pkH jzpfEidk o
f nf/ arQmfrSef;csuftaMumif;jyykpH H
tcsKdUudk xkwfjyxm;onf/ arQmfreS ;f csufyHpk Hudk
emrf^ Bud,m+ jzpf&if

[l jyEdik o
f nf/ ,ifarQmfreS ;f csufudk ar;cGe;f yg t"duBud,mESiw
fh GJ 0gustqk;H owf
ypnf; ]r,f}ESifh tqk;H owfay;&onf/ odY&k mwGif ,wdjywfaom arQmfrSef;csuftwGufrl
wpfcgwpf&H ]w,f}jzifv
h nf; tqkH;owfEidk o
f nf/ ('kwd, tar;-tajz udk Munfyh g/)
om"uar;/ bmjzpf&if vJ/^ bmjzpf&if vkyfrvJ/
ajz/ q&m0efjzpf&if/^ q&m0efjzpf&if vkyfr,f/
ar;/ bmjzpf&if auseyfrvJ/
ajz/ tif*sife,
D mjzpf&if auseyfr,f^w,f/
ar;/ bmjzpf&if ar;rvJ/
ajz/ oGm;jzpf&if ar;r,f/
ar;/ bmjzpf&if BudKufrvJ/
ajz/ aumif;&if BudKurf ,f/
13? 6/ ]]bmudk od&rS vJ/^ bmudk od&rS vkyfrSmvJ/}} [laom ar;cGe;f ykHpHonf
ar;cGe;f yg t"duBud,m(vky)f udk jyKvkyf&ef odvo
dk nfh ueOD;qE
udk odvdk ar;jref;
jcif; jzpfonf/ ,if;odvdkonfh ueOD;qE
onf txl;ojzifh emrfyHpk H jzpfaeaom yk'f
wpfck jzpfEidk o
f nf/ ,if;emrfyHpk Hyk'fwGif tenf;qk;H emrf odYrk [kwf Bud,mwpfck
yg&onf/ Bud,m ygygu ,if;Bud,mudk emrfy'k af jymif;yp
nf; ]wm^rSm} ESiw
fh GJ
emrfy'k t
f rSwt
f om;jy0guszGUJ ypnf; ]ud}k ESifh wGaJ y;&onf/ ,if;ykHpHudk
(Bud,m+ wm^rSm)^emrf + udk

82
[l jyEdik o
f nf/ xdYak Mumifh tqdyk g ar;cGef;\ tajz0gusykHpHrSm
ueOD;qE+ od&rS + vkyfr,f
[l jzpfonf/
om"uar;/ bmudk od&rS vJ/^ bmudk od&rS vkyfrSmvJ/
ajz/ ajymwm od&rS/^ ajymwm od&rS vkyfr,f/
ar;/ bmudk od&rS auseyfrvJ/
ajz/ atmifwm od&rS auseyfr,f/
ar;/ bmudk od&rS jyefrvJ/
ajz/ tajzudk od&rS jyefr,f/
ar;/ bmudk od&rS ay;rvJ/
ajz/ ar;wmudk od&rS ay;r,f/
13? 7/ ]]bmu olUudk taESmuft,Suf ay;aewmvJ/}}? ]]bmu ydkvSovJ/}}? ]]bmeJY
a&;&if ydkaumif;rvJ/}}? ]]bmudk pm;&if ydo
k ifhawmfrvJ/}} [laom ar;cGe;f rsm;wGif
yg&Sdaom ]]bm}}onf emrfwpfcck u
k dk awmif;qdak om tar;pum; jzpfonfudk owdjyKrd
ygu vdt
k yfaom emrfudk tajzay; ar;cGef;ykHpHudk tajzykpH o
H Ydk ajymif;vJvu
dk fo
kH m
&Sdawmhonf/
om"uar;/ bmu olUudk taESmuft,Suf ay;aewmvJ/
ajz/ pmar;yGu
J olUudk taESmuft,Suf ay;aewm/
ar;/ bmu ydv
k SovJ/
ajz/ ESif;qDyef;u ydv
k Sw,f/

83
ar;/ bmeJY a&;&if ydkaumif;rvJ/
ajz/ cJwHeJY a&;&if ydkaumif;r,f/
ar;/ bmudk pm;&if ydkoifhawmfrvJ/
ajz/ toD;ttGufudk pm;&if ydkoifhawmfr,f/
ar;cGe;f ESihf tajzrsm;udk avhvmMunfjh cif;jcifh ,if;ar;cGe;f rsm;yg ]]bm}}[laom
tar;pum;onf t&m0wKESihf oufreJh mrfrsm;udk awmif;qdak Mumif; owdjyK&rnfjzpf
onf/

84
tcef; 14
jrefrm0guswnfaqmufrI tajccHykHoPmefrsm;
14? 1/ jrefrm0guswnfaqmufrItajccHykHoPmefrsm;udk 0gusykHoPmef (1)? 0gus
ykHoPmef (2) ponfjzifh azmfjyxm;onf/ ,ckazmfjyxm;aom 0gusykHoP
mefrsm;rSm
tajccHyo
kH Pmefrsm;om jzpfonf/ tajccH0gusykHoPmefrsm;udk rsm;rsm;avhusifhNyD;
ygu wd;k csJU0gusykHoPmefrsm;udk rdrdbmom wnfaqmufvmEdik v
f drrfh nf/
0gusykHoPmef 1
emrf (yk*vemrfpm;)

emrf (trnf^

yp
nf; (Bud,myk'ftxl;jyK)

tqifh^trsKd;tpm; )
uRefawmf

udak v;

yg/1

ol

q&m

yg/

'g

pmtkyf

yg/

0gusykHoPmef 2
pum;quf

emrf (emrfpm;)

(tnTe;f )

emrf (trnf^

yp
nf;

tqifh^trsKd;tpm; )

(Bud,myk'ftxl;jyK)

'D

[m

pmtkyf

yg/

tJ

'g

q&m

yg/

[dk

[m

um;

yg/

rSwfcsuf/ / ]]yg}} onf Bud,myk'ftxl;jyKyp


nf; jzpfaomfvnf; wpfpHkwpfckonf wpfpHkwpfck
aom trnfjzpfaMumif; jyonfh tqdkyg ykHoPmef (1) 0guswnfaqmufryI HkoPmefwGif 0gus
tqk;H 0gustqkH;owfypnf;tjzpf &SdaeEdkifonf/

85
0gusykHoPmef 3
pum;quf

ypnf;

emrf (trnf^

yp
nf;

(tnTef;)

(ae&mjy)

tqifh^trsKd;tpm; )

(Bud,myk'ftxl;jyK)

'D

rSm

pmtkyf

yg/

tJ'D

rSm

q&m

yg/

[dk

rSm

um;

yg/

0gusykHoPmef 4

emrf ^emrfpm;

Bud,m

yp
nf; (Bud,myk'f^0gus)

(jyKvkyo
f l^uwm;)

(jyKvkyjf cif;jy)

uRefawmf

pm;

w,f/2

ol

oGm;

r,f/3

q&m

jyef

NyD/4

]]w,f}} onf twdwfumvESihf ypKyefumvudkvnf; &nfnTe;f onf/ wpfcgwpf&H Bud,m


\ aocsmaom tajctaeudkvnf; &nfnTef;onf/
3
]]r,f}} onf tem*wfumvudkvnf; &nfnTef;onf/ wpfcgwpf&H Bud,m\ raocsmaom tajc
taeudkvnf; &nfnTef;onf/
4
]]NyD}} onf jzpfysufcNJh yD;aom umvESihf tajctaeudkvnf; &nfnTe;f onf/ wpfcgwpf&H
Bud,m\ jzpfysufaeqJ ESifh jzpfysufcgeD; tajctaeudkvnf; &nfnTef;onf/

86
0gusykHoPmef 5
emrf ^emrfpm;

emrf

(jyKvkyo
f l^uwm;) (tjyKvkycf ^H uH)

Bud,m

yp
nf;

(jyKvkyjf cif;jy)

(Bud,myk'f^0gus)

uRefawmf

xrif;

pm;

w,f/

ol

ausmif;

oGm;

r,f/

q&m

tdrf

jyef

NyD/

0gusykHoPmef 6
emrf

emrfyp
nf;

emrf

emrfyp
nf;

^emrfpm;

(jyKvkyo
f l^

(tjyKvkycf H

(tjyKvkycf H

(jyKvkyo
f l^

uwm;)

^uH)

^uH)

Bud,m

yp
nf;

(jyKvkyjf cif; (Bud,myk'f^


jy)

0gus)

ar;

w,f/

cspf

w,f/

uwm;)
uRefawmf
araru

q&mr
u

uRefr

udk

q&m

tdrf

jyef

NyD/

olaX;

tvkyform;

cdik ;f

r,f/

87
0gusykHoPmef 7
emrf ^emrfpm;

emrfyp
nf;

emrf

Bud,m

yp
nf;

(&Sdol^&Sdonfah e&m)

(&Sdonfh

(t&SdcH^uH)

(&Sdjcif;

(Bud,myk'f^0gus)

ae&mjy)
uRefawmfh5
ararh

jy)
pufbD;

rSm

qGBJ udK;

w,f/
&Sd

w,f/

tdrf

ol

r,f/

olU

ydkufqH

NyD/

0gusykHoPmef 8
emrf ^emrfpm;

emrf

yp
nf;

Bud,m

yp
nf;

(&Sdol^&Sdonfah e&m)

(a&SUI&m^

(aGU&mjy)

(aGUvsm;

(Bud,myk'f^0gus)

taTUcH)

jcif;jy)

uRefawmf

ausmif;

oGm;

r,f/

arar

tdrf

a&muf

NyD/

azaz

aowm

w,f/

ol

rEav;

ajymif;

r,f/

rr

pm;yGJ

aTU

w,f/

udk

]]-h (atmufujrpf)}} onf ae&mwGif t"dym,f taxGtxl; r&Syd g/ &Sdonfah e&mjyypnf; ]]rSm}}
ESihf vlyk*
dKvfjy emrf^emrfpm;wdYk qufoG,f&m xdk vlyk*dKvfjy emrf^emrfpm;wdYkonf oHajyo& (-m?
a- ? a-mf ? l ? dk ? a-mif ? ponf)wdYkESifh tqk;H owfygu ]]-h (atmufujrpf)}} udk Gwfqd&k
vG,fulap&ef xnfo
h Gif;avh&Sdonf/

88
0gusykHoPmef 9
emrf ^emrfpm;

emrf

yp
nf;

(&Sdol^&Sdonfah e&m) (xGufcGm&m) (xGufcGm&mjy)

Bud,m

yp
nf;

(aGUvsm;

(Bud,myk'f^0gus)

jcif;jy)
uRefawmf

ausmif;

vm

w,f/

arar

tdrf

oGm;

NyD/

armifarmif

opfyif

qif;

w,f/

ol

tvkyf

xGuf

r,f/

uav;

tdyf&m

NyD/

0gusykHoPmef 10
emrf ^emrfpm;

emrf

yp
nf;

Bud,m

yp
nf;

(&Sdol^&Sdonfah e&m)

(ae&m)

(ae&mjy)

(aGUvsm;

(Bud,myk'f^0gus)

jcif;jy)
uRefawmf

taqmif

ae

r,f/

arar

rD;zdkacsmif

xrif;csuf

w,f/

iSuf

opfyif

em;

w,f/

azaz

k;H

tdyf

r,f/

udu
k dk

xrif;qdik f

pm;

w,f/

rSm

89
aemufqufwGJ
jrefrmo'
gESihyf wfoufaom odrSwfp&mtcsKdU
001 Burmese is a SOV language.

acG;u armifarmifudk
S

The dog bit Maung Maung.


The cat ate fried fish.

udkufw,f/
V

aMumifu ig;aMumfudk
S

pm;w,f/
V
002 In a simple sentence the object is often placed between the noun and the verb.
Ko Tun drove the car.

udkxGef; um;udk

armif;w,f/
V
003 The sentence marker always comes at the end of the sentence.
I ate.

pm; w,f/
oGm; r,f/
vm NyD/

I will go.
I have come.

004 The clause marker always comes at the end of a dependent clause.
When he has come, I will eat.

olvmrS pm; r,f/

005 The phrase marker always comes at the end of the phrase.
The dog bit Maung Maung.

acG;u armifarmifudk
udkuf w,f/

006 The verb phrase marker is the same as the sentence marker.
I ate.

007

pm; w,f/
oGm; r,f/
I will go.
I have come.
vm NyD/
u is always a noun phrase marker as well as a subject arker.
udkudku pmawmfw,f/ Ko Ko is outstanding in his education.
aMumifu ig;aMumfudk
The cat ate fried fish.
pm;w,f/

90

udk

008 The object phrase marker always


.
The dog bit Maung Maung.

acG;u armifarmifudk
udkufw,f/
aMumifu ig;aMumfudk
pm;w,f/

The cat ate fried fish.

009 When there is no sentence marker, it is the imperative voice.


Eat!

010

pm;/
oGm;/
Go!
aemfusually means wont you, cant you, arent you.
I will eat, o.k.?
pm;r,faemf/

011 Style markers are used sometimes at the end of a sentence to express emotion.
Lets eat. (Normal)

pm;r,f/
pm;r,fuGm/

Lets eat. (Friendly)


012 There are phrase, clause, sentence, and style markers in Burmese.
Him/ her (phrase marker)

olUudk
awGUzdkY
vmw,f/
vmwmaygh/

To meet (clause marker)


Come (sentence marker)

Of course (style marker)


013 When two nouns are placed together, one of them always modifies the other.
(Mountain+ bald) bald-mountain
(Fire+house) lamp

awmifuwkH;
rD;tdrf

014 When a color attribute verb is placed before the noun it modifies, the form
change.
color

a&mif
e.g. teDa&mif

Red color
015 When an adjectival verb is placed after a noun, it describes an aspect of the
noun in generic sense.
A red flower

yef;eD
vlqdk;
vlBuD;

A bad man
A big man (gentleman)

016 When the verb occurs at the end of an adjectival clause it must have
The person who came yesterday

raeYu vmwJh vl
reufjzef vmr,fh vl

wJhor r,fh.

The person who will come tomorrow

91
017 Verb +

aom^onfh

is an adjective. (note:

wJh(in spoken)
raeYu vmwJh (vl)
raeYu vmaom^onfh
(vl)
vSwJh (rdef;uav;)
vSaom^onfh
(rdef;uav;)

aom^onfh(in written) =

(The person who) came yesterday


(The person who) came yesterday
(The girl who) is beautiful
(The girl who) is beautiful

018 The topic of the sentence usually occurs first.


He came today.

ol 'DaeY vmw,f/
'DaeY ol vmw,f/

He came today.
019 Duplicating a verb usually results in an adverb.
(He) comes often and sees (sth/sb).

vm
vmvm
Munfhw,f/
V

adv.

(He) ran quickly.


V

jref
jrefjref
ajy;w,f/
V
adv.
V
020 Duplicating a stative verb sometimes results in an adjective.
Reddish flower

eD
eDeD
yef;eDeD
V

adj.

Warm pure water or warm tea

yl
ylyl
a&aEG;ylyl
V
adj.
N
021 When an adjectival verb occurs before a noun, it changes its form and
emphasizes that aspect of the noun.
The red flower

teDa&mifyef;

022 When an adjectival verb occurs at the end of the sentence, it describes an aspect
of the noun in a specific sense.
The flower is red.

yef; eDw,f/

023 In long sentence with any attributes the subject should directly precede.
The husband helped his wife who is busy in the
kitchen.

rD;zdkacsmifxJrSm
tvkyfrsm;aewJh ZeD;udk
a,musfm;u ulnDw,f/

92
024 The marker for the subject is often omitted in spoken.
Ko Aye Khine ate rice.

udkat;cdkif(-)
xrif;pm;w,f/

025 When the subject directly precedes the verb it never has a marker.
He has slept.

ol tdyfNyD/

026 Objects have one marker

udk.

uRefawmf olYudk
awGYw,f/

I met him/her.

027 A place noun is always a modifier.


Ko Lay went to the library.

udkav; pmMunfhwdkufudk

place

oGm;w,f/
V
028 A time noun is always a modifier.
Ko Aye Khine will come tomorrow.

udkat;cdkif reufjzef

time

vmr,f/
V
029 A verb plus

t prefix always produces a noun.


+ vkyf
= Work, job

prefix

tvkyf
N
030 Sometimes, a prefix and a verb produce an adverb.
He speaks good.

ol tajym

adv.

aumif;w,f/
V
031 A verbal noun that precedes a stative verb form is always an adverb.
His speaking is good.

ol tajym
S

adv. (n)

aumif;w,f/
V
032 A verbal noun that precedes a functive verb form is always a noun.
He works hard.

ol tvkyf

BudK;pm;w,f/
V

93
ed*k;H
,cktxd wifjycJah om taMumif;t&mrsm;rSm jrefrmpmESifh jrefrmbmompum;udk
pdwf0ifpm;pGm oif,laeMuaom (oif,lMurnfh) Edik if jH cm;ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;
twGuf &nfG,f jyKpkcaJh om tajccHpum;ajym jrefrmo'
gqdik &f m taMumif;t&m
rsm; jzpfonf/ jrefrmo'gpmtkyfi,fonf EdkifijH cm;ausmif;olausmif;om; twGuf
omru xdak usmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udk oifjyay;Murnfh q&mq&mrrsm; twGuf
vnf; &nfG,fygonf/
jrefbmompum;udk oifjy&mwGif taxmuftuljyK ud;k um;&ef vufawGUoif
Edik &f ef pum;ajymo'gpmtkyf tweftoifh&aSd omfvnf; ,if;tenf;i,faom o'
g
pmtkyftrsm;pkrmS EdkifiHjcm;bmompum;rsm; (t*Fvdyf? *smref? *syef ponf) jzifo
h m
a&;xm;Muonfudk awGU&onf/ jrefrmbmomjzifh a&;xm;aom vufawGUoif Edkif&ef
o'
gpmtkyfvt
dk yfaeonfrSm

tcsdeu
f mv

twefMumcJNh yD

jzpfonf/

xdu
k o
Jh Ydk

MumaecJah om tcsdeu
f mvuGufvyfudk jznfq
h nf;&ef twGuf o'
gpmtkyfi,fudk
jyKpk&jcif; jzpfonf/ odY&k mwGif xdu
k Gufvyfudk pmwpftkyfwnf;jzifh jynfah tmif
jznfq
h nf;EdkifNyD[k rajymEdkifyg/ xdu
k Gufvyfudk tjcm;aom ynm&SifwYdu
k vnf;
pmtkyfudk jyKpkolenf;wl qufvuf jznfph u
G fay;EdkifMuvdrrfh nf[k aumif;pGm ,kMH unf
ygonf/ xdo
k Ydk qufvufjyKpkMuOD;rnfh ynm&Sifrsm;? jrefrmbmompum;ESihf pmayudk
avhvmaeaom Edik if jH cm;ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;? EdkifiHjcm;ausmif;ol ausmif;om;
rsm;tm; jrefrmbmompum;ESihpf mayudk oifjyay;aeMuonfh q&m q&mrrsm;
twGuf o'gpmtkyfi,fu wpfpHw
k pf&m taxmuftul ay;Edkifrnf qdyk gu
pmtkyfudk jyKpk&usKd;eyfygNyD/
jrefrmo'gpmtkyftwGuf

a0zeftBuHjyKcsufrsm;udv
k nf;

0rf;ajrmufpGm

arQmfvifhaeygonf/
a'gufwmudak v;
2005 ckESpf ZGev
f 15 &uf
blqefNrdKU? ud&k ;D ,m;or
wEdkifiH

94

ausmfatmifpx
H m;q&mawmf? yxr/ ]]u0d-vu
Pmac: o'
gy&rwf
tqk;H tjzwf usrf;}}? jrefrmo'
gESpaf pmifw}GJ }? [Hom0wDyEkH dyS fwu
dk f?
&efukef? 1962/

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