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under the supervision Dr. I.N. SINGH











adopted Buddhism

from two main reservoirs India and China, but she was not in position to do further transmission. The terminus of the stream of Buddhist colored thoughts which since the advent has been highly by the Chinese culture and faintly by Brahmanic one brings about a thirst for the pristine freshness that only the original source of thoughts can assuage. A sense of purity, therefore, is inspired and underlies my intent to do some study on the basis of the earliest Buddhist scriptures. The knowledge about Buddhism thus conditioned has been spelled by the Buddhists of Northern tradition whereas the tradition Bhikkhus of Theravdda bhikkhus and that of the Mendicant the optimal who attempt to embrace impartially essentials of the preceding twor are of proportionable influence. Although at the conglomeration of such different trends of thoughts, what I understand about Buddhism especially about the concept of citta that is so important in all the three systems, however, is still neither complete nor satisfactory.

On resorting to the source of knowledge overseas as far as my hand can reach out to I has found so far that the Buddhist concept of citta is not been exclusively focused on by English writers yet. A quick review in this respect makes it known that Buddhist concepts in important with other along citta in The Dynamic psychology are discussed proportionately Psychology of Early Buddhism by Rune E. A. JohanssonTherefore, the psychological account of the concept of citta thereat is by no means comprehensive; let alone the fact that Rune E. A. Johansson chooses to confine to the Sutta Pitaka the basis on which his book is prepared. The concept of citta, or the other hand, is especially dealt with by Jan T. for
'For more detaii, see Minh Diing Quang, CL:5,358-375


Edg'ardt itt Buddhist and Western "Psycholo gy , who, howevet, pr'efers to base his account on tbe Majjhima Nikaya oulY.' of all that ha's been mentioned' above'makes me decidij'the proposed title of mY thesis: A Study of the ConcePt of as Depicted in the PEIi Tipilaka and investigative mind I take pains about citta from ' the whole T'i'pi.taka l'Consideration

Citta With to glean

an explorational

a1l the data ' ' 'the 'the Sutta Pitaka, .{he most substantial bf especially literature. The dara thus collected will be carefully srudidd and systematically processerJ into' the main body of the' research work.the whole of which consists of 7 chapters'

The first chapter, as usual, is for the preliminary matters 'lexical about citta &s a technical term and as a concept. Its meanings'in general and apptied ones rn tne Buddhist canonical 'the ' frindamental aud conddnsed coniext are' -presented, How shjade of the concr,pt; cina figures" in the Buddhist sybtem' abl 'Brahntanic 'ones isr ;rbiighiY well as iu' tbe contemp'orar5, sketched out. With keen interest in the authenticity of the primary source I spend the last poltioll of this chapter'for the dating and stratification of the canonice.l rexts in view that the eatlie; a paiticular tex't is, the'more authentic it should be. substantial of the Buddhist canonical literature and best able to serve my sense of purity so direction. prepared the in is chapter the second that highliglitiug the besetting but interesting issue of. its dates of ccmposition rhat have been variously tabulated by the leading The Sutta Pilaka is most scholars. into the Vinaya Pitaka', basically the rules and regulations that conduct the activities of the Sarhgha, shows that the term citta appeals thereat is too scanty to state sonething substantial, therefore, skipped over' 'Exploration

2 see Vin

r ..1.All the',data..of citta throughout the Sutta Pitaka will_ be objective!y,,,collected1 and classified under different heading:s-; nine in number. With the supplement of lexical elucidation, t a . b - u l a ri l l r - l s t r a t i o n , d o c t r i n a l r e l e v a n c e , t h e f i r s t f o u r h e a d i n g s compose the third chapter; . the remaining five, the fourth chapter- The two chapters should virtually exhaust all the cases of conceivable citta in the Sutta Pi'taka so long as its literary occurrence is concerned. ' The fifth chapter that divers itself from 'the . l.iterary

concern will deal with several selected matters inherent of psycho.philosophical interest. Some of them are inspired by the ideological relevance that falls out of, the scope.of the previous Iiterary grounded chapters. This chapter in all will be prepared with further analysis and deeper ideation. is an ., account citta in of the . . .. ,The sixth . chapter D Abhidhamma Pilaka rvhere, especially in t}l-o- hammasangani, d de.-scriptions,.of. ifferenr types .of cit,ta ligure doryrinantly. HFIe classifications of , cLtta and this .phapler lyrll be soecifie.d-?s wilt,bg,prgpared
'l: ',. ll-' .'I

with faithfglness lo rthe original source. .

. . The ,seventh and last . chapter will conclude the research work ,by 'summing up all that has been previously accounted with the addition of scme' other afterthoughts more or less relating to the concept of cittalike to take the occasion to express the I . would gratefulness I feel for my parents who bore me, brought me up rvell with their characteristic love, spelling the first chapter of my .Iife with the example of their hard-working and moral lives. The seeds of morality they implanted in my budding soul keeps on growing in the depth of my personality and is still guiding me in the present time. They both demised and I have badly felt Indebted thencefo::th. I want to express grateful thanks to my spiritual masters: \{ost Venerable Thich Gizi c Nhi6 n. chairman, International

Sangha of Bhiksu Giaic Todn,


Association Council

and Venerable Thich of Vietnam .Buddhist

member, Executive




whom activities


vested and

with wisdom


monkhood. indefatigable



ordiined uuderlying their


ser up in me an example of devotional lives and a source of encouragemenr. It goes withcut saying and financial that without their taking care of m)'spiritual problems rvhenever I find myself at a low ebb, I would not have advanced up to the present extent. I feel duly of thankful ro Dr. which





f ,,{.og" renders in me a sense of self-confidence. This is appreciated especially when I am groping for the way to prepare the thesis. His scientific open-mindedness actually helps in paving the smooth path for the thesis ro come to the successful completion that I am enjoying now. I would like to extend thanks to other teachers when I was doing M. A. and M. Phil. "o-orii,i, e'specially to:

Department supervision

Budd.hist and guidance

Studies, under


Prof. Mahesh Tiwari, Prof. K. K. Mirtal. Prof. Sanehisbn

jf .:

S'ingh; the fiisf 'in 'de air left their lifelong

'one ;

was demised, the latter two, retired. fhei 'of 'presenc"t'iot"in; ni.r' memory their and benefited ii'om,

experience of teaching.

Prof. K. T. S. Sarao whose academic record is admirable and under whose scientific supervision and guidance my M. Phil. dissertation was done successfully. This keeps on fitting me for further academic career. Satyapala, Dr. H. P. Gangnegi, Dr. R. K. hana, Dr. Subhra Pavagadhi and some others whose lectures characterized by their sweet personality contribute somehow to the successful completion of my thesis. like to express thanks ro the Government of Vietnam especially the Governmental Board for Religious Affairs for making my higher qualifications abroad affordable. This actually opened a bigger horizon to me. Among' members of the Board are Uncle L Minh Thu and Mr. Bdi Erfc Heii I would Dr. Bhikkhu


to be with' whom I have ever had some memorable days now I would I ike to extend thanks to. IwanttoexpressduegratitudeandrespecttotheVietnam Tri Buddhist sangha, especially Most Venerable Thich Most Venerable Thich Minh



ChAu, Most Venerable Thich Thin Thich Hd o. Most Venerable Thich Td H4 nh. Most Venerable other Hid'n Phd p, Mosr venerable Thich Tri Qu:i ng and all are clignitaries. who help me directly or indirectly but they good examples of Buddhist spirits of devotion, blessing me with their unique charisma pleasant side of things. that help in settling my view to the

My thanks are also due to: Ul The library sraff of Delhi University Library System. Delhi - 7, who tnade accessible to me the large number of publications in lg93 when I arrived in India for the first time. It soon became my instant Source of consultation during the courses, and M.Phil. rime I was successfully doing M.A. Department of Buddhist Studies. When I started gathering of my materials for my thesis in late 1996, the majority 's helping consultation material s were owed from the staff hands. [!J The library staff of the Theosophical Library and the .\dministrative staff of the Headquarter, Theosophical Society, Adya, Chennai, who made it possible for me to spend thereat my memorable summer of 1997. The premise lingered with an anrique and poetic air that I have ever experienced was quite in rune with a sense of antiquity I had when consulting the old books in their custody. Some of the books, that I have even been in touch with, [g The library witness the close of the nineteenth century.

staff of the Library of Tibetan Works and ,\rchives, Dharamsala (H.P) who, when I spent my enjoyable summer of 1998, helped in rnaking it available for me a large : oilection of consultation materials about Buddhism especially Tibetan Buddhism.


Last but not least. my heart reaches out to my brothers and sisters in dhamma. my friends and loved ones, in different areas of the globe. who have hosted and supported me along the way. My failure ro name them all, hundred in number, just makes their memory to be engraved deeper in my soul . without them this work would not have been possible.
May all be blessed with Ultimate Truth

Delhi, January 2000






n Va n Thr,rdng)


PREFACE Contents Abb rev iatio ns


iii ix xiv xviii


(1): l. The Evolutionary A. THE TERM CITTA Citta (2), 2. Svnonvmous Equivalents of Citta (3). J. Semantical and Functional Aspects of Citta (5), 4. Odd Idea about Citta (7). 5. Reliable Base for our Definitive (Jnderstanding (7), 6. The Preferrcd Functionalism (8), 7. Nature of Citta t 1O).




2. Citta and Mana (12), 3. General Emotional and Intellectual Citta (14). 4. Citta of Vision 14),5- Metaphysical Citta (15).

PRE-BUDDHIST Meanings (11),


( 11):

I .




C. CHRONOLOGY (16): I. Different


THE of


Stratification Chronology of the Vinaya Pilaka (21). 3. Chronolosy rhe Abhidhamma Pitaka (28). Tables

CANON (16), 2. o.f











YA (35):

The Digha Nikava (41). 2. The Majjhima

Nikaya (46).





NIKAYAS Ariguttara Nikava (5O). 2. Samvutta Nikava (54).



OF TIIE (49): I.













CITTA AS GENERAL STATE OF SENTIENT (59): (a) Sensational and Emotionat Citta (59;, BEING (b) Citta as Statc of Mind to bc Safeguarded (61), (c) Citta as Mental Statc Subject to Downfall and Seizure (63 t, (d) Citta as Normal/Abnormal State of Mind (65).





Citta Subjcct to Kama (70).

LUSTFUL ( 6 6 ) : ( a) HEART (66), (b) Citta Subject to Raga

66-7 2

3. CITTA AS E,VIL HE,ART (73): Citta (73 t, (b) Vyapanna Citta (77 t.

(a) padutyha


4. CIT'TA AS PURPOSED (8O): (a) HEART Appossukkatavd Citta (80), (b) Nekkharnmaninna Citta (81), (c) Vivcka,ninna Citra (82r, (d) Citta of Action with 'Pahadati' (86). (c) How, to purpose and'Pagga4thati' thc Citta in Conternplatiort (89).





1" REC]JPTI'YE, IATIELDY, READY F'OR, TRUTH (93): (a) Uplilted [fedrt (93). (b) Trunsporte,t CITTA Heart (9S;, (c) Giddy-Patted Heart (96).







9 8 - 10 0

CITTA (100)i (a) Devote'l Citta COMPOSED (c) ( 1 0 1 ), Citta (b) Forward Springing lOO), \:ippasanna Citta (lO3>, (d) Citta in Samadhi (lO5), (e) 9'irakka and Vicara ( 107). 3.

100-1 09












Subhdvitam Cittam and Freedom of Mind (114)' (b) (115), (c) and F'reedom of Mind Hinatta-Rupa Mental States on Process of Enlightenment (116)' (d) Viratta Citta, Forshadower of Freedom of Mind (117), (e) Tranquilization of Body and Freedom of JItntt (119), uJ') Ten Fetters and Four Stages of Sainthood (LzO), (g) Locus of It[ental Emancipatiott ,lzL), (h) Five Elements of Escape and Freedom of Mind (122), (i) Ariya Living and Freedom of Mind A) Five Hin.drances and Freedom of Mind , 125), (k) SIta and Freedom of Mind ( L27), (l) .4salinacitta and .4linacitta (L28) 'I24),




' 1 3 2 - 1 75

1. WHERE DOES CrTTA COME FROM (132): ,a) From Sankhara (132), (b) From Upaddna, Ayatana' .lnusaya (135), (c) From Nd' (139), (d) Crigination of Citta (142'r.


























(ls7)z (a) 7. CITTA oF NEGATM TRAITS Negative Predicates and Attributes of Citta (157), (b) Asava ( 161), (c) Noxious Trio: Raga. Dosa, and Moha (165), (d) Cetokhila and Cetaso Vinibandha (169).


8. THE


OF CI7'7'A (171):




177 -220


(179), Cittas ( 18 8 ; , I I L Kama,vacarana Ahetuka Cittas Kd.mavacarana Sobhana Cittas ( 193) . Kanta.vacarana Akusala II. Eighteen Twenty Four 179-199

(199): 1. FiVC B. ROPAVACARANA CITTAS Kusala Cittas (arising as rupajhana experience) (2OO), (whiclt one can II. Five Vipaka Cittas of Rupajhana experience after death) (200), III. Five Kriya Cittas (which are experienced only by Buddha and Arahants either in this life or by Arahants in the rupaloka) (200).



(zLL\: Four I CITTAS AR ITP,ATACARA K u s a I a C i t t a s ( a r i s i n g a s a r u p a j h a n a e x p e r i e n c e ) ( 2 L 2 , tII. Four Vipaka Cittas of Arupaihana (which are results life the in kinds practised of similar of jhana Cittes (2I2), Four Kriya III. itnmeiietely previous) c, (which are inoperative) (2I2),

21i -215

CI'fT/i'S {ZLS): I. Four D. LOI{IJTTAR.^VACALA (216) , II. Four Lokuttara Cittas KusaIa Lokutrara Vipaka Cittas (216).




o :


230-234 235..241





PTS. 1885-1981. T. W. Rhys Delhi, Davids, 1997. AND A. F. Delhi. ITS Rhys Motilal

Banarsidas Publishers, Pvt, Ltd. BI PDB THE BIRTH OF INDIAN 1N




Davids, Oriental Books Reprint Corporafion,

a \IPE

BUDDHIST MANUAL ETHICS tr. Caroline A. Books Reprinr Corporarion. TT{E BIBLE OF THE Carpenter, 1903 .

OF F. Rhys De|hi,

PSYCHOLOGICAL Davids, Oriental 1975. CENTURY bv J. E.


B UDD H.rST PS CIJDJ22-/?/1 y

-l '; -



ed. Nathan




SAODEL^9T AND WES?ERN \S1CHOLOG\, -, Katz, praj frd press, Boulder, nrr.


PHrLosoPHY, s z rr
PTS, 188 g-Igg2.


L CHON Ly, t:"tt

BUDDHA' r w and tr Mrs

il. r";, j;,", y#' ci pai Buddhi st

A ssoci at i on

", T.l:,,r,


o vonHinuber KR Norman, and

e d . E d w a r dM u i l e r , p T s , London.


OF pSyCHOLOGy Berne and R. S_ Woodworrh. GoyI

THE DYNAMIC PSYCITTLTG| oF EARLy BUDHISM by Rune. E. A. Johansson, Curzon press Ltd, London and Malmo, 1995.

by J. Atkinson, E. SaaB, Delhi, i9gg.



DICTIONARY Malalasekera, 1983.

OF PALI Oriental

by G. P. PR?PER NAME Books Reprint Corporation,



BUDDHISM ed. Jotila Dhirasekera. The Government of Sri Lanka. 1979. t;. Pe Maung THE EXPOSITOR, I92I. reprinted as one vol. 1976. THE BOOK Otr THE GRADUAL U Tin, 2 vols., 1920,




SAYINGS. Ko Lay, Sri Satguru

GUIDE TO TIPITAKA by Publications, Delhi, 1990. GUIDE T'HROUGH Lake THE House.




Nyanatiloka. HBP

PHILOSOPHY by Davici J. A HIS'IORY OF BUDDHIST Kalupahana, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers, Pvt, Ltd. Delhi . 1994. A HISTORY oF INDIAN BUDDHISM by S. R. Goyai,


Ktrsunranjaii, Prakastrarr, Jodhpur, I994. HIL HISTORY OF INDIAL Winternitz, Motllal Delhi . I993. HLB LITERATURE, Banarsidas Yol. 2 by Maurice Pvt. Ltd.


OF BUDDHISM bV T. THE HISTORY AND LITERATURE 'Vr'. Rirys Darids, Susil Gupra Ltd, Calcutta, 1952. Vol.1 LITERATURE b)' Bimala OF PALI HISTORY Churn Law, Indological Book House. Varanasi. 1983. AN INTRODUCTION and TO ABHIDHAMMA by S. 1990. ed. Mc Phyllis Master pub. (Buddhist Brahmachari,



Phiiosophy Jadab Barua JIP .tOURNAL Granoff.


Publications. OF INDIAN of


PHILOSOPHT'. Studies. Religious

Uiriversity. Hamilton, Kluwer Academic. Netherlands. KS

Otrtario, Canada L8S 4K1,

SAYINGS. THE BOOK OF THE, KINDRED C .A. F. Rhys David s and F.L. Woodward . THTT MAJJHIMA-NIK A AYA PTS, I88 8-T979 .




tr. Maha Thera OF ABHIDHAMNIA, MANUAL Center, Meditation Budcihist Singapore N arada, 1989. Singapore,

xvu .\IBTD MANUAL TERMS AND DOCTRINES bY OF BUDDHIST of rhe Buddha Body The Corporate Nyanatiloka, Taiwan, I97O. Educational Foundation, MILINDA 18 9 0 MS OF COLLECTION THE SAYINGS. tr. I.B. Horner. NEW THE MIDDLE LENGTH PAItUO, tr. T.W. Rhys Davids, SBE, Oxford,



by 1993. 'tIP THE

ed. DICTIONARY ENGLISH SHORTER OXtoRD Press, Oxford, Clarendon Lesley Brown.


OF INDIAN Humanities

PSYCHOLOGY Press, Berkeley,

by N.


Reat. Asian 1990. )\AIB THE


INDIAN AND I'TATURE OF ANCIENT ORIGIN BUDDHISM by P. T. S. Sarao. Easrtern Book Linkers, India, 1989.



Motilal B a n a r s i d a s P u b l i s h e r s , P v t , L t d . D e l h i , 1 9 9 1. BRETHREN, tr. Mrs. Rhys Davids, PSALMS OF THE PTS. 1994



bY PSYCHOLOGY OF BUDDHIST THE PRINCIPLE Delhi, David J. Kalupahana, Sri Satguru Publications, 1992. PSALMS OF THE EARLY BUDDHISTS, PTS. 1994


by T'W.Rhvs Davids and DICTIONARY William Stede, Motilal Banarsidas Publishers, Pvt' Ltd. Delhi . 1993. PALI-ENGLISH WEST, & EAST PHILOSOPHY University Comparative Philosophy, by Kenneth LITERATURE PALI Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1983. of A Quarterly of Hawai'i Press. Roy Norman, Otto







OF Press,


F. Jayasuriya,

Colombo , 1963.



AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH, A Quarterly Journal, pub. International Phenomenological Society, Brown University. SAMYUTTA surrA NrKAyA. pTS. 1884_199t. Helmer


s sn

NIpArA, ed. Dines Andersen and Smith, PTS , Oxford, 1913, reprinted l99O . sruDIES Chandra


IN THE }RIGINS oF BUDDHISM by Govind publishers, pvt, Pande, Motilal Banarsidas Ltd. Delhi, 1995 . A STUDY OF THE UNIVERSAL FLUX IN THERAVADA BUDDHISM by Indra Narain Singh, of Buddhist Studies, 1993 . THE Dept.




Publications, Delhi, 1988. UDANA, ed. p. Steinthal, pTS, 1985, reprinted 19g2. VINAYA PITAKA, PTS, L879-1996. VISUDDHIMAGGA, 2 vols. , PTS , r975, L 9 2 O, ecl. Mrs L9ZI, Rhys Davids, reprinted as one vol. C.A.F.

U Vin \'-sm


Diagram: Table l: Table 2: Table 3:

I2L Cittas Frequency of Main Psychological Terms.

t78 13 t7

Scheme of 5 Lavers bv B. C. Law. Scheme of 1O Layers by T. W. Rhys Davids that by B. C. Law.


Table 4: Table 5: Table 6:

Scheme of 3 Lavers bv K. T. S. Sarao. Scheme of 3 Lavers in EBC. Abhidhamma Law. Texts in Time Order bv B. C.

21 31 33,

Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 1O: Table ii: Table 12: Table 13 : Table 14 : Table 15: Table 16:



vs Majjhima Speech.


49 85
99 160 t82

Sagacity in the Buddha's Hindrances:

Supports and Challenges.

Verbal Predicares of Citta. Eight Akusala Seven Akusala Eight Kusala Three Kiriya Cittas. Vipdka (resultant) Vipdka Cittas. Cittas " Cittas,

189 190 191 t92 198

Quick Review of 89 Cittas. Three Groups of Sobhana Cittas.






PED| gives the following 3 basic meanings to the term 'citta': The first citta (v): to shine, to be bright, variegared, beautiful; tasty, sweet, spiced (of cakes); (nt) manifold, painting . The second citta (nt) [Skt: citta, orig . p .p. of 'heart'. 'Mind', however, gets pretty much frequency cintetil: in actual use as rendering. And, the third citta (n): name of the f irst rnonth Chaitra. In the whole dissertation, both the first and the second cittas will be intact; we shall work on the remaining second citta only. safe in respect of preciseness in 'citta' occurs throughout the Pdli all contexts where the term 'mind' by the l iterature, the term is usually rendered as 'Heart'is less majority of the authoritative translators of Pali. Though it is not totally used as rendering. But if we consents that citta in singular form 'heart' and when in plural, as 'thought' should be rendered as rvhich is closed to mind in meaning, then in the Pdli Literature and out of citta nearly always occurs in the singular (:heart), 150 cases in the Nikdyas only 3 times in the plural (:thought). This primary notion is impressive of the fact that the concept of citta seems quite complicated and confusing distinctive attitude will find it frustrate. that a rigidly

For our basic knowledge there should be a view to the 'mind". 'Mind' has 14 meanings that Jictionary meanings of (B) Thought, :all under the three headings: (A) Memory; (C) psychic faculty. and, Mental or intention; rurpose, Skipping over the first heading that is simply confined within

PED:266. f SOED: L778-1779.

2 the realm of memory state of thinking we come to the second one. This one is the richest and covers 6 groups of meanings: (1a) The action or about something; the thought chiefly in have mind of, think of, give heed to. (1b) Attention, heed. (2a) Purpose, intention. (2b) An inclination, a wish; a liking. (3) The direction of a person's thoughts, desires, inclinations, or energies. (4) A person's opinion, judgement, or view. (5a) A and feeling. (5b) A particular feeling or attitude towards something. (6) The stare of a person's thoughts and feelings. or way of thinking heading (C) concerns the psychological aspect covering the following three groups of meaning: (1a) The sear The third of awareuess. thought, volition, and feeling; cognitive and emotional phenomena and powers as constructing a controlling system, special as opposed' to matter, the spiritual as distinguished from the bodily part of a human being. (1b) A disposition. character,

person or a group of people collectively as the embodiment of mental faculties. (1c) A controlling or directing spiritual being or agency; (2) special the intellect, intellectual powers, esp. as distinguished from the will and emotions. (3) The healthy or normal condition of the mental faculties. The ideas about the mind as above mentioned, although quite general. are still helpful somehow in the first inquiry. At the risk of jumping the gun we can say that the 5 .a 'disposition, character, or way of thinking and feeling' has much to do with the Buddhist concept of citta under question, whereas, the L.a. 'the seat of awareness, thought, volition, and feeling' most controversial and subtle issue, S4y, in Buddhist system. Whether there is somethiug as a seat (a place in which administrative power or the like is centered) that sways over the mental and emotional function of a being brings than settlement because of the fact that any ordinary reasouing whatever is prone to build up a soul or an ego which is so metaphysical and speculative in character. in much more speculation is the

1. The Evolutionarv


We should be aware tlrat citta in the Buddhist Pc1li texts is used not thoroughly in the same set of meanings. It shares the same process of almost all lexicon units, S&!, getting the primitive the pre-Buddhist conception, adopting new shade of meanings in the traditional Buddhist contexts, undergoing nodification, transformation and transmutation, developing current shades of meaning. The process was going the evolutionary divergence of Buddhist thoughts through ages and characterized by the conceptions of different schools of Buddhist philosophy among them the most noticeable ones Md.dhyamika, Sautrdntika, Yogacdra, 'the term and Tantrism. In other words, is comlnon to all schools of Buddhism and is attested in a wide 'zariety of meanings varying according to textual contexts and respective philosophic tradition',. But our research work is on the basis of the Pali Tipitaka only, avoiding any sectarian bias and alien conslomeration. are Theravdda, Sarvdstivada, with rneaning fron



2. Synonymous It should


of Citta

be noted here rhat citta (verb: cit) and cetas tverb: cet) are almost identical in meaning and application. In prorniscuous application there is no cogent evidence of a cleal' separation of their respective fields of meaning; a few instances indicate the role of cetas as seat of citta, whereas most of them show no distinction. There are compounds having both cittaand ceto- in identical meanings, for example, citta-samadhi and ceto-samAdhi. Other compounds show a preference for either one of the other, as ceto is preferred in ceto-khila and ceto(but vimutta-citta), vimutti whereas citta is restricted to with upakkilesa, etc. Let us single out some ; ombination ientences for illustration: Vivatna cetsa sappabhasam cittaryt phdveti 'with open heart he contemplates a radiant thought'o; .-etasA cittam samannesati vippamuttam'with his heart he

Dhirasekera, EBC. 4; 169. v: 263; D. 3: 223: A. iv: 86

4 Cetaso tato cittam scrutiuizes their pure mind". desire of his heart he shall exclude from this'u. It is interesting as The in notion to note of here that self the and nivAraye'a


mental in self

projection Buddhism.


systems one's





of individual d r a m a t i z i n g , so t o s p e a k , a m o n g t h e f l o w subjective experience. We shall come back to this matter in the this And chapter about essential aspects of citta. fifth projection is at times expressed by citta and the closely allied term cetos; a.s if we should speak of mind affecting will, or 'heart' influencing 'head': Ye should restlain, curb, subdue, citta by ceto,. Another passage in the Sarhyutta Nikdya says that we roam in all directions with ceto: here ceto is used instead of citta^. The passage probably refers to our ability to dream about and think of distant places and events. As occurring vifiiiana function in the Sutta Pitaka the three terms, citta, and mdna af e usually interchangeable, all denote of mentation. Despite of their interchangeability and

same denotation we still, however, can notice with a little arbitrariness that they tend toward three distinct aspects of its, intellectual and and perceptive, sensory Say, subjective, aspects. said to Iepresent the rational faculty of That mana'is man'n, thus being designated to the intellectuality confronts the disagreement by the Dhammapada'o where it also denotes the idea of subjective chiefship and directing. Vififlana with a mofe the field of sense and senseclear-cut connotation'represents reaction, that is the sphere of sensory and perceptive activity "'.

5 S. i: 194. 6lbid. iv: 195. 7 M. i: l2O,242. 'S. i: 75. nJ. Dhirasekera. EBC. 4: 169r os e e m o r e i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n "
ttvijlniti kho bhikkhave tasme vintranam ti vuccati S. iii: 87

) Citta is supposed to keep as general as ever, though, this does not exclude its tending toward subjectiviry.

3. Semantical

and Functional


of Citta

PED rnakes rhe conviction that the meaning of citta is best understood when explaining it by expressions familiar to us, as: with all my lteart; heart and soul; I have no heart to do it; blessed are the pure in heart; singleness of heart; all of which emphasize the emotional and conative side or'thought'more rhan its mental and rational side. with the minute explanatory notes being omitted the meaning of citta as given in PED,2 can be presented as the heart usually in psychological sense, ano further explained as the center and focus of man's emotional nature as well as that intellectual element which inheres in and accompanies its manifestations. Emotional, conative, and rational or rnental as the three sides in the meaning of citta is further elaborated in detail and with illustrations by EBCB. The term citta as our main concern should basically refer, r n a c c o u n t o f i t s g e n er a l u s a g e i n t h e P A l i N i k d y a s , t o t h e lexus of one's emotional nature and, in its dynamic aspect, to :he locus or the function of thousht. of :onsciousness"'o will be correct in many a case, however, does ^o r a s s u r e i t s e l f i n a l l c o n t e x t s . T h e f i r s t v e r s e o f t h e )hammapada that reads, "Mind (mana) is the forerunner of (all :.,i1) states. Mind is chief; mind-made are they. If one speaks : acts with wicked mind, because of that, suffering follows l, even as the wheel follows the hoof of the draught-ox. "r' .tas obviously disagreed on it, assigning the subjectiveness not to citta but to mana. That "Citta represents the subjective aspect

T. W. Rhys Davids & William Stede PED: 266" J. Dhirasekera, EBC. 4: 169. op. Cit. 4: 169. )lrp. v. l-2.

6 commentator of Pali literature establishes four meanings for citta: (1) it rs citta thar thinks of its objects on account that it arranges itself in a series by way of apperception in a thought process; (2) citta, or the other Buddhaghosa the later hand, refers to the resultant thoughts which are accumulated by its intentional actions, wholesome and/or unwholesome. that is, it reaps what it store-house sows; in this meaning it is regarded as the holding mental seeds in the forms of mental dispositions, proclivities, tendencies, and latent forces; (3) citta denotes all mental activities, so all classes of thoughts are called citta and arrange themselves according to the context of mentation; and (4) the meaning of citta can be conceived also by virtue of its capacity to create a variety of effects'u. he did not give ary clue for the simple flux in his account of citta. If &ny, hardly is 'it arranges itself in a series by way of apperception in a thoughr process' suggestive Unfortunately. of the flux. In terms of Buddhist psychoanalysis the three different citta performs are effective aspect

aspects of activities that (vedana). cognitive aspect (safifra) (of or pertaining to the processes of perception. mental memory. j udgment, and as contrasted volitional reasoning. with emotional and processes) and conative aspect (cetana) (mental actions having to do with striving, including desire, volition, and purpose). The effective aspect and the cognitive

aspect are mental states

dependenr on citta". EBC says rhat the cetand clearly is the causative form of citta (cinteti ) ceteti, cetayati ) cetand) and that the effective aspect (vedand) refers to the feeling tone of citta; the cognitive aspect (safifra) is concerned with knowing, believing, reasoning and perceiving, and the conative aspect (cetana) is concerned with striving, acting, willing, and desiring. three aspects do not of course function separately. As mental processes all three aspects operate all at These once bv wav of concurrent action and inter-action. Coenition is

tu see Buddhaghosa. Vism: ZL-72, 45?-454, and Exp: 84-85. '7 Saflfla ca vedani ca cetasika ete dhamna cittapa ibaddh6: S. iv: 293

7 associated with conation that in turn with the hedonic quality of feeling',. is bound up invariably

4. Odd fdea



It is interesting to notice the alien idea about citta that lrappened to be in the proposition: 'citta is incorporeal and resident in the cave of the heart"n. It is probably because of a reference to this verse, in respect of the physical basis of citta, that some section of tl.e Theravddins developed a cardio-centric theory according to which the heart (hadayavatthu) is the locus of rnind and mental consciousness. These Theravddins appear to be alone in holding this rheory and this is confirmed by the :tirternolt of Yaiomitra,o that it is confined only to the school of .Sri Lanka Buddhism. It is hard to find in the orrhodox sysrem rf Buddhist thought any place to which the idea can be rn c o r p o r a t e d p r o p e r l y .

5. Reliable

Base for

our Definitive


denies any kinds of substantial :e finition of citta to the extreme. 'Buddha,' EBC says, 'is the .:rst psychologist to 'psychologise' without a soul and the :aclring on citta is squarely based on the doctrine of the non,.rbstantiality of all phenomena'r,. The encyclopedia warns irvone who insists on the clear-cut definition of citta that'the - -.mplexity of its usage has sometimes defied all attempts of ."odern scholarship at determining the specificity of its ,.gnification'zz. The Buddha seems to adopt a functional view of , rncepts, utilizing the term sankha to refer to concepts; and -i functional use is often expressed by the verbal expression: passage is ; rtkho.m gacchati or 'conceive'. The following .:rcal: "Citta, just as from cow comes milk, and from milk
i J. Dhirasekera, ' Dhp. v. 37 . of Sphutdrtha Abhidharmakofa Vyakhya. see M EBC.

The traditional



l{e is said to be the author 1\-internitz, HIL: 344. .' Dlrirasekera. EBC.4:

l7 1.

8 curds. and from curd butter. and from butter ghee, and from ghee to junket; yet, when there is milk, there is no conceiving 'j unket'; instead on that as 'curd' or 'butter' or 'ghee' or 'milk"''. occasion there is couceiviug as further noted that citta may be rendered by itttentiotr, impulse. design; mood, disposition, state of mind, reactiott to impressions. Citta, however, sometimes stands merely for an idea or a thought, for example, a persoo who was It born professional thought soldier or must the previously common following idea in had the 'Let those sense'. have can be

beings be tortured, bound, destroyed. exterminated"'. The citta can be quitted up as is expressed in the passage, 'incolupei,eui. Sunakkhatta. is the naked ascetic. Patika's son. to meet me face to face. if he withdraw not those words. if he put not away that idea (citta). if he renounce nor that opinion. If he thinks that, holding to those words, to that idea- maintaining that opinionhe would come to meet the Samarla Gotama, his head woul.d split asunder'25. Citta here means merely an idea.

6. The Preferred


It is suggestible that citta can be analyzed as to its nature in the disciplines of psychology, ethics and naturalism26. But for the sake of being in concord rvith the Buddhist theory of suffering and of non-substance - the former mainly relating to the basic for ethical attitude and the la.tter. for philosophical viewpoint - the disciplines of ethics and of psychology are preferable. The functionalistic approacir iu the discipline of modern psychology, it is at the risk going a little astray to note, comes to overshadow the once-dominatins structuralisrn.

" Op. Cit. 4: 169. 2 3D . i : Z e Z . " S. iv: 3O9.

'r Abhabbo kho Sunakkhatta acclo Pdtika-putto tanr vS,canr appahiya tam cittam - bbavam agantum. Sace appaheva tanr ditthir.n appatinissaj.jitva n:ama sammukhl pi'ssa evam essa Aham tam appahlya ram cittnm appahAya tam ditthim appatinissajjitva Sanranassa Gotamassa sammukhi - bhlvanr gaccheyyarrti. - nudha pitassa vipatevyeti. For the translation see DP. iji: 13.

']6 . Dhirasekera. EBC. 1: 17O. J

causually induced stares there are on that occasion -these are states that are good "zc other incorporeal.

All the functions and the so-called agents are but transect and ever-changing like a stream of water30.

7. Nature

of Citta

The nature of citta is difficult to be seen and understood and it is very subrle''. very hard to control, assuredly light and q u i c k a n d a t t a c h i n g i t s e l f t o w h a t e v e r i t c r a v e s 3 2 .I t i s , i n c a s e of the worldling, consranrly frightened, terrified and alarmed as well as agitated. flurried and anxiouss3. The nature of citta should also be counted on account of its dependent origination in which the causal factors play the decisive roie in the arising of mind, thus subjecting to the impermanence earmark of sankhara. Even in the Buddha time Bhikkhu sdri was ignored of the fact that rhere is no arising of rhe mind (in this case the term vifr.fiana is employed) unless it is through rhe collocation of causal factors... The narure of citta is murtifaceted, this suggesrs the title of the fourth chaprer, and the expositions situationally given by the Buddha about its nature are hardly molded into any formal definition of citta. Even the Buddha felt difficult in describing a single aspecr of its nature. saying, "I consider, monks, that there is no phenomenon that comes and goes so quickly as mind. It is nor easy ro find simile to show how quickly mind comes and goes"... citta in the Buddhist view, is thus a series of events in an incessant process of mentation. citta as unitary term is nothing
' oD h s . : l - 5 . " Op. Cir. 4: l7O. rrsududdasa, unipuna: s
J 2d u n u i g g a h a , 3r Nicca lahu,

Dhp. v.36.
nipati niccam : Dhp. v. 35. idarF mano: viflidnassa

vatthakama cittam,



ubbiggam natthi

S. i: 53. sambhavo: M. i: 256-7

r1Anekapari-yiycnu 35 A. i: 10.


Seti paticcaya

11 more than a convenient collective noun to comprehend a wide and complex nexus of mentaI states in flux as ever mentioned in the forgoing section. As to its nature the citta or mind of the speaking, constantly t h r o b b i n g , t r e m b l i n g a n d w a v e r i n g 3 6 .E t h i c a l l y , i t i s e x c e e d i n g l y difficult to be protected and to be saved from falting into moral Iapse. Naturalistically, it quivers like a fish out of water distracted by a multiplicity of stimuli". worldly individual is, psychologically

Now, the main course of treatment should be postponed to nrake a brief introduction of the pre-Buddhist concept of citta. And then, it is followed by a survey of the primary source on rhe basis of which the study is elaborated. This survey tents towards chronological perspective.

B" PRE-BUDDHIST 1. Citta Among of General

CITTA Meanings verbal roots denoting mental Ross Reat observes, ^,lcit is the it well-nigh refers

the most important

processes in the ffg Veda, N. most general in meaning that

to the of any mental organs and faculties. The most functioning Jo m m o n n o u n s d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s v e r b a l r o o t , n a m e l y , c i t t a , -'itti and cetas, are for all intents and purposes synonymous, -ind refer very generally to "thought" or in some cases "mind". N o u n s a n d v e r b s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r o o t ' Jc i t a r e s o b r o a d i n

rneaning as to be capable of being substituted for virtually any of the more precise terms for mental organs and faculties. The verbal root ',lman and its derivatives the closest relatives of are almost as broad in meaning as the derivatives of '"cit. Generally speaking, they imply more specifically than r/cir rhe process of intellectual cogitation. Other than this very vague and inconsistent distinction, the derivatives of {cil and ' .n t a n , i n t h e indistinguishable in FS Veda, are practically nreaning. Verbal forms of "lcit, however, aFe more common than ' ,c i t

Dhp. v. 33. Op. Cit- v.34

nominal forms while the opposite is true of derivatives of 'Jman. It is probably best therefore to translate nominal forms of {cir with "thought". and the term ntanas rr'ith -mind". Such translation constrrre manas as me[tal organ and crrra as mentat faculties. even though admittedly there is no clear disrinction between these terms in actual usage in the Rg Veda". in Rg veda, like rhe rerm citta in Buddhism, refer in the broadest way ro mental process whether perceptive, intellecrual, emotional or imaginative3e. It may be said that these derivatives denote the functioning of any one of the several mental organs and facultie s mentioned in the Rs veda. used with the term manas , .lcit indicates mental perception or intellectual thought. wirh hrd (heart\ it refers to emorional ^lani it or intuitive thought. with refers ro imaginative. volitional visionary It thought. kratu it refers ro ^J it is the broad and general narure of c that constitutes the mosr distinctive thought. with The derivatives of {cir

and its derivatives characteristic of this family of terms.o. It should

be noted rhat mosr of the psychologically significant derivatives of {ci r occur in relatively late texts. the majority being in the Maitri Upanisado,.

2. Citta

and ll{ana

The two terms are so close in interrelation that most of the cases especially in the early Vedic texts they are interchangeable without any risk of unintentional modification of the meaning. In the Vedas, the idioms referring to mind are neariy always ntanas; they ate much like our own analogous phrases such as: "Sun travels quick as mind"... 'we know what thy ur.ind was "... "approving thy mind"... "this praise has been offered by the ruind''... 'what a man reaches with mind. that he

r" N. tu op. 'o op. tt op.

Ross Reat. OIP: Crr.: lOl. Cit.. lO7 . cir.: 254.



expresses by speech"... "by what great mind may we arrest the storm gods?"... "wise in mind... trembling in mind... please in rnind"... 'oa woman mindful of the gods"... "\rye must consult (citta) rhe thought of anorher... beyond our thoughts (cittdni)"... "which prayer is to be the choice of thy mind?"o'. .\ cornparison of the frequency of the main psychological terms used in the 13 'principal', i. e. Early and Middle Upanisads results in the followins tableo3.
Table 1:

Manas.' Citta: Vij fiana: Buddhi: Cetas.' Cetana:

173 refetences 18 references 29 references 12 r e f e r e n c e s 3 references 3 references

Through rhe term Citta man's 3gency citta

the above table in comparison term citis not worded process favored

we can see the less frequency with its posterior observing. also this, term as was ntanas. meaning so In its root


vififidna. we have is the

was never awareness in the

as perceiving,

The result as is

as a manifold measuring,

or motley,

but the active





in manasu.

For a further distinction between the two terms we can :]ote that in most contexts the terms derived from ^lcit is rssociated with manas (mind). The ntanas is often depicted as :he agent lerivatives thinking of the process of thought as represented by the of 'Jcit, as in the phrases such as manasd cekitdnam

or perceiving with the mind) , mano cetati (the mind :hinks). In other contexts, a derivative of {ci r may qualify the

C. A. F. Rhys Davids, BIPDB: 8 Op. Cit.: 7L . Op. Cit.: 68-69.

T4 mind in an adjective serrse, as in the phrase cikitvin-manas (thoughtful or perceptive mind)". The above distinctive cases at most are not enough to refute the predominance of their basic interchangeability as presented in the previous section.

3, Emotional

and fntellectual

Citta connotation of

N. Ross Reat observes that the emotional lclr moved by an external

is most evident when derivatives based on it are said to be

force, oS when the worship and/or sacrifice stirs the thought (cetana). On the other hand, these derivatives are also said to be the stirring or moving force which incites various gods to action. as when Soma and Agni are said to be moved or stirred into action by the thought of the sacrificer. Emotional content is also found in passages such as oue where Atri is said to *think with a friendly rniad"re. Citta seems to have much to do with the basic sensual consciousness. as in the following verse. where the departure of citta marks the end of such consciousness: 'When a sick persorr about to die gets to such weakness as to fall into a stupor they say of him, his thought (citta) has departed, he does not hear, he does not see, he does not speak with speech, he does not think"o'. But in the another aspect. the derivatives of ricir are of intellectuality. The derivatives denote in several compounds some sorT of development or excellence of the faculty of (wise or thought or perception. as in the terms vipaicita (thoughtful), (deepgambiira-cetas insightful). sucetas thoughted). obviously riddle " ". praceta (wise). in predominant The intellectual connotation is *to solve (aciketam) a the phrase

4. Citta

of Vision.

N. Ross Reat. OIP. lO4.

cikctati.. . surrrncr-ta ctasa: c N.

Ross Reat, OIP:7O2


Op. Cit . :252.


Op. Cir. : 1O3.

15 It is observed that the derivatives of r/cir associated with the potence of seeing, in the broad sense of the word, are irr some cases quite literal, as when Agni is said to be observant or in a wartime curse in which the wish is expressed that the perception (citta) of those foes who stand watch be destroyed. In other contexts, the term citta seems to mean simply "visible", as in the phrase cittagarbha, which Griffith translates "visibly pregnant ". In srill other cases, derivatives of ./cir refer to mental perception, as rvhen it is said that Mitra with their and Varuna perceive (cikyatuh) even eyes closed, or where it is said with relation ro a riddle that those who have eyes, obviously mental eyes, can see rvhile the blind do not perceive (na vicetad andhah), or again rvhere it is asked, "who discerns (ciketa) the workings of Mitra and Varuna?". The derivatives of {cir are also used to denote vision, particularly When mental vision in the Rg Vedaon. (ceti;!ham) with the eyes (aksabhir),

purified , citta is praised as praj fid of the early Upanisads. In the sixth book of the Maitri, w can find both cetas and citta exalted to mean nothing less than tlre prajfidso. A is said to be capable of grasping the ultimate rruth, however, its purification seems to involve its cessationst. purified citta

5. Il[etaphysical


The substantialist metaphysic of Indian thought could be expressed by the presurnptive staternents such as the Upanisadic passage which reads that in the beginning, this world was only -.he self (atman) in the form of a person. Looking around he saw nothing else than the self. He first said'I am'. There arose the first time. Later on he realized the rhen the name of 'I'for real self and the mutable self (or the empirical consciousness) the image of two birds perched on one branch, the one simply watching and the other enjoying the fruit". Through the range of meaning as meant by rvhich are graphically presented with
O p . C i t . : 1 0 1 -1 0 2 . C. A. F. Rhys Davids, BIPDB: ) - l. R o s s R e a t , O I P : 2 5 7 . David J. Kalupahana, PBP: 12. 7l

t6 rhe root 4 cit above presented, ir is quite safe to suppose that 'the family would be able to compass either of the root {cir's two birds' and both of them. The derivatives of "Jcit seem to be construed either as the or as the fundamental essence of the soul and universe characteristic of both the individual and the universal soul. It 'This body is like a cart, is implied in the rhetoric question: without thought; by the power of what super-sensuous being is it made to arise with thought (cetanavat): or who is its mover?" or the statement "The enjoyer (bhoktD of this universe is without qualities (nirguna), but because of its being an enjoyer, it must have thought (caitanya)". As a super-sensuous being, the thought has the potence of creating. This creativity is not confined to artistic composition, as when it is said that the hymn springs from the thoughtful mind (cikitvin-manas). It may also refer to the idea of spontaneous creation of an entity, as in a hymn stating that the gods created fire with citti. There is another context where the Rbhus are said to have created a miraculous chariot by means of "excellent thought" (sucetas) fine, the Upanisadic system virtually tends to regard the world as a creation of consciousness, saying that at the dissolution of all. he alone remains awake. Thus from that space, he awake this world which consists of thought and mind (manas)". In only (cetamatra)".



Tables of Stratification
into the conclusive of the outcomes texts proposed by the


stratification of the Buddhist canonical leading scholars convelsant in the Pdli literature let us know that the oldest stlatification may be that of T. W. Rhys Davids who observes ten strata scheme. Unforrunately, it is not an easy

N. Ross Reat, OIP: 253 Op. Cit. : lO6.


Op. C i t . 2 5 3 2 5 4 .

t6 the root 4 cit above presented, ir is quite safe to suppose that the root {crr's family would be able to compass either of 'the two birds' and both of them. The derivatives of {clr seem to be construed either as the

essence of the soul and universe or as the fundamental characteristic of both the individual and the universal soul. It is implied in the rhetoric quesiion: 'This body is like a carr, without thought; by the power of what super-sensuous being is it made to arise with thought (cetanavat): or who is its mover?" or the statement "The enjoyer (bhoktr) of this universe is without qualities (nirguna), but because of its being an enjoyer, it must have thought (caitanya)',. As a super-sensuous being, the thought has the potence of creating. This creativity is nor confined to artistic compos ition, as when it is said that the hymn springs from the thoughtful Ir may also refer to the idea of spontaneous creation of an entity, as in a hymn stating that tbe gods created fire with citti. There is another context where the S.bhus are said to have created a chariot by means of "excellent thought " (sucetas) and mind (manas)5^. In fine, the Upanisadic system virtually tends to regard the world as a creation of consciousness, saying that at the dissolution of all, he alone remains awake. Thus miraculous from that space, he awake this world which consists of thought onlv ( cetdmdtra\". mind (cikitvin-manas).

1. Different Exploration stratification Tables into

of Stratification the conclusive canonical


outcomes literature



of the Buddhist

texts proposed by the let us know

leading scholars conversant in the Pdli

that the oldest stratification may be that of T. W" Rhys Davids who observes ten strata scheme. Unfortunatelv. it is not an easv

5r N.

Ross Reat, OIP: 253 Cir .: 106. Cit. 253 2s4.

t, op.

" op.

I7 exactness to find that both B. C. Law and K. L. Hazra do summarize the same scheme from Buddhist India by T. W. Rhys Davids but do
feeling on the side of those who flo( (u(fl ou( (fte suntmaries. (see appendix care for scientific

Rhys scholars. dried, Pdli after their Davids, B. C. to and too canonical time when component

The Law rhe

chronology is not it as too of

observed fully agreed catechetical, though the with

by on by too

T. cut of

W. and the and

nevertheless, regards


general to be accepted, determination with each texts56. We will dealing texts -

its suggestion

is a good guide

chronology collection

be in touch

the table time


B. C. Law gives his own scheme of 5 layers, basing on the dates of 6 Buddhist Councils in India and Ceylon respectivelys?:
Table 2:

First Period Second Period Third Period Fourth Period

Fifth Period

483 383 265 230 -

383 BC 265 BC 230 BC 80 BC

80 -20BC

On the basis of the above setting, would informs be easy that scholar to the it arrange last was monk, a nurnber in Parivdrapatha, us Ceylonese Abhidhamma composed DIpa

B. C. of treatise Ceylon


observes, for


books, by

example, colophon Buddhist of the

whose a

by name58. One

reference took

book makes it known

to us that its composition

place after

5 6B . C . L a w , H P L : L . " O p . C i t . : L 3. 's G. P. Malalasekera, DPN, vol


18 the Vinaya Pitaka being promulgated by Thera Mahinda. The succession of his disciples from the time of Thera Mahinda given in the text enables us to conclude that its composition king Vagyagamani because it openly declares in the colophon that the author had the treatise be written down. This manner of preservation of the could not be until scriptures would agamani,". B. C. Law elaborated on. chapter where not be conceivable before the time of Vafi possible the reign of

gets a full

credit for the introduction unfortunately, is not

of the further

foregoing 5-stage setting And.


another contribution

is at the end of the

of the Pdli he reserves for the'Chronology Canon' and comes back to the scheme of 10 strata originally .W. Rhys Davids, or which he makes some sketched out by T. remarkable comments. modifications and adiustments. For the sake of comparison we should juxtapose the

previous stratification

of T. W. Rhys Davids and the later one

of B. C. Law as follows,

'oB. C. Law. HPL:


19 Table 3:
By Davids

By Law l . T h e s i r u p l e s t a r em e n r s o f B u d d h i s t docrrine qow found. in identical words. in paragraphs or verses recurriug in all the books. 2. Episodes found, in identical words. in two or more of the ex i s t i n g b o o k s . 3. The Silas. the Parayana group of 16 poems wirhout the prologue. the A l l h a k a g r o u p o f 4 o r 1 6 p o em s . t h c . S i t , t f t ap a d a s . 4. The Digha. vol. i. the Majjhima the Samyutta. the Aiguttara. and earlier Patimokklra code of L52 rule s . 5. Thc Digha, vols. ii and iii. the Thera- aud TherI-gtithd. rhe colle ction of 5OOJatakas. Sutta Vibhanga, Pagisambhidama gga, Puggalapaflflatti and the Vibhartpa. 6. Thc Mahdvagga and rhe Cullavagga, the Pdtimokkha codc comple ting 227 rulcs, thc Vimdnavat thu and, Petavattltu. the Dhammapada and, the Kathdvotthu 7. The CullaniddeEa, the Maltaniddesa. the IIddna. the Itivuttaka. the Sutta Nipata. tbe Dltdtukathd. the yamaka. and the Pagthana. and 8. Thc Buddhavamsa, the Cariyapil aka. and the Apaddna. 9. The Parivdrapdtha.

l. The simple statemenrs of Buddhist doctrine now found, in identical words, in paragraphs or verses recurring in all the books. r l. Episodcs found. in identical ' words" in two or more of the , exisring books. 3. Thc SI/as. the pnrdyana. Qctades - the Patitttokkha. the

1. The Digha. ivlajjhima, and Samyutta Nikdyas.


, 5. The Sutta Nipata. the Thera- and Therl-gathas, tbe Udanas, and the i i Khuddhaka Pdgha. I

6. The Suttavibhariga Khandhakas.

and the

Thc Jdtakas and the Dhammapadas.

8. The Niddesa, the ltivuttakas, the Polisambhida.

9. The Peta- and. Vimana-vattthus. the Apadana.r. rhe Cariya pitaka. and the Bud,dha varhsa. 10. The Abhidhamna books: rhe last of which is thc Katha Vatthu and thc earliest probably rhe Puggalapafirlarti.

lO. The Khuddakaparha

The juxtaposition of the stratification bv T

\ '. Rhvs

Davids (abbreviated as Al with the other one by B. C. Law (abbreviated as B) shows that their first two strata are completely identical. The third strata contain each 4 items of which the first three, namely, the Sllas. the Parayana, the Octades, the Patimokkha are nearly identical, the difference is that A gives a sharper boundaries of denotation of the Para_yapa and the Octades. The last item of this strata in A, i.e. the Patimokkha is substituted by the Sikkhapadas in B. That in the fourth strata the first position is occupied by the Dlgha Nikaya is partly agreed upon by the 2 scholars, B. C. Law drags the vol. ii and vol. iii of the Dlgha Nikaya which are followed by the Majjhima Nikdya down to the heading position of the next stratum, straturn 5. The I nguttara and the Sarpyutta succeeding the Majjhima Nikava in the fourth strata replace each other in table B. B. C. Law inputs to this level the earlier Patirnokkha code of 152 rules. In the fifth stratum both A and B are quite different: the first position is occupied as already mentioned by the Digha Nikaya ii and iii in B and by the Srzrra Nipata in A; the Thera- and Theri-gdthas follow Udanas and the Khuddaka Palha Collection of 5OO Jatakas, the up in both the tables; the in A are replaced by the Sutta the Pa! and the Vibhanga in B. Vibhanga,

isambhidamagga, the Puggalapaiiiiatti From stratum 6 onward the 2 tables becomes easily seen to be totally. When discussing each of the individual items we will be in touch with the srratification asain. In his The Origitt and Nature of Indian Buddhisrtt. prof. K. T. S. Sarao shows a keen interest in the issue of Buddhist giving chronology. an accounr on this concern with the conclusion of 3 strata scheme tabulated as follows-:

m K. T. S. Sarao- ONAIB:


Table 4:

II Substantially .l[auryan PreSubstantially Mauryan Texts

III Substantially Post- lWa uryan Texts


|tnaya Pitaka (Except l\'-xi, xii, Sekhiya Rules tod Pqri varap dtha) Nikaya Nikaya Nik ay a

Cullavag ga xi-xii and Sekhiya the Vinaya rules Pitakct of Pariv arap atha


rlajjhima i a nty utta

4,tiguttara Nikdya '-'dana (verse only) Uddna (prose only) Therag dtha Therig atha Jdtaka verse (with
few exceptions)

Jdtaka (prose portion) Apadana Buddhavamsa Cariyapitaka

sarao thoughtfully warns readers that the above iassification should not be regarded as being water-tight ,ecause almost all the texts were strongly possible to be omposed from the material stocks in different periods of time, nd in such the literature as the Buddhist canon no unit can be nvented safely.

K- T. s.

2- Chronology

of the











Discipline " is the oldest and smallest of the three sections of 'Triple Basket ". It is that the Buddhist canonical Tipitaka or regulates monastic life and the daily affairs of monks and nuns according to rules attributed to the Buddha. It varies less from school to school than does either tn-eSutta (discourse and his disciples) or the Abhidhamma of the Buddha (scholasric) secrions of the canon, and the rules themselves are which basically the same even for Mahayanas schools, although some extended the accompanying schools greatly of the latter narrative and commentarial material. It is remarked and that while the Sutta Pilaka is more

cosmologically oriented. the focus of the Vinaya Pitaka is upon proper courses of action conducive to attainment of spiritual making progress towards the final nirvdna. Although it is evident in early Indian Buddhism that categorical distinctions were made between groups of bhiksus doctrinaliy to as bhanakas) who had committed all or parts of these three collections to memory for the purpose of preserving (referred
them through recitation, each "basket" stands ln

whole and the to the other relationship complementary represents an integrated system of religious teaching . Some sclrolars and Buddhist apologists have understood the Vinaya to be the first stage of the spiritual path, and extended code of behavioral discipline elaborales from the basic principles of sila (rnoral ethical action)6'. The Vinaya Pitaka texts show a certain resemblance with *tule" (vidhi) and the Vedic Brdhmanas. In borh we find "explanation of the meaning " (arthavdda) by the side of one anorher. and the narrative poems which stand out distinctly oases in the desert of the religious technicsu'. The coilversion, term vinaya means putting R. away, like


C. Childers says that Vinaya is regarded as the ecclesiastical code or common law training, and discipline.

6'K. L. Hazta- PLL: 132. 6 rM . W i n t e t n r r z ' , H I L ' . 3 3

and it governs the Buddhist monks and it is mentioned in the Vinaya Pitaka. He states further rhat sdrhvarav and pahdnav are two sorts of Vinaya or discipline and they are discipline of restraint and discipline of getting rid of evil states. He again describes Vinaya as "removal (of blame), acquittal"63. Specially, Vinaya refers to the prescribed modes of conduct incumbent upon Buddhist monks and nuns. The word is formed by ; ornbining the prefix vi-, meaning "difference, distinction, ^J I, rneaning to lead. 3part, away from ", with the verb root n When combined they mean "to lead away from". Within the context of Buddhist monasticism, Vinaya refers

:o the code of behavioral discipline that at once delineates the ife of the householder and that of the monk. and binds the -ommunity of monks together into a common affective bond. In .nis sense, Vinaya is that which .ile householder's way of life. separates or leads away fro:n It can also refer to the practice

-.I tnental discipline that removes unhealthy states of mind from :he monk's disposition. In either sense of the term, Vtnaya is :egarded as the effective pragmatic expression or :rplementation of the Buddha's dharma (teaching). It is - recept put into practicee. it is clear that Vinaya has not only been the .:arter for the Buddhist monastic experience, but has continued -function as a legitimizing device for reform within the .;ngha as well. It is important to note that just as the ancient ,rr1' play an important role within tl.;*e utta Vtbhanga literature S -j reporting infractions of discipline to the Buddha,'so has the r rrv i n m o d e r n t i m e s c o n t i n u e d ' t o d i s p l a y g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n - suring that the sangha adheres to the Vinaya. Lay concern for .ava, :::ing ':;:ssity :rritual however, is not monks in their of preserving expressed only for the purpose of proper places, but also out of the a sartgha that truly function as a Historically,

refuge and a worthy object of meritorious actionu'.

L. Hazra, PLL:


Cit"i L3I-L32. C i t . : L 3 5.



In the oldest record that we possess of the first council, it said that Mahakassapa asked (tpdli about the two-fold This suggests that he asked him only about the


Patimokkha rules for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis. In his account of that council Buddhaghosa states that the theras classified the Maha Vibhaiga, the Bhikkuni Vibhanga, the Khandhaka and the Parivdras, but he concedes that the Vinaya Pitaka as he knew had rot been recited at the first council. It is obvious, and presumably Buddhashosa realised, rhat the final two sections of the Khandhaka, which deal with the first council and the second council dated 100 years later, could not have been recited on that occasion, but there is no indication of the portions of the Vinaya Pitaka he had in mind when he wrote of texts not being recited66. Vinay"a Pitaka in the latest form is divided into three partitions, the Sutta Vibhanga, the Khadhakas, and the Parivara. The concise account of each of the partitions is below. Sutta Vibhaiga: The word Sutta (sutra in Sanskrit) is a The Pali contained material which

very ancient literary term in India. The literal meaning is "thread". and it is applied to a kind of book. the conterts of which This sort are. as it were, a thread, giving the in gist or substance of more than is expressed in them words.

of book was the latest development in Vedic literature just before and after the rise of tsuddhism. The word was adopted by the Buddhists to mean a discourse, a chapter. a small portion of a sacred book in which for the most part some orre point is raised, and more or less disposed of. But the Sutta par excellence. is that short statement of all the rules of the Order, which is also called rhe Patimokkha, and is recited on every Uposatha day. The Sutta Vibhanga is a detailed analysis concerning the rules recorded in the Patimokklta. It has the same each of the eight sections as the Patimokkha. rules, the Sutta Regarding

Vi.bltaiga has a four-fold structures as already mentioned: 1. A story (or stories) explaining the circumstances under which the rule was pronounced: 2.
6 6K . R. Norman, PL: 18

The Patimokkha rule; 3. A word for word commentary on the rules; and 4. Stories indicating mitigating circumstances in which exceptions to the rule or punishrnent rnight be made. Like deviations in the are both, a Bhikkhu sutta vibhanga referred to as Maha Vibhanga) and a Bhikkhuni Vibhanga.u, Pdtimokkha (sometimes rhere








arrangements of the order and the regulation of the entire conduct of the monks and nuns in their daity life, form a kind of continuarion and supplement of the Sutta v i b h a n g a . T h e t e n s e c t i o n s o f t l i , eM a h a v a g g a c o n r a i n t h e for admission into the order, for the Uposatha celebrations, for life during the rainy season, and further, the rules for the wearing of shoes, facilities for seats and vehicles, rnedicine and clothing of the regulation of the legal conditions and the legal procedure within the order, especially in the case of schisms. The first 9 sections of the Culla Vagga deal wirh the disciplinary merhods in lesser rnatters, with various atonements and penances, the settlement of disputes, the daily life of the monks, dwellings and furnishing of dwellings, the duties of monk towards one another and the exclusion from the Patimokkfta ceremony. Section 10 of t}:'eCulla Vagga deals with the duties of the nuns. Sections 11 and 12 that record the stories of the first 2 councils are no doubt Iater additions, Vagga.6s Pariviira is regarded as insignificant and much later product. It is said with little doubt to be merely rhe work of a Sinhalese monk. The last book of the Vinaya Pitaka comprises of 19 small texts, catechisms, Indices, appendices, lists and simiiar things. They have the form of questions and answers in common with the texts of and form a kind of appendix to the Culta monks, and finally for the special precepts

i7 S. 18M

R. Goyal, HIB:

162. 25 -26 .

Winternitz , IIIL:

26 Abhidhamma Pitaka same [ime.6e that originated perhaps at about the

The Vinaya Pilaka is extant in the following versions: the Vi,naya of the (1) Theravadins in PaIi, portions of the Vinaya of the (2) Mttlasarvdstivd.dins in Sanskrit contained in the Gilgit Manuscripts; and in Tibetan and Chinese translations (in the latter, not in its entirety); the Vinayas of the schools of (3) Sarvd.stivd.dins (4) Dharmaguptas, (5 ) Mahiias akas, and the , (6) Mahasanghikas in Chinese translation. Besides, fragments are available in Sanskrit that clearly belonged to or were associated with the originals of some of these Vinayas. In its Chinese translation"., the Sarvdstivadin Vinaya is followed by the Vinayaksudraka and the Uttaragrantha, which includes atr Upalipariprccha, Buddha by Updli. a series of This would questions on Vinaya put to the seem to correspond to the PdIi Upati-paficaka, but a Sanskrit portion of this found in Turkestarzdoes not asree with the Pali Parivdra. One Chinese version of the Upalipariprcchd very similar abridgements to the Pdli and Parivdra. of although in the changes order is said to be of the

there seem to be treatment

various rules. and there is doubt about the sect to which this text belonged. There also exists in Chinese an Ekottara section in the appendices to the shortened version of the Sarvdstivadin Vina-va called Daiadhyaya Vinaya. The Dharmaguptaka Vinaya also has a section called Ekottara, while the Mulasarvdstivddins too had a suppiement to their Vinaya called Uttara-grantl.a. The fact that other schools found it necessary to have supplements to their Vinayas supports the view that some, at least, of the Pali Parivdra was composed before the introduction of Buddhism to Ceylonl'. As to the relationship of these Vinayas, it is in India



established fact that the Pratimoksa is practically the same for all the sects, but the agreement is supposed to extend to the have been Fragments Vi.bhaiga and even the Khandaka.
o oO p . C i t . : 3 3 . ? uG . C . P a n d e , S O B : 2 . 7'K. R Norman. PL: 28-29

27 discovered ro portions of the .Vahavagga; and there is close resemblance that exists in the order of representation between the PAli and Mahdsanghika Vinayas where the Mahdvagga is concerned. It appeared that tlre diversity of the Vinaya redactions is a later growth based on an originally common stock of rules72. there is no direct evidence to suggest that any of rhese recensions of the Vinaya text were fixed in writing before rire first century 8"C., their uncanny similarity suggesrs at once I common origin in a period of time preceding the emergence of Buddhist sectarianism and a fundamental to alter the unwillingness basic on behalf of Sangha communities monastic BuddhismTi. charrer of While at Koutcha which correspond

In the scherne of stratification ;lre whole Tipitaka,


B. C.

Law put for

tlre Vinaya Pitaka scatrers into the 5 strata: 1) the Sllas and the Sikkhdpadas in the third stratum , (2) the earlier Pdtimokkha code of 152 rules in the fourth stratum, (3) rhe Sutta Vibhanga in the fifth stratum, (4) tn.e Mahdvagga and rhe Cullavagga, the Patimokkha code completing 227 rules in rhe sixth stratum, and (5) the Parivdra or Parivdrapdtha in the ninth stratumTo. In another way of observation, Oldenberg has ;ketched out the probable course of five stages along which the

rrowth of the Vinaya proceeded: The Pdtimokkha and part at cast of the liturgical formulae irnbedded in the Khandakas form :he earliest stage. The old commentary, wholly philological and iKegetical, and containing nothing of a legendary or quasi:ristorical nature, constitutes the next stage. The traditions of :his latter character, together with what we may call notes on :he rules, were amalgamated to the text and the old commentary .rhich should be in the third stage. The last two books of the Cullavagga are still later, and the Parivdra is the latest of all. lhus, from the first rivulet of small and definite nucleus, the . ' i . n a y ah a s r e a c h e d i t s p r e s e n t f o r m i n a t l e a s t f i v e s t a g e s ? 5 .

c. C. Pande, SOB: 3. K. L. Hazra. PLL: 134.

B, C. Law, HPL: 42. G. C. Pande, SOB: L7-L8.

28 In comparison between the scheme of B. C. Law and that of T. W. Davids. the later is more general one in which the major parts of the Vinaya Pitaka, namely, the Sutta Vibhanga and the Khandaka. fall into the sixth stratum. The Stla and the Patimokkha into the third stratum: and. no mention of the Parivara is available in his table".

3. Chronology

of the Abhidhamma" Pilaka known


The Abhidhamma

as the Basket of Special

Doctrine or Further Doctrine, is the third and historically the larest of the three Baskets. Unlike the Sutta and Vinaya, the seven Abhidhamma works are not generally claimed to represent the words of the Buddha himself but of disciples and great scholars. Nevertheless, they are highly vererated, particularly in Burma. These are not systematic philosophical treatises but a to schematic according detailed scholastic reworking, classifications, of doctrinal material appearing in the Suttas. As such they represent a development in a rationalistic direction of summaries basis for or numerical meditation lists that had come to be used as a inclined, among the more mystically

of Mahay ana literature to the Praj fiapdramitd contributed Buddhism. the form predominant in East Asia. The topics dealt with in the Abhidhamma books include ethics. psychology, and epistemolo gy. of the canon. the Abhidhamma corpus has had a checkered history. It was not accepted as school, the forerunners of canonical by the Mahasaighika Mahay ana. Another school included within the Abhidhamma As rhe last major division most of the Khuddaka Nikaya, the latest section of the Sutta Pi[aka. And various Mahdydna texts have been classified as Attltidhamrna. including the Praj fiapdramitd-sutras in Tibet division and, in China, the Diamond Sutra. C. Pande observes that the Abltidhamma and its versious probabiy grew out of the Matikas and is found in only G.
? 6T . ' w Rhys Davids. BI: 188. T ts e e a n a c c o u n t o f t h e t e r m i n K . R . N o r m a n , P L : 9 7 - 9 8

rwo schools and the .lbhidharma group. The Theravdda are Pitaka and sarvastivdda. also supposed sub-sects The Dharmaguptas to have had an of the Sarvdstivdda of seven works: pug gatapafifiatti, Abhidharma and the six (2) (5) of the the is a

Kdivapiyas Tlterctvada's

but they were



Dhammasangani Kathdvatthu, also consists Padaiastras

Vibhanga, Dhdtukatt ha, , Yamaka, Payyhana. The sarvdstivada of seven (3) texts, that works: are: (1) Jfidnaprasthdna (4) which

Sartgltiparyayapada, Vijfianakdyapdda, An examination only texts, each one, viz.

Dharmaskandha, Dltd.tukayapada, litles :ither of these Dhatukd.ya : oincidence, :lre nurnber Jeliberately

Prajiiaptipdda, however, number that the shows

and (6) Prakaranapdda,".

that in

resembles or of

any of the Theravd.din the seven

and we must



deduce texts their


in the Theravddin

were aware of pitaka and Abhidhamma them by new ones


texts and replaced

,rfter the schism'e. pitaka,

The rased on ;elected

seven the and


of of

the the

Abhidhantma Buddha's form the

although deal with the later accounr the pdti

contents specific every

discourses, basis works for


which The

:hilosophical rn each and " ersion:



is a brief in

of the seven Abhidhamnta


(Summary of Dhamma): An enumeration of the entities constituting reality. In practice, ir is a psychologically oriented manual of ethics for advanced monks but long popular in Ceylon. Vibhartga supplement same topics. (Division from or Classification): points A definition of

these entities

of view, a kind of to tlre Dhammasangaryi, rreating many of the



(Discussion of Elemenrs): A classification of the elements of reality according to various levels of organization, another supplementary work.

G. C. Pande, SOB: l-2. K. R. Norman, PL: lO7

30 4 (Designation of Person): Puggalapafifiattf psychological typology in which people according attainments. Anguttara to their largely intellectual ^ collection acumen of An are and interesting classified spiritual from the


human characteristics in relation ro stages on the Buddhist parh; generally considered the earliest Abhidhamma text. I{athrtvatthu (Points of

Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka,


work Controversy): A later discussing the controversial doctrinal points among the various ancient schools - attributed to Mo ggaliputta, president of the third Buddhist Council, the only work in tbe PaIi canon assigned to a particular author; historically the important of the seven. the Kathavatthu is a series of questions from a heretical (i. e. non-Theravada) point of view. with their implications refuted in the a n sw e r s ; t h e l o n g f i r s t c h a p t e r d e b a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a most soul. 6 Dealing with basic sets of categories arranged in pairs of questions. a series of question on psychological phenomena. each dealt with in two opposite Yamaka ways. PallhEna voluminous Causes): A complex and or treatment of causality and 23 other kinds of relationships between phenomena. mental or material. About the chronology of the Abhidhamma in all, K. R. (Activations (Pairs):

is later than the rest of the canon. There is no mention in the chronicles of reciting the Abhidhamma at the first or second councils, although the Mahavamsa states that the arahants who held the second council the knew the Tipilaka. after the The Mahasaighikas second council refuted the Abhidhamma. This presumably means that there was Theravadins nothing corresponding exactly to the PdIi Abhidhamma in their ca[on; frour which it may be deduced that the Abhidhamma did not exist at that time, or at least was not recognized as canonical'0. who split from are said to have

Norman observes that the Abhidhamma




3l Tradition have been Vears, Buddha's .iccording sroupssr. ; hart: attributes these that. books to of or the two Buddha of fact, or three in three rniddle the century himself. they rnust hundred after and the late groups

But it is established produced death. Now, The we beginning to their

in EBC during the of books put

as a matter third

a period second may

from time

be considered early, inro





Table 5:

I. Dhamntasangani 2. Vibhanga

3 . Pug galapafifiatti PERIoD

4. DhAtukath1 5. Katltdvatthtt


6. Yamaka 7 . Patthdna

It is noticeable that Buddhaghosa previously put the seven :ooks in another chronological order and sought to argue for :reir genuineness as the Buddha's words. According to him they . hould follow the order : Dhammasarygani, Vibhanga, Puggalapafifiatti, Kathdvatthu, )hAtukathd, Yamaka, and Palt .dna. EBC just slightly exchanges the position of Dhdtukathd, .) A bigger difference is seen in the Chinese :anslation of the SamantapAsddika where the Puggalapafifratti ,nd Kathdvatthu come after the Yamaka and Patthdna. As to - uild their genuineness, Buddhaghosa states that the textual rder of the Abhidhamma originated with Sdriputta, who also : erermined the numerical order in the Patthdna. Sdriputta is -:ported to have done this to make it easy to learn, remember,

D h i r a s e k e r a , E B C . 1: 7 5 b s q .

32 study and teach the Dhamma. And, to guard against accusations that this would mean that the Abhidhamma was not Buddhavacana, Buddhaghosa goes on to say that Sariputtd was not the first to understand the Abhidhamma, first abhidharnmikan. Buddhaghosa's conviction for the Buddha was the

would encounter

the statement

by B. C. Law that in dealing with the chronology of the seven treatises. we can only maintain that the order in which these treatises are enumerated can not be interpreted as the order of an the chronology. Any attempt at establishing such interpretation would be vitiated by the fact that rhe order of enumeration is not in all cases the same. To give example B. C. Law notes that in Milinda Pafiha the order in which these books (Dhammasarhgaha are ilrentioned is: Dhammasangani as Buddhaghosa calis it), Vibhanga, Dhdtukatha. Puggalapafifiatti, Kathavatthu. Yamaka, and Patyhana, So the order recorded in EBC of chronology is probably based on the Milinda Pafrha. B. C. Law hold that an inquiry Abhid.hammapitaka becomes down a general chronology connection with composition. On features B. C. into the Suttanta background of the a in desideratum these terms: and we may lay the The closer

the Sutta materials, the earlier

this basis and in view of Law observes that that Puggalapafrftatti

is the date of some dialectical is the

first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. And his own order for the seven treatises is as follows".

82 *3

I(. B.


Norman, PL: 98 Law. HPL: 2l-22


Table 6:

l. Puggalapafifiatti 2. Vibltanga
(a) DhammasarygafiD hat ukatha

3. Kathavatthrt The :hronology priority of the is supported by K. R. 10n-lnetaphysical :hat in it rersonality", .Dar1ha, but .:elps :arliest in nature is in of the not the puggala which simply used sense

(b) Yamaka (c) Patthana

Puggalapaiifiatti Norman






who hold

thar despitu

rs presence in the Abhidhantnta Pitaka, the Pug galapafifiatti 'rves much, in both form and content, to the Sutta pitaka. The book in of is emphasized the sense of by the fact "underlying ". is This the

is found rhe view

in the Kathavatthu "person, the rhar

ar,d tlne Mitinda individual



of ttre Abhidhamma


For the laying i:. R. Norman .:re Patthdna is the

out of his account the order last book. He,

of t|ne Abhidharnnta by B. C. Law however, prefers

rexrs, where last




:osition of the Yamaka to that of Patthana, saying that such a -jxr, which seems to be intended for sotneone who has already ':udied the system, but wishes to become fully competent in it, . perhaps the latest of the books in the Abhidhamma Pitaka".

In B. C. Law's

scheme of stratification

for the whole


).a. the Abhidhamma texts scatter into the three strata: (1) the ',4galapafifiatti and the Vibhanga in the fifth srratum, (2) the '..trltavatthu in the sixth stratum, and (3) the Dhdtukathd, the

i: )p.


Norntan, lO6.




34 stratum ' seventh the in Patthana and the Yamaka. Unfortunately. the Dhammasangani is not mentioned in B. C. Law's tabulation". Whereas T. W. Davids is much mole genelal to put all of them into the tenth and last stratum of his scheme witlr the note that the last of which is the Kathdvatthu and the earliest probably the Puggalapaiitiatti" On being aware of the position of the Sutta Pitaka as the of the among the remaining most substantial importance Buddhist canonical literature we shall leserve the next whole chapter for an account of its in a chronological prospective.

8 6B . tt T.

C, w

Law, HPL: 42. Rhys Davids, E1: 188





The chapter will of the five Nikayas

be reserved for the chronological as a whole and that of their wherever



and subdivisions divisions chrorrological clues affordable.

narrow meaning the 5 llikayas Pitaka, but in the wider meaning the 5 NikAyas cover all the is, including Tipiyaka, that the Vinaya Pitaka and the .abhidhamnta Pilaka which, in this convictional proposition, rvould be included in the Khuddaka Nikdyal. T. W. Rhys Davids' \uggestion of their importance

there are somBuddhaghosa says that in the denotes 5 divisions of the Sutta

in any search for objective and about the fundamental systernatic knowledge Buddhism is ,ipparent in his statement: "the... great division is the Sutta Pit ,.tka... and here we come to the sources of our knowledge of the irtost ancient Buddhism"z. It is really advantageous for us to nave the whole Sutta Pitaka whose composition is prior to the :arliest Buddhist schism at least in its scriptural appearanchough this does not necessarily follow that there would have :rot been any later recention and editorial touching, expurgation -irrd addition. In that, however, there is no trace of any sectarian bias. In his opinion, the first four A/i&dyas 'had been lut together out of older material':.
Insomuch 't'ikayas reflect ,f Buddhist as the doctrinal the The institution is concerned, the

the first one'.

and forernost



phase in the development Sarhgha 'was, in appearance at then characterized and by intuition somehow person

doctrinally .iast, . implicity and -"nsophisticated,


spontaneity, was for guiding

the emancipation-loving

ts C . L a w , H P L : 1 8 .

W. Rlrys Davids, HLB: 40 C. Pande, SOB: 19.

36 toward an erd of suffering and nor for analysis or institution up to the round-shaped and non-questionable. system. To make ar example about its simpliciry: khandha, a rerm for the psychophysical structure of a man began with a scheme of rhree khandhas. later it deveroped to four khandhas, and finally ro full-fledged five khandha scheme. The much later term is upadana-khand.ha that assumes a full-fledged theory of anatta- and a concepriou of vift.fiana that has traveled far from its original form' Starting from the original distinction between kaya or rupa and vifltiarya (citta), psychologicar analysis in the Nikayas arrived ar this subtrer conception through an intermediare stage and was itself superseded in tlheAbhidharma stages. The 5 Nikayas,

namely, DIgha Nikayas, Majjhima Nikayas , samyutta. Nikaya, Anguttara Nikdya, and Khudd.aka Nikaya. are rraditionally put on the same footing. T. w. Rhys Davids- however, recognizes the first z as one single book which 'is in 2 voluns, so to speak. called respectively Digha and Majjhima - that is ro say. long and of medium length6. It contains 186 dialogues of Gotama arranged according ro their length. They are discussions on all the religious and philosophical points of the Buddhist view of life',. These dialogues are thus most genuine and authorirarive, but their arrangemenr according to rhe leugth and not to the subject they are relating to make s it not easy for anyone to look for the statement of doctrine on any particular point which is interesting him at rhe moment. T. w. Rhys Davids assumes that 'it was very likely just this consideration which led to the compilation of the other two collections',, namely. the Anguttara Nikaya and the Samyutta Nikaya.


Cit.: L3.

, Op. Cit.:40. o or to translate more idiomatically, ' T. W. Rhys Davids, HLB: 40-41 t ()p. cit.: 4l-4?.

longer and shorter

37 Prof . K. comply with and dialogues T. the the S. Sarao's observation, distinction He 2 collections. however, does not between the 18o

chronological later

deals with the 4 'collected equally as the Buddha's sayings which were together arriving at the by his disciples into the first 4 Ntkdyas', irisrorical idea that: "The first 4 Nikayas belong to the earlier part of the Canon and in language and style too, there is no cssential difference amongst themselves ". K. T. S. Sarao just pushes the last Nikaya, the Khuddaka Nikaya to the younger loothold, saying: "the developed doctrine especially found in the certain Cariya Pitaka, are younger than snraller books Petavatthu, the Buddhavalnsa, shows that they


rhe first Nikavas"e. It is not likely that tll,e2 ensuing Nikaya are necessary to be just the re-composition of the 2 initiative ones if we hold rhat the succeeding compositions must be distinguishable by the latef peculiarities. Just the arrangement of the suttas according ro their length as in the fist 2 Nikdyas, or to the numbered dhamma they treat as in the Anguttara Nikdya, or to the iubjects they are specified in the Sar.nyutta Nikdya, is not much of a convincing evidence for dividing them into former and later stages. The difficulty in any artempt to find out the truth of this 'in dark; and their history rssue is that the Nikayas developed Jan be recovered in the form of a series of conjectures t. Jccount for the fact which they exhibit"o, in other words, most .rf the issues to be put under question suggested by t}re Nikdyas llave to be solved, so far as solution is possible at all, on the the comparison of the irasis of the very texts themselves'by :naterial which they offer us. The history of Gospel-criticism rn r e a l i t y a h i s t o r y o f t h i s p r o c e s s ' " . is

As to the stratifying of almost all the texts, it is difficult o fix their time with certainty on the tirne axis unitized by
K. T. S. Sarao, ONAIB:30 t. E. Carpenter, BNC: 3O3 op. Cir.: 29Q.

decade, we can only say something with strong conviction on the time axis divided by quarrer of centur),. half of century or eve[ longer span. say. the date of Nikayas was put in the later half of the fourth cenrury B.C. by the Kathavatthltt". The course of its formation and growing was probabry falls berween the age of Upanisad as terminus ante quem and that of the Abltidhamma and other Buddhist secrarian literature as terminus ad. quem". on account of 'the fact that the 4 Nikayas do not t,ake much notice of the issue contested by the earlier sects K. T. s. sarao accepts that the second Buddhist council should be marked as the time when the composition of the 4 Nikayas completed'.. nevertheless. puts not only the 4 but the whole mass of 5 Nikayas on the same range. he definirely observes rhat the Sutta Pitaka comprising the 5 Nikayas certainly would come ro completion before the ', 'in which authoritative composition of the Milinda Paflha passages are quoted instances by mention further with and maintain entire Pdli the from the texts of this Pitaka, it certain of the name of the sources. We can go that the Sutta Piyaka was closed along B. C . Law 's treatment. year or

canon and when the canon was finally rehearsed in Ceylou and committed to writing during the reign of Vayyagdmani'. king Therefore. the Sutta Pitaka as authoritative source of the Buddha's teachings could supposedly be in existence as early as the first half of the second century B.C. so long as the date of king Milinda is concerned'u. dated in the lump in the middle of the second century B. C. push the composition of The Safici and Barhut inscriptions

" G . C . P a n d e. S O B : 1 5 . " Op. Cit.'. 2'/ 1 'K . T . S . S a r a o . O N A I B : 3 1 .

tt The Milinda Paiiha is a lively dialoguc on Buddhist doctrine with questions and - t.e. Menander, Gree& ruler of a large Indodilenrnras posed by King Milinda Greek cmpire in the latc 2"d century B.C. - and answcred by Nagasena, a senior (and monk; composcd in northern India i.n perhaps the 1" or 2"0 century A.D. perhaps originaiiy Pafiha is one in Sanskrit) by an unknown author, the Milinda by such commentators non canonical work whosc authority was accepted implicitiy as Buddhaghosa. who quoted it frequently

' uB . C . L a w . H P L . 2 7

39 rhe 5 Nikayas back to a bit earlier date by mentioning the words as bhdnaka and paficanekayika'-. which are used as distinctive epithets of a number of Buddhist donors. Observing that the .Yikayas, had been put together at a period about half way retween the death of the Buddha and the accession of Aioka'E Prof. T. W. Rhys Davids puts into effect that before the words such as pafrcanekayika, suttantika'", suttantakini2o, and petaki" were ernployed as the special epithets, the 5 Nikayas of tlre Pdli ranon must have been well known and well established". The date of Aioka" is also adopted as a point of time by '.r'hich rhe composition of Sutta Pilaka may be dated. The 'Pafica Nikdya' in the Cullavagga ii ;rrerrtion of the word Vinaya), whose date could be assigned to a period which age (before 265 B.C.)'0, rmnrediately preceded the Aiokan :nables us to push the composition of the 5 NikAyas back to the :rrne as early as the beginning of the third century B.C. in the successional order: 5 Nikayas *>Vinaya Cullavagga +Aiokan



rge. It does not seem to follow that the f\ve Nikdyas of tlre Pdli ;anon had been already popular in the early third century B.C. We can not assume that the composition of all the canonical suttas or paSsages were necessarily of individual rooks, Jomplete d by that time.
The issigned :hat'the terminus to the time ad quem of their composition came to could Sri be


Thera finally

Mahinda closed

Lanka the

.:.fter the third


had been overr5. It can be safe to assume Sometime before



One who is well versed in, or knows by heart, the five Nikayas.

! G. C. Pande, SOB:19. ' . A .m a n w h o k n o w s t h e s u t t a n t a b y h e a r t . .{ feminine form of suttantika. " One who knows rhe Pitaka by heart.

B. C. Law, HPL: 28.

d)"nasty of India whose vigorous The last major empcror in the Mauryan B.C.) furthered the expansion of Buddhism during his reign (c.265-238 religion. patronage of that

K. L. tlazra, PLL: 159. B. C. Law, HPL: L4.

beginning of the christian century era. Thus, B.C. we can safeiy limit,,u. fix the last

quarter of the first

as the lower

In the lo-layer scheme proposed by T. w. Rhys Davids the 4'u layer is reserved for the whole mass of 4 Nikayas of which rhe Dlgha Nikaya is considered as earliest except for the closing passage at the end of tlne Mahdparinibbdna sutta. The passage' as was pointed out by B. c. Law, belongs to the Mauryan period, relates the distribution of the Buddha's corporal relics after cremation. The concurrent of the first four Nikdyas as a whole is also disagreed on by B. c. Law who. on the ground that .in the D{ gha Nikaya the srory of Mahagovinda, has assumed the earlier forms of J atakas characrerized by the concluding of the Buddha, rhe narraror of the srory, with its lrero, whereas in the Anguttara Nikaya the story is a simple chronicle of seveL purohitas (an ancient son of Prime Minister) 'without rhe identificarion"', assigns implicitly the priority to the Anguttara Nikaya. we should conclude this section here with B. c. Law's warning: 'without discriminaring the different strata of literary accretions it will be dangerous to relegate all the four Nikayas to the early stage of the canon'ro. identification

A. Stratification tlae |Vlajjhima

and Dating Nik iiya:

of the Digha



As already mentioned. only the Dtgha Nikaya, treated as one unit by T.w. Rhys Davids. share the equal footing with the Majjltirna Nikaya as the most genuine sayings of the Buddha embodied in the 186 dialogues. It should be noted here that the discourses of middle length in the latter are highly fitting, it seems. to the length of a normal sermon delivered b.v the Buddha whereas in the Dlgha Nikaya several lengthy suttas hardly are the








'" Qp. Cit.:

" n. ii: zzo ff . r oK . L . H a z r a . P L L : L 5 2 " Op. Cit.: !53 .


irimself is the chief interlocuror and several main disciples of his play the prominent role in rhose dialogues. In general they :re the discussion of all the points relating to rhe religious and rhilosophical in Buddhist life.o.

1. The Digha


The DIgha NikAya,' contains 34 suttas in three groups or -livisions. Although T. W. Rhys Davids does not recommend to :ummarize those suttas, saying that 'it would be worse than :oolish to attempt any description of their conrents':z there till .-ave been such the attempts to be performed, s&y, that of U Ko -ay who gives a brief account of the 3 divisions of the Dlgha ';ikaya:

The :ivision :\'pes of


is named Division namely,



contains l3 suttas which morality,

deal extensively with various Minor Morality, basic morality


to all; Middle Morality and Major Morality which re mostly practiced by Santanas and Brahmanas. It also :iscussed the wrong views then prevalent as well as Brahmin . rew of sacrifice and caste, and various religio'us practices such

: s extreme self-mortification"'. The second division is named The Large Division whose

J suttas'are some of the most important ones of the Tipitaka, :ealing with historical and biographical aspects as well as the : octrinal aspects of Buddhism. The most famous sutta is the ',Iahdparinibbdna sutta that gives an account of the last days ,fld the passing away of the Buddha and distribution of his -elics. Mahapadana sutta deals with brief accounts of the last : everr Buddhas and the life story of the Vipassl Buddha. -)octrinally important are the two suttas: tllreMahdniddna sutta r hich explains the Chain of Cause and Effect, and the
T. W. Rhys Davids. HLB:41.
The first book of the Sutta Pilaka, also known as the Long Collection or the of Long Discourses or the Dialogues of the Buddha; Skt:. Dirghagama. lollection

op. Cit.i 4L. I-kolay , GT: 25.


Sutta dealing with Mahasatipatthana S t e a d f a st M i n d f u l n e s s a n d p r a c t i c a l meditation "".

the four a sp e c t s

Methods of



' contains 11 Vagga Pali shorter discourses of miscellaneous nature. They deal with the Buddha's rejection of wrong and severe asceticism practiced by followers of many sects. They deal also with the periodical of the universe, the accounts of evotutiotr and dissotution physiognomic Monarchs and the thirty-two Universal The last division named 'Pathika characteristics of a great mao. There is one discourse. Singala sutta. addressed to a young Br.ahmin showing the duties to be performed by member of the human society. The lasr two suttas. Sanglti and Dasuttara. are discourses given b1' the Venerable Sariputta style of their and they contain is lists of doctrinal the other terms nine classified according to subject matter and numerical composition different from suttas of the division"t. In general. an examination of all the strata first proposed by T. W. Rhys Davids, and then modified by other scholars gives us the impres sion that except for a certain number of texts in the Vinaya Pitaka, almost all of the remaining texts of the Tipitaka are admixture to some extent of earlier and later elements- say. the DIgha Nikaya describes many account of the Buddha's life and also of incidents that took place after his passing away and even later as pointed out by B. C. Law in the first chapter of his ,4 History of Pdli Literature. We. anyhow. should plesuppose that the date of the latest elements in the DIgha Nikaya do not go beyond the second periods. that is. 383-265 B.C. as counted by B. C. Laq'- who says: 'We may, then, be justified in assigning the whole of the Digha Nikaya to a ple-Aiokan age. there being no tlace of any historical event or after King Aioka.
Op. Cit.: 34 Op. Cit.: 39 . B. C. Law. HPL

units. The

development which might have happened The only exception that one has to make is in

43 rhe case of the conciuding rvhich were interpolated, by the teachers verses of the Mahaparinibbdna according to Buddhaghosa, in sutta Ceylon

of that island"'.

.W. Rhys Davids, The placing of the Dlgha Nikaya, by T. among the three other Nikayas, i.e. the Majjhinta Nikaya, the S a r y r y u t t aN i k d y a , a n d t h e A n g t t t t a r a N t k a y a o n t h e 4 t h s t r a t u m r 8 is confuted by K. L. Hazra who agrees with B. C. Law on observing that it is wrong to regard all the 4 Nikdyas are earlier than tt'e Sutta Nipdta is'3e. In term of further stratification, L. Bapat tn Annuals of :lte Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute discerns the three lifferent literary stages in the Dtgha Nikaya: stage is assigned to the first volume by placing itre previousness of the second sutta of it to most of the 'this Sutta (the the account that subsequent suttas on Samafifiaphala sutta) forms the basis of all the subsequent The first t uttas, except the last one, in the first volume, and serves the purpose of a common factor, thus indicating that almost the *'hole of the first volume must have been put together in its lresent form'*. The two suttas, Mahdpadhdna and Mahdgovinda as being :hronological signs draw scholars' attention. Mahapadhdna, tlre relates a of the DIgha Nikdya, :irsr sutta in Mahavagga jiscourse given at Sdvatthi to the Bhikkhus who were one day Jiscussing the Buddha's knowledge of past existences. The =.ralted One told them about the last seven Buddhas, with a full .ife story of one of them, the Vtpassl Buddlta, recalling all the :acts of the Buddhas, their social rank, name, clan, life span, :he pairs of Chief Disciples, the assemblies of their followers, :heir attainments, and emancipation from defilements. The 3uddha explained that his ability to remember and recall all the
O p . C i t . : 3 O - 31 . Op. Cit.: t. K. L. Hazra, PLL: 153


G. C. Pande, SOB: 24,

44 of pasr existences was due ro his own penetrating discernment as well as due to the devas making these marrers known to him.'. In the Mahdgovinda sutta, the 6,r, sutta in Mahdvaggo of the Digha Nikaya, paficasikha, a Gandhabba deva, told the deva assembly where sanaikumara Brahma taught the Dhamma as shown by Mahagovind.a, the Bodhisatra who had reached rhe Brahma worrd. The Buddha said that Mahagovinda was none other than himself and explained that the Dhamma he taughr at tlrat time could lead one only ro the Brahma world. with his teaching now as an Enlightened Buddha. higher attainments such as the sotdpatti, sakaddgami, Anagami. and the highest achievement Arahatta phala were possibleo,. The above suttas also appear in the cuila Niddesa of the Khukkaka Nikaya, and are notable iilusrrations, as they are assumed, of the suttanta Jdtakas, the Jatakas as found in the earliest forms in pdti literature. The casting of the story in a Jataka mould as we find it in the Mahagovinda suttanta could not taken place in the lifetime of the Buddha. The second vorume of the Digha Nikaya also throws some light on the issue of dating through the payasi sutta, the 1o,h and last sutta in the Mahavagga of the DIgha Nikaya. The sutta recounts how the venerable Kumdrakassapa showed the right patlr to Governor payasi of setabyd town in Kosala counrry. Governor Payasi herd the wrong berief: "There is no other world; no beings arise again after death; there ate no corsequences good of or bad d.eeds. " The venerable Kumarakasapa showed him rhe right path. illustrating his teaching with numerous illuminating similes. ultimately payasi became full of faith and took refuge ro the Buddha, the Dhamrna and rhe sarhgha. The venerable Kurndrakassapa taught him also the right kind of offerings ro be made and that these offerings should be made with due respect, by one's own hands, with due esreem and not as if discarding them. only under



GT: 34

Op. Cit . : 37 -38.

45 ihese conditions would the good deed of offerings bear splendirt :ruits". The suttanta contains several anecdotes forming the rristorical basis of some of the Jdtaka stories. All this makes it .rrongly convincible, as agreed upon by B. C. Law and then by K. L. Hazra, that the date of this sutta should be placed at .casr half a century after the demise of the Buddhaoo. The AYanaliya that sutta Four in the last volume of the to Dtgha see the

;.-ikaya records




3uddha and told him that there were non-believers among many nvisible beings who rnight bring harm to the followers of the Celestial Kings therefore wanted to reach the hikkhus the protecting incantation known as the Atanatiya :'itritta. The Buddha gave his consent by remaining silent. Thei^ . i r e f o u r C e l e s t i a l K i n g s r e c i t e d t h e A y A nd t i y a P a r i t t a o ' , w h i c h iuddha. .:re Buddha advised bhikkhus, Bhikkhunls and lay disciples to :arn. to rnemorize so that they might dwell at ease, well -uarded and protectedou.This sutta is otherwise described as a tkklza or saving chant rnanipulated apparently on a certain - JSsagein the then known as Mahabharata. The development of :rese elements, the Jdtaka stories as referred to in the : -'regoing paragraphs, and the parittas could not take place , .h e n B u d d h i s m r e m a i n e d i n i t s p r i s t i n e p u r i t y . reason for surprise that such -:r'elopments had already taken place as early as the 4'h century r C., as contented by B. C. Law and K. Hazra on account . 'a t t h e w a r n i n g a g a i n s t t h e f o r g e r y i n f o r m o f f a b l e a n d . .; rion, and especially of imaginative poetry was given in 'the passages of the Anguttara Nikaya. ,:rtain Moreover, i:owth of these foreign elements must have caused some sort of - -.nfusion otherwise it would not have been necessary to discuss '.'" sutta of the Samyutta Nikdya the reasonable way of keeping a ---nuine the utterance of the Buddha distinct from others that L. There is, however, [o The

. -k o l a y , G T : 3 9 . 3 C. Law, HPL: 30; K. L. }{azra, PLL: 160. " arirta: protection; protective charm. ' kolay, GT: 44.

46 crept in under the outside influence and were charactetized. bv poetical fancies and embellishments.?. A11 this makes it justifidble for us ro assign to a pre, Aiokan age mosr of the Digha Nikaya with little exceprion for the concluding verses of the Mahaparinibbdna sutta. the first srage in the DIgha Nikaya, represented by the first volume. is characterized by its distinctive simplicity and the humaniry of the Buddha rhe third srage assigned mainly to third volume contains in it rhe 'anabolism' of the Buddha with the super-human power, rhe mention of the future Buddha: Metteyya. the preference to the ancient legends. the inception of the Tantric literature, and the pervasiveness of numeration, say. particularized in the last two suttas. whereas

2. The lVajjhima The Majjhima them attributed to

Nikiiya: Nikdya'", consists disciples. covering of I52 nearly suttas, all some of

aspects of Buddhism. Included are texts dealing with monastic life, rhe excesses of asceticism, the evils of caste, Buddha's debates with the Jains. and meditation. rogether with basic doctrinal and ethical teachings and many iegends and stories. The suttas in this Nikaya also throw much light on the social ideas and

institutions of those days. and provide the economic and political life.

general information


'groups of 50' or The I52 suttas are arranged in three paryryasa. The first group, Mfilapa4ryasa deals with the first 50 su,ttas in five vaggas, the second group, Maijhimapannasa consists of the second 5O suttas in five vaggas too; and the last 52 suttas are dealt with in 5 vag8as of the third group ' Upariparyyasa. The detailed account by K. R. Norman of the

'7 K. L. Hazra, PLL; 160-161; see also S. ii:- 267.

t* Collcction'or The second book of the Sutta Pitaka, aiso known as the'Middle Lcngth or Middle Length Sayings; Skt: Collection of Discourses of Mcdium Madhvamagama. the

47 name given to the szttas is here skipped over; we just abridge lris account of the name of the vaggas. vaggas reflect thei: Jontents, some being called after the first sutta in the vagga. The Gahahapati vagga consists of suttas in each of which, Jxcept for sutta 57, the Buddha addresses householders. The To some extent the tittles of the :irird vagga surprisingly has no title. Since six of the ten suttas .rave the word upama in their titles, it would have been rppropriate to eall it Opamma vagga'4e. It is observable that the Majjhima Nikdya represents the :rlost genuine sayings of the Buddha, and most of the individual .uttas contained therein are highly fitting, it is apparent, to the .ength of one each an actual single sermon delivered by the tsuddha whereas those cornposing the Digha Nikalta are not. There is not much of disputes about the dating and -rratifying of tlre Majjhima Nikalta because it is usually seen to ',e rnore congruous than the first Nikdya. This does not mean :hat all of its suttas as a whole should be dated in the Buddha's .ifetime, some individual suttas going astray, s&Y, t}re sutta in 'ne Majjhima Nikaya records the fortification of the capital city ?ajagaha commanded by king Ajatasattu in anticipation of the :rrack by Pajjota, king of Avanti. The composition of the sutta, :herefore, 'is supposed to have been shortly after the Buddha's :eath'. In consideration of the geographical tracks that a sutta r the Majjhima Nikaya is suggestive of, we also can get to iome clue for its dating. The sutta speaks of 'yonas'as having 'nly two classes - free men (,,4riyo) and slaves (Ddso). Whether .: points to an Ionian commercial colony rn India is uncertain. -ven if it is pre-Alexandrian, which is possible (since to which ne has no knowledge to the contrary), though not probable, it .iay most certainly be regarded relatively K. , .h o l e


L. of

Hazta successes B. C. Law in stating that'the Nikdya strikes us as the most the Majjhima

Norrnau, PL: 45 Pande. SOB: 47.

48 and original alnong the collectious of the Buddha's reachings. There is no allusion to any politicar event ro justify us in relegating the date of its compilation to a rlme far removed from the demise of the Buddha. If it be arguecr that the srory of Makhddeva. as we find it embodied in rhe Makhadeva sutta of this Nikaya, has already assumed the form of a Jatalca which appears also in the cuilartiddesa, the Nikaytt can uot be a much later compilation. For the Makhadeva sror), is one of those few earliest Jatakas presupposed by the pari c a n o n i c a l c o l l e c t i o n o f S O OJ d t a k a s . The literary developments as may be traced i' the sttrtas of the Majjhima Nikaya are none of such a kind as ro require more than a century after the demise of the Buddha.,. The genuineness of the Majjhima Nikaya. as being authoritative of the Buddha's words even by the inaugurar stage of the Abhidhamma literarure, is presupposed by rhe fact that most of the chapters of the vibhanga whose Abhidrramtna superstrucrure was established on, and rimired in, the elucidarion of trre suttrantas, have their corresponding part abounding in trre Majjhinta Nikdya. This will be visible in the following rable whose data are prepared by B. C. Lawj2: authoritative

J] B.

C. Law, JIPL:31

K. L. Hazra. PLL:


Law, HPL: 24


Tnet-e 7:
Sacca vibhanga aniya) vibhahga aniya) Sacca vibhaiga Vol. Sutta iii, No

(Suttantabhaj Satipatthdna (Suttantabhaj Dhatu

(Majjhima, Satipatthana (Majjhima, Dhatu


Sutta Vol. i. No. Sutta iii, No. 140) 10)


vibhanga Vol.

(Suttantab haj aniya'S


T}re Majjhinta Jurth lavids rat stratum and amended Nikaya

Nikaya by B.

occupied of C. l0-trata Law

the second position put forth L. by T. W. Hazra. Vinaya In and K.

in the Rhys which Pitaka, by The first Pror.

of the table

lre Majjhima

is preceded

by the partial

is, the Stlas, the Parayana

and tbe Patimokkha,

as held

.. W. Rhys Davids, or the S//as, as held by the latter. '.Iajjhima Nikdya also occupies the third position in the :age of the table of three major stages proposed by r- .T. S. Sarao':.

In :kaya,


the above positions Nikaya stands help we cannot

assigned feeling


it by the to reliance,

scholars, the DIgha no matter

:-e Majjhima which


posterior little

rw rnuch probability

it may be of.

and B. Stratification Nikdyas: Saryyutta The :kdya two Nikayas


of t}ae Ariguttara


somehow Ntkdya

come and are



the by the

DIgha T. W. It two ones.


the Majjhima as just to of the on

considered whether were other

rvs Davids

the rearrangements speculate Buddha's the of them dialogues about

of the previous based

improbable :3rr&ngments r their material

teachings or on recur



:ow that large portions


in the Dialogues,

^ T. S. Sarao, ONAIB:33

50 and that those portions not yet traced in the Dialogues contain nothing inconsistent with them",. This should prove their equal merit of authenticity and somehow their date and stratification in seneral. As were editorially rearranged the suttas of the Samyutta Nikaya was grouped together according ro their contenrs and those of the Anguttara Nikaya, literally rendered as 'the by one-limb-more collection, according to the number of dhammas they deal with. There is an overlap between the rwo Nikayas, which arises from the possibility of classifying the same suttas, but ways: contents and numbers. An examination of the contents of the Chinese translation of the Samyuktdgama shows that it includes a number of suttas which in the Pali canon appear in the Aiguttara Nikaya and vice versa a large number of the suttas of the Aiguttara Nikaya are included in 'connected' possible. the Samyuktdgama. The disrinction 'numeral' and classification, it not very clearly drawn at the berween the is time strongly of their in both the two

was collecrion".

1. Anguttara The


Nikaya'". a numerical Anguttara arrangement. for mnemouic purposes, of 9,557 terse suttas, is divided into 11 divisions known as Nipatas. Each Nipata is divided again into groups called vaggas that usually contain 1O suttas each. The discourses are arranged in progressive numerical order. each Nipata containing suttas with items of dhamma. beginning with up by units of one till there are li items of dhamma in each sutta of the last Nipata. Hence the name 'Increasing by One Item "'. Its first Nip ata ( " group " ) contains suttcts dealing with single things, such as the mind or the Buddha, the suttas in the second Nipata speak of pairs, e.g. 2 one item and moving
5'f . w. T

Rhys Davids, HLB: 43. )) K. R. Norman, PL: 54.

5 6a l s o k n o w n as "Itcm-more Collcctiorr"; Skt: Ekottarikagama

1 7U k o L a y , G I :

l l 0.

51 k i n d s o f s i n : i n t h e t h i r d t h e r e a r e t r i p l e t s ; a n d s o o n u p t o 1 1. The typical examples are the 3 praiseworthy acrs- rhe 4 places of pilgrimage, the 5 obstacles. rhe 6-fold duty of a monk. 7 kinds of wealth, 8 causes of earthquake, 9 types of person, 10 objects of contemplation, and 11 kinds of happiness. The book or Anguttara Nikaya constitutes an important source provides an

Buddhist psychology and ethics, which cnuulerated summary of all the essential features concerning the rheory and practice of the Dhamrna. A unique chapter entirled

Etadagga Vagga of Ekaka Nipata enumerares the names of the :orernost disciples amongst the Bhikkhus. Bhikkhunls, "pasakas. Upd.sikas. who had achieved pre-eminence on one , phere of attainrrrent or nleritorious activity. e.g. rhe Venerable \ariputta in Intuitive Wisdom and Knowledge; rhe Venerable ',Ialta Moggallana in supernormal powers; Bhikkhuni Khema in .rafifia: Bhikkhutti Uppalavanna in Iddlti; the Up asaka trtathapindika and the Upasika Visakha in almsgiving; and so n Whereas the Majjhima Nikaya, as being aurhorirarive of

:re Buddha's words even by the inaugural time of the bltidharnma literature. has, as already mentioned. its shadow ir most of the chapters of the Vibhanga whose Abhidhamma rperstructure was established on, and limited in, rbe .ucidation of the suttantas, the Anguttara Nikaya. on the other
-and. were simulated by tloe Puggalapafifiatti. Almost all of the


fourth and fifth sections, namely, tayo puggald, cattara lggala, paiica puggala of the Puggalapafrfratti can be found in re corresponding sections, i. e. tika Nipata, catukka Nipata, :d paficaka Nipata. of the Aiguttara Nikaya, including the r n - s p a ss a g e e n t i t l e d Y o d h a j i v f i p a m a p u g g a l d 5 8 . Moreover, the Anguttara Nikaya preserves many tracks of ttayct. Surprisingly, in each Nipata of this Nikaya we come - ross passages relating to the Z-fold Vinaya, namely, the ';tkkhu and the Gihi. It is inferable from this point that the

C. LaW, HPL: ZZ-23

Anguttara Nikdya may justly of distincr Vinayd tracts. be regarded as a sutta store-house

I n t h i s v e r y N i k a y a w e h i t u p o n a V i n a y a t r a c t 5 ew h i c h s e t Vinaya forth a rough sketch (matika) not of any particular rreatise but of the whole of rhe Vinaya Pitaka. The list of track cannot be Vinaya topics furnished in this palticular construed as a table of contents of any particulal text of the Vinaya Pilaka. Similarly, Vinaya tlacts aIe scattered also in the suttas of other Nikayas. The consideration of all these facts cannot but justify the conjecture that the treatises of the Vinaya Pitaka point to a sutta back-ground in the Vinaya materials traceable in the i,likdyas particularly in the Anguttara Nikaya*. that the b-v the more reliability This should be followed artiquiry of the Anguttara Nikayd assures.

On the other hand, its antiquity, however, is not regarded as being entirely equal with rhe first great Nikayas. Scholars On observing that in language and style there is no essential difference among the four gleat Nikayas, scholars still consent the lateness of the Anguttara Nikaya in comparison with the 'bUt not much lateI"'. The occurlence of the remaining ones suttas in the Anguttara Nikaya about future dangers. e. g. the Anagatabhaydniu'. usually invites suspicion. The text pulpolts to be a prophesy, and prophecies are at once suspected as compositions corcocted after the event; and the truer and more wonderful they are, other things remaining the same, the greater must the suspicion becomeu'' With regard to the geographical knowledge, the Anguttara list of 16 powers may have probably given. but it failed, some suggestion about the successive expansion of the Sarhgha. Even in rlre sixth ceutury B. C. Kosambi had political connections with the adj acent states to the with Avantt and plesumably
teA. i: 98- 100. 6{'8. C. Law. HPL: 19 6 rK . T . S . S a r a o , O N A I B . 6 2A , i i i l o i . 6 3G . C . P a n d e . S O B : 4 8 .

53 northwest; the caravans along the great highways to the North and the West. On the historical basis T. W. Rhys Davids argues cogently for the great antiquity of the ,4nguttara list*.
The lifetime. Yarada rroted sermon by T. w. rhe demise reference made irs to within larnenting here the uention This over that sutta the in the of the Thera with the his Ndracla, srory of however, the who should redacted This in the




,'lriguttara6s carr be assigned relates king of on death his gave consoled


to the post-Buddha's about how pdtaliputta rt Thera was be a


consort. Bhaddci. Ndrada who just occasion*. half

consolation a similar Munda of king


section after

commemorates Rhys

the name Davids,

reigned, containing

as shown a clear There the

in Rajagaha cannot from the


a century

of the Buddha. Munda the no Raja fifty other years

So the Anguttara be regarded the first reference to

as a compilation demise. from carry the date of

Buddha's century

is, however, , Va h a p a r i n i b b I




dna of the Buddha.'.

The form



Mahagovindau' always


molded with

after the its hero,


early in

of Jdtaka



identification while

of the Buddha,

the narrator

of the srory, with

rhe Anguttara Ntkaya the story is a simple chronicle of seven purohitas without the identificationuo. Therefore, tr'e Anguttara .Yikaya's story previously spontaneity, may probably is regarded was be older as sign than the former of early by insomucb as and as the simplicity srage which, simplicity

mentioned, intuition


and inspiration.

we may note that the Anguttara Ni.kaya, though regarded as a little later in comparison with the 3 remaining In fine,
* Op. Cit.: 'f A. iii: 63. 45.

i G. C. Pande, SOB: 47-48. -? K. B. C. Law, HPL:32-33; 'r D. ii: 22O ff . '' K. L. Hazra, PLL: 152-153.





54 grear Nikayas, is put among them on the same footing, stratum 4 by most of the modern scholars' i-e'

2. Sam.Yutta


The Samyutta Nikaya'o, gaining its tittle from the fact that its suttas are grouped togetber according to their contents is comprised of 5 vaggas, namely. sagatha vag8a, Niddna vagga, Khandha vagga, Saldyatana va98a. and Maha vagga' They contain 56 Samyuttas that again are divided into small vaggas' In the European edition 'ne Nikdya coLtains 2,889 suttas in all, Buddhaghosa, howevel, states that there aIe 7 .762 suttas. The way of division in this Nikaya may cause confusion 'vagga'denotes simultaneously the five vaggas of the because made first level and those of the third level. The allangement is (3) by (1) subject or doctrine, (2) class of god, demon' or man' some prominent person as speaker or hero ' e' g ' the Sakka while s0rJryutta (11) conrains suttas where sakka plays a part, in rhe Bojjhanga samyutta (46) is composed of those suttas which the seven elements of enlightenment aIe discussed' This Nikdya method of arrangement does mean that the samyutta the contails some of the most important Buddhist teaching. e'g' different Sacca Sanryutta contains 131 sutta dealing with aspects of the fout truths''. five great Nikayas, the Samyutta Nikaya ls unique to recelve so beautiful introductory words offered by T W. Rhys Davids. It is illustrative and enjoyable to quote fully
Among the here:
venrurer into the contents of these books will find himself gods, and devils' for the most part in a curious woodland of fairies, out with royal and priestly interviewers of the sublime teacher' opening there on scenes of life in here on a settlement of religious brethren, 'the of rural communities... Devas he will see; sons and daughters glory of gods,'..: they will enchanr the eye of his imagination with a "The

/0 aiso kuown

as "Cluster



S a r n - v lk t a g a m a z

/' K. R. Norman, PL'. 49-5O-



wlrile of will

l l 1i n o r this hear

forest or that riddles

devas and

will saws

show in


in him

his to at

spiritual celestial in thinkins

those He Indiart



welcome doggerel

ruansions. ancient seriously,



folk-philosophy... rudimentary they


nlothered be.




The startle Sisters cost of away frotu gods process of hinr will

prince irr

of darkness arrd


life-lust shapes and The

and of recurring and ways. of will Grave truth give a grasp

death and wolt

will noble



show that

hinr life

a serene holds


at the in the

much as of they

dear. trim.


themselves come


before shrines

Mysterious stock him of

aboriginal folk-myth,

creatures, will of


tnerged will

it.tto the


the abandoned to-day the Titans

of dead deities before

to listen with the

or nrenace. And gods




of to-dav.

And lurrtitlqus bringing beneficerlt them they great is of a fairly Ittdia's inquirer,

ever, and him to


he the

wanders central

on, figure

there of

will the and



him, rhe of them of his

serene, the of

great-hearted enlightened the

Gotama, by matter

wood's listeuing

end to

braced wise


marly doctrine out


the stamp not

of the oldest of to that a little so


to us, and from vague

complete greatest

synopsis sorl, his

the ancient body we his to receive adapt humour

dharnrna might our somewhat his sayings successive and smiling for

be compiled... outline of

contribute good

impressiop irony,



to the ildividual his courage


keert iutuition, his catholic

and dignity,

and tender


all creatures',".

We according well nigh conceived



to the method t } r ^ es u t t a w o u l d about


arrangement help

which topic

done was

to contents and how The the

in gathering

together and by

all the information the width of an on


the specified of the topic

it was solved

in the Buddhist


rhe way, enhancing discussion. Law, to be passages Saryyutta should deepening

and deprh attempt the.

undergoing by B. C. relevant doctrinal that the Nikaya and later as

Samyutta result light should as

Nikd.ya appears, to topics than would

as observed put of together deeper to observe

throwing NikAya insomuch the

importance?3. From

this point, the

it is probable tendency ideas

be younger

tl:^e Anguttara be marked





- KS. j

i: v-viii. Law, HPL: 32"

B. C.

56 sa myutta Nikaya as authoritative soulce has been quored by name in the Milinda Pafiha and in the Petakopadesa have u n d e r t h e s i m p l e t i t t l e o f S am y u t t a . S o t h i s N i k a y a m u s t to existed as an authoritative book of the Pali canon previous Pafrha and the Pe! of both the Milinda the composition akopadesa. We can go so far as to maintain that fhe Samyutta Nikaya had reached its final shape previous to the occurrence of Paiicanekayika as a pelsonal epithet in some of the Barhut The and Safici inscriptions, or ever before the closing of t}'e Vinaya 'Paiica expression the we meet with where Cutlavagga Nikdya". G. C. Pande points out that the Kosaka samyutta of the Sarr4tutta Nikaya speaks of the famiiiar relations of the Buddha witlr the king Pasenadr of Kosala - and mentiors the war between Pasenadi and Ai atasattu. It may be noted that the just the relations between the Buddha and Ajatasattu appear the of end the at established those of opposite Samarifiaphalasutta'n. So the Kosala Samyutta as a whole should possibly be regarded as previous to the sdmaftfiaphalasutta. Moreover. the suttas in the Samyutta Nikaya do not refer to any justifying us to pla.ce the date of its political incident compilation far beyond the demise of the Buddha when Buddhist system adapted in its scriptures was inclined towards a reiigious

should close this section with the position of the as schemes of stlatification in different Samyutta Nikaya ' observed by leading scholars. In the initial scheme of 10 strata takes as observed by T. w. Rhys Davids. the samyutta Nikaya stlatum its place in the fourth and last position of the fourth whereas in which consists of the entire first four great Nikaycs; Davids the B. C. La\il,'s scheme adopted from that of T, w' Rhys also the with some amendments, the sa myutta Nikaya occupies Dlgha fourrh position, but not the last, of the same stlata: the the Nikaya. vot. i, t:neMaiihima Nikaya, the saryyutta Nikdya. of L52 Anguttara Ni kaya, and the earlie r Patimokkha code we
/ OG . C

Pande. SOB: 47. Law- HPL. 3l-32; K' L - Hazra, PLL: L6l-162'

,, B, C

57 r u l e s . I t i s n o t e d t h a t t h e p o s t e r i t y o f t h e S a r y r y u t t aN i k a y a t o tlne Aiguttara Nikdya, as initialty positioned, is not agreed on by the later scholarship. Prof . K. T. S. Sarao puts it on the first level of his 3-rnajor-level scheme named'Substantially Pre-Maurian Texts' in the following order: the Vinaya Pitaka,u, rhe Digha Nikaya, the Majjhirna Nikdya, the Samyutta Nikdya, th,e Anguttara Nikaya, and t}re Udana (verse only)".

C. Of 2hamma. 'minor"

Stratification the five


Dating the word



l{huddaka Nikaya

Nikiiya: contains the of

Nikdyas, the


.argest number or

of treatises and the most the actual as minor content when



Although "small",



means can by Pitaka somehow

of this collection it does include the Vtnaya texts Pilaka. varied

:ro rneans be regarded :he 2 rnajor :rld rature jontains he other divisions tlae Abhidhamma is diverse

of tlle Pitaka, PitakaT\. This of separate of the Pdli works, and rnuch

namely, collection Buddhist Sutta more

of miscellaneous constituting Although in form it and tha;

group early

,he fifth

and last section some very four Nikayas

as a collection

it is later

-ontent in comparison with them. It contains all the important -oetic works in the Pdli canon. The books it includes have not -een the same in all times and places; the Milinda-Pafiha, the : uttasarhgaha, the Petakopadesa, and the Netti or .-ettipakaranale are 4 additional texts that the Burmese tradition

contains the fifteen urs into the usual standard list which -ooks as follows: (1) Khuddakapatha; (2) Dhammapada; (3) --dana: (4) Itivuttaka; (5) Sutta Nipdta; (6) Vimdnavatthu: (7) =etavatthu; (10) Jdtakas; (8/9) (11) Therlgathd; Theragdthd/ "'idclesa; (12) Pagisambhidamagga; and (15) Cariya Pitaka. (13) Apadana; (14) :uddhavalnsa;

Taking the ground on the traditional Parivdrapdtha, B. C. Law determines

:xcept CV xi, xii, Sekhya Rules and Parivdrapatha. ( T. S. Sarao, GT: ONAIB: 33.

verses embodied in that the 5 Nikdyas,



58 the sevetr tteatises of the Abhidhamma Pilaka rexts of the Vinaya Pitaka wele make known Ceylon by the wise Mahinda who arrived Jambudipa (India) after the Third Buddhist overso. As authoritative source, some books the other Nikayas with Nikaya. together Kathavatthus'. Pafiha together with the Barhur and inscription which may be dated, as previously mentioned, lump in the middle of the second century B. C. puts Nikayas inclusive of the Khuddaka Nikaya on the same when presupposing the different schools of reciters of The Mitinda Sdfrci in the the 5 status the 5 and all the older to the people of i n C e yl o r t f r o m Council had been of the Khuddaka were quoted by

Nikayas. But B. C. Law still holds that the Khuddaka Nikaya's status as plesupposed, however reliable it is. should lecesS the stronger and definite probability that the first 4 Nikayas wele, to all intents and pulposes, then complete. while tn'e Khuddaka M Nikaya series remained still opens'?. . Winternitz obselves the lateness of the Khuddaka Nikaya. in general, by assuming that the poetic fragments usually had to struggle to be adapted into the canonical division, i. e. the Khuddaka Nikdyas'. So does Prof. K. T. S. Sarao by concerning the remaining sayings or verses attributed not to the Buddha but his great disciples- after the completion of the four previous Nikayas. The four texts, and Vimdnavatthu Pitaka. Cariya Buddhavamsa, namely. Petavatthu. in his opinion. wefe possibly the latest to be added to the Khuddaka NikdYa".

''o B. C Law , HPL: 'u Op. Cit. I 14.

193 .

" O p . C r r . : L O -l I o'B. C. Law. HPL: 28; K. L. Hazta. PLL: 159' 8 rG C, Pande. SOB: 48. * oI { . - f . S . S a r a o . O N A I B : 3 0 .



This chapter and the next one will explore for their data into the Sutta Pilaka as surveyed in the previous chapter. They a r e a n a t t em p t a t d e p i c t i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f c i t t a t h r o u g h t h e systematic presentation of the variant cittas that are used in combination with the respective distinct groups of modifying elements. The presentation would make it apparent that the core of the concept of citta as depicted in the Sutta Pilaka however does not differ basically. When put into the textual circumstances ir is subject to variation and suggestive of new shades of rneaning- Therefore. examination of the concept of citta in isolation anyhow is impracticable. The four subheadings in this chapter and five subheadings in the next one include in their contents the passages selected according to the subjects that the subheadings state. With the view ro make a vivid presentation the descriptions of situational contexts are added which usually introduce the succinct story, letting it be known where, when and how the excerpted words occurred. Sometimes the doctrinal segments. closely related to rhe word under question, are given to make it clearer and more comprehensive. For facilitating any quick consultative inquiry into the very original source, the Pali passages are usually recited in the footnote areas. There are also added to the main rext the careful elaboration on the meanings of the Pali words rvhich ate used in combination with the term citta as its grasping the in This. of course, would help modifiers. ; onnotations the original words somehow may fail to suggest. may have but the renderings

C I T T , I .A S G E N E R A L S T A T E O F S E N T I E N T B E I N G

(a) Sensational

and Emotional


60 The 'general state of sentient being' is usually suggesrive of something substantial and static that has much to d,o with the b a s i c o r o r i g i n a l p e r s o n a li t y f r e e f r o m a n y d i s t u r b a n c e o r stimuli, but that suggestion is not meant here because it tends to presuppose sorlle kind of entity or substance which is considered nigh insignificant in the Early Buddhist sysrem. Being freed from such a suggestion the main concern in this segment is the citta as general state of sentient being in terms of sensation and emotion. In this meaning citta is usually rendered as .heart'. and sometirnes as 'thought'" The sense of citta in terms of sensation and emotion would have much to do with the six basic s e n s e s ( i n d r i t , d r t i , o r a . , y a t a n a )i n B u d d h i s t s y s t e m . T h e y a r e : ( I ) Eye (cakkhavatana). or visual organ for visible object; (?) Ear (sota))atana), or auditory organ for sound. or audible object; (3) Nose (ghanayatana). or olfactory organ for odour, or olfactory object; ( 4 ) T o n g r u eQ i v h a v a t a n a ) , o r g u s r a t o r y o r g a n f o r t a s t e , o r gustatory object; (5) Body (kaydyatana), or racrile organ for body_ impression, or tactile objecti and (6) Mind-base (mandyatana') or consciousness for mindobject. The visual organ (.cakkhayatana) can be explained as the sensitive part of the eye (cakkhtt-pasdda) built up of the four elernenrs, responding to the visible stimuli. The remaining four physical sense organs should be explained in the same pattern. t.mandyatana) i s the col lective term for alt consciousness whatever, and therefore should not be confounded with the mind-ele ment (rnano-dhatu) which performs only the functions of adverting ro. and receiving. the sense objectl. M i nd-base as well

' Nyanariloka. MBTD.: 28

6l It rendered footing concept divine is noticeable as with of mind) implicitly the position but is that in Buddhist arnong senses, heart system the and does from five almost ntano (usually


psychophysical shares the same the which from nonthe any In come

senses. This rnetaphysical

shows that mano of Buddhist be resulted

rernaining emotional

suggests not


a healthy



the control

over the which

senses, and signaled tias undergone proper

by a steadfast and constrained tameness.




as state

of mind

to be safeguarded:

The idea of surveillance over the citta is vividly uttered in ',erse by the devas of the Pure Abodes, i.e. the supreme heaven :,f tlre Rfipa-loka, . .e r s e r u n s 2 : tlre Brahmd world being its lowest. T}r.e deva's

The brethren their wrought Wisely

have rnade straight ujukam rapt. akamsu),

hearts (cittam attano up to concentration their faculties keeping grip

they guard on rein3. is subject In another to the act at bay the case

(indriy ani rakkhant i p andit t7), as driver Here 'le the citta

as his general crookedness of

character citta.

f srraightening surreptitious declares :uddha


is the rneasure employed

to keep

that he hitnself benefit

does not see any other dhamma

rar produces


.re same pattern the , .o r d s : c o n t r o l l e d , guarded -rridged :her and presented thing made that much single

than the citta being tamed does. In 'tamed' Buddha replaces by the following and restrained. "Monks, bliss as The I know the mahato indeed text rnind can that be is as followsa: brings of such not of any anatthdya greal


(yafn evaln dantam Such a mind

.;nwattati yathayidam



I T a t r a b h i k k h a v o s a m e d a h a m s ul c i t t a m . a t t a n o u i u k a m a k a m s u , i l s d r a t h i v a n e t t a n l l g a h e t v a l l i n d r i y a n i r a k k h a n t i p a n d i t at i : S . i : 2 6 . r Ks. i: 37. t N e h a m b h i k k h a v e a R R a me k a d h a m m a r np i s a m a n u p a s s a m iy a n l e v a m d a n t a m m a h a t o a n a t t h a y as a m v a r t a t iy a t h a y i d a mc i t t a m l l C i t t a m , b h i k k h a v cd a n t a m m a h a t o a n a t t h e y a b s s a r t v a t t a t it i . ( d a n t a r . in s u c c e e d e d y g u t t a m . r a k k h i t a m . a n d s a m v u t a m :A . i : 6 - 7 .

62 bliss. Monks. the guarded (guttam). mind that is tamed (dantam), controlled (samvutam) (rakkhitafn) restrained and couduces to great profits. controlled, tamed. (p .p . means damyati) of restrained. Gutta (p.p. of gopeti): guarded, ptotected, watchful, and constrained . Rakkhita (p .p . of rakkhati): to protect, to shelter, to save, to preserve; to observe, to guard, to take care of . to control . Saqnvuta (p .p . of samvareti): closed, tied BP, Danta restrained, governed , self-control, guarded. All the four words share the same meaning of putting somethiDg including itself into some boundary. Their range of meaning may extent from one 'to protect' to the other extreme extfeme of affectionateness with 'to govern'. characterized by governance with which can be roughly considered as one's character, is acted upon by these verbs would produce g1eat gains is assured by the Buddha and is the main concern of the early Buddhist doctriue as reflected in the PdIi canon. In That the citta, of the canonical texts we can make the remark: though the following passage in the Salayatana Samyutta is among many othel contexts to record the Buddha's words about the above idea, but the noteworthy difference in terms of textual autholitativeness is that this passage possibly consideration of the chronology belongs to the early stage, it is observed by G. C. Pande' in the and edition which the Pdli canon process of composition 'In him, brethren, who dwells with the underwent6. It readsT: faculty of sight controlled, the heart is not collupted by objects cognizable b1'the rupesu). fut him

eye (cittam n.a vyasiftcati cakkhuviflfteyyesu whose heart is trot corrupted delight is born


5. C . P a n d e ,S O B : 2 2 8 - 2 2 9 .

o s e e Lr


rnpesu cakkhuvinneyycsu saqrvutassa bhikkhave viharalo cillam na vyisincati pitinanassa kayo Tassa ar.yasittaaitrassa pemujjam jayati I panluditassa pitijayati ili sukhino cittarn samidhiyati li samahite citte passambhati passaddbakayo sukba49 vediyati dhamme perubhevauti ll dhaurulanam patubhtve appamadaviharl lveva sankha+ gacchati ll la appamedaviherl lveva Jivhinrlriyam samvulassa bhikkhavc viharato citlarn na vyesincati ll la viharalo cittam rla sanrvutassa bhikkhavc sarikham gacchati llI Knyiudriya J li Marindriyarn il pamudiiessa dhammesu tassa avyesiltacittassa pemujjam jeyali vye6iicati mrnovinneyyesu ll piti msn&ssa kayo passambbeti I passaddhakayo sukham vedivati li sukhino cittam appaEadavihe.ri ll dhammanarn pitubhave 6amihire citte dhamme petubhavanti samadhiyari lveva sankham eacchati S. iv:78 9. pttijAyali

(tassa avyasitta-cittassa pamujjam jat,ati). In one delighted joy is born. When one is joyful the body is calmed. He whose body is calned feels at ease. Composed is he heart of him who is at ease ( . s t t k h i r t oc i t t a m s a m r l d l t i l t a t i ) . W h e n t h e h e a r t i s c o m p o s e d o n e ' s ideas are clear (samdhite citte dhammd patubhavanti>. Through having clear ideas one is reckoned as one who dwells earnesr. ,{nd it is the same in regard to the faculty of taste and touch v Thus, brethren, is one a dweller in earnestness"s. Through rhe above passage it is apparenr that the state of one's citta which can be regarded as one's general mood or feelings has close relation with the control over his sense-organs and sense-faculties (including mano in rhe forms of manindriya and manoviririana. the sixth ones of the two geneva). The better rhe control is done. tlre more positive the general state is. This control at its accomplishment is resulted in the citta characterized by peace and rranquility. (c) Citta as IVental State Subject to DownfaII and

Seizure: l n K a s s a p a - S a m l t u t t a t l r r eB u d d h a r e v e a l s h i s i d e a a b o u t t h e social relation of his sarhgha, admonishing tt.e Bhikkhus to ger ro and fro among the families with cautious rnind. In an artistic rnanner the Buddha employs the poetic figure of the moon which figurarively goes among the families with smooth and full irs coming and going are free from mundane affection. T h e s a m y u t t a N i k a y a r e c o r d s : " B e _ v ec o m p a r a b l e r o t h e m o o n , brethren, when ye go among the families, drawing back in both heart and demeanour (.apakasseva kdyarn apakassa cittam), ever as new-comers unobtrusive among the families. drawing back in both heart and demeanour, even so be ye among the familiese" The admonishmenr continues with thrilling scenes which - g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i v e w a r n i n g a g a i n s t t h e d o w n f a l l , t h e s e iz u r e . o r rhe rnanacle rhar the citta might undergo: with the circumspecrion as if
t KS. iv: 47.


they were ar the cliff-hanging


of a

e t < s .i i ; 1 3 3 .

64 decayed wel I or a precipice or a river-swamp . the bhikkhus should accouter themselves with proper prudence when getting into among the families. Waving his hand in the air the Buddha vividly prescribed that the heart of a monk should be freed from 1 0* J u s t a s t h i s h a n d , : any attachment to the familie s, saying brethren, does not sink down in space, nor is seized, nor bound (paryi na sajjati na gayhati na baiihati), even so that brother' whose heart when he goes among the families does not sink down, or get seized or bound (cittar.n na saiiati na gayhati na . bajj hati)" rL mean to cling to, to be and baijhati Sajiati, gayhati, seized, and to be bound, respectivety- So citta can be committed by such the actions which the verbs express. (d) Ethically Conducted Citta:

T}i'e citta in general should be kept away from all kinds of evil actions and channeled in earnest into good direction. The first verse of the Pdpa Vagga in the Dhammapada says: Make ye good haste in lovely (deed); from evil (deed) repel the mind (pdpd cittaqn nivaraye); for when a man slow does what's good, dallies his thought with what is bad (pdpas mirh ramati mano)rr. Papa, evil, is that which defiles one's mind; pufifia, merit is that which cleanses the mind, kusala is another term for pufifia: abhittharetha: to hasten. Another passage from the Dhammapada explains the pleasant freedom from Mdra of the man who checks lris citta from evil: The mind far-going, lone faring.
t0 A,bu kho Bbagava ekese panim calesi- Scyyathapi bhikkhave ayam ikdsc Pani na sajjati:r gayhati na bajjhati. Evam eva kho bhikkhgve yassa kassaci bhikkhuno kuliri uPdsaikam!i: kulesu cittar,n a sajiati oa gsybati na baiihati: S. ii: 198. n

' 1K S . i i : 1 3 3 - 4 .
l2 A b h r r t h a r e r h ak a l y n n e - p a p t c i r r a m n i v e r a y e - . D a n d h a m h i k a r o t o p u i i a m r n a n o :D h p . v . 1 1 6 . P A p a s m i r br a m r :

65 not of the body- of hidden lair whoso will keep under control from Mdra's jail they'll be set free13
In some cases citta rhan feeling ',Vapapakam or liking. should be rendered or the objects as thought of thinking because rather

rt suggests the idea of thinking For akusalant cittam


in the irnperative sentence: cinteyyatha'ta, 'cittaqn' as the direct

.rbject of the verb cinteti rf the family

(to think), and cinteti is but a member of derivatives frorn ^lcit. Both 'cittam'as the object

,.i the verb and'cinteti'as the very verb are cognate with each , r h e r b e c a u s e t h e y a r e f r o m t h e s a m e r o o t ^ lc i t . C i t t a h e r e b y ::realls a thought in general which may be kusala or akusala, r hatever accordingly.



as Normal/Abnormal further


of mihd: state of citta as

We go a little :rentioned

to nore the unhinged

in the Dhammapadats'.

He may have cruel suffering, loss (of wealth), injury of the body, heavy afflictions (gurukarh vapi abadharh) or loss of mind (cittakkhepam). Cittakkheparh means loss of mind or perplexity. Citta free :olrt khepa, or the other hand, connotes the normal distinctness . - .o n e ' s t h o u s h t .
Another -:rack the case of whose unhinged Tatiyo of state Mara of citta is onto found the in thc the

:nryutta Nikaya three rrh a view

Vaggo relates imposed

the story



Buddha in both on

that the Exalted

One would

be badly affected

.3 aspects: mental


and its disastrous


rl DIrangarnan ekacarag asarlral Mirabandhani: Dhp. v. 3'l. 'o S. v: 418.





safiflamessanti mokkhanti

5 Vedanarh pharusarh 3dnim sarirassa c^ D c i t t a k k h e p a r iv a p a p u t t e : h p . v . 1 3 8 . r

bhedanam il

Gurukarir vapi


66 body. The text runs to: 'For if we had approached after who had trot extirpated hot blood asunder, or this lust, had

fashion atr)'recluse or either his heart would


have cleft

flowed from this mouth. or he had become ctazy, or have lost his mental balance (cittavikkhepant) - as a green reed that has been reaped dries up and wilts away and wither"lt. Vikkhepa fvi + khepa). when alone, means disturbance or derangement, perplexity or confusion. When used in combination with citta or cetaso, vikkhepa will denote 'upset of mind' or derangement' . In all the above cases citta on its own is denoting the general state of the thought rather than that of the heart. 'unbalanced mind' or 'mental

2, CITTA AS A Lusrnul (a) Citta Subject


to l{dma:

TIre citta especially that of human beings and the devas it 'kdma'which the kdma-loka is frequently prone to be colored by is the rrrost prominent of the genus on account of the frequency of its literary appearance throughout the canonical texts. and of being the basis, ethically speaking. of negative forces which may hinder oue fron denote the attainment of Nibbana. The term kdma may sensualitl' sensuality. As or objective subjective sensuality, it indicates (a) the enjoyment and pleasure ou occasi.on of sense, and (b) sense-desire; as objective subjective sensuality. the term indicates pleasantness, pleasure giving, an object of sensual enjoyment. as sense-desire and cosmological parlance. Kama - is a collective name for enjoyment plus objects of enjoyment all the verv hisher or refined conditions of sensual life: kamaIn and


upakkamena va iminA avltaragam brahmalanr hi mayant samananl va Yrln upakkamevvama hadayam vassa phaleyya ll unham lohitanr vE mukhato uggaccheyya l ummadam va papuneyya cittavikkhepam va 11seyyatha vi pana nalo harito lutc r u s s a s s a t i v i s u s s a tn r i l i y a t i l t e v a m e v a u s s u s s e y y a v i s u s s e v y a m i l i y a t i i ll evam eva ussasseyyavisusseyya lrrilnyeyya ti: S. i: 126

17 S i: 157. K

67 loka. The includes four or five modes of existence

and part of the fifth

or deva-loka.

Kdma as sense desire is the adverting objects, and is frequentiy in the expressions:


all five senseand



(I) Kama-rAga (sensuous lust), one of the ten fetters (sariryoj ana) . (.2) Kama-vitakka (sensuous thought), one of the three wrong thoughts (rnicchd-sankappa). (.3) Kama-tanhd (sensuous craving) is the first of the three cravings (tanha) which is said to be the chief root of sufferings and of the ever-continuing cycle of rebirths. (4) Kama-cchanda (sensuous desire) is the first of the five hindrances or obstacles (nlvaranani). (5) Kama is on the top of many genera: it is the first of the faur dsava or yogas (cankers or intoxicants of mind), of the four updddna.(clingings or attachments), of the three esand (longings or seekings), and of the four oghas (floods of worldly turbulence).
In the line, 't existence origin, ihose kdma stands first on the list of the six factors and dukkha, and remedy



safifia, asava,





,re discussed in the Maha-Vagga

of the Anguttara


In : revent



almost or

all of


enumerations divisions the leading

of and

obstacles definitions

that of



.:ental conditions,

kdma occupies


The list of its synonvms can be siven as this:

(1) Chanda: impulse; (2) Raga: excitement; (3) Nandi: enjoyment;

5 A. iii: 410

68 (4) Tanhd: thirst; ( 5 ) S i n eh a : l o v e ; (6) Pipdszi: thirst; (7) Parilaha: consuming passion; (8) Gedlta: greed; (9) Mtt.cchd: swoon; and, (LO) Ajjltosdna: hanging on, or attachment. In a sermon given to the new-ordained Bhikkhus, the

Exalted One was warning them with the story about an aspirant of Bhikkhuhood v'hose goal was to get rid of all the sufferings caused by the five attached khandhas. He left his home and his wealth, going on searching the truth. But because his citta was stained by the kdma and other unwholesome states, he could neither achieve the holy goal perfectly, nor maintain the already possessed home and wealth. He is prone to lose both the worldly and supra-mundane desirables. The Bhikkhu should be always aware of such kind of the citta and its imminent sway. The text runsle: "Thus. brethren, a clansman leaves the world. and covetous is he iu his desires, fierce in his longing, malevolent of heart, of mind corrupt- careless and unrestrained, not quieted. (abhijjdlu kamesu and thoughtless scatter-brained, tibbasarago vyapannacitto paduttharnanasankappo mutthassati Just as. asarnpajdno asamdhito vibbhantacitto pakatindriyo). but brethren. a torch from a funeral pyre. lit at both ends, and in the middle smeared with dung. kindled no fuel either in village or in forest. using such a figure do I describe unto you this man, for he has lost his home and wealth. nor vet does he fulfil duties of a recluse"2t'. the


Evam pabbajito cayaln bhikkhave kulaputto so ca hoti abhiii6lu kdmesu tibbasirigo padulthamanasankappo asamihitc asampaiino mutthassati vibbhantacitto pakatindriyo llll Seyyathapi bhikkhave chavalatam ubhato padittam pharati narafrfre katthattam pharati lltajjhe gurhagatam neva geme katthattam parihinc gihibhoga puggalam ca vadami tathupamahanl bhikkhave imam vyapannacitro s i m a f i f r a t r h a f i c an a p a r i p I r e t i S . i i i : 9 3 .

t" KS. iii: 79.

69 The order for. in The citta terms featured of the by kama of should desire not (kama) be seen without

shrewd sagaciousness.

They could be arranged objects of in his the

into the ascending that are longed tells us a the Buddha one the which from

sotapatti-samyutta tlJe sakya a a person highest

sar.rryutta Nikaya The in the

srory about presented iowest to series of

wli'o was requesring deathbed. cases of order

Irow to advise the

Enlightened elevations adrnonition.





ro the kinds

of kama which

r,is citta had just been

:ree frorn, and prescribed

one each the proper

Here ilustration,

only that


of such the admonitions is2r: 'Suppose the sick man human upon the Four than on the

is singled say, "My Kings,"

out for thoughts kamehi then let

;re rerrroved from :re other .'rr you say: to

pleasures of sense (mdnussakehi Deva Four

.:ttaqn vullhitaqn) and fixed "More your :lore choice

excellent thoughts

are the Suite of the Thirty-three... fix the

Deva Kings and 'twere so better devas


:avatimsesu devesu cittamadhimocehi\-'22.


are other


passages in accordance



,.ra under question: ' kdmd mat henti cittam'z3 (citta disturbed by rhe

cravlngs); 'nass uldrdnam paficannam kamagundnam bhogaya cittam namati"o (h. inclines his heart to denying himself the excellent pleasures of his five-sense desires). md ca pamado ll ma te kdmagune bhamassu cittam"t lMeditate, O bhikkhul Be not 'Jhdya, bhikkhu,

So cc cvalo vadcyya ll Mdnussakehi kamehi cittam vutthitam cetummaharajikesu devcsu cittam adhimocitanti ll So evam assavacanlyo ll Cdtummaharijikehi kho dvuso
devchi Tivatimsa devi abhikkantatard ca oanitari ca ll sddhdyasmd

c e t u m m a h a r a j i k e h i c e t u m m a h e r a j i k e h id e v e h i c i t t a m v u t t h i p e t v d T e v a t i m s e s u d e v e s u c i t t a m a d h i m o c e h ti i : S . v : 4 0 9 - 1 0 . :r KS. v: 350. I' s. iv: 210. :* S. i: 92. tt Dhp. v. 371 .

heedless. pleasures); 'kdmesu citta na pakkhandati na pasldati na santhati'26 Do not let your mind whirl on sensual

(my heart does not leap, sit or stand in cravings).

(b) Citta


to REga:

As we have already mentioned the family of terms in which kama keeps the leading position on account of its frequency in combination with citta, colourizing the citta in bad direcrion. The second word just after kama rs raga that is usually rendered as defilement. Rdga's aptness to harass the citta could be exemplified by the following incident which ever occurred to Thera Vaigtsa recorded in the Sarnyutta Nikaya: On having seen a big number of 'gaily adorned' women coming to tempie Aggalava at Alavi, Vangisa, the young Thera who stayed thereat felt a lack of selfcomposedness, his citta was harried (anuddhamseti). The text says, "Then a number of women, gaily pleasance to Vihd.ra. And see the adorned, came into the seeing those women,

disaffection in consequence arose in the venerable Vangisa. and lust harassed his heart"z7. Citta here is the object being harassed w by hich is meant by lust. Citta can combine with sdratta and vtratta to express the opposite states of heart (Saratta means impassioned, enamouted; viratta: dispassionate, unattached to). The compounds would be sarattacitto2o and virattacitta2'. The first compound means the citta falling into love with someone or something; the second one rleans the citta being freed from passion or being displeased

"'D iii: 329,

tt Ath" kho eyasmato V angisassa a n u d d h a m s e s iS , i : r 8 5 , : '5 rv'. /-).
itthiyo disvi anabhirati upajji ll rago cittan:

'n lbid. : 74.

7l witlr, e.g. the phrases: 'rilpadhcituya cittam virattam vimuttam,30; ' chandaraga virattct'3,. chandaraga denotes exciting desire.

the salayatana samyutta, rhe Buddha admonishes his Bltikkhus in the relarive manner, saying neither all the monks irave to strive for the restraint in regard to six dyatanas, nor all The exception implied in the first proposition is the Arahants, and that irnplied in the latter is strongly possible to be the lower ariyas or Noble Individuals. Both of the categories of ariyd.s can be classified differenrly, the inost popular classification, however, is in the descendins .rf four levels32: (l) Arahant or the Holy One; (2) Anagd.mi or rhe Non-Returrrer: (3) Sakakagamt or the Once-Returner; and (4) SotApanna or the Stream-Winner.
The :rat is just Buddha, in order to describe the serene mental state




have not


the opposire of the citta The respective


by the freedom

there .re objects cognizable by the eye, objects delightful or --:pulsive. Though they touch the heart again and again, yet they -1nnot altogether lay hold of it (tyassa and persist so ;:ussaphussa cittdrril na pariyada>)a titthanti). By their failure to of the heart :)' hold colnes strenuous energy unquailing. '.lrrrdfulness is set up untroubled. The body is calmed, not ::rturbed. The heart is collected, brethren, I declare one-pointed. Seeing this fruit do need to : earnestness, .:ike earnestly that such brothers

-:om pariydddya.

passage says33, "Brethren,

in respect of the sixfold

sphere of sense"3a.

30bid. : 45. l tl sn. v. 2o4. 32 BTD.:2e-1. M

ll Santi bhikkhave cakkhuvifrfleyye rrlpe namorama pi amanorama pi ll ryessa phussaphussa cittarp na pariyaddya titthanti ll cctaso apariyedene draddham hoti viriyam asalllnalu ll upatthita sati asammut!he ll passaddho kdyo siraddholl samihitam cittam ekaggary ll Imam khvaham bhikkhave appamadaphalam sampassamano tesam b h i k k h 0 n a m c h a s u p h a s s A y a t a n e s ua p p a m a d e n a k a r a n i y a n t i v a d d m i : S . i v : 1 2 5 . KS. iv: 80.


72 Pariyadaya means grasping, it is derived from the verb pariyadati which stands for to take up in an excessive degree. 'rfipa tydssa phussaphussa cittam na pariyddaya tit The sentence 'the forms, though striking against the hanti' could be rendered citta over and over again cannot sway over it', and it is inferable 'pariydddya', that is, that otherwise the citta would be subject to taking hold of. The citta in such rhe submissive state is prone to be

defiled by desire-and-lust iu all and any spot along the flux of being: (1) in the eye; (2) in the material form; (3) in the eyeconsciousness (4) in the eye-contact; (5) in the feeling born of the eve contact; (ear. nose. tongue. body, and mano being dealt in the same way of 1-5); in the consciousness of visibie shape. sound. scent. savor, tangibles and things; in the will concerning visibte shape, sound, scent, savor, tangibles and things; by the shape. sound, scent, savor, tangibles and tirings; by desire-and-lust for the element of earth. water. desire-and-lust for visible heat. air, space and consciousness. The diligent efforts. which gets strong approval from the Buddha. to get the freedom from all the above-mentioned desireto be citta for the it salubrious make and-lust would 'That desire-and-lust. saystt: Buddha The sophisticated. brethren. for visible shape. - that is a corruption of the heart desire-andlust for the other factors of feeling and in consciousness, - that i s a c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e h e a r t ( v i . i i i i a n a s m i mc h a n d a r d g o c i t t a s s e s o uppakkileso). But when. brethren, in a brother the heart's ( r f r . p a s m i n tc h a n d a r a g o cittasseso uppakileso). That corruption in these six points is put away, and his heart is bent ol1 renunciarion. then- compassed about with renunciation. his heart is seen to be liable for the penetrating of those things that are to be realized"tu.


citrasseso uppakileso ll la ll Yo vifrnanasmin: Yo bhikkhave ropasmim chandarigo c h a n d a r i g o c i t t a s s e s o u p k k i l e s o l ll l Y a t a k h o b h i k k h a v e b h i k k h u n o i m e s u p a f r c a s u : cassa cittam hoti hanesu cetaso upakkileso pahino hoti li nekkhanlmaninnanl khayati abhifrfllsacchikaraniyesu kammaniyam cittanr nekkhammaparibhaviram d h a m m e s t rt i : S . i i i : 2 3 4 .

r KS. iri: 185.

73 Ctrre as EvrL HEeRr. (a) Padullha Miccha-ditthi

utterly deepest tlrat arise, growth rvhereby lre rrisert "no rejectable aspirations

Citta: (wrong


a It

views) source at times do

are of

observed wrong and


be evil


and conduct, other thing

and liable evil things thing

to lead rnan to the Nikdya rnonks, to I know, O

abysses of depravity. than

is said views

in the Anguttara

rvhereby to such an extent the unwholesolne and the unwholesorne and fulness. in their No to such an extent No orher than

things not yet arisel evil views not do I know, yet arisen already I knorv, of t6e do

erlready arisen are brought things cvil

the rvholesome thing than


arising, other

and the wholesome




rvltereby to such atr extent hurnan beings at the dissolution body, at death are passing to a \L'ay of suffering, \!oe, irtto hell "37.

into a world. c"

In the rirne of the Buddhaviews whiclt rf tlre are classified Nikaya. Diglta The

as we know, 62 false

rhere are 62 evil Srttta all cornprisc

and described

in the Braltntajala views

-ouceivablc wrong views and speculations about urau ancl rvorld. 'fhe Buddha's explanation recorded in the Diglta Nikaya about . ro \ v can a nurnber parrly of Santanas and Braltnrcis or] the hold citta partly under -'rer;ralisnr and trihilism throws light

.'uestioii and gives support

to the following


llre establishing of the above wroltg views


mental state be evil in form of ill-disposition turn afflicts negatively olt the physical body.

which in

sphere where the individual

concerned is destined to.

r 7A . t : 2 2


The Diglta Nikaya passage in line with the above conviction 'the Debauched reads: "There are brethren. certain gods called in Mind' (mano-padosika ndma deva). They burn continually etrvy one against another. and being thus irritated, their towards each other. and being hearts become ill-disposed debauched (paduttha-citta). their bodies become feeble. and with their minds imbecile. And those gods fall from that state-38. Paduttha (p.p.of padussati) means made bad. spoilt,

corrupt. wicked; antonymous to appadultha. So that in this case paduttha-citta is rendered as the debauched mind. And ironically the devas iu possession of such the mind is named after it: the 'Debauched in Mind' devas. In the foregoing passage the devas named 'Manopadosikd', by way of burning themselves, figuratively speaking, with envy and its attendant irritation. lrave got their citta ill-disposed and debauched. The citta in such mood in turn would impose wearisomeness on their body. The issue of mind-body relation has a long history from the classical Greek up to the modern systematic psychology. Attempts have been made to throw light or the relationship between body and mind. Plato views dualistically that they are separate substances with no interaction between them; Descartes from the interactionistic viewpoint posites that mind and body. psychophysical the somehow; separate, interact though parallelists say anything that influences mind is reflected by a parallel influence in the body and vice versa. Isomorphism holds that there is point-for-point correspondence between conscious experience and the physical situation but not an identity. So what about the traditional Buddhist system?


Tatiye ca bhonto samaqa-bhahma4l

kim agamma kim Arabbha ekacca-sassatiki ekaccaasassatike ekaccam sassaram ekaccam asassatam artanan ca lokai ca paiiSpenti? ativelam afiffamafrflarr. Te deva. Mano-padosiki nAma Santi, bhikkhave, afiiamafliamhi cittan. ativelam Te aflflamaflffaur upanijjhayanta upanijjhayanti. p a d t l s e n r i . T e a f r f r a m a f r f r a m hp a d u t r h a - c i t r a k i l a n t a - k a y i k i l a n t a - c i t t a . T e d e v e t a m h : i kiva cavanti: D, i: 10.


The rendency attributed attitude

DIgha toward



being ethics

impregnared points out

in that



analyzing physical if


citta to that it is

rvith certain that In

attitude the citta

has affection exerrs ill-will, it is

accordingly the rnind ro get

on one's

and mental

states. For


said as a rule body are

and the to will the go




:orollary irealthy.

that if the former

exerts beneficially,

the latter

With :or


a padullha-cittam and, on others, this water: bank. and Why He or for


cannot hand

discern The it pool oysters or the


.r'hat is beneficial, himself, pool the for of :'iguratively - .r1 t u f b e d s :urbid, . rands .hells,
rr 1a

the other poinr by

what sides. a

is pernicious, Buddha with of one warer, and the



comparing rnonks, see the lie,


stirred upon

up and rnuddied.

Then a man who not as they

has eyes to see shoals of


the pebbles

the gravel

.ish that dart about.

\ ' 3t e r

not? Because of the turbid

state of the




hand, "But

the pasanna suppose, Then could

cittam a a man


compared pool of

with water,

iie serene water: -ellucid, tranquil and ie, while standing about. :rells, the pebbles :sh that dart




has eyes to and the nature the own is

on the bank, and the gravel Why The

see the oysters

as they lie,

and the shoals of

so? Because of the untroubled following punishment here, of aware of going with whose

: the water, rnonks-o. tdupgha-cittam -:based .ought realms begets after his,

passage expresses that the into my mind rnonks,

heavy I am

deathat: "Now


a monk

3 eG S . i : 6 - 7 .

or Idhaham bhikkhavc ekaccam. puggalam paduttha-cittaln evam cetasa ceto paricca pajenemr Imamhi ce ayam samaye puggalo kdlam kareyya yathe bhatam nikkhitto bhikkhave paduttham I Ceto-padosaevam niraye.Tar.n kissa hetu? Cittarn hi'ssa hetucca pana bhikkhave evam idh'ekacce sattd kdyassa bheda param marana apayanr duggatiry vinipatarp nirayar.n uppajjantl ti ill Idhaham bhikkhave ekaccam puggalaln pasanna cittam cyaqr cetasa ceto paricca pajinami. Imamhi ce ayam samayc puggalo kAlam kareyya yathe bhatam nikkhitto evam sagge. Tam kissa hetu? Cittam hi'ssa bhikkhave pasannam ll Ceto-pasida-hetucca pana bhikkhave evam idh'ekacce satti keyassa bhedi param marana suggatim saggaln lokam uppajjantl ti: A. i: 8.

76 corrupt. If at this very time he were to make an end, he would be put into Purgatory according to his deserts.Why so? Because of his corrupt mind. In like manner. monks, it is owing to a when body breaks corrupt mind that some beings in this world, Downfall, in Purgatory"u2.

up, after death ate reborn in the Waste, the Woefull Way, the

It is regrettable to contemplate that at the beginning the citta is pure in nature but because of the disturbance it becomes stained and resulted in being born into the undesirabie. Ethically speaking, the Buddhists, by the way, could believe in the original purity of the citta. In another case. the paduttha-cittam be supposed to

is an inducive


that originates

rhe attitude which an indecent wife treats her husband with. The greatest updsaka during the time of the Buddha- Anathapindika by name. who purchased a piece of land from the Prince Jeta at the hardly imaginable price and built the famous Jetavana monasteries Sarhgha. Unfortunately. for the use of the Buddhist he had got a hard-necked daughter-in-

law who was as stubborn as a mule. On witnessing by chance her obstinacy the Buddha gave her an advice in form of analytical classification which was.beaded with the following verseot: Whose is pitiless. corrupt in mind (paduttlta cittd), Neglecting husband and unamiable, Inflamed by other men. a prostitute, On murder bent. Let her be called: a slayer and a wifeloo. The first kind of wife was named 'a slayer and a wife', and described as having 'Padutthacitta ' (the corrupt mind). The last kind of wife was 'a handmaid and a wife'. Finally, the daughterin-law was tamed into'a handmaid aud a wife'which would be

" GS. i: 6.
ar Padutthacitta ahitanukampini ll aiAesu ratta atimafrflate patim vadheya ussuka il ye evarupa purisassa bhariya: A. iv: 92. ir dhanena klrassa

o oG S . w : 5 ' 7

supposedly the best for her as analyzed by the Buddha in his discourse addressed especially to her. In fine. this citta has much to do with the ethical conduct of one's personality. In this case the citta stands for a dispositional attitude one can adopt as the way to conduct oneself socially towards particularly other members in the family. (b) VyEpanna Citta: the surroundings,

The citta being warped foreshadows the warpage of one's bodily, speech and mental actions. It should be reminded here rhat bodily, verbal and rnental activities comprise all the kamma that one can create. Generally speaking, kamma denotes the wholesome and unwholesome volitions (kusala and akusala c e t a n d ) a n d t h ei r c c n c o m i t a n t f a c t o r s t h a t c a u s e r e b i r t h a n d shape the destiny of beings. So the citta here stands for the agent that pushes up one's kamma in either ways wholesome or unwholesome. in this case the latter. As a rule, those whose bodily, speech and mental karmic actions are swayed by the be overwhelmed by lust and become warped citta would corrupted. take last breath consequence, they would inauspiciously. The wicked chain of cause and effect rolling ominously toward the tragic ending is depicted in the Anguttara Nikaya as followso5: In t l r . eh o u s e f a t h e r s a t d o w n a t o n e s i d e t h e Exalted One said this to him: Housefather, when the thought tcitte vyapanne) is warped, bodily action, speech and mental action are also warped. In him whose bodily action, speech and mental action are warped they are saturated with lust. When rhese are thus saturated with lust they are rotten. When they are rotten one's death is not auspicious; one has no happy ending"a6. " As Anathapindika


gahapari gahapatir,n Bhagavi etad avoca: Citte vacikammam pi yytpannrm hoti manokammam pi vyapannavaci-kammantassa vySPannamanovy,ipannsm hoti. Tassa vyapauuakiyakammanrassa kammanrassa kayakammam pi avassuram hoti vscikammam pi avassutam hoti mano kammam pi Ek"rn"rrt"nisinnam kho pi AuithapigCikam vyEpaune kayskammam vyapannam hoti s.vassutavacikammatrtessa hoti Tassa avassutakiyakammantassa hoti avassutamanokammantassa kayakammam pi putikam hoti vacikammam pi pItikam putikAyakrEmantassa plltivacilemmantassa pi pntikam Tassa manokammam hoti. p l t i m a n o k a m m a n t a s s sn a b h a k k a k a m m a r a n & m h o t i n a b h a d d i L i k l l a k i r i y 6 . A . i : l 6 l . avassutam

s cs. i: 24e.

78 of W,dpajjati) means spoilt, disagreeing, gone wrong. The combination of vyapanna and citta would mean a corrupted heart or a malevolent intention. That is the reason why this corrupt citta creares one's kamma which. being defined as intentional actions, manifest through three doors: body. speech and rnind. we can sum up the foregoing passage into the chain of causes and effects as follows. Warpage of the citta * * * * Warpage of the three-door actions Their lusrfulness Their rottenness One's doleful death. Vyapantta (p.p.

It is transparenr rhat the citta plays the role of the srarting point if it is unwholesome as 'citte vyapanne' all the successive links in the chain will be sharing the same unwholesome characteristic. So the starting point is factually decisive of one's kamrna in terms of which direction he would adopt: wholesome or unwholesome. In stead of being rendered as corrupt heart in the following passage the vyapannacitto is rendered as malicious heart. It is no the starting point but one of the sinful fearures characterizing an unworthy person. As we have mentioned above one's body. speech and mind are the three doors through which one commits vol itional actions (.acrions which entail kammic effect)- Through the three doors one can build one's kamma by doing the ten misdeeds which are described by the Afiguttara NikayaaT like this. "And of what sorr is the unworthy man? \y Herein a certain person takes life. steals, is wrong-doer in sensedesires, is a liar; is of slanderous, bitter speech, and an idle babbler; is covetous, of a malicious hearr. and has wrong view. This one is called'asappuriso'(the unworthy man)-a8. The ren
47 K*,"*o ca bhikkhave asappuriso? qr idha bhikkhave ekacco paneripari hoti, adinntdayi hoti. kamesu micchicari hoti, musovsdi hotr, pisunivico hoti. pharusevaco hoti, samphappalepi hori. abhiiihclu hori. vvdpantraclrro hoti, micchaditthiko hori qr Ayam vuccati bhikkhave asappurisc: A, ii: ll0


* 8c s . i i : 1 3 2 .

79 misdeeds as above described are but the opponents to the threefold training that the Buddha's disciple is supposed to undergo. That is: ( 1) Training in Higher Morality (2) Training ln Higher Mentality @antslla-sikkha): (adhicitta-sikkha): and,

(3) Training in Higher Wisdom (adhipafifia-sikkha). Here important ' vydpannacitto ' role as one of (mal icious the ten heart) plays the less


features which

characterize an unworthy Person. With his citta being well imbeded with desirable qualities the bhikkhu applies or directs it to others' citta and knows what are going on thereat, whether they are wholesome with vltaragaqn. vita-dosayn, vlta-moham. and so forth; or unwholesome with sa-ragaqn, sa-dosaLn, sa-mohaln, and so forth. It is notable rhat the citta being well cultivated would equipped with many feasible qual ities especially the penetrating and discerning abitity that helps in reading the citta of others. This ability in its full-fledged development forms one of the six of the Buddhist highest sainthood, Arahantship. The respective passage readsae: " Penetrating with his own heart the hearts of beings, of other men, he knows them. He discerns: The passionate mind to be passionate, and the calm mind calm: The angry mind to be angry, and the peaceful mind peaceful; The dull mind to be dull, and the alert mind alert: The attentive mind to be attentive, and the wandering mind wandering"s other

Sq evarp sauabite citte parisuddhe pariyoditc atratgale viget0 pakkilese mudu-bh[tevitemoham kammaniyc rhite anejjappatte ciro-parryaiao.aya cittam abhiniharati sbhininnEmeti. So prra-satrioam pafa-puggaletram ceto paricca pejnnnti: sa-reg8m v8 cittam sa-r5grm cittam ti pajAnati, \y vira-regam ve citram vita-ri.grm citt&m ti psjntrdti, $ sa-dosam vA cittam ga-dosam citran ti pajlnati, V vita-dosaE va cittam vita-dosam cittan ti pajnnnti, V sa-moilqB va cittarB sa uohary cittan ti pajendti, \y vita-moham vA cittam vita-moham cittam ti Pajiaiti, y salnkhirtam ve cirtagr sankhittaLtr ci!tam ti. pajnnnti: D. i: 80.

DB. i: 89-90.


(a) Appossukkatayii Buddhist


devotees should be somehow thankful for the S a h a m p a t i ' s en t r e a t y . H a d t h e S a h a m p a t i n o t i n s i s t e d o n h i s request they might have not been in possession of the great Buddhist heritage. The historic event happened just when the Buddha got enlightenment. The Enlightened One hesitated to propagate what he just attained because the discipline of his Dhamma was squarely contrary to the current ideas which enrooted so long and so deep in the mind of the contemporaries. It was strongly possible that he would get bored with and then tired of propagating the doctrine of renunciation from sensuous were engulfed and compl acent d e si r e s a m o n g t h o s e w h o themselves with the very desires and their attendant troops. namely, profit and fame. wealth and power and the like. And, in the case someone on hearing his noble doctrine looked down upon it as being condemnable or awkward his chance of spiritual progress would be more obstructed than ever before. The Buddha expressed this in verse: This that thro'many toils I've won, Enough! Why should I make it known? By folk with lust and hate consumed Not this a Norm that can be grasped. Against the stream [of common thought], Deep. subtle , fine. and hard to see. Unseen't will be by passion's slaves, Cloaked in the murk Iof ignorance]. The story told noticeably that the Brahmd-Sahampati could read the mind of the Exalted One and entreated Him to give up such a mind, which was turning rowards passive mood, and tc open the gate of deathlessness; the Brahmd-Samyuttam records5:: "ln such wise, pondering over the matter, did the heart (citta) of the Exalted One incline ro be averse from exertion and nor towards preaching the Norm.
5l Iti Bhuguruto Brahmuno bho loko patisaicikkharo

y Thereupon to Brahmd-sahanpati.
citram namati no dhammadesanaya aiiAya \i\/ Arha ki: erad ahosi ryry Nassati va::


sahampatissa Bhagavato vrnassati vata bho

cetasa cero parivitakkam

a p p o s s u , k k _ a l q l ac i t t a m

loko 1r yatra hr mana Tathagarassa araharo sammasambuddbass: namati no dhamma-desanayn ti: S i: 137 .

81 becoming aware in thought of the thoughts of the Exalted One. was this revealed: 'Woe. woe! now w'ill the world perish! Woe! ).Jow rvill the world utterly perish. in that the heart of the Tathagata. Arahant, Buddha Supreme inclines to be averse from (appossttkkataya cittaryt namati) and not towards exertion "'r. preaching the Norrn! Here, it is noticeable that the citta of the Ornnipotent One could incline divergently to quite opposite opinions, as the 'appossttkkatava ' Sarytyutta says. the which means inaction, reluctance. carelessness, indifference. It is, however. impossible, if not totally wrong, to abruptly conclude that the citta of the Exalted One was tainted with the passive inclination. That he spent all the remaining of his lifetime in ardently disseminating rhe sublime doctrine. during which no single complaint about the harshness of the holy task was recorded, is apparent. It is explainable that the Buddha just pretended the relucrance in order to precaution those who have the chance to hear about the doctrine. Such a pretense was necessarily employed to adjust their habitual attitude, preconditioning their mind for proper comprehension of the lofty ideas. (b) Nekkhammaninna The following Citta:

passage tells us the disincl ination of a Bhikkhu's citta towards the secular desires and the sharpness the ;itta may gain as resulted from such an attitudesr: "That desireand-lust, brethren. that is in eye-consciousness is a corruption of neart (cittasseso upakkilesol. Likewise that which is in consciousness that comes by ear. nose, tongue, body and rnind. But, brethren, when in a brother the heart's corruption in these six points is put away and his heart is bent on renunciation. then, : o m p a s s e d a b o u t w i t h r e n u n c i a t i o n ( . n e k k h a m r n a n i n n a r y tc a s s a :ittam nekkhammapartbhavttaqn cittatn), his heart is seen to be

t: KS. v: 1,72.
-i3 S"uttthi Yo ryry Yo bhikkhave 'y Yo cakkiuvinqi!asmrm ry Yo cittasscso sotaviifianasrniru rmesu ghanavinidnasmrm chandarego chandarego cirtasseso upakkileso Yo vv jivheviiffAnasmim ry inasmim V Yo kayaviifl bhikkhuno VrV Yaro kho bhikkhave ry nekkhammaninnam cassa cittam hoti abhififlisacchikaraniyesu dhammesDti. S:



chasuthanesu cetaso upakkileso pahino hoti nckkhammaparibhaviram cittam kammonrvam khiyati rIl: i.t-t.

pl i abl e











realized"Y. '(Jpakkileso' means that which spoils or obstructs, a minor stain, impurity, defilement, depravity. The damage inflicted by upakkileso should be less severe than the damage, by dilsana and 'upakkileso of the citta' would be a little more du!!hatta. So 'corruption of heart'. A highlighted when being rendered as person whose citta is thus corrupted or stained would be veiled seeing things exactly; his understanding is hardly freed from illusion and cannot penetrate deep into the nature of objects he sees. The immunization of one's citta from the contamination 'by ear, nose, tongue, body, and of desire-and-lust which come mind (manovififid4a)' is recommended by the Buddha as the onl)' from way by which one can purpose the citta to renunciation, and to make it keen and strong so as it may be able to break into the nature of things. How beneficial for the pungency of one's insight the citta bending on renunciation can render should be remarkable. (c) Viveka-ninna The Dasuttara Citta:

Sutca, the last sutta of the Dlgha Nikava 'Seven to be del ivered by venerable Sdriputta expounds the reali zed'. in which the 'citta purposed to detachment' is 'one of his impressively emphasized by investing it with powers'5': "Herein, friends, for a brother who is Arahant, his heart is inclined to, set upon detachment (viveka-ninnaan cittaan'. he has made detachment its mountain-cave, its object; his heari loves renunciation, and has become entirely non-existent for al; opportunities of incoming intoxicants. This is one of his powers'lntoxicants' on accounr of which he recognizes that for him the are desiroyed"ts.

il 55

KS. iii:


Puoo, ca param evuso khinasavassa bhikkhuno viveka-ninnam cirtam hori viveka-por viveka-pabbharam vivekattham nekkhammabhiratamvyanti-bh0ram sabbaso isava-tthinir 'avuso dhammchi.Yam p kbioesavassabhikkhuno balam botr, yam balam f,gamma khinest 'Khinn me dsavari': D. iii: 28-i b h i k L h u a s a v e n a mk h a y a m p a t r , i A n a t i

'6DB. iii: 259.


The citta here is modified by it a series of sYnonymous toward detachment or phrases all denoting its incl ination seclusion (.viveka-ninnam, viveka-po4aan, viveka-pabbhAraan, and vivekapthat.n'). The symbol ized by the mountain-cave that suggests the safe shelter from the miseries of life. Moreover as we already mentioned above tn'e citta as power by which the bhikkhus can eliminate all dsavas. citta thus modified is . this term will be analyzed further in the fifth chapter. denotes that which intoxicates the citta, muddles it, and foozles it, so that it cannot rise to higher things. Asava literally means influxes; in canonical context it is usually rendered as cankers. corruptions, or intoxicants. The following is a list of four asavas: (1) Kdmdsava: canker of sense-desire; (2) Bhavasava: canker of (desiring eternal) existence; (3) Dittnasava: canker of (wrong) view: and @) Avijjasava: canker of ignorance. If omitting. the dsava is mentioned, the Ditthdsava is In this case it can be explained that the Ditthasava is three-fold 'Asavas'

included into the Avijjasava. the Path of Stream-entry. the Canker of View is destroyed; through that of Non-returning, the Canker of Sensedesire; through that of Arahantship, the Canker of Existence and Ignorance. These are the paths that all sincere aspirants should Through go along; so in traditional Buddhism, the fight for the extinction of these dsavas forms the main duty of bhikkhrts and freedom f r o m t J n ed s a v a s c o n s t i t u t e s A r a h a n t s h i p . T h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e e x c e r p t e d f r o m t } ; , eA n g u t t a r a N t k a y a reveals the same ideas5T: "Again, sir, the thoughts of such a


vivekapabbhiram Yam dhammehi.

vivekaninnam cittaln hoti vivekaponatn bhikkhuno khinisavassa isavatthaniyehi vyantibh0tam sabbaso vivekrilthatn nekkhammdbhiratam cittsm hoti vivekaponam vivekaninnam pi bhantc khlnEsa.vrssa bhikkhuao vyantibhntam sabbaso esavtttheniyehi nekkhammibhiratam vivekattham vivekapabbhAram dhammehi. idsm pi bhaute khiuasavassa bhikkhuno balam hori, yam balam 6gamma kblnasavo 'ti: A. v: 175bhikkhu As!vinam khayam patijennti'khioA me asavi Pro" ca pEram bhanrc

84 monk flow towards seclusion, slide and tend to seclusion. corne to rest in seclusion, take delight in seclusion (.vivekaninnaryt cittarn hoti vivekaporyam vtvekapabbhdram vivekatghar.n). come utterly to cease in all conditions that may give rise to cankers. This, sir, is power of such a monk, by means of which power he comes to know: Destroyed in me are the cankerstt-" paragraphs discuss the citta of detachment and its effect on the distinction of asava, the coming paragraph will reveal the social attitude that an ardent bhikkhu should adopt for his communicating with the laity or friends in Whereas the foregoing dhamma. established asain on the citta of d e t a c h m en t with the same modifiers: vivekaninnena, vivekaponena, vivekapabbharena, and vivekatthena. The only difference recognizable is the grammatical case that the citta is inflected into. Instead of rhe nominative case as used in the previous paragraphs, the instrumental case is employed5n. The passage runs: "...Then the monk. with heart inclined towards seclusion. learning towards seclusion. bending towards seclusion. abiding in seclusion and delighting in renunciation (.vivekaninnena cittena vivekapoltena viveka pabbharena vivekaEl hena nekkhamrndbhiratena). entirely confines his talk ro the subject of going apart, Monks: This Dhamma is for the secluded. this Dharnma is nor for one who is fond of societv so. what is s a i d. i s s a i d o n t h a t a c c o u n t " 6 0 . The ardent bhikkftrr whose citta is properly purposed to the ernancipation should confines his speech to the topics carefully' selected, lesr his speech would roam about the secular ones. and in consequence his citta is distracted from the Path. Possibly. with a view to preventing the distraction of the citta, the Buddha sets out of himself an example as he was debating with Prince
i8GS. v: 117.
5t'Pou,u,,ru.rnyam bhikkhave dhammo. ndyam dhamtno sanganikeramassa ti iti kho Dan'ei3: vuttam, kifi c'etarn paticca vuttamt qr Idha bhikkhave bhikkhuno pavivtrtassa vihararo bhavac: upasqukamitiro bhikkhu bhikkhuniyo upasaka upasikayo rejeno rajamahemsrri titthr\ i titthiyosavake Tatra bhikkhu vivekaninnena cittena vivekaponena viveka pabbharcna viveka:' yeva karham karra ho:. hena nekkhammabhiratena ainadarthu uyyojarrikapa tisam yuttam Pavivittassavam bhikkhave dhammo, idam etsm paticca vuttam: A iv:133 nayam dhammo 4 sancanikaremasse ti iti yantam vuttar





ir': 158.

85 Abhaya. We can tabulate the Lord's statement recorded in the respective Abhavarajakumara Stttta as follows:

Tesl-e 8:



Speakable or not

o o

o o o

o o

2 3

o o

o o


Roughly speaking from the tabulation, the Buddha did not pay much attention to whether his speech is liked or not. In his srandpoint, 'well-purposed' plays the decisive role: the two cases satisfied both receive 3) and (6) where the'well-purposed'is 'speakable'. The former case is a little hindered by the " /" i-efor its iislike of the hearers so it should be'well-timed'and rcceptance the selection of words should be well done. It is - oriceable that not all the true or factual are speakable unless 'well-purposed'. The :rey all satisfy the decisive condition of .eto of the'true/factual', however, is strong enough to make the ;ell-purposed --earers. speech unspeakable even when they are liked by

great courage on the side of the Buddha rnanifests I eparently in the two notices : Firstly, though the (3) is being :rsliked, it is still speakable with the only compromise that the 'well-timed'. Secondly, the (4), (5), and (6) reech should be -hich are all liked by hearers but only the (6) is speakable; the ':ason for that is much more on account of its satisfying the two The ":her conditions than whether its being liked or not.

86 (d) Citta of action with 'Pahadati' and 'Paggapheti

ln regard to the four supreme efforts, one of the prominent doctrines in Buddhist system. we also find out the impact of the citta as a decisive force that a bhikkltu should manipulate upon the striving for the attainment of each of the efforts. The text runs61: "Four supreme efforts. to wit: Herein, friends, a brother, in order that unrisen wrong and wicked ideas may not arise, generates will, endeavors. stirs up energy. makes firm his mind (cittam pagganhdti padahati). struggles; in order that wrong and wicked ideas if arisen. may be put away, generates will, endeavors. stirs up energy, makes firm his mind, struggles; in order that unrisen good ideas may arise, generates will, endeavors. stirs up energy. makes firrn his mind, struggles; in order that good ideas. if arisen. may persist, may be clarified. multiplied. expanded. developed, perfected. generates will. e n d e a v o r s . s t i r s u p en e r g y . m a k e s f i r m h i s m i n d . s t r u g g l e s 6 : " . 'Padahati' as mentioned below means to strive, to exert, or 'to take up' with 'pagga to confront; it also share the meaning nhdti' . In the foregoing excerpt both paggaqthati and padahati are predicates. emphasizing the idea to make up his rnind (citta) in the struggle for the 'four supreme efforts'. It should be suggestible that the attaining or the understanding in highest sense in Buddhist discipline implies the unification of the agent that is acting and the things to be acted upon. Here the citta when in the attainrnent of supreme effort is possibly said to be supreme effort somehow. remarkable that the four supreme efforts (cattdro sammappadlzana) partake in almost all steps along the path leading to emancipation. They appear in all and each of the It should be divisiorrs of the 37 Bodhipakkhilta-Dhammas 'Things Enlightenment', or Pertaining to

also known 'Requisites

as of

C a r t A r o s a m n r a p p s d h a n a .I d h ' a v u s o b h i k k h u a n u p p a n n a n B m p e p a k a n a m a k u s a l a n a m d h a m m a n a r a n u p p A d a y & c h a u d a r r rJ a l e r r v a v a m a t i v r r r v a n r A r a b h a t r c i r a m p a g g a n h a t i p a d a h a t i . U p p a n n a n a r pepakauom akusalanam dhammanam pshaniya chandam janeti vaysmati viriyam arabhati cittarr pagganhati padahati. Anuppannanam kusalanam dhammanam uppedeya chandam janeti vdyamar: thitir: dhammenam padahati. Uppannenam kusalanatrr arabhari cittam pagganhiri asammosiya bhiyyo-bhdvaya vepulldya bhAvanaya pnripUriya chandam janeti vtyamati virivs: Srabharicittam pagganhari padaheti: D. iir: ll1; A. iv:461. viriyau

n'DB. iii: 215.

87 Buddhism the 37 BodhipakkhiyaDhammas srand for all the doctrines of the Buddha in terms that they systematically summed up the Buddha's teachings into seven divisions. We can present them in relation with padhana into the Enlightenment'" In traditional following list: (1) Satipapyhana (Four Foundations of Mindfulness) is the unique division where padhana does not function direc tly as a consrituent. (2) Samrna-ppadhdna (Four Right Efforts) is the padhdna per se which is doctrinally codified and incorporated into the Buddhist system. (3) Iddhi-pada (Four Roads to Power): Padhana functions in the second Road. namely, Concentration of Energy (.viriya-samadhi by Effort of Will Accompanied

p a d h d n a -sa n k h d r a - sa m a n n a g a t a ) (.4) Indriyc (Five Spiritual Faculties): Padhatra functions in the second faculty (viriya-indriya). (5) Bala (Five Mental Powers): Padhana functions second Power (viriya-bala\. (6) Bojjhanga in the

(Seven Factors of Enlightenment): Padhdna functions in the second Factor (viriya-bojjhanga). Samrna-Magga (Eightfold Path): Padhdna functions


under the name samma-vayama. namely, the sixth Fold. On looking into the foregoing list we see that the (3), (4), (5), and (6) the padhana is always keeping the second position. The (1) and the (2) are opposite in terms that in the former padhdna seems to have nothing to do with whereas in the latter nothing else but padhdna is. Exclusively, in the (7> padhdna functions at the sixth position. The (3), wit, iddht-pdda is 'cittassa 'cittaqn presented in connection with nissaya', 'citta-samadhi' by the lddhipada-Samyuttam as ekaggatam' and follows63:


Ci,turo ce bhikkhave bhikkhu nisseya labhati samddhim labhati citt&ssa ckaggatam \u sy&ln vuccati citta-samadhi vv So rnuppanrenem pnpakenam ry la ry uppannenam kusal6nam d h a m m a n a mt h i t i y e s s a m m o s a y ab h i y y o b h i y n y a v e p u l l a y a b h a v a n e y ap e r i p u r i y d c h a n d a m j a n e t i v a y a m a ! l v i r i y s m { r a b h a t i c i t t a m p a g g a n h i t i p a d a h a r i r y r y l m e v u c c a n t i p a d h a n a s & n k h e r dt i \ y t y

88 "Now, monk. if by emphasizing thought (cittam nissaya) a monk lays hold of concentration. lays hold of one-pointedness of 'thought(cittassa ekaggatarn), this mind is act called concentration' (citta-samadhi). He generates desire for the nonarising of ill, unprofitable states not yet arisen: he makes an effort, sets going energy. he lays hold of and exerts his mind to t h i s e n d . . . r 1 rT h e s e a r e c a l l e d ' t h e c o - f a c t o r s o f s t r u g g l i n g ' \ / Thus, rnouks, this (work of) thought and this thoughtconcentration and these co-factors of concentration and 'the basis of psychic power. struggling are called (in one word) the features of which are thought. together with the co-factors of concentration and struggle' " *. The relying on citta (cittarn nissaya) i.e. the taking citta as basis can set up the bhikkhtt up ro 'cittassa ekaggatam' and 'citta-samadhi' . With such a concentration and one-pointedness the four Samma-ppadhana (Right Efforts) would be in effecr and named 'Iddlti-pada' or tl:.e'the co-facrors of struggling'. All this
is the explanation for what is called 'cittasamddhi

padhanasankhara samanndgato iddhipado' which was translated clumsily as 'the basis of psychic power, the features of which are thought (citta), together with the co-factors of concentration and struggle.' It is quite apparent thar citta in the above case takes up two roles simultaneously: the means (citta as the basis; and the gains (the concentration and the one-pointedness of cittas . In the rernaining cases the citta as the means is substituted by chanda (intention), viriya (energy), and vimarhsa (jnvestigation); and the result brought about by such the lneans is the same: 'cittassa ekaggatam' and 'citta-samddlti'. By the way, we can notice thar tlre factors whether citta or the remaining ones: chanda, viriva or vimarhsa are the distinct features of the four 'padhattasankhara sanattttagato iddhipado'. Unless they are 'padhanasarikhara referred to, each of the four samannagato iddltipado' are not specifically distinguishable.
Iti idam ca cirtam &yem c& cittasamadhr ime ca padhanasankhara V cittasamadhi padhrnasankhatasamsnnapaio iddhipado: S. v:169. ayam vuccati


s KS. v: ?4Q.

89 @) Ifow to Purpose the Citta in Contemplation:

In the Bhikkhunlvasako the Buddha explains to Ananda lr'ow to purpose the citta. This how-to can be applicable and helpful in practicing the Satipatthana or the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. of Satipaythana, which has been considered the only way leading to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation. to the end of pain and grief, to the entering of the right path and to the realizarion of Nibbana, consists of four contemplations: ( I ) Kayanupassana (Contemplation following exercises: of the Body): by the The practice

(a) Anapdnasati: Mindfulness with regard to In- and Out-breathing; (b) Iriyapatha: Considering the four postures;

(c) Sati-sampajafifia'. Mindfulness and Clarity of Consciousness: (d) Sati-Kdyagatasati and asubha: Reflection on the 32 parts of the body; (e) Dhdtu-vavatthana: Analysis of the four physical elements; and (f) Slvathika: Cemetery Meditation.

(2) Vedananupassana (Contemplation

of the Feelings): All feelings that arise in the monk, he clearly perceives and understanding, namely, agreeable, disagreeable and indifferent feel ing of body and mind. sensual and super-sensual feeling.


Cittanupassana (Contemplation of Mind): He further perceive clearly and understands any state of consciousness, or mind, whether it is greedy or not, hateful or not, deluded or not, cramped or distracted, developed or undeveloped, surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated non-concentrated, or I iberated or non-l iberated-






Concerning the mind-object he knows, whether one of the five hindrances (nlvarana) is present in him or not

knows how it arises, how it is overcome, and how in future it does no more arise. He knows the nature of each of the five groups (khandha). how they arise, how they are dissorved. He knows the twelve bases of all mental activities (avatana), and the fetters (samyojana) based on them. knows how they arise, how they are overcome, and how in future they do not arise. He knows whether one of the seven Factors of Enlightenmenr (bojjhanga) is presenr in him or not, knows how it arises, how it comes to fuil deveropment. He understand each of the Four Noble Truths according to realitv. In the commitment of such a strenuous task of guarding the citta from disrracrion the Buddha suggests a tactical measure in t h e s a m y u t t a N i k d v a a s f o l l o w s 6 5 : . .H e r e i n , A n a n d a . a monk dwells in body conremprating body (as rransient). ardent. composed and mindful, by restraining the dejection in the world that arises from coveting. As he thus abides in body contemplating body, either some bodily object arises, or bodily discomfort or drowsiness of mind scatters his thoughts abroad to externals. Thereupon, Ananda, his attention should be directed to some pleasurable object of thought. As he thus directs it to some pleasurable objecr of thought, detight springs up in him. In him. thus delighted. arises zesr. Full of zest his body is calmed down. with body so carmed he experiences ease. The mind of one ar ease is concentrated. He thus reflecrs: the aim on which I ser m1,. mind I have atrained. corne, let me withdraw my mind (from the pleasurable object of thought). So he withdraws his mind therefrom. and neither starts nor carries on thought-process. Thus he is ful ly conscious: I am withour thought initial or sustained. I am inwardly rnindful. I am at ease"66.


satrma vrnevva loi: kayarammano va uppai]a: kryastnim parileho cetaso vA linatram bahiddha vi cltram vikkhipatr ryry ienananda bhiktcndkismificid eva pasadaniye nimitte cittam panidaharo pemujjsm jdnati r1r pamuditassa pl: passambhati ry passaddhakeyo sukham vedsyati ry Ja)'8ti \y pitimanassa kiyo sukhino citta: samedhivati qrrv so rti patisamcikkhati ry Yassa khviham ettbrva cittam panidahiro -.-"ill abhinipphanno handa dani patisBmhsrami ri i1,g6 patisamharari ceva na ca vitakkeri na;r vicereri ryv Avitakkomhi avicdro ajrhattam sarima sukhamasm: ri paienari: s. r: 154. abhijjhedon0aDassam \l/\r Tassa keve kayanupassino viharato




keyanupassi viharari




nn GS. v: l3-i .

91 When in practicing the contemplations expounded above the bhikkhrt's citta may be disturbed or distracted because of the arisirrg of either sorne bodily object (kaltaramrnano), or bodily discomfort (kayasmim parilaho), or drowsiness of mind (cetaso va llnattam). The method suggested ro deal with such a disturbance or distraction is rather temporary and tactical in character: The bhikkhu should direct ll'is citta (attention) to some 'pleasuratrle object of thought' so that the successive desirable effects may arise: delight springs up izest arises )body is calmed *ease is experienced *the citta is concentrated. When attained. the tactic. which is maneuvered to direct the citta toward pleasurable object. is to be dropped away. It should be noticed here that rhe citta could be conceived by the two aspecrs: the heading and the subordinate ro the h e a d i n g . I n c o n t e m p l a t i o n , w h e n t | r ' ec i t t a a s h e a d i n g i s d i s t u r b e d it is also the cttta as its subordinate in the form of attention power is manipulared ro support the heading. we should conclude segmenr by excerpting verses 42 and 43 from the Dhammapada which will help us pur into highlight rhe meaning of the citta being well-purposed or ill-purposed6T: "A misdirected mind (micchapanihitarh cittarh) will do ro us greater harm than what a hater may do to a hater or an enemy to an enemy. Neither a mother nor a father nor any other relative can do as much as a well directed mind (sammapanihitarh cittarh) can do to a man',. In regard to the matter of directing the citta, we should be noticed that the citta can adapt itself to both the opposite rendencies: calm v.r passionate, peaceful vJ angry, and alert ys dull; any of the latter is undesirable and should be rured out. so the directional injunction rhat we impose on the citta would be the pivotal matter that decides either of the opposites presented above is in effect, and the elimination of its counterpart ensues. The presentation in next chapter will depict the the concentration of citta is


D i . o d i s & r hy s m t a m k e y l r a v e r i v e p a n a verinam. micchepanihitarh pdpiyo narir tato cittarb kare. Na tarb mati piti kayire, aiie va pi ca ietakd, sammapaBihitarh cittarh sayyaso narh taro kare: Dh. v.4l&43.

the citta conceived of through the desirable states that resulted from the proper direction and cultivation alons Buddhist path.





as continuation the citta the

of the previous *'ords. deals the The

one is also amanner the or and only difference ordinary advanced

etterrrpt to depict style as stated is that states of citta, rvhereas

in the sarne investigative initial with chapter with

in the latter's previous this

one deals


irates. They the following

are incorporated pages:

into the five

headings presented in

RPceprrVE, WIELDY, Reapy FoR TRUrg Crrra

(a) The converted Uplifted lfeart: in the Anguttara the former Nikaya relaies the story wl'o wa'

Maha-vagga sIha,

about the genetal


of Nigantha with

into a Buddhist

after his interview

the Buddhat.

At siha 'uitable rhe peril,

the for

beginning layrnen one



serrnon him the

addressed precepts, with

especially and


the general,

the Buddha


on the basic docrrines heaven, of the analysis

as alrnsgiving, continued

rhen the Exalted :f renunciation. It was when ree from

the sermon

the folly

and the depravity

of lusts and the blessedness

tn'e citta of slha uirlifted

had become

clear, malleable, muducittam,


and lucid


Atha kho Bhagava Sihassa senapatissa anupubbikatham kathesi. seyyathidam dAnakatham srlakathaln saggakatham kiminam ddinavam okaram samkilesam nekkharntne anisamsam paklsesi. Yadi Bhagava aflfrdsi Siham sendparim kallacittam muductttatn vinivaranacttrattt udaggacrttanr pasannacittarn. atha vd buddhiinam s6mukkamsikd dharnn-radesana, ln pakAsesi: dukkharn samudayam nirodham maggam. ta Seyyathn pi nama suddharp vattham apagarakelakam samma-d-eva rajanam pa! iggaqheyya, evarn eva Stha senaparissa resmrm yeva dsane virajam 'yalTl dhammacakkhum udapidi kinci samudayadhamrram. nrrodhadhamman'ti: A. iv: 186. vitamalam sabbantam

94 vintvara$acittam, udaggacittam, and pasannacittarn), the Exalted one began expounding rhe subtler " dhamma which Buddhas that is to say: Il1, its coming-to-be, its ending and the way. Just as a clean cloth. free of all stain, will take dye perfectly; even so in Siha, the *eeueral. seated there, there arose the stainless vision of Dhamma; that whatever conditioned by coming-to-be all that is subjecr ro ending"2. It spotless, be alone have wor,


is noticeable that kallacittam. muducittam, vinivaranacittant, udaggacittam, and pasannacittam, which ate rendered by E. M. Hare as clear. malleable, free from hindrance. uplifted and lucid respectively, are acquirable as the consequences of hearing the dhamma preached by the Buddha. The cittas are of course in the srate of higher elevation in comparison ro the former states before the hearins. Let kallacitta. us made minurer inquiry into their meanings. In

or kalya means ready, prepared; kattacitta in some case is compatible with kamrnaniya-citta and casted into the sente[ces such as'her mind was prepared for, responsive to the teaching of the dhamma'; katta-cittatd means the preparedness of the mind. so katla-citta in this conrext mainly denotes the citta which has been well prepared by being taught in the basic dhamma; and as the resulr of this prepararion the citta gets into the mood of readiness especially for hearing the dhamma, as suggested in the foregoing passage, of the higher level. In progressive terms, the basic dhammas mature the citta s o a s i t c a n g e t s t h e b e s t o u t o f t h e a d v a n c ed d . h a m m a s . Mudu. weak, as component of mudducitta mudducitta, mealls soft, mild.


and tender;

tlreir suggesting of fiexible, suggests a feasible state of citta which can easily adapt itself to the ourside interference especially, as suggested. the higher dltatnnta. 'Malleable' should be- I think- the nicest and mosr

is equivalent with mudduka in pliable. and soft. So mudducitta

2 GS. iv: 128


suggestive in the context because it reminiscently prompts one of the unique properties of pure goldcharacterized by vinlvara4a. means vi * nlvarana, of comprised unobstructed. unbiased and unprejudiced. So vinivaranacitta would mean an unbiased mind. It was. somehow, translated as 'free us of the five remind Nivarana hindrance'. from Vinivarayacitta (adj), vinlvaran.a is the citta hindrances, their subvention, and their defiant opposites that we have already discussed in the foregoing heading' udagga, the combination of ud * agga, literally means 'out-top'. When it is used as a modifier of citta its figurative meaning would be elated, exalted. exultant, joyful, happy. Hence rhe rendering'uPlifted'. gladdened. happy, bright; clear. means Pasanna reconciled, pleased; pleased in one's conscience, believing, 'pious' trusting, pious, and virtuous. In combination with citta, is Selected and pasannacitta is rendered as devotion in one's h ea r t . the manipulative employment of the series of ' kalla and u d a gg a vinivaralta . modifierS : , mudu. cirra's pasanna' irnplicitly suggests an untiring attempt to describe the irrood of citta where there is so much of wholesolneness that one single term would fail to be satisfactory. Hence many attributes In fine, are resorted to. (b) TransPorted lfeart:

In the elegant words the thera Vangtsa expressed in praise of Sdriputta when the Iatter preached the doctrine in an exquisite manner, we chance upon the udaggacitta agaif :


ytv A y a s m a n t a r . nS a r i P u t t a m s a m m u k h a s a r D P e h i g i t h a h i a b h i t t h a v i kho eyasma Vanglso \y dhamm8m medhavl \rv nrsgf!a maggassa kovido ryry sariPutto mahapafrno GambhIrs-paino \P selikey-iva nigghoso ty deseti bhikkhunar.n \y\y sankhittena pi descti \y vittherena pi bhesati ry sarena rajaniyena prribhenEm udtrayl \yV ta3sa tam desayanrassa y su4anti madhuram giram q/ savaniycna vaggune y udaggacitri mudita W sotam odhenti bhikkhavo ti: S i: 190


And like the rnyna-bird's sweer song His exposirion poureth forth. And while he reaches, they who hear His honeyed speech in rones they love Of voice enchanting. musical. ravished ears. rransported heart (udaggacitta) Delighted, list his every worda


As already mentioned udagga in the elaboration relares ro t h e s t o r y o f t h e g e n e r a l s t h a . t h e c o r n b i n a t i o n o f u c l* a g g a . literally nleans 'out-top'; and as a modifier of citta. it figuratively means elated, exalted. exultant, joyful, happy. 'uplifted' Hence the rendering was made in the previous p a ss a g e . udaggacitta here is rendered as 'rransported hearts' that in the context were resulted from listening to the Dhamrna lectured by sariputta. The fearures of sririputta,s dhamrna are comparable to the "myna-bird's sweet song", and with honeyed tones. All this was generated from sariputta's gift: learned lore, expertise in methods true and false, great wisdom, and conformity ro the Norm. So the rendering of udaggacilfri should connote the idea of 'positive' in character and .ascending or rising' in direction which the verb .transport' is slightly suggestive of. (c) Gidd.v-Patted
The dialogue relation seemed. distractive appeared following berween witl-r the trouble d. before


relares a delectabre legend about the a goddess and a bhikkhu. The bhikhu u,as in such a family be, ln that from of his the purpose toward of tranquillity the goddess such from and it a standpoint rhe in the guide








the goddess

of a family


hirr.r. sayinu5:

t KS. i: 24t
" U p a s a n k a m , r v s & m b h i k k h u m \ / p t t h a y a a _ t t h a b h a s ir : , N a d i t i r e s u s a n t h r n e s a b h a s u r a t h i y A s u c a r t 1 ' . 1 r t ts a n g a m m a r T l a n t e n t tl , m a i r c a t a f r c a k i m a n r a r a n r i : S . r r
i: 101.


Along the rivers, resting by the gates. In mote-halls and along the chariot-roads The fotk foregather and discussions rise: Of me it is, and thee now why is this?6
The and though with blzikkhu, however, wordsT: was fuily aware of the situation, attitude

in such an adversity


his positive

the followins

Ay, there is busy to-and-fro of words, And a recluse must bear it patiently. Not thereby should he feel annoyed, for not Whose at sounds is flustered and dismayed, Like any antelope within the wood.s, Men call him giddy-pated, feather-brained. (lahucitto) The practice he may plan he'll ne'er completes Lahu (adi) means light, quick; lahucitta, .light-minded,. In rhe above passage it receives the poetic rendering as 'giddypated, feather-brained' which denotes the negative character of rhe citta. The negarive shade was illustrated by the simile: 'at sounds is flustered and dismayed ll Like any antelope within the woods'. Such a stronger speaking, one the rnood by of citta should the be transforrned into the patience. comparatively


malleable and open property immanent in muducitta4n, vinivaranacittam, kallacittam, udag gacittaqn, and pasannacittam of the general SIha is recommendable whereas the precarious characteristics immanent in the above-mentioned lahucitta should be safeguarded from. or else, 'the practice he rnay plan he'll ne'er complete'.

6KS. i:256.
t Bahu hi sadda paccuhd l l k h a m i t a b b i t a p a s s i n Al l n a t e n a m a n k u h o t a b b o l l n a h i r e n a kilissati lill yo ca saddaparrtresill vane vatamigo yatha ll lahucitto ri tam ehu ll n e s s as a m p a . l j a t v a t a n - t i : S . i : 2 0 1 . e I KS. i: 257

2. Ctt-tvtep, Alr-AyED AND PASSToNLESS Ctrr.s

The modifier vilpasanta (p.p. of vupasammati) in. vupasanta citta means 'appeased, allayed, calmed' . Vupasanta citta denotes tn.ecitta in the mood of being appeased. allayed, and calmed. In the Udumparika-Sihanada-Suttanta of Nikaya, the Digha 'ajjhattam vilpasantavttpasanta citta is casted into the sentence: citto ud.dhacca-kukkucca cittam parisodheti' tbat can be rendered as 'with citta serene within, he purifies his citta of flurry and worry' . Here. again the citta is understood in the double juxtaposed shades of meaning: in 'ajjhattam vflpasanta-citto' where the (1) instrumental citta is used as an internal rneans to purify the (2) personalized citta'uddhacca-kukkuccd cittam' which is the object that the act of purifying is targeted on. The respective passage rutrso: "Putting away the hankerin,e after the world. he abides rvith unhankering heart (vigatabhijjhena cetasa viharati), and purifies his mind of covetousness (abhijjhdya c i t t a r y tp a r i s o d l r e t i ) . . . P u t t i n g a w a y f l u r r y a n d w o r r y , h e a b i d e s free from excitement; with heart serene within, he purifies his mind of flurry and worry ku kku c c d c ittaryIglj!_o4ltgJ!)
The five hindrances

(aiihattar.n v{tpasanto-citto uddhacca. . . "'0.

that may obstruct the meditating

process are often mentioned

as five nivaranas.

They are:


Kamacchanda: sensuous desire;

(2) Vydpdda: ill-will; (3) Thina-middha: sloth and torpor; (4) Uddhacca-kukkucca: restlessness and scruples; (5) Vicikiccha: skeptical doubt.


abhijjhaya cittam pahdya vigatdbhijjhena cetasa viharati, So abhijjham loke sabba-par.rabh0tapahAya avyapanna-citto viharati, parisodheti; vylpida-dosarlr hitanukampr vyepdda-padosa cittam parisodheti: thina-middhaqr pahaya vigata-thinacittant parisodheti. viharati, iloka-safifii saro sanrpajdno thina-middhl middho Uddhacca-kukkuccanr pahaya anuddhato viharati, 4iihattam virpasanto-citto uddhaccacittarn parisodheti; paheyatinna-vicikicchiya vicikiccham kukkucce cittam parisodheti; vicikiddhatn pahaya tinna-vicikiccho viharari, akatham-kathl kusalesu dhammesu vicikicchtrva cittam oarisodheti: D. iii:49.

' uD B . i i i : 4 4 .


In regard to the above nlvarana tl:.e Nlvarana Vagga of the Samvutta Nikdya provides us with the five unwholesome factors t h a t m a y s e r v e a s n o u r i s h m en t f o r t h e n i v a r a n a a n d t h e f i v e wholesome factors that can be resorted to whenever the aspirant for emancipation measures to get rid of them. In other words, the five hindrances to the meditative progress are backed by the former and confronted by the latter. All the three groups can be tabulated as follows:
HIN DRAN CE kamacchanda vyapada thina-niddlta uddhac ca -kukkucca viciki cc ha

CoNrnoNrED By asubha -ninittam mettd ceto-vimutti

subha-nimittam p a g ig h a - n i m i t t a q t

avupasanta-cittassa ayonis o-manasikaro

vilpa santa -c itta ssa yoniso-manasikaro


arati, tandi. vijambhia, bhatta-sammado, linattam. all these words rnean regret, drowsiness. languor. surfeit after meals and torpidity of mind respectively.

(2) arambha-. nikkama-, parokkama-dhatu- the three words mean the elements of putting forth effort. of exertiou. and of striving rcspectivcly.

It is noted that the uddhacca-kukkucca is backed by the avupasanta-cittassa and confronted by just the opposite force given by the vilpasanta-cittassa. The former is rendered as the mind (citta) of non-tranquility; the latter, as the mind (citta) of rranquil ity. The or conformity with vfipasanta. In regard to tlre avfipasanta-citta or vilpasanta-citta as catalyst that has most to do with the efficacy or the passage the Anguttara null ification of uddhacca-kukkucca, 'Monks, I know not of any other single thing of such reads: power to cause the arising of excitement-and-flurry, if not uddhacca-kukkucca is a mental mood the citta modified by either avupasanta in

100 already arisen: or. if arisen. ro cause its more-becoming and increase, as non-tranquility of mind \y In him who is of troubled mind arises excitement-and-flurry, if not already arisen: or if arisen. it is liable to more-becoming and increase...\y Monks. I know not of any other single thing of such power to prevent the arising of excitement-and-flurry, if not already arisen: or. if arisen. to cause its abandonment, as tranquility of mind ry In the tranquil-minded exciternent-and-flurry arises not: or, if arisen, it is abandoned'11. is recommended as the suitable state of the bhikkhus' citta. when the Buddha was staying at Jetavarrna. Attdthapindika's ararna. there appeared the deva Kassapaputto who was encouraged by the Exalted one ro urrer what he thought of the mosr feasible activities supposed to be done by a bhikklttt, Kassapaputta uttered the following stanza whose closing words are highly in praising of "the mastering of the heart's unresr (cittaviipasamassa) " . The text reads: Well then, Kassapa, say what has occurred to thee. See that in what harh been so finely said Ye train yourselves: in the recluse's task. In mysteries of the sol itary seat, In ilrastering of the hearr,s unresr 'cittavfipassama'

The verse was approved by the Exalted Oner:.



(a) Devoted


In thi s section attempts will be made ro explore the p l e a s a n t s t a t es o f c i t t a w h e n i t i s i n c o n n e c t with the wholesome


GS. i; 2-4 KS. i; 6-5 .

101 qualities such as bright, clear, or devoted (pasldati, -sanna); springing forward (pakkhandati, -dana); pure, happy, bright, pasanna); remained, or (vippasldati, vippasanna sinless established, settled, self-restrained (santitlhati); concentrated t samddlti); sink down, subside, become quiet (sannisldati, sinna), and the like. S a r y r y u t t at h e k i n g P a s e n a d i i n t e r v i e w s t h e Buddha on a series of relating questions. The Lord illustratively :xplains them all. The king raises the question about the place rvhere gifts should be done to; and where gifts should be done ro, consequently the offering renders highly meritorious. The levoted citta (cittary pasldati) and the observance of virtue (sIla) In the Kosala strongly recommended for the gifts under . l u e s t i o n . T h e S a r y r y u t t ap a s s a g e r e a d s 1 3 : " T h e k i n g , t h e K o s a l a n 'To whom, lord, should gifts be given?' 'There, Pasenadi, said: 'But to :rfo, whre the heart is please to give (cittam pasldatl)'. lre said to be sire, is a . ' , ' h o mg i v e n , l o r d , d o e s a g i f t b e a r m u c h f r u i t ? " T h i s , .efy different question frotn that which you first ask me. A gift lears much fruitful result if given to a virtuous person, not to a 'cittaln pasldatl' .icious person...""o. It should be noted that :ould be rendered as the heart full of grace, or settled in faith. (b) Springing Forward Citta:

The Buddha usually sums up all the physical and mental :henontena of existence into the stereotype of Five Khandhas, :-flown as groups or aggregations as follows: (l) Rupa-kkhandha (Corporeality Aggregate);

(2) Vedana-khandha (F eeling Aggregate) ; (3) Safifia-khandha (Perception Aggregate);

1 3E k a m a n t a m n i s i n n o k h o r a j e P a s e n a d i - k o l a l o B h a g a v a n t a m c t a d a v o c a kho bhanrc diinam ditabban-ti llll Yattha kho maheraja cittam pasidati pana Bhante dinnam mahapphalam-ti llll Afrfiam kho etam mahereJa mahapphalam -ti llll kattha dinnam databbanr ll afiiam pan-etam mabaraja dinnam mahapphalam no tathe dussilc: S. i: 98.

llll Kattha nu ti llll Kattha kattha dAnam Silavato kho

' 4K S . l : L 2 3 .

(4) Sankhara-khandha (5) Vififidna-kkhanda (Meutal-Formarion Aggregate) ; and.

(Corasciousness Aggregate) .

the Buddha advocates that it is fully fatuous to identify oneself with any of them singly or all of them as a whole. The conceptual understanding of the anatta doctrine, however. does not help much in terms of actual practice and realization The following story of Thera Channa is apt ro reveal that it is not easy to bridge over the gap between the understanding of tlre nobie tenet and its life incarnare. The Channa Samyutta relates the story about him whose citta was in such a perturbing situation. He saw, as the other monks were supposed to do, that all the five khandhas are impermanetrt and would not be identified with ego. but h-is citta had not got the desirable srares whereas those of the others had. The rext runstt: "Then the 'Yes. venerabl e Channa thought thus : I too see this. Impermanent is body. feeling, perception, the activities, and consciousness. Body is not the Self, and feeling, perception, the activities and consciousness is not the Self . Impermanent are all the compounded things. Atl conditions are not rhe Self. ll ll Nevertheless. for the calming of all activities, for the giving up of all the bases of birrh, for the desrrucrion of craving, for passioniessness, for cessation, for Nibbana, my heart springs not up within me. It is not calmed, it is not released from trembling (cittarn na pakkhand.ati na pasldati na santillhati na vimuccati paritassana). But grasping arises, and my mind shrinks back again (at the thought),'who not see the Norm"'t'. forsooth is the Self?'This way I can

of the impermanence and unreliability.








Arhu kho dyasmaro Channassa etad ahosi llll Mayham pi kho eram evaln hoti llll Ropam aniccanr ll vedana ll safrfle ll sankhara ll vifrfllnanr aniccam llll Rupam anatte ll vedani ll saiifrA ll sankhara ll viRnanam llll Sabbe sankhdri aniccl sabbe dhamnra anatta ti ll Atha ca pana me sabbasankhnrasamathe sabbu padhipatinissagge tanhakkhaye virlge ni rodhe nibbAne cittam na pakkhandati na pasidati na santitthati na vimuccal paritassana upadanam uppajjati paccudivattari manasam ll atha ko carahi me attati na kho panetam dhammam passato hoti: S. iii: 133.

'" KS iii: lll

103 Pakkhandati, to spring up, to are which respectively capabilities rhe bhikkhu.s' pasidati, be the santithati to and vimuccati still and to the indicating being properly which mean



emancipate plausible left to


ttre citta is to be inherent

of. The thing

endeavor is the citta





Satipatthana as a method of mental cultivation which dates back to the primitive time of early Buddhistn, occupying the two rvhole suttas which are named after it: Sutta 22 in the Dtgha Nikaya. Both the suttas .Yikaya and Sutta 10 in the Maiihima lave much to do with the cultivation of citta and reserve for the loctrine of satipatqhana the unique position in Buddhist practice, In accordance, it : onsidering it as being the rnost fruitful. :eceives at the beginning and the end of those suttas mentioned :he weighty words: "The only way that leads to the attainment -,f purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the :nd of pain and grief, to the entering of the right path, and to of four Foundation are the of Nibbana :h e r e a l i z a t i o n \l indfulness ". It is also known aS the four Awareness of \f indfulness (sati-upatthdna), which consists of: Q) Kaydnupassand (Contemplation (2) Vedananupassana (Contemplation (3) Cittanupassand (Contemplation of the Body); of the Feeling); and

of the Mind);

(4) Dhammdnupassand (Contemplation obj ects) .

of the Mind-

The Satipatthdna Samyutta makes it known to us that the :ractise should be the subject matter given to the new converts attainment of their it until get along with , ho would tt: . r a h a n t s h i p . T h e r e s p e c t i v e e x c e r p t f r o m t h e S a t . l t y u t t ar u n s

1 ? E t h a t u m h c a v u s o k i y e k e y e n u p a s s r n ov i h a r a t h a l l e t a p i n o s a m p a j d n i e k o d i b h U t e v i p p a s a n n a c i t t a s a m e h i t Ae k a g g a c i t t i k a y a s s a y a t h e b h u t a m f i 5 n a y a l ll l V c d a n d s u ekodibhlta vippasannacittd iripino sampajdnd vcdanlinupassino viharatha ll vedaninaln yatha bhltam flanaya lll Citte cittanupasslno samahita ekaggacirti viharatha ll atEpino sampajane ekodibhUta vippasannacitta sarnahita ekaggacit i c i r r a s s a y a t h a b h D t a r nf i i n i y a l l l l D a m m e s u d h a m m a n u p a s s i n o v i h a r a t h a l l l l e t a p t n o

104 "Come ye, friends, do ye abide in body contemplating body (as transient), ardent, composed and one-pointed, of tranquil mind (vippasannacitta), calmed down, of concentrated mind (.ekaggacitta) for insight into body as it really is. ll...fn mind (citte), do ye abide contemplating mind (as transient), ardent... for insight inro mind as it really is. ll In mind-states (sometimes replaced by mind-objects) do ye abide contemplating mind-states (as transient), ardent, composed and one-pointed, of tranquil mind, calmed down, of concentrated mind for insight into mindstates as they really are"tt. It should be noted here that vippassanri which is inflected from the verb vipassati mainly means an inward vision. insight, and introspection, ekagga means calm, tranquil intuition. (usually used for the person just converted but here it is being used in the wider meaning). Both of them are attributes for the c a l m n e ss, i n s i g h t , citta; and the citta qualified by such 'yathd bhutam inruition and introspection becomes feasible for f i . a n a y a 'i n t o t h e b o d y , t h e f e e l i n g s , i t s e l f , a n d i t s s t a t e s o r w h a t ' occupy itself . 'Yathd bhutam iianaya can be taken as the knowledge that is freed from all kind of delusions, and is immune from all kinds of disciplines, philosophical or psychological or logical, exotic to the object to be known. That a t t h i s s t a g e o f w i s d o m t h e s e e r a n d t h e s e e n a r e a n .e n t i t y p e r s e would possibly be ^ clue for the prompt question that may be raised: a knife discipline; stated b.v the logic without violating the logical rule, how the citta as a cannot cut itself as is

seer can see itself. held up by the Christians; the 'Off Lustful Pleasures We Ward', Buddhists supposedly rest on and on 'For Discarding Greed. Itl-Will and Delusion We Strive' instead. Iu the following excelpt the citta. whether in active or God We Trust' is in passive position, rnottoes manifests as its positive above. In responds regard to to the the supposable mentioned 'In

ekodibhUta vippasannacittA sanrdhitA ekaggacitta sampajini bhDtam Ranava: S. v: I 44, to KS. v: 123.



105 forward, renunciation from serrsuous desires the citta'leaps rests complacent, chooses it'; consequently the man who masters 'well lifted up, well freed and detached such S, citta becornes I'he calamities. attendant their f rOm sense-desires' and respective passage which the mottoes, for the sake of discussion, rvould be gleaned frorn saysre: "Five elements tending to ,leliverance. Herein, friends, when a brother is contemplating sensuous desires, his heart does not leap forward to them' nor rest Cgmplacent in them, does not choose them. But when he is ; ontentplating renunciatiott of them his heart leaps forward, rests cornplacent in it, chooses it. This frame of rnind he gets u.ell in hand, well developed, well lifted uP, well freed and those letached frOtn sense-desires. And those intoxicants, Iniseries, those fevers which ariSe in consequence of Senselesires, from aII these he is freed, nor does he feel that sort of ieeling. This is pronounced the first deliverance. Similarly for :he other four elementS, narnely, from ill will, ,rbjects, and individualitY "to'

cruelty, external

(d) Citta

in Samildhi:

T h e si x a b h i f i f r d s t | r a t h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n s t e r e o t y p e d i n t o a expression inasmuch as the Buddhist popular pattern of .upernatural powers are concerned. Nyanatiloka in Manual of 'higher powers' Buddhist Terms and Doctrines)t lnentions six * hich are classified into two categories - the first five belong to -arthliness and the last one, to super-mundane realm. The 'attainable through the utmost perfection of iormer category is the namely, later, (samadhi)'; the :nenral concentration

re panca nissaranlyA dhetuyo. Idh'dvuso bhikkhuno keme manasikaroto kdmcsu cittagl na pakkhandati nappasidati na santitthati na vitnuccati, nekkhammam kho pan'assa manasikaroto nekkhammc cittaln pakkhandati pasidati santillhati vimuccati, tassa tam citta[ sugataln subhiivitam suvutthitam suvimuttary visamyuttam kdmehi, ye ca kdmamutto so tehi, no so tam vedanam vighete parilaha, uppajjanti dsavn paccaya vcdeti. idam akkhatam kemanam nissaranam: D iii 239. The following respective passages are formed by the samc mold with kime and nekkhamman being reptaced by the variables (vyapadaln and avyipndam; vihesam and with the attendant avihesar.n; rupam and arupam; sakkdya4 and sakkaya-nirodhamt clrangeswhcn necessarY.

2 0D B . i i i . 2 2 8 - 9 . 1 tM B T D . : 2 - 3 .

106 (asavakkhaya) is attainable extiuctioIl of cankers through penetratirg insight (vipassana). The later is norhing other rhan the realization of Arahantship. The PED22 supplies us wirh a wider sense of the term, namely, 'special. supernormal powers of apperceptions aud knowledge to be acquired by long training in life and thoughr. We can combine the six abhiftfr.ds from the PED and the MBTD into the followins 1ist23:

(1) Iddhi-vidha (magical powrs or levitation); (?) Dibba-Sota (divine or heavenly ear, or clairaudience); (3) Ceto-Pariya-fidna (penetration of the mind of others, or knowing others' thoughts or thought-reading); (4) Dibba-Cakklta (divine eye, or recollecting one's previous births); (5) Pubbe-Nivdsanussati (remembrance of former existences. or knowing other people's rebirths); (6) Asavakkhaya (extinction of all cankers, or certainty of emancipation already attained or final assurance). It is noticeable that the first five of such powers are not necessarily attainable amotrg the Buddhists only. The Digha Nikaya records the inst.ances of the pre-Buddhist samanas or brahmanas who by attaining ih. ceto-samadhi can achieve the Dibba-Cakkltuza: 'In the first place. brethren. some recluse or Brahman by means of earnestuess. of careful ardour, thought, of exertior, of application. of reaches up to such rapture of

heart that, rapt in heart. he calls to mind his various dweliingplaces in times gore by. . . And he says to himself : 'Eternal is the soul; and the world, -eiving birth to nothing new. is steadfast as a mountain peak, as a pillar firmly fixed; and though these


PED.: 64. Each predicate is rhe juxtaposition of the inforrnation from MBTD and that of PED respectively.
Idha bhikkhave ekacco samano va brahma4o va atappem anveya padhanam anveya anuyogam anveya appamadam anvaya samma -manasikaram anveya tatherupam cetos a r n a d h i r pp h u s a t i y a t h i s a m i h i t e c i t t e t a m p u b b e n i v A s a m a n u s s a r a t i . . . S o e v a m t h a : sandhlvanti Sassaro arra ca loko ca vaijho k[fattho esikatthayitthito, te ca satta s a q r s a r a n t ic a v a n t i u p a p a j j a n t i , a t t h i t v e v a s a s s a t i s a m a m : D . i : - 1 3 .


t07 living creatures transmigrate and pass away, fall from one state of existence and spring up in another, yet they are for ever and
. - )< ever. --.

That elevation absolutely rhat the remember rnind that

mind-concentration in Buddhist a matter practice of fact.

plays And,





mental here in to

and in other

disciplines is highly

as welI is puissant

it is concretely powers especially from such




samd.dhi (concentration) metaphysical lives. knowledge

rerms of achieving the

the power the

the previous

But we, by the way, should gained

bear in divine as the

insomuch till does not reach the truth remembrance 'eternal is the soul' is regarded as wrong. ihought

(e) Vitakka Another


Vicdra: of

the citta is its settling in the Four (catfisu satipathAnesu)i a brief Foundations of Mindfulness :ccourt about this has been already given above. In the Khanda quality S a r T r y u t t at } l ^ e B u d d h a explains how to deal with the three kinds rf unwholesome vitakka. Vitakka as a technical term in Buddhis. ivstem can be rendered as 'thought', 'thought-conception' that is .ile of the secondary mental concomitants, and may be ,.erfflically wholesome, unwholesome, or neutral.
There are three karmically unwholesome thoughts, namely,

(1,) Kdma-vitakka (sensuous thought), (2) Vydpd.da-vitakka (hating thought), and (3) Vihimsa-vitakka (cruel thought). On the other hand there are three karmically toughts, namely,
(L\ Nekkhamma-vitakka (2) Avyapada-vitakka (thought (thought of renunciation), and


of hatelessness),

r DB. i: 28.

(3) Avihimsd.-vitakka (thought of not harming). It should be noted here that vitakka and vicdra (discursive thinking) are verbal faculties of the citta, in other words they ate possibly taken as the so-called 'inner-speech'. They constituents of the first Absorption Qhana), but disquiets of the h i g h e r o n e s. I n t h e j h d n a c o n t e x t , w h e r e a s v i t a k k a w h o s e characteristic consists in fixing the consciousness to the object is the laying hold of a thought . vicara is the roaming about and moving to and fro of the citta. whereas vitakka is comparable with the seizing of a pot, vicara is comparable wirh and the pot being objecr of jhana. wiping it;

The following passage makes it known that the rhree kinds of unwholesome vitakka are expelled in all quite exclusively by those whose citta has already been well settled in the Four Foundations of Mindfulness, and those who have developed 'animittam properly samd.dhim' (meditation of formlessness)tu: 'There are these three evil ways of thought, brethren: thoughts of lust. thoughts of ill-will, thoughrs of hurting. And these evil ways of thought cease utterly without remainder in him whose heart abides established in the four stations of mindfulnes s (catfistt satipathanesu supatitthita-cittassa viharato), or who practices concentration that is withdraws from obiects "27. It is noted that supatithita. which serves as a qualifier of the citta. ts the combination of su +patitthita; su means well. skilfully; patitthita means established, settled. fixed, arrayed. stayed. standing. founded . But in the translation excerpted above, the denotation of 'sr/' (we11 or skilfully) is onitted. The worldly machinery that the Buddhist svstem consenrs supported,

to is accounted on the basis of the interaction between six sense-

Tayo nte bhikkhave akusalavitakki kinravitakko vyApidavitakko ll ime ca kr.: bhikkhave tayo akusalavitakka kva aparisesA nirujjhanti llll Catusu ve sariparhaness u p a t i ! ! h i t a - c i t t a s s av i h a r a r o a n i m i t t a m v i s a m l d h i n t b h a v a y a r o . S . i i i : 9 3 .

DB. iii: 79.

109 ()rgans irnbedded The their cver would virtue off Buddhist ihe be of interacrion with six vififiana aud their respective objects.


of ntental cultivation with the the conqueror well s e 1 1 S eo r g a u s the arising of are

has much the world. struck by

to do with IIis citr'a by

to the exteltt that it identifies inwardly established of longing object

one who cotttrols and released'

interaction 'unmoved, that In when the it,

respective "Herein,

1;bjects he does not allow tlrem. line I*tndali-v-c, a rnonk, rlot hanker Iusr for it. for His body with

for or repulsing the eye, does inwardl, he is or

the Bojjhanga

Santyutta4l says": with

seeing a delightful does not thrill is unnoved,

thereet, his tnind cirtam

alld does rtot develop is unntoved, ajjhattat?t susaltphitam repulsive, or depressed

rvell established stzvirnuttary).If luot shocked resentful

and released, (tltitam his mind

the eye he behold is not but his body

an object unsettled


because of that,

is unmoved,

his rnind is

i;nmoved.. inlvardlv

well establisheci and released"2e' Nikdya offers the quite is iu itr actious helpful

T}-e Sallekhasuttam cncouraging sufficient ;onformity I, Cunda, regard -rre ir ihould to render to say that

in ilne Majjhinta

statement that just the arising ever much the arising thought). should making helpfulness, of tlte citta' s wholesolneness. of

of wholesol]1e citta let alone is very

The text rulls30: "Now gesture and speech that Cunda, the thoughr


to skilled conforrnity The

states not to speak (with may be harmful: arisc;


arise:'Others onslaught

;rarrnful.' rlake

thought from

we, as to this, rvill not be 'Others rnay be those who as to this, will be those Others on creatures...

on the creatures;


rvho are restrained


:8 Idha

Kundaliya bhikkhu cakkhuui rirpanr disva rnanipanr nabhijjhati nibhiharlsati na hotr tiritarn cirtam aiih:,ttaEr susatl!hitanr rAgaql jancti ll tassa t1;ito ca kayo su\/inruilanl llll Cakkhune, kho paneva rUpanr disvi atnanipaul na nlanku hoti ll apatitt adlnamenaso avyapannace!aso ll !assa thito ca kdyo hoti thitatn cittatlr hitacitto ajjhattanr susarlthitam suvimutatlr: S. v: 74.

r oK S . v : 6 1 .
3 0C i t t u p p a d a m - p i kho ahadt Crrnda kusalcsu dltltntrtesu bahukirarir vaddmi, ko pana vddo Parc vihirirsaka bhavissan l,5ye1a vaceya anuvidhtyanisu, Tasuratiho Cunda: panatipati trppAdetabbaur. Pure crttatit avihirirsakA bhavissiltiti rnayarl-err5a l.rhrvissartti. lnayam-ettha pA$iltiparA pativirat;i bhavissdnriti cittam uppidctabbarir bltavissarrti, rnal'atu-ettha sanditthiparinrdsi-icihinagiiri-duppatrnissaggi pe. Parc bhavissaurati cittatit asaldrttSipararnasi-anadhanagihi-suppalinissaggi bhavissanti u o p i i d e t ab b a n : M. i: 43.

110 may seize the temporal we. as ro this, will not seize the temporal, not grasping it tightly- letting go of it easily'.rt. above passage should be rendered as thought which tends to function with or without the arrendance of actions whether the actions are verbal or bodily whatever. This also may reveal the Buddhist position about the functional relation among the three aspects of one's activities: mental, verbal, and bodily. Through the Buddhist scriptures we can see that one's mental actions are closer related to the speech rather than to the bodv. The citta in the

4 . Lovrrrrc KiNpNes sr.p Crcra

Metta. usually rendered as 'loving-kindness', stands for the first state of citta among the four Boundless states (Appamafifia)3z: ( 1) (Loving-Kindness), MettA (Z) Karuna (Compassion), (3) Mudita (Altruistic or Sympathetic Joy), and (4) Upekkha (Equanimity). The stereotypical rexr of rhe development of rhese 4 Appamafifia, often met with in the sutta Pitaka. reads: 'There. o monks- the monk with a mind full of Lovin-g-kindness pervading first one direction. then a second one, then a fourth orre, just so above. beloq' and all around; and everywhere identifying himself with all, he is pervading rhe whole world with mind full of loving-kindness. with mind wide. developed, unbounded, free from hate and illwill'. being Hereafter follows rhe same theme with Loving-Kindness substitured by Compassion, Sympathetic Joy, and one. then a third

Equanimity. accordingly. The cultivation of the four states of citta is considered the basic phase of the uppermost austeriry in Udumbarika Sihanada Sutta of the Digha. Ni.kaya which says: 'In what way. lord, does an austerity win ropmosl rank and reach the pitch? How good ir were if the Exalted One could make my austerities win top rank

MS. i: 55 aiso known as the Sublimeor Divine Abodes

11i of an ascetic ll Take the case, Nigrodha, by the Restraint of the Fourfold Watch. In and his austerity is made to and turns to not back to lower and, having insight genitive the or by mind love...

and. reach the pitch! .who is self-restrained that lre is He thus in this, those


consist things. put strength dati ve

hL advances upward Five of Hindrances. that defile ab ides

chooses some lonely

spot for and

his seat'.. weaken his with (cetaso:


of the things forrn

the heart I etting fraught


(c etasd: pity...


caSe) pervade the rvorld,

sympathy. . . equanitnitY'33. that the four king, King and Boundless went the And with States is the preferable 'Then, rhe Great King of Glory: out from Golden thoughts around, the chamber and of sat chamber of love; and

It is noted practise jnanda, the

of the legendary the Great Complex, down

of Glory entered couch.


lrimself pervade

on the silver

he let his mind

(cetaso) and so thus farAnd

one quarter wide grown anger or

of the worid above,

rhe second quarter, rhe d id whole he continue to

and So the third, pervade with The

and so the fourth. heart (cetasa') of free from Boundless

world, great,


everywhere, Love , the least States are states in the

reaching, rrace of of citta dealt with

and beyond


ill-will3a. the

remaining one is

in the salne partern. especially for second Sutta where

The cultivation highly during

of the four estimated (karuna) the four

.Vaha-Govinda recommended of the rains.

the ecstasy of pity practise

is singly lnonths

the seclusive

Consequently, the austere practitioner would be able to commune, converse, and take counsel with Brahmd. The text have heard aged and reads: "Then the High Steward thought:'I venefable brahmins, teachers and pupils, say: He who remains in the four months of the rains, and practices the meditatior ecstasy of pity (karuna), he sees Braltma, communes, converses,

I DB. iii: 45-6. t oD B . i i 219.

takes counsel with Brahma. thus ruro.ored3s". W'hereas in the above passage the karuna citta is the marn concern, in another passage we see the focus is on the mettd citta instead. The current practices of the naked ascetics at that time such as going naked, being of loose habits, licking hands clean with the tongue, taking food according ro rule at regular iutervals up to even half a monrh were claimed by them as the conducts of Brahmanship and Samanaship. With his own conception of Brahmdnship and Samanaship in mind the Buddha disparaged such the claim and affirmed rhe outweighing cultivation of the metta citta upon the ascetic practices*O Kassapa. when a Bhikkhu has cultivated the heart (metta-cittam bhaveti) that knows no anger, that knows no from the of the saying: of love ill-will ' He practised and realised what is

time when, by the destruction of rhe deadly tu, he dwells in that srnancipation intoxications of heart, that emancipation of mind, that is free from those intoxications, and thar he. while yet in this visible world, has come to realised and know from that time, O Kassape, is it that the Bhikkhu is called a Samana, is called a Brahmdna"" bhaveti' is rendered as '(he) cultivated the heart of love' and is standardized as the necessary condition in approaching toward sainthood. This state of citta is quality of rtrind iu contrast with arger and ill-will, ureutal emancipatiou. In other words. and is synonymous of metta-citta is identical 'Metta-cittary

equalized of two witlr emancipatiou citta. Between the propositions there seems to stay a gap which, if any. should be bridged over by referring to the fact that Buddhist doctrine holds that man's emancipation is the emancipatiotr on the basis of no self. Metta-citta is the citta opened toward others and in somewhat deuyiug its own concern; and the denial goes to a


271. the lust after future life, aud the defilements of

(the lusts of the flesh, delusion and ignorance)

DB. i: 232.


certain extent then it comes to be one's emanciparion from selfthought. Hence the identification of mettd-citta and the specified emancipation. The metta-citta being so strongly recommended by the

Buddha as above exposition seems to have another cause: it is tlrat which produces rnore merit than ddna (giving) does. He advises the Bhikkhus'to develop it. practise it, take one's stand upon it, thoroughly set it going, and make it a v e h i c l e a n d a b a s e ' - r 8 .T h e p a s s a g e i n t h e S a m y u t t a N t k d y a r e a d s : "If anyone, brethren. were to give a morning gift of a hundred store it up,

ukka's, and the same at noon and the same at eventide, or if anyone were to practise a morning heart of love, a noontide heart of love, and eventide heart of love. even if it were as slight as one pull at the cow's udder (gadduhanamattam pi metta-cittarn bhaveyya), this practice would be by far the more fruitful of the twose-. The same idea is expressed in the following paragraph Nikayaao: "Monks, if for just the

excerpted from tt.e Anguttara lasting of a finger-snap a monk indulges a thought of goodwill,

such a one is to be called a monk. Not empty of result is his musing. He abides doing the Master's bidding. He is one who takes good advice. and he eats the country's alms-food to some purpose. What then should I say of those who make much of such a thought? ". The above underlined 'indulges' is replaced 'cultivates' and 'gives attention to' in the two next by paragraphs respectivelyai.

" KS. ii: 177.

3e Yo bhikkhavc pubbanhssamayam dadcyya V antamaso antamaso antamaso S. ii: 164. yo ukkhisatam vd dEnam pi pi pi dadeyya v yo majjhantikasamayam dadeyya \y ry \y yo yo ve va ukkh[satam dnnam sdyaohasamayam ukkhisatsm mettacittam mertacittam mcttacittsm dinam

pubbanhasrmayam majjhantikasamayam siyamhasamayam mahapphalatatam:

gadduhanamattam gadduhanamattam gadduhanavatram

bbiveyva bhlvcyya bhivcyya

yo vl V idam tato

0 Gs. i: 8-9.
4l Acchara-sailghlta-matrsm bhikkhavc hepildem bhikkhu. pi cc bhikkhavc viharati bhikkhu merracittam ascvEtl syaln vuccati ratt Arittljjhino satthu sisanakaro ovddapetikaro amogham

pi ce bhuijati. Ko pana vado ye nam bahullkaronti ti? ry Acchari-sangheta-mattam bhikkhu mettacittam bbikkhave bhAveti bhikthave bbikkhu. Arittajjhnno ayam vuccati

1'4 { In case a monk wants to put forth another's mistake he should first retrospect upon hirnself as to whether he is in possession of the five qualities of speech. then he is able ro rnake the contriburive cornrnents on others. The five qualities of speech can be listed as this: (1) Being spoken at a well_selected time; (2) corresponding to the factuar nor to the false; (3) of sophisticated words not of harsh words; (4) werl purposed, not carelessly; and the last (5) is that the speech is originated in the metta-citta, not in the hatred or the malicious mindar. The metta-citta classified here among other modifications of speech i s standing for the conrributive attitude in the relationship with others. Ir herps ro keep in harmony and happiness the conimunity whose rnembers would find them well conditioned for mutually trusting one another.

EUaNCIpATED Ctrr,s. (a) subndvitarp cittaqn and Freedom of rvrind:

The ,sar,llapakayika vagga of saryyutta Nikdya rerates the endurance of the Buddha when his foot was hit and bloodshed by Devadatta' splinter. Being imposed on with such the inexorable pain the Buddha did not show out any sign of resenrment. ret alone ill-will- when he was taking a rest at Maddakuccrti Deer Park 7oo deva.r came and in turn uttered their inspired words i' praise of the Exalted One. Their praising words attribute the praiseworthy attitude of the Buddha ro the citta being weil rrained with meditarion and emancipation. It is resulted frorn such rhe training that the citta was freed fronr ail kinds of affections. going on itserf in rine


satrhu sasanakaro ovidapatikaro nsm behulikaronti ti: A, i: l0


rsrthapindam bhuijari.


pana vado ve

Kalena vakkhdmi ro akerena, bhutena vakkhnmi no abhutena, sanhena vakkbami no pharusela' attitasamhitenavakkhami no anatthasamnitena, mettacirto vakkhdmi no dosantaro ti qr lmg pancs dhammi aijhartam upatthapetabba,-' Codakena bhikknave bhikkhuni paranr codetukamena inle paica dhamme ajjh{ttam paccavei\i\hrrva ime panca dharnme a.l.iharram upar t h s , p e t v ap a r o c o d e t a b b o r i : A . v : 8 1 .

115 with the congenial self-denial. The devas sayo': *Behold how his mind is well practised in contemplative coucentration and emancipated! (samrid.hi-subhavitam cittam ca vimuttam) Not strained forth. Dor srrained aside. nor having restrained [itselfJ by conscious deliberation. but as having the habit of self-denial. He rvho could transgress agaiust such a wonder. such a lion. one so thoroughly trained. such a matchless one. could such a burdenso act from bearer. a creature so self-controiled. only

blindsess: if not. then from what else'loo". lneans the well- trained citta. The 'Na cabhinatam 4a capanatam' is exegetically explained phrase by Budclhaghosa as rdgdnugatarn- dosanugatam respectively: '(nor; gone after lust or ill-will.' Nata. p.p. of namati (to bent) can be applied figuratively to constructive work of mind (citta) ir Jltdnn. (b) Illnatta-Riipe and Freedom of lVind: ' S u bh a v i t a m ci ttam '

Next after the above Saqnyutta passage there is the stanza recording the words the devas used to belittle the assurance of rebirth in Brahma realm as the goal set up by the heretic ascetics: Brahmitts of five-fold Veda-lore may ply

Ascetic practices a certury, Yet would their heart (cittafn) be never rightly freed. Such is the low ideaL (hlnattarupd) at which they aim, Not theirs it is to win to the bevond









capanatam kim




sadkbiraniggeyha cerira vatam ry purisadhorayham purisanisabhrm ada$6atrati vimuttam ! t | ,h i o s t t r r l i p r

Yo evarupam purisadantam


prrrisasrham purisa ajanlyam nrroieyya ann&tra \y citlam ca nesEm na samma

alikkamitabbam vrtr

ryry Paircavcdrsatarn sanram ry tel)Eislbrehmanecarrm ns peramgamA te ry-[anhadhipanna ca nsam ns sammi ty Cittrm


vtssrstter,n crrrtii ?8 9.

virnuttan] \r hinattrrupe

v lilkham tapsm n a p a r r l n S , s I n at e : S . i :

{ KS. i: 39.


Hinatta-rupd whose literal meaning is having the quality or 'low ideal at nature of 'lowness'gets a little extensile rendering: which they aim'.'We can note from the text that the whole effort to secure rebirth in Brahmd-world as an ideal which the ascetic was aiming at was judged to be low or poor because such the effort though is made thorough 'a century', the ascetic's citta will not be well freed. It is inferable be well that the aim of the striving should selected otherwise the resultant end'sammd vimuttam cittam (freedom of the citta)' is bound to be limited. It is noteworthy that the act of citta would not be constructive



meditation: cultured, hinder

through intensive and nourishing the unique measure - is 'serene, pure, translucent. and supple, ready to act. firm, ' verses the obstructions that may In the devas of evil, from freedom bound to are : rite aiming and rule, at low ideal. conceit, vain

ci tta

i tse l f

devoid the by

imperturbable.' suffusion



untamed mind. Being conditioned by such the hindrances, the proficiency of the five Vedas combined with the ascetic practice however long it may extend, would be resulted in oothing so long as the emancipation of the citta is concerned. (c) lWental States on Process of Enlightenment:

In the Samartfiaphala Sutta the Buddha once again praised the blissfulness of such the mood of citta as the very fruit of samanaship and affirmed that this fruit outweighs all the other fruits he had just elucidated previously such as receiving the protection. veneration and offerings of his original the possibility from the king in despite of servanthood, hearing the dhamma

taught by a Buddha, leaving the household life and becoming a samana out of pure faith, getting well established in the three 'This, O king, is atr categories of sila . The passage readsot: immediate fruit of the life of a recluse, and higher and sweeter than the last. ''With his heart (citta) thus serene, made pure. translucent, cultured, devoid of evil, supple, ready to act, firm.


Id"* pi kho meha-rajr srnditthikaqr iim&ana-phalEm purimebi sanditthikehi simean!-phelet gbbikkautarai ca panitstaretrca v So evam srmthite citre prrisuddhe periyoddte anarigrnc v i g a t l l p a k k i l e s e m r l d o - b h u r e k r m m e n i y e r h i l e e n e j j & p p a l l e n e t r sd a s s a n a y a c i t l a m a b h i n i h a r r ' a b h i D i D n i m e t i . ..


and iurperturbable- he applies and bends down his mind (citta) to that insight that comes from knowledge"'*o. beiug possibly subject to the attachment and the detachment (to the five aggregates) the freedom of citta from greed is dependable on the latter. The whole process can be As preseBted in a chain of links like the following: (1) Contemplating with perfect insight on the impermanence, the suffering and the non-substance of the five aggregates; (2) Citta being freed from the greed. liberated. rid of the attachment to asavas. (3) Citta being steadfast; (4) Citta being happy; (5) Cirta being freed from trouble; (6) Citta itself faring well: and the last (6) step will be the attainment of the Arahantsltip rvith the knowledge: 'destroyed is rebirth" lived is the righteous life. done is the task. for life in these conditions there is no hereafter'. All this gives us the irnpression that the process of one's emaucipation is the process of the citta being developed aud this culminates in the attainment of the highest f rocess finally ;aiuthood and that there is strong possibility to identify the citta ' . r ' i t ho n e ' s o w n p e r s o n a l i t y . (d)




of Freedom

of lVind:
brethren. What is

respective What


passage readsot: *Body. that is suffering.

. impermanent.

is imperruanent.

" lad anatte ry yad u., -yrm dukkham qrrU E\'tm etam yatha bhutSm p iammtppannavS dstthabbam U cvam ctdm sanrnrappatrnaya assato ( rlldnr vrraliati vtmuccati a n u p a d a y a e s a v e h i ! / v V c d a t r e a n i c c a L r r u rS a n n a r y q S a t r k h t r e r y ' 4 r ! i n r i d n a n l a i l i c c a m W y a d Rrrpam bhikkhave aniccrrrl mama ry;-ad aniccam asrni tam dukkham anatta tarn netaln rtcso ham ra rrlc so attati aniccamo "cirtam virejiari vimuccari auupaday'a asavehi vv RIprdhatuya ce bbikkhave


suffering, that is without the self. What is without the self. that is not mine, I am not that, not of me is this self. Thus should one view it by perfect insight as it really is. For the one who thus sees it as it really away, is released from virattam vimuttar.n hoti anupadaya asavehi). . . then by its release it (citta) is steadfast; by its steadfastness it is happy; by its happiness it is not troubled; not being troubled. of its own self it is utterly well; so that he knows: 'destroyed is rebirth, lived is the righteous life. done is the task, for life in these conditions there is no hereafter. "' The text repeats the same for the four remainiug khandhasos. We should note that in the foregoing passage the citta is distinctively described by viratta (p.p. of virajjari) which means d i s p a s s i o n ed . mainly five detached, unattached to, displeased with and so forth, and that the citta under question is described to be freed from the attachment to dsavas which the citta immunity its to the are inherent in the its emancipation kilesa following aggregates. When is set free, ten is by perfect insight, his heart turns it by not grasping at the Asavas (cittam

manifesrs through (defilements):

(t) Lobha, synonymous with rdgd: greed; (2) Dosa: hatred; (3) Moha: delusion; (4) Mana: conceit; (5) Ditthi. speculative view;

(6) Vicikiccha: sceptical doubt; (7) Thlna: mental torpor; (8) Uddhacca: restlessness;

bhikkhuno Saiiidbitu;'.i aIupldiye pariressati

cirrarr cc' rStvghi (s'orry)





asavehi,qy cittam

Vedanfdhatuyi viteltam


ry, hoil

ryV vinnanadhatuya vimuttatd ry

ce bbikkhsve





(happy) \y srntusfitttta n. thitan] V srtrtussilanl thitata jati vusitar parinibbayari \yV Khtna aparitassarn paccatt&inya karatrryaln naperam itthatttyali pajanitt ti: S. iii: 44 5.

tt KS. iii: 39


(9) Ahiri ka: shamelessness: (LQ) Anottappa: Unconscientiousness. which the first three are named mtira- i.e. roors. ruore exactly, the akusala roors : lobha. closa, and rnoha. Tradition holds that lobha arises through unwise reflection (belonging ro the realm of moha) on au aftracrive object . tlosa through unwise reflection on a repulsive object. Lobha comprises all degrees of 'attractedness' toward an object from the faintest trace of a l o n g i n g t h o u g h t u p t o - q r o s s e s re g o i s m . w h i l e d o s a c o m p r i s e s a l l degrees of 'repulsion'from the faintest trace of ill-humour up ro the highest pirch of hate and wrath. From the text relating ro rhe marter in hand we rearn that not only piti undertakes the destruction of the asavas but a number of pleasurable rnenral srates as well. Let us list all: (1) PIti (zest); (2) sukha and somanassa (pleasure and happiness); (3) Upekkha (indifference); (4) Vimokkho (release). (e) Tranquilization of Body and Freedom of |Vfind: of


The citta being free as referred to in the following passage is differed from the above ones with the additive 'su-'(well) as prefix. The Mdra samyutta relates the srory about the futile aggression that the Mara's three daughters exerted upon the Buddha when he was sitting beneath the Goarherds's banyan. on the banks of river Nerarijard.. uruvela. The triumph of the Exalted one rendered their artempts into an abject shamefulness. Arati (Discontent), a daughter of rhe Mara pur forth the question{e: How must a brother mainly shape his life. Who having crossed five floods would cross the sixth'l How may impressions of the world of sense Be kept outside of him and catch him not

Krrhrm vihirl-bahulo dha bhikkhu \y prucoghatiDDo t r r h u l a m k a r r r as a u n a r y p a r i b a h i r e h o n r i e l r d d h i y o l s t r - r i






Who mainly in rapt meditation bides! The Exalted One repliedso: With body tranquilized and mind set free, ( P as s a d d h a k a y o s u v i m u t t a c i t t o ) Weaving no plans of deed or word or thought. Mindful and with no home where heart may cleave, Who's heart learnt to know the Norm, who meditates Rapt without restlessness of mind, he lets

lhus must a brother mainly shape his life, Who having crossed five floods would cross the sixth. (Pafi.cog hati44o ata ridha chappham)

il' #Tlil:'" L I; :::T I;;'J,i 1;T"111

fhus may impressions of the worlds of sense Be kept ourside of him and catch him not Who mainly in rapt meditation bidessl.

We can note that all the feasible stages in the process of one's cultivation starts from 'Passaddhakayo suvimuttacitto' i.e. body line with the commonsense that citta and body stand for one's personality as a on such a whole. The Buddhist cultivation is based firmly ground: the tranquil body (passaddhakayo) and the cicta being tranquilized and mind set free. It is in well set freed (suvimuttacitto). (f) Ten Fetters and Four Stages of Sainthood:

in 'Paiicoghatinno ataridha chattham' can be interpreted alternatively as the perils by way of the five senses and those of the 'mind door' or the five lower The five and the sixth implied


Prsradtlhakayo na kuppati


ry asankhirrno ryy Evem

nr serrti ve ni



satima anoko V entreya dhammem eYirrkkrjhayl dha bhikkhu y pancoghetigtro ataridti S. i:126.


il KS. i: 158-9


and five higher fetters. The retr ferrers. so called because they can tie beings to the wheel of exisrence, are listed below: (L) Sakkdyadittlti: personality-belief; (2) Vicikiccha: skeptical doubt; (3) Silabbata-paramasa: cliuging ro mere rules and ritual; (4) Kama-raga: sensuous craving: (5) Vydpada: ill-will: (6) Rupa-raga: craving for fine-uraterial existence: (7) Arfipa-raga: craviug for immaterial existence; (8) Mana: conceir; (9) Uddhacca: restlessness: and (lO) Avijj a: ignorance. The first five are called lower fetters (orambhagiya:

; :

samyojana) because they tie beings ro the sensuous world; rhe latter five are called higher fetters (uddhambhagiya-samyojana) because they tie beings ro the higher worlds. namely, rhe five material and immaterial worlds. The ren fetters form the rraditional explanarion of the hierarchical order of Buddhisr sainthood. which are ascendantly graded as follows: (1) He who is free from 1 - 3 is a Sotdpanna or Streamwinner, i. e. ooe who has entered the stream to Nibbana, the lowest grade of the four sainthood; (2) He who, besides eliminaring these rhree ferters, has overcome four and five in their grosser form, is called a Sakaddgdmi. a 'One-Returner' (to this sensuous world);

(3) He who is fully freed from 1 - 5 is an Anagami. or 'Non-Returner' (to this sensuous world); and. (4) He who is freed from all the ten fetters is called an Arahant. i.e. a perfecrly Holy One, the highest grade of sainrhood in traditional Buddhism.

122 .|
(g) Locus The interaction basic of lVental doctrine Emancipation: of Buddhism concerns with the 'mind-door' the

between the sense organs including and the outward world of six respecrive objects. Both the sides has no intrinsic bondage ro each other, in other words. they are in nature free of fettering marter. Some exotic bond, however, comes into being in between them due to the desire and lusr; to put into proper words, it is the desire and lust that are the bond. Religiously speaking, that is the reason why such a bond of desire and lust can be removed and the Norms of liberation can be pronounced. Venerable Kolthika in the Salnyutta Nikdya sayss2 'There is in the Exalted One an eye, friend. The Exalted One sees an object with the eye. But in the Exalted One is no desire and lust. Wholly heart-free is the Exalted One. There is in the a mind. But in the Exalted One is no heart-free is the Exalted One53-. that it is the in between the sense of the Exalted One a tongue... desire and lust. Whollv 'We organs can

see apparently respective

and their



Exalted One takes place, and no doubt, so does the bondage of worldly men. The difference is that rhe former is due to the desire and lust being eliminated, the latter, due to the clinging to desire and lust. It is noriceable rhat the Exalted One's liberation is described by' the liberation of citta his (suvimuttacitto Bhagava). it is doubtless, from the presence of desire and lust. Though at the risk of going a bit too further beyond what the Buddha might actually pronounce it is in conformity with the logic inference to identify His personalitl' with the citta. In reality the Northeru Buddhism. this idea has developed wide and far in

Srmvijjati kho iyuso Bhagrveto cakkhu y passati Bhegave cakkhuna rlprm V chrndrraE: . t s b r g r v a t on a t t h i \ + r u v i m u t l N G i t t ot s h s F r v a V p e V V S r m v i j j a t i k h o i v u s o B h r g a v a t o j i v h i s s s y s l i B h a g a v t j i v h r y a r r s e m V c h r n d r r a g o B h a g a v a t o n a t t h i r . ys u v i m u l t s c i t t o B h a g r v a v Sarnvijjali kbo rvuso tsbagrvrro mano V jAnati tshagavdmatrasa dhsmmsm V chrndrraE: B b a g a v a t on a r r h i V s u v i m u t t r c i n o B h r g r v t : S . i v : 1 6 4 - 5 .

KS. iv: 102.


(h) Five


of Escape

and Freedom

of fuIind:

The Anguttara Nikaya explains the five elements of escape 'Monks. take with the passage recorded in its Brahmana Vaggat*: a case of a monk who thinks on lust and whose heart leaps not up at lustful thoughts, yet becomes not calm. nor firm, nor inclined thereunto; but whose heart at the thought of giving up all leaps up, becomes calm. becomes firm and inclined thereunto that heart of his is well gone. well become. rvell lifted up, well unyoked from lustful This thoughts: and he is freed from and burning the nor cankers that surge feels he that feeling. lust... ill-will... hurt... lust-caused, painful

is declared to be the escape from t-orm... bundle of life... Verily. monks.

these are the five elements of escape"55. The d h d t u yo ' above or passage clearly elements of presents es c a p e the 5 'nissaraniyd distinctive as its


whos e

components are five contrasting pairs, each being the mutually exclusive options that one's thought can choose either object and reject the opposite. They are: (L) Kamaqn and nekkhamma7n: lust and giving (2) Vydpadam and avydpddam: ill-will benevolence: (3) Vihesaln and avihesam: injury and benefit; (4) Rfipa1n and ar{tpam: form and non-form; (5) Sakkayatn and sakkdyanirodha4n: bundle of life and up; and

or malevolence

escape from bundle of life Of the above five pairs of moral contrasts, the first

coustituent of each is immoral, or of the black side; the second,

Prnc'ima bhikkhavs trissaraniyf, hatuyo. Ketrma p&ica? ry Idhe bhiktheve bhikkhuno kamam d mrtrasikarolo kanrcsu cittam tra pakkhandrti ra pasidrri na setrtitthrti na vimuccati, uettbrmmatp kbo'pen' ssse metrasikrroto nekkhamme ciltam pakkhrodrti pasidati saDtitthari vimucctti, Trssr trm cittrm sukatEm subhevitam suvutthitrm suv amY uttt
kamehi, ye cr kamrprccryt uppajjanti dsavi vithataparitihi, murro Yedlnam vEdiyatiIdem akkhitem vyipidrp k{nanem nissrranrln... sattayrm.,. Iura kho bhikkhave paice nissaraDiyt dbituyo ri: A. iii: 245. so rehi. tra so tam vihesar.n... riiprln...

rrGS. iii: 179-1E0.


moral or of the bright side. The first pair is presented in the citta as being foregoing passage where the is referred 'suvimuttam.. . kamehi ' (well unyoked. . . from lustful thought). The citta being unyoked or set freed is resulted from the right selection cultivation that one's speaking, thought we Comprehensively objects. does for its can put the whole process of

into the following

causing order:

(1) Only the bright side does one's citta choose to leap up in, become calm and firm in, incline unto; (2) One's citta is well gone, well become, well lifted up, well unyoked from the thought on the black side; (3) One is emancipated from the cankers and their attendant feelings that are painful and burning, by the black side; (4) One is freed from the obsessions caused by the delights in the black side : (5) Craving is cut off, bolts are rolled back and pride is controlled completely; (6) An end to the suffering is made. the forerunner who decides in the act of choosing as found in the (1); and that the citta stands for that which is to be acted upon as presented in the (2), It is noted again that the citta stands for (i) Ariya The Living and of Freedom is of |Vfind: manifested also through the paragraph56: according to




context of the ten'ariyavdsd'in the following *Monks, there are these ten ways of Ariyan living, which Ariyans have lived,

do live and shall live. What ten? r1' Herein a monk has abandoned five factors, is possessed of six


Dara yime bhikkhrve ariyrvi$i. ],e rriya avrsilnsu va avf,rrntivo iv!sisE!trliva. Krtame desr poncErigrvipprblno hoti, chafrngasrnrentrtgEto. ck6rakkbc ry Idba bbikkheve bhiklhu panunnrpaccgkasacso a n i v i l a sa n k a p p ; ramavayasatthcsano. crturapa$seno, p r r s a d d h a k r y r s a n k h a r os. u v i m u t t e c i l t o . s u v i m u l t r p a i i i o I s u v i m u t t a c i r l o ] :A - v : 2 9 .

factors. guards one factor, observes the four bases, has shaken off individual belief. has utterly given up longings. his thoughts his body-complex living, is tranquilized. to which he is well have are unclouded. ten ways of

released in heart, he is well released by insight. These are the Ariyan according Ariyans lived. do live. and shall live"57. Tbe ten, in general, are considered the traditional way of life of the Ariyans (noble men). Unfortunately, there is not any trace from to follow that we can not discern among them which is essential and which which we can coax whether an Ariyan is recessarily all the ten or some of them or just any of them, and

is subordiuate and ignorable. The inevitable consequence is that it is difficult to make any discernment to the phrase'well released in because the attempt. (j) Five The factors, lfindrances of aad Freedom i.e. the of |Vfind: abandonment of the five ideas given in the heart (citta)'that which we into also the fail ten to elaborate baffle ou any urerging of may


the ten,

however, is corresponding to the following passaget*: *Having got rid of covetousness for the world. he lives with a mind devoid of coveting and purifies the mind of coveting (abhijjhaya cittam parisodheti). By getting rid of the taint of ill-will, he lives benevolent in mind; and, creatures and beings, he purifies the mind of the taint of ill-will. By getting rid of sloth and torpor, he lives devoid of sloth and torpor; perceiving the light, mindful and clearly conscious. he purifies the mind of sloth and torpor. By getting rid of restless and worry. he lives calmly, the mind inwardly tranquilized. and he purifies the mind compassionate for the welfare of all

tt Gs. v. 2l .
58 viharati, abhiijhaya citlaLn parisodhti; So rbhijjhrrh lokc pahayr vigetibhijjhenr cerrsi b y i p r d r p e d o s a r i r p a h a y a a b y a p a n n a c i r r ov i h e f r r i . s e b b r p i n r b h u t a h i t a n u k a m p i b y i p i d i p r d o s i vihar&ti. alokEsanii sato vigrtrthindmiddho cirrrdr parisodheti; thlnrmiddhari pahlyr ssrnprjrno rhinNmiddha cittrrir parisodhetii uddhrccrkukkuccrrir pahtya anuddhsto vibrrrti, v0prranracirro uddhaccakutkucci cittam parisodbeti: vicikiccham pahiyr rjjhertem i t i t r o r v i c i k i c c h o v i h a r a r i , a k a t h a r i r k a t hk u s r l e s u d h r m m e 6 u v i c i k i c c h a y a c i t t a m p a r i s o d h e i i : M . i: 347.



restlessness and worry. By getting rid of doubt, he lives d o u b t - c r o s s e d ; u n p e r p l e x e d a s t o s t a t es t h a t a r e s k i l l e d . h e

purifies the mind of doubt-5n. parisodana) means 'abhijihaya phrase cittaln purify; clean, so the cleanse. 'to cleanse one's citto (from)'. The parisodheti' would means objects of 'from' in the above context would be: Parisodheti (p.p . parisodhita: nt. (1) Abhijja or Kamachanda (as a variant): coveting or sensuous desire; (2) Byapdda or Vyapdda: malevolence, ill-will; (3) Thina-middha: sloth and torpor: (4) Uddhaccakukkuccd: restlessness and worry; (5) Vicikiccha: doubt. All the five are titled hindrances (nivarana) which are and

obstacles to the citta and blind our mental vision. In the presence of them we can not reach Neighbourhood-Concentration (upacara-samddhi) (appana-samadhi). and Full Concentration 'Without their presence we are better able to discern the truth. The similes with Aiguttara colors, Nikaya@ supplies ill-will with us with the pleasant mixed sloth

wbere sensuous desire

is compared with boiling


and torpor with water covered by mosses, restlessness and worry (or scruples) with agitated water whipped by the wind, (skeptical) manifold water, doubt with turbid and muddy water. Just as in such water one cannot perceive one's own reflexion, so in the presence of these five mental Hindrances, one cannot clearly discern one's own benefit, nor that of others. nor that of both.


MS, ii: 12 A. v: 193


The further informed nivarana. Anguttara of The in Nikaya6r also gives us an account with


the origination and the overcoming of the f i v e ' n i v a r a q t a '- h o w e v e r , a r e r e l a t i v e l y w e l l foregoing the

passage with the addition of following five counterpoises (which are hopefully stronger!): rhe (t) V i e a t a b h i jj h a :

(2) Abyapadapa rigged with sabba panabhuta hitdnukampi (compassion for the welfare of all creatures and beings); (3) Vigatathinamiddha rigged with alokasafirii sato sampajdno (perceiving the light" mindful and clearly conscious); (4) Anudclhata rigged with vupasantacitto (rhe cirta inwardly tranquilized) ; (5) Tinnavicikicclta rigged with'akatharitkathl kusalesu dhammesa' (unperplexed as to states that are skilled). (k) SiIe and Freedom of lVfind:


The bhikkhultood is set up and sustained on the basis of which, however. can not be grasped in a single word. speaking, sila is a mode of mind and volition


manifested in speech and bodily action. and is considered the foundation of the whole Buddhist practice. and therewith the training that form the three-fold (slla). path, namely, morality of the eight-fold division concentration and wisdom. This slla division also known as Genuine or Natural Morality (pakati-sila) as distinguished from the exlernal rules or Prescribed Morality (pannatti-slla) which first of the three kinds of consists of : (t) Samma-vaca: right speech, (2') Samma-karnmanta: right action, and (3) Samrna-ajiva: right livelihood.


They, however. have little to do with the citta. As a variant of such a basis that helps a bhikkhz in remaining and sustaining his bhikkhuhood utrril rhe last breath, the prescription Thera Sariputta ate: made by

(L) Indriyesu guttadvard: senses being well guarded; (2) Bhojane mattaflfifi: moderate in eating; and (3) Jdsariyam-anuyutta: engaging in vigilance.

The last one has much to do with the care of the citta as revealed in the following passageut: 'And how, friend, is one given to watchfulness? VV Herein, friend, by day a brother walks up and dowu and then sits. and thus cleanses his heart from states that may hinder (avaraniyehi dhammehi). By night, for the first watch he does likewise. In the middle watch of the night, lying on his right side he takes up the lion-posture, resting one foot on the other, and thus collected and composed fixes his thought on rising up again. In the last watch of the night, at early dawn, he walks up and down, and then sits, and so cleanses his heart from states that may hinder. Thus, friend, is one given to watchfulness'63.

As often as can be, all the activities of a. bhikkhu night and day ought to be watched carefully by himself with the view to cleause lo,is citta from avaragiyehi dhammehi (the things that may hinder), is the possible corollary The clearance of the citta from "dvaraqtlyehi dhammehi" ide al commitment that the citta should undergo. The

may be made here is that tb,e citta is somehow imbedded as a coutrolling agenr in evcry activities that one may undertake because the citta apparently has so close a relation to one's activities that the latter being watchful ideal state of the former: beins clean. may effect on the

K r t h a m c r v u s o j e g r r r y a m r n u y u t t o h o t i r v \ . yl d h a v u s o b h i k f h n d i v r s r m c r n k r m c n a n i s a j j a y r ivrraiiyehi dbemmchi cirram parirodheli V rrrtiy! prrhrmrm yimrmcrti krmcor lirajjaya evarrrtyehi dhrmmehi cillem pari6odheti \p rsttiye maijhimim yrmrm dttsthiaenr pl6senr s l h t r 6 e y y a mL r p p E t i p i d e p t d a m a c c i d h i y a s e t o s r m p r j i n o u t t h i o t r . n n ! m mrnrsitrrirva \y retriya pacchimem yimam prccutthayr crrikrmenr nisrjjiyr ivarrtriyehi dhrmmehi cillam p r r i 6 o d h c t i r y r yE v a m k h o a v u s o j o g a r i y a m r n d y u n o h o t i : S . i v : 1 0 4 - 5 .


(I) Asalinacitta The other



citta'as ideal state of the citta is'asallltta expressed in the greatest evert in the life of the Exalted One: his Nibbana. For the historic event only three stanzas are recorded in the Santyutta Nikaya. The last one uttered by Tltera Anurudha in prase of the Exalted One reads't: No heaving breath left as he lay. The mind in Jltanrd'ssteadfast stav (thita-cittassa). With thought from every craving free, Fixed on the Peace incessantly, So passed the Man-who-saw away. With mind unshaken (asallinena cittenrz) as they came. He suffered pangs of death in peace; Stole o'er his heart the last release: Nibbana of the unfed flame6r. Allrna (p p of aliyati) covers two ranges of meanings: (a) (b) soiled by. In sricking to. adhering, or adhered to. clinging; rather cittena'is rhe foregoing passage the phrase'asallinena 'with the mind unshaken'. which. however, freely trauslated as citta) fits well to the context of ,rlong with'thita-citta'(steadfast rb e E x a l t e d O n e ' s N i b b c l n a. The last state of the citta in terms of emancip"" 'rr that we 'allna (unstained) citta'. The .wing trre going to inquire is ; anonical passage give us an enjoyable way of displayrug loctrine in which there is a series of links. each link containing :he three components. The last and most active component of the rreceding link is the root that all the three components of the ,ucceediug link grow out of. There is the exception of the two ast liuks: in the former the uriddle component is the most active

" KS. iv, 64,

* paribibbuto N a h u a s g a s a p a s s a s ot b i t a c i t t e s s a l a d i n o \ y a n e , o s a n t i m a r s b b h a c a k k h u m a asailineua cittena vedanarlt \v Pa.tlotass eYE nrbbanarn vimokkho cetaso ahu ri: S. i: 159. v

" KS. i, 198.


whereas all the three componeuts of the latter share the same footing of importance and cause the last result: abandoning rebirth, decay and death. The texr reads*: monk, this one is not shameless, reckless and in lack of seriousness. Being thus with seriousness he can grow so as to abandon disregard, so as to abandon stubbornness, so as to abandon friendship with rhe wicked. Having nor wicked friend he can... abandon lack of faith, stinginess and indolence. Being not indolent he can... abandon flurry, lack of self-control and immorality. Being moral he can... abandon distaste for seeing the Ariyans, distaste for hearing Ariyan dhamma, and a carping disposition. Having nor a carping disposition he can... abandon forgetfulrless, discomposure and mental derangemenr. Being not mentally deranged he can... abandon lack of giving thorough attention, following the wrong way and sluggishness of mind. Being not sluggish of mind he can... abandon view of the individual-group. habit lust, and rite. malice and doubt-and-wavering Not delusion. and wrong he lust, handling malice, of and doubtful-and-wavering Abandoning can. . . abandon 'Suppose.

delusion. he can...

grow so as to abandon rebirth,

decay, and










remake the chain our of the remaining. that is. the most active components. the resultant chain would be: (L) Appamatto: seriousness +(2) Kalyanamitto'. with good friends

Hirirna'yam bhikkheve otrappi rpprmello hoti. So &pprmrlto Ermito bhrbbo rnidariyrm p a h i t u m d o v a c r s r l t r m p E h a t i l m p a p r m i t t a t a r . np r h e t u m . S o k r l y r n r m i t t o srmano bhabbo a s s r d d b i y r r . np r h a t u m r v r d a n t r u t a m p a h a t u m k o s a j j a m p a b t r u m . S o i r a d d h r v i r i y o s a m t n o bhabbo uddhrccrr.n prhrtum r6!lnvsrrln paharuln du66tlyam prhatum. So stlrva trmano bhabbo ariydtrrm prbatum prh Atum rdrssenakrmyrteln ariyadhamrnrm Esot|Ikrmy!ttrql
uparambhacittrrrm prhatum, pehetum So stuparrmbhrcitto s&mano bhrbbo mutthrraccrm a6lmpiJsnDEm pahitum pehitum. cetrso vikkhepam rvikkhittrcitto slEino bhabbo So Syonisontana6ikaranr prhitum pEhitum prharum. cetaso liDanam kummaggasevanam So semino pEharum Eilrbbrtrprrama6am bhrbbo srkkayadirrhiln pabrrum vicikicchagr lllnecitto pshirum, So evicikiccho srmano bhabbo ragam pahelum doeem pehatum moh&m prhatum. So ragam prhayr dosam pehtya moham pahaya bhabbo jttim pahtrum jerrln prhalum maratram pahatutrti: A. v: 148-9.

67 S. v: 101, G



Araddltavi riyo:


+ (4) Stlava:

being noral

+(s) A n u p d r a m b l t a c i t t o :
+(6) Avikkltittacitto:

without carping disposition

being nor merrally deranged

+ (7) Alrnacitto: without sluggishness of mind +(8) Avicikiccfto: not doubtful

+ (e) R a g a m

dosam moham pahaya: abandoning lusr malice. and delusion Jatim jaram maranam pahatun: abandoning rebirth. decay. and death.




component to





namely. with the

Anupararnbha citta


an attitudinal


defaults of others. which

nray negatively affect his own rnental elevation. In the sixth link (6) the Avikkhitta citta is identical with a composed state of mind and may suggest its sound condition ready for working . Lina (p.p. of liyati) rrreans ciinging, slow. sluggish; shy, reserved. dull; and. the citta in the seven-liuk (7) is freed from any stagnation especially from wrong views and observances. sticking;






The headings basis Their textual hand, of the of gist citta put out predicates being arise

in tlr.e 2 previous of the rneanings the throughout The of

chapters that canonical

are set up on the attributes texts is on it of mark account on the and out. of other



discussion, headings ideological

therefore, in this interest, be




In fact, they are essential i:sychology, ethics, and metaphysics. aspects of citta as the title of this chapter states, and require deeper analytical and critical study that will be attempted at in the following pages.

WuEne DoES Crrra COME FRoM?

EBC thinkers considered This issue texts. creation. on warns is well as us that as the question difficult of the regarding one. The modern origin yielded vififidna, us to the origin of



most some to


Indian have

scientists to by

the origin them basis of the of In the the

or elnergence attribute pages would terms would attributed

of consciousness such we shall in elaborate

a mystery. superhuman upon the with mana, the the the by Ththree Nikdya


follorl'ing the

inforrnation be citta, allow in use.


elaboration three literature'

accordance and

identification the canonical traditional as identical

to the Buddha




and interchangeable

(a) From
Sankhara lnetaphysics, view

is one in which of the the rnost difficult of the peculiar terms in Buddhist is so


subjective-objective to the East,

of the world

and of happening,


ii: 94.

complete that Occidental impossible for it is almost to get at the root of its meaning in a translation. certain ideas about its three lexically

terminology Here, we just state briefly basic ureauings.

First, it denotes an aggregate of the conditions or properties for a given process or result, such as essential ayusankhara (the sum of the conditions or properties making up or resulting in life or existence), or as kayasankhdra, vacisankhara. cittasankhara (essential conditions. antecedents mental co-efficientsthought, respectively) . Secondly. saikhdra or synergy, requisite for act, speech,

as one of the five

khandha.s can be decide which

rendered as accumulative dispositions that personality is going to be in. direction one's Lastly, sankhd.ra in popular constitutional element as well

meaning implies the mental as the physical. although the

popular philosophy latter in customary materialistic is the predominant factor. Sankhdras are in the widest sense the *world of phenomena". i.e. all things which have been made up by pre-existing causes. Sankhara as dispos itions described above in the second

meaning is considered the most important element in a discussion of human personality. The Samyutta Nikaya says thar disposition is so-called because it processes rftpa, which has already been dispos itionally conditioned, into its present state. This statement is repeated with regard to vedand ( feeling). (dispositions), safifia (perception) - sankhara viftflana and (consciousness)t. Sankhara is the complementar-v factor to the more passive. receptive phase of consciousness" In the somewhat later elaboration of doctrine in the

Abltidhamrna. this constructive aspect is reserved for the firstuamed of the 52 elements of consciousness comprised under

S. iii.


135 sankharas, namely, cetdnd that can be rendered as volition3' So dispositions in the Sutta Nikayas as well as in the later texts take the decisive position for itself and for all the remaining 4 While individual). an of factors khancthas (constituent dispositions are themselves causally conditioned, they process each of the five factors of the hurnan personality, thereby or identity. providing them with the stamp of individuality a individuating of function important rnost the Hence personality belongs to the dispositions, which are inalienable part of the personality. In the most extreme way they can tendency egoi sti c an e x c es s i v e l y creating in function culminating in the belief in a permanent and eternal dtman (self). This may be one reason the Buddha considered the self as a mere "lump of dispositions "a' Dispositions determine our perspectives. Without such perspective we are unable to deal with the sensible world in any meaningful or fruitful manner. The Buddha, however, realized hence that subdued d.ispositions are enlightened perspectives lris characterization of nibbdna (freedom) as the appeasement ot dispositions. D. J. Kalupahana is of the opinion that the dispositions, while carving an individuality out of the immensity of sensible of continuity the in role a valuable ocean, also play in the experiences. The development of one's personality one's rests with or perfection of imperfection direction dispositions. These, therefore, are the determinants of one's vififiana (consciousness)t, a less active phase in one's m.entation process. That can be considered the reason why sankhdra is t}re of consciousness in the paticcasamuppada preceding link series, and is the preceding khandha in the numbered dhammas of five khandhas in whictr vififiana comes up after the former in the succession. In other words, in the origination of vififidna, sankltdra takes the most irnportant and active role'

'c. 's.
5 D.

F. Rhys Davids, BP.'- 51-2

:. r35. J. Kalupahana, HBP: 74-5

(b) From First.

Upiidilna, is



(nt.) is formed by 'that (material) The term literally mears upa * d + dd. substratum by means of which an active process is kept alive or going'. fuel. supply, provisionu. what upd.dana? Upadana The verb corresponding to upadana is upadayati, which *heap up ". 'bind ". *kindle ". It must, therefore, mean mearrs *grasp ". up " . The "collect ", and "build something like 'FIe is called an Ariyan disciple who Samyutta Nikaya says, reduces and does not heap up; who abandons and does not collect; who scatters and does not bind together: who quenches and does not kindle"7. The function of updddna seems to be 'V/hile suggested by another passage in the Majjhima Nikaya. bound and attached. observing the satisfaction, is he, infatuated, the five upadana-factors the fut ure " 8. go on to accumulation for

In the paticcasamuppada context. upadana is defined by enumeratiug its four parts: (1) the building up of love-relations. (2) of speculation, (3) of rules and rituals, and (4) of a soulpersonality represent aspects of These seem ro theory formatiou. firsr part. i. e. building up of love-relation stands for habits of sense-gratification. a dependence on the world: a pleasure-loving personality. The second one stands for collection and remembrance of information and observations in The theoretical in world , absorption type of Hence arr abstract and speculative corstructiou. personality. The third one stands for those that may become important and dominate life: compulsive mind; and the last one order to explain the stands for one's misunderstandiug about oneself , as a result, he builds up ar ego-image and project it into eternity; this is again an edifice of mind.

" PED'. L49. 7 s. iii ' 89. " M. iii: 287

t?Dependent Origination we can say that by upadana there arise compulsive mind and conditioned edificed rninde.The two kinds of mind mentioned above are just So in terrns of aspects of mind (citta) as the resultant tendency that is resulted frOnr total tendencies of one's personality in the process of rebecoming. the paticcasamuppada context, upaddna is the closest link that conditions the next one bhava, and bhava stands in the position of and can be identified with gandhabb: a phase of vififi.dna, which is Synonymous to citta, given that Yes, in vififiarya is the strongest candidate for the executive chief in the process of re-becoming. In other words, it is not exactly that t,ififiana comes from upadana but the generation of vififidna is directly conditioned bY uPadana. of mind and connection personality, R. E. A. Johansson in DPEB gives a supportive account for the above said. His exposition can be shortly paraphrased as follows: updddna is the ninth link in the conventional paliccasamitppada series, conditioned by tanhd, . . t h i f S t- , " C r a v i n g " , a n d a C O n d i t i O n f o r b h A v a , " b e C O m i n g" , a S About the upadana in the long as rhe five khandha.t are regarded as the comin; personality. Its function is, generally speaking, to bridge the gap between craving and production. so upad.dna is closely connected with the process of, and *At the time when a being lays aside preparations for, rebirths. - this I say is this body but is not yet born into another body built on craving. For craving becomes at that time updddna (agent) for that"ro. This point is clearly confirmed by another *Whatever is ambition and passage from ilne Majjhima Nikaya: that are desire (chandaraSo) for the five updddna-factors upatl.rina of theIn"rr. This passage seelns to yield out that

R. E. A.

Johanssoll , DPEB:69-70.

'os. i.r: 4oo.

" M. iii: 16.

138 apddana would simply express the intensified wish that itself can be sufficient cause for certain type of rebirth12. denotes stretclr. extent. reach, compass. region, sphere, locus, place, spot; position, occasion. Secondly, it covers exertion, doing, working , practice. performance . And, lastly, its third meaning includes sphere of perception or sense in general, object of Ayatana has three basic meanings. Firstly, it order. Ayatana relation, cannot be rendered by a single English word to cover both sense orgars (mano being regarded as the sixth sense) and sense objects13. Th.e ayatanani (plural of ayatana here mean relations, groups. two divided into reciprocalities) are functions. thought. sense organ and object; ajjhattikani and bahirani. inner and outer, c o m p r i s e t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( 1 ) c a k k h u : e y e, ghana: nose, (4) jivhd: tongue, (5) kaya: body, (6) mano: mind; (7) rupa: visible object, (8) sadda: sound, (9) gadha: odour, ( 10) rasa: taste, ( 11) photthabba: tangible object, and (LZ) dhamma: cognizable object. The first six belong to aiihattikdni, and the remaining six, to bdhirdnilo. The failure of Sati in grasping properly the doctrine of respectively, and (2) sota: ear, (3)

dependent originatioo of all sankhara as taught by the Buddha got culminated into his misunderstanding about the nature of virt.iiana. looking upon it as immutable entily surviving life after life. The Buddha reproved him, saying: "Now then, foolish man. whence got you such a doctrine as being teaching of mine? Have I not taught you by many methods that viiifrana arises from a cause; and except from a cause, vififidna cannot vifift.ana is designated only in accordance with the condition causing it: visual viftiiana from the seeing eye and the seeD objecr; auditory vifiiiana from the hearing ear and the sound... manoviftiiarya from mano and mental object. come to be?... And Just as a fire is different according to rhe kind of fuel' T h e a b o v e p a ss a g e i n a n u t s h e l l c o n t a i n s t h e w h o l e o f t h e Buddhist theory of the origination of virtfiana, in which cakkhu:


D R. E. A. Joharrssoln. PEB: 66-67 Cpd : lE3 Abridged fron PED: 105a.

rhe seeing eye and rupa: its specific seen object.

and so on

are inevitable

for the arisins

of vififidna.








unwholesome motives that have much to do with the arising of ttififirilza are anusayas. Anusayas are sometimes misunderstood as the sub-consciousness in the parlance of psychoanalysis because they imply the dormant or latent disposition. PTSD defines them as bent, bias, proclivity, and the persistence of a dormant or latent disposition, predisposition, tendency of mind leading to various kinds of evil inclinations. The term anusaya, derived from the root anusi to Iie, connotes 'to live along with' or 'to cling to'. Buddhaghosa says that a passion is called anusaya because its pertinacity. Seven such tendencies are numerated: ( 1)

of (grudge), (3) kama-rdga (sensuous lust) , (2) patighapratigha di!!hi (speculative views), (4) vicikicchc? (skeptical doubt), (5) nafla (conceit), and (6) (7) existence),

(craving bhavardga for continued (ignorance)tu. avijj a Among the

unwholesome motives anusayas are always in bad sense. In the oldest texts the word usually occurs in a grammatical absolute srructure where there is no mention of the cause or direction of rhe bias. In addition to the above seven, some other tendencies are also mentioned : ahankdramamankd.ra-mdndnusayatt (tendency to 'I' sakkdya-ditthdnusaya and 'tnine'), pride that produces an individuality), theory about silabbatapardmds dnusaya (tendency to cling to duties and rituals) , bydpaddnusaya (tendency to agressiveness)tE. (tendency to form a the above mentioned terms refer to undesirable traits and with one exception they seem to belong the area of As in other similar consciousness rather than behaviour. All

ls M. i: 256f. 1 6E B C , l : 7 7 5 b It s. ii: 275. IEM. i: 433.

140 enumerations functions bhavaraga motivation of no distinction is made three between different



anusayas, kamardga,

and byapada seem to belong to the area of proper; the two anusayas. patigha and mdna are

emotional ones; dillhi, sakkaya-diffhi and avijjd are cognitive, sllabbataparamasa rnay refer to a type of behaviour or attitude, and the rest to combinations It of is, the what for areas. types There of are few are indications in the texts to produced by the anusaya . show activity

instance, said in the 'I' Saanyutta Nikaya that "the tendencies to pride that produces and 'mine' have been rooted out from the venerable Siriputta; therefore a deterioration and change even in the Teacher would not give rise to grief, lament, suffering. sorrow and despair"re. The presence of anusaya would, emotional attachment. The Nilcdya records that 'what a tendency to, then. in this case produce

one plans, intends and has

that becomes a basis for the establishment of"; the next passage of the text corrects this and says v i f t . i i a n a z o .F r o m figures rather vi rtiiana . is enough as basis for the establishment of these passages we can conclude that anusaya strongly as condition for the emergence of

that a tendency

(c) From

Ndma-Rdpa in two contexts, namely, as the

Rupa occurs frequently

first khandha and in the compound nama-rupa that is one of the series. In stereotyped flow. links in the paticcasamuppada nama-rupa is said to be conditioned by vifiiiana, and is itself a condition of phassa (contact). The Sar.nyutta Nikaya says that setrsation, ideation, will, contact, attention - this is called Dame. The four elemeuts and the form depending on them - this is called riipazt. The ndma-part has a certain similarity to the four last kltandlta-factors and consists of central psychological

'' S. ii: 275 ) uI b i d . ' . 6 5 'r s. ii: 3f.

1 A1

r .+l



meaning "body"tt.



is probably





cases, namely

Nama, tberefore, in a specified tneaning is defined as a rrretaphysical term opposed to rilpa. It comprises the 4 irnrnaterial factors of an individual. These as the noetic principle combinated wirh the material principle make up the individual as it is distinguished by "name and body" from other individuals. Hence ndmarilpa is identical with individuality, individual being. These rwo components in an individual beine are inseparable23. Rtipa terminologically covers form, figure. appearance, principle of form. According to pdli expositors, rupa takes its designation from rftpati which is (not quite correctly) given as 'form' "change". Its rendering is opposed by modern rnterpret,ations and discussions; and as better philosophical rerms 'matter' and 'material quality' are recommended. Rfipa_ ias prefix) means of such and such a form, like, kind. of a certain condition or appearance. In this application rtTpa is very -hood, f requent and similar . to English i. e. an abstract formation. As philosophical principle of (material) form, various groups

technical materiality,


rftpa visibility.


to There are metaphysical sross


systematization, in which rfipa functions as the material factor, by the side of other more subtle factors2a. Now, let us go to the nieanings

that the term citta suggests. on one hand, citta is sometimes used in a way that suggests a personal identity from existence to existence" The uddna says, "without understanding the thoughts of his inner sense he runs with restless citta from existence to existence ,,. FIence citta seems ro signify :nd of the spectrum. on lor thoughr processes.
rr R. E. A. Johansson, DPEB; t3 PED; 350. to op. ci.t. : 5'7 . 4 t' R. E. A. Johansson, DPEB:

entity25. This is one the other hand, citta is clearly used citta is called samudaya-dhamma

a surviving




(something that comes to be) and vaya-dhamma (something that p a s s e d a w a y ) 2 6 .A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . o n e e x t r e m e i s t h e d e c i s i o n that citta is survi.ving entity from existence to existence, the other extreme is that citta is merely a thought or an idea. It seems ro be that 'middle path' should be relative. In R. E. A. ilohansson's opinion. citta typically has meaning between these psychological personal factor a extremes, referring to responsible for the unity and continuity of the human being but without any suggestion of permanence substance". Bur in terms of the latter extreme, the Saqnyutta Nikaya cittassa samudayozs: Citta (as a

says. nd.rnarfipa-samudayd

thought) arises as a result of the arising of name and form. It is interestiug to note that this is one among the rare contexts in which citta is said to arise from a cause'o; that cause being ndma and rupa. in which dependent upon ndmarf,ipa3o. system Buddhist condirioned processestt. In clearly defined in the form The In rhe sailre line. elaborating upon the manner viiirtana comes to be, the Buddha says that it is






they are the Samyutta Nikaya, 'the process-terms. The body four is

on them... The body is elements and building *There are six groups of sensations: produced from food'32. sensation produced by contact with the eye, . . .with the eat. etc. "33 In the same way, safirta. sankhara. and vififtana are defined as sensory processes and classified according to sense the Buddhist this section with modalities. We conclude conviction that all of the khandhas are derived from phassa


i i , 299 A Johansson, DPEB:

"R.E. 2 8s - v : 2" R,

ls8 ls8


E,. A. Johansson. DPEB:

" uD . i i : 6 2 - 3 . ttt M. i: 191. r 2s . i i i s 9 f t - 'I b i d . : 5 9 .











f rom ndmarilpa3a.

(d) Origination

of Citta

T}re EBC supplies us with aurhentic ideas about the origin of citta: Citta is not a metaphysical entity in the sense in whicir entity is defined as a thing's existence as opposed to its qualiries and relations. Citta is included under the generic term tlltantma and aIl dhammas which consist of the five Aggregates of Grasping (paficupaddnakkhandhd) arises invariably as a result of the collocation While :rhilosophical of a wide varietv of causal factors3s. the difficulty of this age-old problem, providing a

recognizing solution to

and yet not rssurning the existence of a superhuman creator, the Buddha ;'xplained the emergence of consciousness as a natural causal rrocess denying that consciousness would emerge in the rbsence of the necessary conditions36. In the Majjhima Nikaya -'mergence of consciousness is compared to the arising of fire, .ihich depends upon various conditions such as dry-wood, etc. I his analogy of fire should not be taken to mean that the 3uddha accepted the reductionism that would consider fire to -e srored up in the form of energy in the material that goes to -roduce it. In fact, on another occasion, the Buddha insisted ':tat an extinguished fire does not get stored up elsewhere3t. The Buddha has in various ways spoken of the independent rigination of the mind and has also stated that there is no , rising of the mind except through the collocation of causal rcrorssE. The Madhupindika Sutta sets out clearly the causal ,)nnection between the conceptualising activity of the mind and -e birth of illusions, obstacles, obsessions and hindrances tt-r :iritual progress: dependent on mind and mental object there
3.. E. A. Johansson, DPEB:127 r1. i: 191. '\rd. r: 257f. 'iid, i: 487. 'ltid. i: 256-257.

t44 arises mental consciousness: the coming together of these three is contact; conditioned by contact there arises feeling; what one feels one cognises; what one cognises one reasons out; what one reasons out one becomes obsessed with; on accouot of the obsessious the individual is assailed by imagined notions in respect of what can be known by the mind in the past, present and future3e. So the origination of citta or vififidna - a phase in the processes of life of an individual mental and physical as well - cannot be visualized in separation with the other ones.

Tne PsvcHoLocICAL SusrecrIvENESS oF CrrrA

In infinitely ancient Buddhism. there was a faith in citta as

ductile and plasticoo. and in the sense-apparatus as so many indriya 's - that is, ruling or controlling things, faculties, not passive as mirrors, but engaged in clash and collisionot. Judged by its general usage in the PAli Nikaya, citta appears basically to refer to the center and focus of man's emotional nature as well as to the seat and organ of thought in its active, dynamic aspect. Citta plays a more central and crucial role in Buddhism than in any other Indian system of philosophic t h o u g h t a n d r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e . I t i s p r o b a b l y t o b a se o n t h i s that citta is defined in its most general sense as the invisible and incorporeal energiser of the body and as the activator of the personality of mano'. It should be reminded here that man in Buddhist system is a psychophysical combination of ndma and rupa (mind and sankhara saftfta (perception), Vedana (sensation), body). (mental formations) and vifr.fiana (consciousness) ate the nonphysical factors in man collectively regarded as ndma (mind) (the four great primaries or elements) u'hich are described as extension (i.e. earth-pa.thavi), cohesion (i.e. water- apo), heat (i.e. fire-teio) and vibration (i.e. windand cattriri mahabhittdni

"t lbid. i : 1 1 1 . ot'A. i, 5.

o 1c . A F . R h y s D a v i d s . B I P D B : u'EBC 4: 169.


t45 vAyo) are rfipa conditioned consequently deterrnined arrd destiny rlre higher expressions r:itta); and the physical In and by factors in by man the the collectively personality activity for of the regarded of man citta as is and


Buddhism, sustained

the character citta43. As

and destiny being

of man are also likewise character to which There his citta are by ro of understanding is (he attributed. shall applies (he


of man citta is the center knowledge such called abhifiiia as cittena...


understand,acittam upatthapeti4s



regard All

to the social schools respect. of The



a person role, agree monks, comes refer of the

and the world on the primacy to

hc of be of

lives in citta leadership. citta in resulted 1s swept this from

rakes the pre-erninent

swaying agreement under

its ideological seems

Buddhism pervading world, world to unity to The

the saying,


is led by thought, the power More to the specifically purposeful a to of of

away by thought. citta of or is in seelns activities. less

rhought-a7, which sp e a k i n g , rrganization :haracteristic submit rrhers; 'ittao8. more this

is attributed This

to the Buddha.


purpose will or

is normally purposes

of the human early


but it is also possible as a function

completely Buddhism












that take the form of mental rredispositions, proclivities, tendencies and dormant and latent level of forses that activate themselves at the subliminal :onsciousness. This tendency and potentiality to act as and ' . r ' h e no c c a s i o n a n d o p p o r t u n i t y d i c t a t e i s t e r m e d a n u s a y a . T h e Jispositional :rrornent of explosion and active manifestation is called pariyutt ':rina. Citta is also viewed as a conscious center of activity,


Op. Cit.:378. .t. i: 9. lbid. iii:. 437 . Johansson, DPEB: 160-16i

R. E. A. A. ii:

l 7 ' 7 a l u d ,S . i : 3 9 . Johanssort, DPEB: 159.

R. E. A.

i I

146 purposiveness, In the context of the teachiog on oon-substantiality citta may be considered as for the best single psychological term most appropriate denoting the character of man's personalityon. continuity and emotionality. Citta has been functionally subj ected to a three-fold

represented by the classification distinction between the effective (vedana), cognitive (safifia), and conative (cetand). It is categorically stated that the effective and the cognitive are states dependent on citta. And cetana clearly is the causative form of citta (cinteti ) ceteti, cetayati ) cetand). The affective aspect refers to the feeling tone of citta; the cognitive aspect is concerned with knowing. believing. reasoning and perceiving; and the conative aspect is concerned with actitrg. willing. course, striving. function and desiring . These three aspecrs do not, of separately. As mental processes all three mental

aspects operate all

at once by way of concurrent action and inter-action. Cognitioir is associated with conation that in turn is bouud up invariably with rhe hedonic quality ro feeling. Manifold are the e p i s t e m o 1 og i c a l 5 o . funct io ns of citta. moral as well as

Iu terms of psychoanalysis. the ego of human personality which is experienced as the "self " or 'I " and is in contact with the exrernal world through perception. It is the part. which remembers. evaluates. plans, and in other ways. is responsive to and acts in the surrounding physical and social world. The ego coexists" in psychoanalytic theor5,. with the id and superego. as one of three agencies proposed by Sigmund Freud in his attempr to describe the dynamics of the human mind. Ego (Latin for 'I") comprises, in Freud's terminology. the executive functions of personality: it is the integrator between the outer and inner worlds. as well as between the id and tb.esuperego. The ego gives continuity and consistency to behaviour by providing a personal point of reference, which relates the events of the past (retained in memory) and actions of the
49 -50



Op. Cit. : l7O.

141 L+t

present ego as




future above in

(represented citta its reminds function "Ideation


anticipation as and the they center

and of are

imagination). perceptual activitv

So the Buddhist and cognitive

us of the Freudian sensation


activity. on

rrrental processes of citta"st.




are called



By Supnnnco

This is a sort of self-accusation or self-censorship. According to Freud there is a superego, that is in position to be critical of tlre ego, so there is in Buddhism an "I" who may be critical of citta and may want to subjugate it and change it by means of the Buddhist trainings:. The individual's identification with his citta is far from complete. There is frequently a clear *tny citta". The distinction between "me" and text says: "For a long time indeed I have been defrauded, deceived and cheated by this citta, for I have been collecting body, sensarion, and consciousness. Conditioned by this collection there was growth for me... "t3. Here citta is made responsible for all the false values and activities that keep the going. "I" paliccasamuppAda development am something - can see that all this is falsesa. different. "I ideation, activities It is noted that a fool is usually supposed not to

contemplate on the activities of citta so that citta eludes itself in the guile of himself per se- He is ignorant of the action of citta. Citta activates itself through dependent origination but aside of this causal activity citta in its true nature does not yield itself to perception and conceptionss. The Theragdthd. records the story of Thera Tdlapuya who previously was born professional actor of talent. He led his happy
5l t? s.

I ife










irrt 293.

D R. E. A. Johatrssorr, PEB: t'M. i, 511. 5o R . E . A . J o h a r r s s o r t ,D P E B :



148 performance amuse others he should be reborn in the heavenly realm of laughing. In his interview with the Buddha he recognized that this was a false belief and became a bhikkhu, after due srudy he attained arahantship. It is in the process of atraining that the interesting dramatic dialogue wirhin him took place. Here Talapula's personality is dualized and put on the is to

theater stage. And the TheragilhA relates the loudly spoken dialogue between Talaputa and his citta. In the dialogue we meet the *I " (Talapula) who carried out his right of choice leaviug behind the household life and leading a monk's one and his citta who was fraudulent. Ir can be referred that as being collected into the canonical text Theragdtha, Talaputa should not be a monk of low elevation. Nevertheless. there was still the dissonance between the appearance of his chosen life and the processes of his inner spiritual life. Previously. citta had begged him to give up worldly its intention life,

and he had followed life:

and tasted the meditational

'Tis many years since thou. my heart, didst urge: 'Come llow, enough of this house-life for theel' See theu! I've left the world. Wherefore. O heart. Dost lack devotion to thy task?56 In general, citta had begged of him all the good activities good processes. outwardly including of course but, more important, inwardly. For example, the development of human capacities. culminating in threefold knowledge in the Buddha's teachiug. of which the final process is release from influxes, or achievemeut of the deathless". Citta had begged him of a close observation of the factors as originally suffering. He should be devoid of tbeir causest*. Citta had begged him to stop ceto's preoccupation with meno by way of insight and to understand
tt tu EBC. 4: L79.

PEB: 373, v. I to1 t'Ibid. rll4-il IJ. to lbid. I I 16 .

the imper[rauent as suffering. rhe emptiness as not-self , the pain as destructionse. In all prescribed circurnstances of life. citta had begged of him the well-controlled self*. But he was a urau in conflict. Citta was then tempting him and transient. called * cala " whereas

toward the irnpermaoent uacAla" is often an attribute of rtibbdna. In fact. his citta was obstructing hiru from reaching his goalo'. This process within a conflict must be calmed down. Citta. which is formless. far going. wandering alone, lnust be guided by the rhinking of ttibbdna62. He had chosen his way of life in obedience with his citta- and now that same citta begged him to go back to the old way of life63. In a good sense he had done state what citta asked of him throughout many births. knowing rhat samsdra's suffering was caused by citta. whether he reached human existences. deva-like existence. or he reached downward existencess. It was all very frustrating and he accused bis citta of playing with him as with a lunatic: Nay now. thou shalt not dupe rue as of old Time after time, again. ever againLike mountebank showing his little masque; Thou playest guileful trics with me. As with a lunatic6-'. He closed his blaming words with the question. "Tell me. of

ruy heart. wherein arn I at fault?"*. But all this came to an end. This was time for him to ruake a surnmary stateruent: 'To-day rhat heart I'll hold in thorough check,"o'. He had learued by experience. The teacher had made him see things in the world as they are; "Now. heart, leap forward in the Conqueror's

t' Ibid. r L t 7 .

* Ibu. t 1 1 9 .
u' oz Ibid. I tzl. lbid. I t22.

" t I b i d . L 1 2 3- t L Z 4. * Ibtd. I 1 2 6 - 1 1 2 8 . "5 Ibitl . I t ? 9 . * Ibid. t t29. '' Ibid. t r 30.

150 rule 'uE. This is something new for the process of cicta; it was governed, under the conrrol of the gteat Seer's teaching. Citta will be well guarded and developed, without support in any existence6e. In the last three stanzas we hear the last fading echo of the conflict between him and his cieca. because citta had led him around iostead of living with the teaching of the great compassionate SeerTo. The echo of the conflict was fading away within a firm belief of a prosperous future: Like creature of the wild roaring at large In the fair flowering jungle, so thou too Hast gone up on the lovely cloud-wreathed crest. There on the mountain, where no crowd can come. Shalt find thy joy, O heart, for never doubt But thou shalt surelv win to the BevondTr. 4, CITTA AND EMANCIPATION S/e have already beeu in touch previous chapter but the elaboration character and based mainly with then the is issue in the in


occurrences of the key word citta and the ideas that the text concerned suggests. In this section the emancipation of citta is further dealt with in on the textual a more analytical and critical manner.

the word citta itself or its In the Majj hima Nikaya, compounds occurs in around 1.500 contexts. which can be important The reduced to some basic coherent patterns. the Majjhima Nikaya can be illustrated by the Sutta 148 in which 36 processes. constituting human beings. are mentioned. Among them are mano, mind and/or thought, and coherence within vif,rtatta, mind and/or consciousness. It is said about either of them thar they are anattd (not-self). Citta, however, is noI mentioned. whereas the idea of this very sermon by the Buddha becomes clear at the end through the often recurring phrase. 'the minds (cittdni) of as many as sixty monks were released o sl b i d . r 1 3r .
6e to lbid. l l40- l 141 LL43. lbid.

15' (remaining) - " expresses the experience of nibbana-rel.ease. from influxes with no grasping The ((I Citta here

" that is referred to in the vimutti-process as it is given through arahant-formula and its contexts brings into f o c u s c i t t a a s b e i n g r e l e a s e d . W i t h i n t l r . eM a j j h i m a N i k d y a t h i s is the case recurring in 2r of the 152 suttas. It reinforces the view held by R. E. A. Johansson who looks upon citta as "the core of our personality around rvhich all personal processes revolve"" as referred to above.

The understanding of the Four Noble Truths is responsible for the freedom of citta. IL7 numerous rexrs of the Majjhima Nikaya that we read about the rnind in the process of being released; this is the recurrent pattern, 'cittant vimuccittha' (rnind was released), which is preceded by the realization of Four Noble Truths. The release is of threefold, the translation funning, "...for me knowing thus, seeing thus, my mind was dsavd (influxes) released from of sense pleasures... of existence... of not knowing, and in the release my knowledge came to be 'citta is released..."'7a. comments that on seeing reality as it is, the lruman mind is released from asava. Through the word dsavd, and its connection with dukkha, we lnay see that this threefold existential release as rnentioned above is a departure from in any form. suffering We may also see the culmination in the knowledge that is built upon the actual experience of releaset5. release of citta, in the highest sense, refers to cetovimutti attained by following the ariya-magga: the noble The path, or by conforming rhis context, the term to t}re brahma-cariya: the noble life. In with another is almost always coupled Jan T. Ergardt

' M. iii: 287. -t J"tr T. Ergartd, The Concept of Citta in Some Early Buddhist Texts and Jurtg's Analytical Psychology, BWP: 39-40. 'o M. iii: 36 M. i: 23, rt7,249l. M. ii 93,272 'f t-t Jan . Ergartd, op. Cit: 50-1.

152 term, pefifrdvimuttiT6. In this state of freedom, citta becomes perfectly free from all asavd'. " dsavehi cittdni vimucciqnsu"TT . This refers ro the attainment of arahantship, the highest and the noblest state78,the final release from samsara. The term pafiiiavimutri appears to be complementary to its preceding term cetovimutti, and stresses the fact that emancipation of citta is attained by insight. The person whose citta is thus emancipated is called vimuttacittaTe. Cetovimutti, with cittavimutti, according to Buddhaghosa, is synonymous

and is named for the consciousness of the fruit of arahantsb,ip thar is also free from the bondage of all passions. The term cetovimutti is also used in different contexts with reference of variant srages of emancipation of mind that is lower than the perfect freedom referred to above. The different names by which these srages of emancipariotr are referred to indicate rather the means that thev are attained witht0. That the term pafiftavimutti appears to be complementar)' to its preceding term cetovimurri. therefore. to stress the fact of emancipation of mind is not fully satisfactory to readers of the critical types. Hence the two vimutties are later on further interpreted by R. E. A. Johansson who assigns equal footing to b'oth of them and somehow keeps them asunder as this: Cetovimutti Ls the same as freedom from desire and attained b1' practicing * calm " , i. e. samddhi . Pafifiavimutti means freedom from ignorance and is attained through vipassand. i. e. introspective on this observations of the impermanence. impersonalitl'. suffering etc. of all processestt. Another noticeable elaboration issue is from D J. Kalupahana who attributes

D. i: 156. iii: 78; S. i: l20; A. i:123 M. iii : 7Q,78O.

78 79 tto t11

D. i: 156. M . i : 1 40 . EBC. 4: ll0. R . E . A . J o h a o ss o n . D P E B : 2 1 3 - 5 .


cetovtmuttt cessation*t.








Cetovimutri appalrihita. Atl negative. are misunderstanding

is But

described D. J.



animitta, safeguards

and any

of the descriptive

terms meant by cetovimutti


irupressed by their negativity. saying that "state does one not of cessation" the from emergiug *freedom of thought". if one had uecessarily, however. lose the *rvaninq of iufluxes "*'. atrained the knowledse of the In fine. the freedom of mind consists in eliminating the

restricrions that it iurposes upon itself . The system of Buddhist meditation points the way in rvhich citta can outgrow its own coufines. One who achieves freedom comprehends thus: Thus indeed srates that have not been in me coure to be: haviug been rhey pass away. He. not feeling attracted by these states. not feeling repelled, independent. uot infatuated, freed. released. dwells with a mind unconfined. comprehending: there is greater freedom further on*o. According thu s clear to the teachings embodied in the Nikayas it is the pur ified citta alo ne is capable of


understanding what is best for oneself. what is best for others and the truth that transcends the sphere of the untutored cittaEs. as and cetovimutti separateness of pafirlavimutti So the suggested by R. E. A. Johansson does not sound convincible.


As regard to ethical institution citta is the determinant of one's purity or impurity. The Samyutra Pitaka says thar beings become defiled on account of the defilement of their citta and. therefore. become purified on account of the purification of

u' s. u' D. *o M. t-t A.

ivl. ?95. J. Kalupahana. HBP: 48. iii: 25. i, g.

154 their citta86. The Nlftdya also gives us the cause and the reason of the defilements: that is because their citta is given to pleasure and is overwhelmed with pleasure and also is in beings are infatuated with pursuit of pleasure, therefore pleasure, are bound with pleasure and being in such bondage are thereby defiled and corrupted by pleasureEt. But in other Cases citta plainly takes the role of one among several motives Motives of behavior are deciding one's purity or impurity. frequently erumerated in the Nikdyas. Greed, hatred, illusion. not paying proper attentioD, a wrongly directed citta is the cause of doing bad action, of committing a bad actiontE. In a parallel passage, the opposites of these are given as motives of hatred. greed. freedom from good actions: freedom from freedom from illusion, proper attention. and rightly directed citta^'. But in general , citta plays a ceutral role in the moral and In the untrained behaviour of the individual. intellectual worldly individual citta is afflicted with morally reprehensible needs and emotionsm.

6. Crcre


That a man with well-controlled citta can shake the earth is a conviction of the Buddhists who are convinced by the 'A recluse or a brahmin with magic following Nikaya passage: may. by intense power who has his citta well controlled... concentration on the minutest portion of earth and on the image of expanse of watel. make this earth for instrumentally is used Citta tremble'el. 'cetasa ceto something in itself . The Pati text says, 'grasping fully And it is rendered in the case as the widest
E6^ 5. lll: 1 5 1. *' Ibid . : 7 4 .



discerning pariccane with one's

tt 6e n nt n

A. v: 86f. R . E , A . J o h a n s s o n ,D P E B : I A I EBc.

4: I7O.

D . i i : 1 0 8. lbtd ., 14.

155 rnind'e3. tthikkhu realms about note ability the the that of The who where meditational by his mind can also enable went make up the trait. of some a bhikkhu to the

to a

ascend to the heavens. The DIgha rneditational

Nikclya relates a story about rnind Brahma, questioning interesting with About ro citta


he could speak to t}:.e Maha 'We, magga. by the way, could Maha Brahma, in terms it is and his in the

the the

manner rhar body

he dealt thanks nor

the the in ro


is so human Buddha

of psychological to elimination

noticeable physical

formlessness-meditation, Buddha could make painful sensation



Similarly, nonk who

the Nikaya so (samahite

texts high a

also recorded degree of he could entered in the

the case where that




cencentrate<I citta by means of


see rhe way leading case is that height of the fire-element ro the of another visualized this so physical between

to the Brahma-world (tejo-dhdtum seven palm seven palm speaking, light world. and But intensely objective

and spoke a rnonk

to themea. Another upon air




trees and projected it is possibly fire that in during he his taken his it

a flame ro mean as there real was

to the height that the monk and

trees, so that it blazed

and glowede5. Psychologically experienced into the n.o difference


projected experience


and subjectivee6.

As we have already three quite kinds of exclusively


in the previous are expelled is already those evil of

chapter, in all settled advance The of

the and in in


vitakka citta and three

by those whose


of Mindfulness, the Foundations 'animittaryt (meditation samddhirf' Nikaya brethren: hurting. remainder says, And in "There of ate lust, ways heart these of thoughts him

whose ways

of formlessness). ill-will,

DIgha of four

thought, without the

thoughts abides

thoughts in

these evil whose


cease utterly


" PED: 424. to D. ii' 220. nt Ibi cr. l i i : - 2 7 . tu R. E. A. Jolranssott, DPEB:


156 stations of mindfulness, or who practices concentration that is withdraws from obiects "e7. Citta trained and developed by meditation can be of many healthy states expressed in compounds as citta-kallatd: readiness of mind; citta-anupassand: introspective awareness of mind: citta-ujukatd: rectitude of mind citta*ekaggatd: onepointedness of mind citta-passadhi: calmness of heart and serenity of mind citta-bhavand: development of mind cittakammafrfrata: pliancy of mind; citta-pagufifiata: proficiency of mind; citta-lahuta: buoyarcy of mind; citta-visuddhi: purification of mind ; citta-samadhi: concentration of mind; citta-s amod.hdna: calming of thought ; citta-vimutti or cetovimutti: freedom of mind: citta-vftpasama: tranquility citta-sampadd: attainment of bliss by the mindnE. The Buddha develops of mind:

a scale of pleasures in which superiority is given to the pleasure of the mind in ascending level of jhdna. There is pleasure to be attained from the five types of love-objects (kamagund), but berter is the pleasure in the first jhana. But even this is inferior to the pleasure in the second jhana. Each level of samddhs gives a greater pleasure than the preceding one. The highest rype of pleasure is experienced in the last stage of j hana: the cessation of ideation and seusationoe. Citta through meditative cultivation is able ro ger rid of emotional uustableness and characterized by vilpasanta'. calmedroo, anejjappatta'. imperturbablelor, avera: free from gutta angertot. danta rakkhita samvuta'. tamed controlled guarded restrained respectivelyto'. untroubledle. anavila:
ot 'r


iii.79. 4: r73 .

" M. i: 398-4oo. looD. i.71. tut lbtd-..76. "'' Ibitr. : 247 . tot A. i, 7. "'olbid.: g.

157 Instead of the emotion. should distinctive affirrus that metta of (frieudliness) been friendliness is has


developed'u'. It characteristically Majjhima free from

be clear that Buddhist

Nikaya desire.

reacrion. emotional The though the desires have gone. "that citta which is

there may still

be ruotivation to activity.

hatred and illusion originating from this io6. Citta may incline towards there is skilled moral habits " ardour. devotion. perseverance and exertionroT. As a result of the training. we find then a development from from impulsiveness immaturitv to and determination, and desire to will marurity. from fickleness to character'o*. Thar cirta properly trained would




freedom from risavd is recorded in the Digha Nikdyatoe. The monk can direct his citta and channel it towards tbe deathless supports the conviction that citta that which 'If a monk's citta is unattached to the formattains nibbana. element (sensation. ideation. the activities. consciousness) and elementrro. This is detached aud free from the influxes without building up. then it is steadfast by it freedom, content by its steadfastness. and and free from by being content it does not crave further: craving ir by itself attains to parinibbdna"Ltr. seen in the third chapter that a bhikkhu whose citta is well iurbedded lvith desirable qualities can apply or direcr it to others' citta and knows wtrat are going on have already rhereat, whether they are wholesome with vita-ragam, vitadosarp. vita-moha m. and so forth; or unwholesome with saraga rp, sa-closaryr- sa-moharyt, and so forth. Generally, citta being well cultivated would be equipped with many feasible qualities especially the penetratiug and discerning keenness or power that helps in reading the citta of others. This ability
loi 'oo tot



M. i: I E. lbid. ii: ?7 .

D. iii: 239. roE R. E. A. Johansson, DPEB: to"D. ii:81. r r oA . i v : 4 2 3 . t" s. iii: 45.


158 its full-fledged development forms one of the six abhinnas the Buddhist highest sainthood. arahanrship. The of

Nikayas mention many attributes of ^ well-elevated citta. Its plenty of healthy attribute s are listed as follows : asalllna'. paribhdvita: developed; fully healthy; andtura: and active kammaniya: unattached; santussita'. contented; pliable; sammujujdta: straight and upright; virarta: detached; .t from free vltamoha: vttadosa, steady: vitardga, hita: free covetousness, malevolence, and confusion; avipallattha: from perversion; visuddha: full pure; of sappabhdsa: resplendent: ajjhattam and serenity. calm inward pariyoddta. concentrated; samdhita: upasanto: tranquil; free from blemmishes; vigatupakkilesa . cleaused; anaigana: supple. mudubhfita: purged of defilements; adventitious mutla: freed; and patisissanyyha unperturbed; anejjappauot vilpasanta: utterly releasedttt.

7 . CrcTa oF NEGATIVE TRAITS In this aspect, citta seems to be similar to the Freudian corcept of uego" which in Buddhist system should be tamed otherwise it can go astray and invite undesirable aftermath failure in the attainment of emancipation. Whereas the Buddhist 'In whose function is to keep the advance of one's personalitl is similar to the Freudian'superego(I" and citta have already been And the dispute between disposed in the previous section. to be always upwards

(al Negative


and Attributes

of Citta

is au exposition of the modifications of citta by the verbs predicated to it. More than 3O verbs can be taken out from the Saqnyutta Nikaya among which the most following




159 L:haracteristic verb of citta is cinreti: to thinkr13. Other verbs

can be listed as follows. o Adhimuccati: inclined o o Aradlzeti: Matheti: It is drawn to, feels attached to, is


and indulges

in its objectr14. and convincestt5. crushes, harasses and

It pleases, propitiates It agitates, disturbs,

upsets an individualr16. o Namati: lt bends, It directs and appliesrrt. holds back, restrains, refuses,

ct Nivdreti: obstructs. o

keeps back,

forbids It

and warnstts. stretches forth, holds out, itself takes up,

Pagganhati: exerts, strains




in relation

to its objectsrre. o o Pahafifiati: Pakkhandati, jumps o It strikes, asldati, kills, destroys, It and beats downt20. springs forward,


on to, takes to and rejoices It aspires, longs

in its objectl2l. for, prays for and

Panidahati: intendsr22.

o o o

Paridayhati: Passambhati: Rdgo cittam

It is burnt

and gets scorchedr23.

It calrns down and quietenstt*. anuddharytseti: Citta is overcome easily by

the animal


and the untutored


' 1 3s . i , 5 7 . "4 lbid. v: 409-41o. 'ts Ibid. ii: 107. "6 llrid. iv: 210. t" I b i t l . i : L 3 7. ' t ul b i d - , 1 . t'e Ibid. v: g. '" Ibid. iv 73. ')'Ittid. i: 98. ' " I b i d . ; 1 33 . 't'Ibid.: tt 188.

Ilrid. v: 33.


160 Sajjati, hayhati, bajjhati: up with its objectsrzr'. It clings ro, and gers bound

Tathattdya upaneti: It leads to the rruth127. lt disposes, collects. brings rogerher, heaps up, gathers, arranges, focuses and concentrates, in a variety of wayst". Vikampati: doubt 12e. It shakes, unsettles, wavers and is in Upasamharati:

Vyasiiicati: It defiles. corrupts and tarnishesl3o.

It is neither easy to classify active or passive rhoroughly; nor

the above-listed verbs into is it, into wholesome and

unwholesome in terms of ethics. Anyhow. we can with little arbitrariness drive them into three groups: negarive, positive, and situationally decidable groups. The verbs in the lasr group can be decided only in virtue of the situation where thev occur.

"t lbicl . i : 1 8 6 . t'o lbid. ii: 198. "' Ibicl . i v : 2 9 4 . t'o Ibid. v : 2 1 3 - 2 1 6 . ,r, Ihid. iv'.71. "" Ibid . 178.

Tnet-e 1O: Posrrrve
Aradhert Namatt Niv are ti Passamb hqti Tathatt dyaupaneti


Adhi muc cati Matheti Pag ga4hdti Pariday Rago hati

SrruerroNALLY Dnclna.nrn,
Paha iifiati UpasaTnharati Panidahati Pakkhqndati, astdati, hati santitt


anuddha mseti Sajjati, baj j hati Vikampari Vydsinncati hayhati

It world:






' Kdmavacara-Bhfimi '

( sensuous

an Abhidhamma term) the negative aspect of citta features prolninently. Bigger in number than the negative verbs predicated to citta as exposed above are the attributes of cittr in the morally follows. o o o o o o o o Ahata: beaten, afflicted Avimutta: bound and fettered Atura: sick Bhantd: swerving, swaying, staggering and deviating Duppanihita: Duppavattiya: Khitta: Lina, dull o o Lola: longing, eager, greedy and unsteady debased, low misdirected difficult to direct on a steady course unwholesome state. Those attributes are listed as

upset and unhinged atillna: cl inging. sticking, slow, sluggish and



P a r i y d d i n n a ' . o b s e ss e d Pariyutthita: confused Samkilesa: corrupt Sdratta: impassioned Uddhata: unbalanced disturbed Upakkilittha:
agitated. and shaken





stained, depraved and impure

V ya p a n n a : m a l e v o l e n t Vydsitta: defiled, corrupt, (b) Asavi We have already referred ro dsava casually in the previous section. In the following pages we will treat them more urinutely. In eariy Buddhism there is the conviction that on getting rid of all kinds of asava one attains arahantship. It gives the impression that the two coincide and somehow can be identified with each other. Asava is a central concept in the Nikayas. figuring promineutly in the chief portion of scriptures of early Buddhism. It is intimately linked with the concept of citta on verge of the latter's liberation. 'When he knows and rees this. his mind is set free from dsavd of love. of becoming. of ignorance. and as he is freed he knows it: 'Birth is destroyed. The pure life has been fulfilled. What had to be done is done. There will be nothins more of this;s;131. The asavd are literally rendered as intoxicating secretion. f estering wound. hence psychologicalil' and tarnished

discharge from a 'mental intoxicant'. The four types of mental intoxication are giveu as kama, bhava, ditthi, and avijja whose renderings are sensuality. lust of life. speculation. and ignorauce respectively. 'Influx', 'bias', 'flood' are also used as its rendering. 'Flood stands for ogha in PaliL3?.

131 132

D. i: 84. EBC 4: 154 155

163 But satisfactory connotes our yielding alI both the renderings in R. E. both external the to preferable. suggested A. inherent the and in the above do not seerr asava and to

because, to



the temptations them, and He is with also

the perceptions leading ego interests


rnisinterpretation procure for the though rendency future. "influx" for

speculation suggests

which hopes any


things new

and unrealistic rendering signifies

"inflation" importance


a rnental content



used as "ego-inflation" It is mainly or to the individual. '' inflated e go-values ", meaning an exaggerated egocentrismr33. karndsavd se n s e would or "inflation sensuality " to find an and for a of in the plan would

Accordingly, rrrean a tendency in beauty to to and life. dream in this attitude future,

to reaqt emotionally g ratifi c ati o ns, rhe a life. signify Bhavasava, about be

to things, "inflation to live to and to

pleasure aestheti c and the of and in better for

deve l oping




irnmortality the

existence -scape to

or a future

Dipghdsava, and also

"inflation realities pride

speculation ",







rvinning debates. The last but the chief avijiasava would mean - inflation to see personal of unrealism " , i .e. a tendency :eferences {s a valuable, in external things feels the one things like proud of and to find and others success of an ego within are one gains, feels oneself. seen as or becomes result, jewels adornments and and

to rensitive .:. bused l3a.



The :he : chief unity leading . econd

tendency force that sutta Can the

to self-assertion the word the behind be ego

seems to be the most That is why As are illusion. asavd Nikaya for long

basic ate the be

:dea expressed rersonality



dsava as

is kept focussed by egoistic the reborn: 'ttre Majjhima Sabbasavasutta


there will

"ponobhavikd" its entire with the

to rebirth)t".

reserves dealing

" R. E- A. Johansson,DPEB: 181-182 t' 0p. cit. : 182. '' -\4, i: 250.

161 eliminatiou of dsavd. The sutta consists in seven methods for getting rid of dsavds. they being rreared one by one in detail in the following. ( 1) Dasana: 'vision" is explained as man's patence of selection in regard to which kind of objects one should concern with and which kind of objects one should not. The texr runs: u.. . (he) does not comprehend the things which should be does not comprehend the things which should not be wisely attended to. He. nor comprehending the thiugs that should be wisely attended to, nor comprehending the things that should not be wisely artended to. wisely arrends to those things which should not be wisely arrended to, does nor wisely artend to those things which should be wisely attended . l o ' r1 3 6 I n r e s e a r c h t e r m , t h e v a r i a b l e h e r e i s n o t w i s e a t t e n t i o n but is the recommendable kind of object which arrenrion is ro be made to. The passage seems to suggest on the one hand that'wisely attending'is nor enough, if 'wisely attending'is appiied ro the undesirable things, asavas still have good chance. On the other hand, 'Wisely atteudiug' as standing for yoniso manasikaram implies 'attention to the means, the Way'; the opposite ayoniso m a t ? a sk a r a m i s m e a n t f o r n o t a t t e n d i n g t o t h e m e a n s , o r i attending to (or. in) the wrong way. turning the mind against the truth so that you think permanence is in the impermanent, happiness in suffering, self in what is not-self, and the fair in t h e f o u l 1 3 7a n d s i n c e a l a c k o f y o n i s o m a n a s i k d r a q n o n e ' w i s e l y attends ro those rhings which should not be wisely atrended to'. Iu fine, yoniso manasikaraln seems to have double meaning: On one hand, it is characteristically good in nature; on the other hand, as [o the selection of which that should be attended it in effect is helpful and decisive. suggesred b1' the modern argues in The Principle of Psychologl,rhat This double meaning is also psychologist William James who arrending to an idea wisely attended to,

t36 137

MS. i: 10. Ibid.: 9f .

165 is identical willins with believing it, which, in turn, is identical with

that it be realizedttt.


the line





suggests a deviatory reliable By dasana it is meant proper attention and insight as well. If sense information is accepted with a realistic attitude, it is properly understood, and theoretical constructions are avoided. In this Johansson case a change of attitude and act of insight may be most irnportant and that would explain why it is somerimes pointed s o u t t h a t f r e e d o m f r o m c T s a v c iT a t t a i n e d s u d d e n l y . T l : ' e S a m y u t t a Nikaya relates that "When this instruction was given, the venerable Rcihula's mind grasping " tre. was freed from the inflations without

R. E. interpretation.


As a means for expelling dsavd (2) samvara, "control" so[veys the idea of goading the sense channels so as to keep the information free from undue reaction.

Things are used only for their strictly functional purpose and all ego-purposes are avoided. For instance, clothes are used only for protection, almsfood is collected merely for keeping the body alive, and so on. That is the idea expressed by (3) pat
-isevana: " L l s e" .

(4) Adhivrisana: difficult endured instance, thirst, things, or without the touch ways of



the instruction should to cold, and and be


all and For

unpleasant self-pity of

circumstances or other should that be applied are irksorne


ego-irtvolved wind

reactions. sun,

due reactions speech create

heat, hunger, creeping All sharp,



unwelcome. acute, By

those thiflgs may shooting,

feelings twenty

that are painful, and deadly.



the way it is

noted that a person


years of age is not considered

138 r39

PPR. Vol- LIX S . i v : 1 0 7.



I\4arch L999: 7l

166 able to endure these hardships, ordained at such an early agetou. (5) Parivajjana'.'avoidan.ce" obj ects or situations elephant, horse, bull, and is therefore not to be

is explained tbat dangerous

are to be avoided . Specified are fierce dog, snake; the stump of a tree, a thorny brake, a deep hole, a mountain slope, a refuse pool, a rubbish pit; unallowable seat, resort; those who are depraved friends so as to avoid being suspected of depraved qualities. (6) Vinodana'. 'elimination" determines that sensual, malevolent and aggressive thoughts musr be expelled from rhe mind. (7) "application" Bhavana: here means the method that is 'limbs explained as the seven of enlightenrnent". Mainl1' bhavana is used about meditation. By means of sati. *mindfulness ". the sense-channels are continuously watched and no unrealistic reactions are admitted: "Ilaving destroyed all building acrivity I live so mindful that the inflations flow no rrore into me"la1. The arahant who has destroyed the inflations i s c a l l e d p u g g a l a a p p a m e y y a t o ', ' a n i m m e a s u r a b l e p e r s o n " . which perhaps means that he is not self-centred or confined to his own narrow interests but has expelled all unrealistic superstructures and has become open and impersonallot.

(cl Noxious




and fuIoha

As fundamental blemishes of character, raga, dosa, and moha are rendered as passion or lust. ill-will, and infatuation respectively. Their other variant renderings are uncontrolled excitemenr. anger, and bewilderment. respectiveil'. These three appear in manifold combinatiou with similar terms, all giving various shades of the 'craving for existence " or 'lust of life ". or all that which is au obstacle to nibbdna. It should be noted that tlrc set raga, dosa. and rnoha is not strictly fixed in terms of nurnber and of member as well. There are several variant

to,, MS, i:14f. tol s- ii, 54. 142 A i: 266 '*t R. E. A. Jolrarrssol. DPEB:


t67 versions; raga, dosa, moha, and kilesa; rdga, dosa, moha, and kodha. Quite often is the version: rdga, dosa, moha, and mana; one more rnember ditlhi is sometimes addedte. Dosa and moha in general are complementary to rdga. The combination of them forms the cardinal effects of citta, making a man unable to grasp the higher truths and to enter the Pathras. In general, these three words are used almost exclusivel;' to denote reprehensible tnotives, but they can also be found in more positive contexts. There is description of a monk who has reached a certain level of development and can attain first .jhana bwt can not realize the destruction of the influxes; "but by his desire for the doctrine, by his delight in the doctrine, he bursts the five fetters binding him to this world and is reborn irr a spiritual world"ra6. Desire for the doctrine will, therefore, lead to a good result. In another context, chanda, dosa, moha, and bhaya (: ambition, hatred, illusion, and fear, respectively) are enumerated as motives for giving gifts to monkstot. This observation that bad motives sometimes can be used for good purposes betrays an interesting insight into the intricacies of human motivationtou. synonyms of raga are kdma and tanhd. In its objective aspect, kdma means pleasantness, pleasure-giving, and an object of sensual enjoyment. Subjectively, kdma denotes Other enjoyment, pleasure on occasion of sense; sense-desire. So kdma covers the sense-desire, enjoyment, and the objects of the same. In all enumerations of obstacles to perfection, or general definitions of mental conditions, occupies the leading position. It is the first of the five nlvarandni (obstacles), the the four esands (desires, or longings, or wishes), Ltpdddnas (attachments), the four oghas (floods of worldly turbulence), the four dsavas. In the last four, kAma is used in three replacement of raga.
I* PTSD: 567. tot op. ci t .: 543 . 'ooA. ":343. 'r' Ibid. iv'. 236. 'oB R. E. A. Johansson, DPEB:


168 also takes the leading position of the three taryhds, the four yogas (yoke, connection, and bond). And kama stands first on the list of the six factors of existence. Kama is most frequently connected with rdga (passion), with chanda (impulse), and gedha (greed), all expressing the active, Moreover, kama clinging, and impulsive character of desire. The following is the list of synonyms given at various places throughout the Buddhist scriptures for kdma-cchanda: chanda (impulse), rdga nandf (enjoyment), tanhd (thirst) , sineha (love), pipasa (thirst), parilaha (consuming passion), gedha (greed), mucclza (swoop! or confused stare of mind), ajjhosana (hanging on, or attachment). Kama is essentially an evil. but to the popular view it is one of the indispensable attributes of bliss and happiness to be enjoyed as a reward of virtue in this world as well as in the next, i. e. the other world. And the other-world pleasures are g r e a t e r t h a n t h e e a r t h l y o o e s r 4 e :b u t t o t h e W i s e e v e n t h e s e a t e uusatisfactory, since they still are by rebirth. Kama is characterized aladapasddd (no real taste). of , and lead to, evanescence, tra[siencelto, signs (excitement).

Kamas do not give permaretrt satisfaction; the happiness that they yield is only a deception, or a dream, from which the dreamer awakeus sorrowful and regretful. Therefore the Buddha says "Even though the pleasure is great " the regret is greater " and he repeatedly pronounces in terrns of simile that the kamas are likened to ( 1) attlti-kankhala: a chain of bones ; (2) maqnsapesi: a piece of (decaying) flesh; (3) tiryukka: a torch of grassi (4) angdra-kdsu: a pit dream; (6) yacita: beggings; of glowing cinder; (5) supina: a (7) rukkha-phala: the fruit of a tree; (8) asisuna: a slaughter-house; (9) satti-silIa: a sharp stake. (10) sappa-sira'. a snake's head, i.e. the bite of a s n . a k e r 5 r .T h o u g b k a m a i s r a r e l y srill find some, for example,'A used in positive contexts we man loving the good. loving

t{v I50

S. v: 409. A. ii: 177. M. i: 130: A. iii: 197

169 the for beneficial, loving security frorn bonds, this is a synonym

a Tathagata"t52.

kdma is one of those most frequently mentioned and also one of the most categorically condemned. The term occurs alone but also combined with and dsavd. There is upddAna also kdmataghdttt and kdmacchanda'sa. It is difficult to find a translation of kdma that can be used in all contexts. Its central meaning offered by R. E. A. an extroverted feeling and attachment, dependence on external things, a pleasure attitude, sensuality, a passion for life. It is only an emotion but also a strong motive, for pleasure-seeking activities, for building a pleasure-loving prolonging, personality, for creating a kdma-world and renewing existence in this world of sensualityr55. Johansson is the description:


the negative motives,

kdma it is describe tempting ro use To the psyctroanalytical phrases, "the pleasure principle " and "Iibido investment " so as to cover its central meaning. Both can be used to rfrean the sexuality in its narrow sense as well as the enjoyment of the five senses in general. The libido as explained in rnodern psychology resembles the Buddhist concept of kdmatanha: craving for the sense-gratification. Craving for sensegratification is a manifestation of greed; and greed is a basic root of unwholesome motivation. This Buddhist term "root" is force, drive, instinct, conceived in psychology as motive, inclination, etc. But "root" is a more appropriate term, for while it suggests the cause of unwholesome (as well as it also implies motivation, the possibility of wholesome) rooting out completely those forces without leaving even that "bit of unconquerable nature in each of us " at which Freudian psychology as well as modern psychology stop156.

r52 r53
I54 155



A. iii: 445. M. ii; 2o3. R. E. A. Johaussou, DPEB: l06. EBC.4:378-379.

. The last term noticeable under this heading should be tanha. It literally means drought, thirst; figurarively, craving, hunger for, excitement. the fever of unsatisfied longing. A11 this is opposed to peace of citta. Ta4ha is one of the most frequently mentioned motives leading to undesirable results. It is, however, rarely said to motivate action, rather a sentiment 'There are these six groups of of interest and dependence. craving: craving for forms, for sounds. for odours, for tastes, f o r c o n t a c t s . f o r i d e a s " 1 5 7 ;t h e s e a r e c r a v i n g s f o r e x p e r i e n c e s and possessions. There are three series of three types: kdma, bhava, vibhava ( : craving for love, for growth. and for annihilation. respectively); kama, rfipa, arfipa (: craving for love. for form, rupa, arupa, nirodha and for the formless, respectively); ( : craving for form, for the fornless. and for cessation. refer to different types of They probably respectively)t". Kdma is the world of existence now and in the future: s e n s u a l i t y , i u w h i c h w e a r e l i v i n g n o \ f , ' .R u p a a n d a r i l p a a r e t h e form-world and the formless world in which a future rebirth is possible. Most interesting is nirodha, which refers to the cessatioD of everythin.g that is negative. i.e. it is a word for nibbtina; this shows that even tanha can be a desirable motive. *craving is the seamstress. for it sews a man just to But usually this ever-becomins birth " 15e.

(d) Cetokhila In wasted Indian and



Vinibandhil khila denoted ua piece of


the term

situated between cultivated land uncultivated *desert" or 'bate soil". This implies fields." or a stretch of that khila was a gap or space not productively filled up. sense of Buddhism has taken the terul in its figurative 'barlenness 'barrenness' and hence the meaning fot cetokhila as of mind', implying an uncultivated gap, so to Say, between


S. ri: 3. D. iii: 215 A. iii: 4o2



17l one's menral and moral achievements reached up to a point. on the ore hand, and the finai goal in one's upward way to perfecrion. on the other. As one who has overcorne or was never to tbis conditiou" himself as vigatakhila. subject the Buddha for instance describes

As factors causing mental barrenness khilas are placed in rwo categories of five and three: the two mutually differing both in concept and magnitude. Firstly, khila may be said to result through a lack of the pre-requisire for the cultivation of the citrc in the Buddhist sense. This would promote the germination of good states of citta. This is the inclination of or desire of the bhikkhu for striving as expressed by the terms dtappa (ardour) , anuyoga (application) , sdtacca (perseverance) and padhdna (exertion) which it is implied. stems directly from rhe absence of doubt and the presence of faith, trust and the the teacher. the doctrine, reassurance one has iu community, the training and good-will and friendliness towards one's fellows in a higher lifet*. Therefore, the absence of such inclination (cittam na namati) for striving resulting from doubt and lack of faith, trust and reassurance in the first four and u n f r i e n d l i n e ss a n d c a l l o s i t y a n g [ e r , d i s sa t i s f a c t i o n , towards the fifth is itself au obstructior to mental progressttt. through The three factors causing rnental barrenness are identical wirh the three fundamental blemishes of character. which we have already discussed above. viz., rdga, dosa and moha. The eradication of which constitutes emancipation. As technical Ief ms of Buddhist philosophy and ethics these three often appear in combination with orher terms too. when dealing with rhe obstacles to the attainment of rtibbdna. However, their 'the three khilas' \s referred to only once in classification as the Nr/criyas. viz. the Samyutra Nikaya. In this Nikaya, it is said that in order to recognize them. to understand them, to destroy

t* D. 161 M.

iii: i:

737f; 1Olf.



172 them and to completely has to be followedru2. The cetokhilar ( 1) vinibandhd: five give them up the Noble Eightfold Path

up by the five attachment to sense pleasures, (2 I cetaso attachment to one's body, (3) attachment to beauty of form' ({} addiction to sleep after heavy meals, and (5) leading the higber life with a view to rebirth among the gods. The five are usualll' cetokhilasr63. It is after tbe five immediately enumerated are usually followed maintained vinibandhd that the five cetokhilas and the five cetaso are states of citta leading to one's downfallre, and the bhikkhu or bhikkhutti who has not overcome them should day and night expect a decline and not progress in everything g p o d 1 6 5 .S u c h a p e r s o n c a n n o t e x p e c t a g r o w t h , f u r t h e r a n c e a n d a full development in the Buddhist religious life16.

8. THE TernrtNc oF CITTA By virtue of pursuing the religious life ardently' a monk has power over his citta; he is not the slave of his cittarq . The method of getting one's citta uuder control is samddlrils though to hold backr6e. It is to guard, difficult Citta is difficult difficutt but important task to train citta, because when citta rs unguarded, bodily action is also unguarded, speech and mental actioo are also unguardedlTo.As regard to one's emancipation it is therefore necessary to distinguish between the untrained and the trained citta. Tbe "natural " citta is the center of all undesirable qualities such as greed, hatred, and illusionrTt.

162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 17l

1O3r A. iti: 249; iv: 461, 463 sq.

J o h a n s s o n ,D P E B : 1 5 9 .

t'73 Let us corne back to the notion of Freudian several aspects corresponds to Buddhist citta. eqo that in In Freud's

frarnework citta as e80 is necessary to be tamed by tlre supereg o . F r e u d b u i l t u p a n e w c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f id is the e80, and sltperego^ The the id, personality: unconscious reservoir of drives and impulses derived from the genetic background and concerned with the preservation and p r o p a g a t i o n o f l i f e . T h e 8 o , a c c o r d i n g t o F r e u d , o p e r a t e s i n conscious and preconscious levels of awareness. It is the portion of the personality concerned with the tasks of reality: perception, cognition, and executive actions. In the superego lie rhe individual's environmentally derived ideals and values and tlre mores of his family and society; the superego serves as a censor on the ego functions. Just as we ordinarily identify o u r s e l v e s w i t h t h e eg o , s o c i t t a i s t h e " n a t u r a l s e l f " i n a functional sense. But there, according to Freud. is a supereSo, that is sometimes critical of citta, as discussed in the previous Section, and may want to subjugate it and change it by means or the Buddhist trainittgtt'. Freudian whereas early in language system seems to be structural Buddhism pushes all the things into flow or process. And, there are good reasons to talk about citta as pf ocess or function. The compound for it is cittasankhdra'73, which in sutta 9 of the Majihima Nikdyas, is presented under "process of body, process of speech, process of mind"r7a. The whole Sutta is an answer to the question about how to achieve saddhamma (the true dhamma)"s. The context of the .tdnkhdras shows that taking them as facts is due to not knowing and that the opposite possibility is sammddillhl (right view), as a part of the saddhemma'76. These three processes are bound to have been ceased and calmed in a person who has achieved cetovimutti (release of the


cit., l60.
Suttas ns. 9,43,44,57,

tt3See for exaruples M' r ? 4M . i : 5 4 . 1 1 sb i d . : I t'6Ibid.: 46f f . 54.


174 mind)ttt. This is known by one who has a developed citta, and he also realizes that citta-processes include activities of perception and feeling. These are dhammd-cittapatibaddha (dhamrna depending upon mind)17t. So too processes of citta can be experienced aud calmed down as part of a whole training toward the goal of making citta. while still studied, into vimoceti, (a released miud)ttn. The Samaflfi.aphala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya describes eight stages of prescribed mental studies, in which the disciple, having carefully prepared himself by much cathartic elimination in mood and thought, 'much brings out and much bends down the citta"tso to these srages. He considers his body, its 'for and composition. viftftana origin and how me the (surviving-mind) is here nestled and bound just as a beauty cat's -eye of pure water (looks when) strung upon a coloured thread". We have here the viiiflana viewed as somehow 'in' or dependent on the bodily life. and as influenced by it. as the translucent gem would be, optically, by the colour of the thread. Hence the taming of vififrarya or citta have much to do with that of the body. both somehow being inseparable. in Buddhist subjugated and developed properly 'a recluse or a training is guite potential, the Nikaya texts say, brahmin with magic power who has his mind well controlled... ulay, by intense concentration on the image of the widest Citta expanse of water, make this earth move and tremble"rtt. And. free ideas are a function of citta that is said to be provided with ideas of impermanerrce, not-self, danger. disinterestedness and so onto'. Besides being mastermind
1n the process of one's


of the mental processes. Citta

so it
' 1 1I b i d .

emancipation seems to be instrumental should be improved. sharpened or cleaned in order to

256 Ib i,rl. 3 0 1 f . "" "" Ibid. iii: E3f 180 . i: 76t D t*t Ibid ii: 108

175 become tuore effective. The ambition aud desire in the eye (and

orher senses) is a defilement of citta. When these impurities are gor rid of and cirta is fortified with renunciation. then it appears to be pliable for petretrating those things that are to be realized ttt, The trained citta will attain pafifid, and freedom from the asdva (influx)t'o. That the Majjhima Nikaya reserves the entire second sutta dealing with dsava suggests their importance in hindering the progress of which flow psychology. that one's emancipation. Isava literally rrreans that (out or onto). outflow and influx. In Buddhist it

is a technical term t-or certain specified ideas intoxicate the mind. Freedom from udsavd" constitutes

Arahantship. and the fight for the extinction of these dsavd forms one of the main duties of manttt. The four types of mental intoxication are given as kdma: sensuality; bhava: lust of life: ditthi: speculation; and avijjd: ignorance"u. The body, Samyutta Nikaya says, 'Suppose I were to collect

consclousness. ideation, actlvltles. sensatlon, Conditioned by that collection, there would be growth The passage iudicates that a collecting or building activity goes on during the present life. On rhe contrary, the disciple of the noble one who *reduces and does not heaps up; who abandons and does nor collect; who scatters and does not bind together; who quenches and does not kindle: and what does he reduce and does not heap it up? He reduces body (sensation. etc.) and 'he is called a monk. does not heap it up ". And further: further down qualified as vimutticitta: with a free mind"rE8. So vimutticitta from the heaping, here can be described collecting, binding, as the citta of the freed five


tutA. v: to7 . t*'s. iii, 232.

t*o ,*t D. ii: E1. PED: I l 4 - l l 5 , 18u EBC. 4 : 1 5 4 - 1 5 5 ttt s. irr. 94. '*' Ibid. i i i : 6 9 , 9 O .

176 factors. This gives the impression that the five factors, i. e. the pers onality whole should be retrograded ; and to achieve vimutticitta is to complete the rerrogradation. On the other hand, retrogradation of personality's five factors deliberately caused by oneself seems to be a type of suicide because in Buddhist system it is confirmed that one's whole personality consists in the five factors per se, and nothing else. In offers still regard to the speculative issue, R. E . A. Johansson

a suggestion that after attaining nibbana, the arahant still has his conscious life, which is the same as saying that he has citta. by Most But of his the cicta is very much and transformed. freedom in from the pa! stability, reduction, activities

characterized dependence.


iccasamuppada series have ceased. Only activities and thoughts that do not produce kammic effects remain. All expansiveness and external engagement has disappeared. But citta has not lost its individual character, although stability and 'emptiness' prevail r8e.


R. E. A. Johansson. DPEB:









of tlae Abltidltantnta ci.ttas, cetasikas, chapter is an This Pilaka In all

literat,ure of early rfipas, artempt in the in nibbanas, to first this explore book, to the

Buddhism and their into i.e. are the the rnade i n t l : ^ eP c t l i original

rrrainly deals relationship. cittas, Abhidhamma source, directly deal with



on ttreir classification especially view the of being

as depicted faithful

Dhammasanganl. almost

references texts instead


to the canonical the same issue.

of to several authors,who

It is noted that citta texts is usually rendering. supposition been well rendered

in the translations as consciousness where through retain quite mind

of the Abhidhanrma as it as irs the is preferred word citta

rather than mind with

lras ever been in the Sutta Pitaka We, nevertheless, inforrned about that we have already, and

th^e PAli familiar

the previous


citta and all "vith the denotation and connotation it may have. This, however, does 'mind' 'consciousness' or is used not exclude that sometirnes irrcidentally passages renderings use their of rnisleading own diachronic as as the citta's the mind, word of rendering, collsciousness, citta itself which especially Instead help is at thought, in the of adapted its the to two intellect, from reference source. would There using


safeguarding have due in any most

impressions shade languages

rrrost the renderings in one language in the other

meaning. no word

has the precisely

sarne bearirrg that its equivalent

one does.

see L. A. Govrrda, PAEBP. W. F. Jayasuriya. PPB; S. Brahmachari- IB'. C L. A. De Silva. TBPA. attd Nyanatiioka, GTAP.


I?l be dealt with in a descriptive manner that tends toward an be mentioned of cittas'will ethical perspecrive. The'types 'cittas'so long as confusion is not likely to take simply as place.

In the following pages, ail the cittas are classified into rypes in total (see the diagram trext page); each type will





Ak ,1,u s a l a ( 12) ==-t


(2) (2)

Akusala Vipaka (7)

Kemavacara (54)

/, Ahetuka (18)Q>

Kusala Vipaka (8)


t<riya (3)

(8) _----;=Kusala

S o b h a n a 1 z + )a { - - - ;

Vip aka r8) Kriya (8)


Kusala (5 ) Vipaka (5) Kriye (5)

(Mahagata) Kusala


Vip aka (4)

Kriy 6 (4)







cittas come up to 40 when they are counted in connection with 5 stages of jltanas. The counting i s : 5 4 + 1 5 + 1 2 + ( 8 x 5 ) : ' 1 2 1The last eight lokuttara


A. I{frnilvacarana
I. Twelve

Akusala Cittas:


The 12 akusala (immoral) cittas are divided into 8 cittas originated in lobha (greed. lust. or appetite),2 in dosa (hatred). aud 2 in moha (illusion) . The first 8 akusala (immoral) cittas can be briefly characterized as follows, Automatic (asaikharikam) citta, (somanassa) connected and higatasampayutarn). (.sasankharikam) citta and connected with error. Volitional 3. Automatic citta accompanied from error. 4. Volitional citra accompanied from error. 5. accompanied by j oy accompanied with by j oy (dif error

by joy

and disconnected

by joy

and disconnected

Automatic citta accompanied by hedonic indifference (Upekkhasahagataan) and connected with error. Volitional citta accompanied by hedonic indifference


and connected with error. 7.

Automatic citta accompanied from error. by hedonic indifference by hedonic indifference

and disconnected




accompanied from error:.

and disconnected






unwholesome) because they are rooted attachment) and produce anitha vipaka (undesirable effect).. Akusala

or in lobha (appetite or


'fhe is the direct opposite of kusala. Atthasdlini give s the etymological meaning of kusala as follows.


$36s-411: 98- 1O9 3 Op. Cir.: 15.

18i Ktt, bad, which kusala. Kusa +"Jtu, to cut. Kusa is from kz, bad, and risi, to lie. lrat which lies contemptibly is kusa, v ice . Kusala is that which cuts off vice. 'f (a) Ku, evil, bad, + {sa, to reduce. That which reduces or eradicates evil is kusa, knowledge or wisdom. Kusa so derived, rltu, to cut" That which cuts off (evil) by wisdom to take. That which is kusala. grasped by (b) rKzsa, so derived, wisdom is kusala. Kusa grass cuts a part of the hand with so kusala cuts off both sections of passions arisen and those that have not arisen. With regard to the connotation of the term t|re Atthasalint defines the word kusala as having the 4 meanings: (1) clrogya (of good health), (2) anavajja (faultless), (3) clzeka (clever), and (4) sukhavipaka (productive of happy results). all the remaining tlrree meanirrgs are applicable to kusala. Kusala is wholesome in the sense of being free from the fault of passions, the evil of passions, and the heat of passions. Here sukhavipdka does not necessarily rnean pleasurable feeling. It is used in the sense of physical and mental buoyance, softness, fitness, etc. The Atthasa,lini further states that kusala kosallarh or kosallasambhutalhena accomplished with wisdom). is used in the sense or pafifid ( having vuccati With the exception of cheka (clever) both edges. Even those that have +.i/a, shakes +{sal, off . to shake, to tremble, evil or to destroy. That things is



Judging from the various meanings assigned to the term, kttsala rnay be interpreted as wholesome or moral (some 'skilful' as its rendering). Akusala would, scholars prefer

182 therefore, mean unwholesome or immoral . Kusala and akusala correspond to good and bad, right and wrong respectively'. from ^J'lublt' , to cling, or attach itself , may be rendered by 'attachment' or 'clrnging'. Some scholars preferred 'greed' or 'craving'. In the case of a desirable object of sense, there arises, as a rule, clinging or attachment. In the case of an Lobha, undesirable object. ordinarily there is aversion'. It is here rendered as appetite or attachment. In ethical treatment lobha is more usually rendered by greed or lust. Saikharika a technical term used in a specific the Abhidhamma. It is formed of 'sarit', well and is purely

sense in ^J'kar' to do Io prepare, Io accomplish . Literally, it means , , accomplishing, preparing. and arranging. In this context the term is used with 's61 : co-. and with '6': un; 'sa-sankhdrika' (Iit. with effort) is that which is prompted, instigated, or induced by oneself or by another; 'a-sankhdrika' (lit. without effort) is that which is thus unaffected, but done spontaneously. If, for insrance. one does an act, induced by another, or after much deliberation or premeditation on one's part, then it is sasankharika. If , oD the contrary, one does ir instantly without ary external or internal inducement, or any premeditation. then it is asankharika". Asankharikam here denotes that the citta may be determined by another person, and against the will conscious subject. Ir is inaccurare or render the term by 'voluntary ". Narada explains formed of ',ru', good. that at best of the to misleading

sotnanassa is an abstract noun 'mana'. mind. Literally, the term and means good-mind-edness, i.e. a pleasurable feeling . Somanassa is here of psychological import, meaning simply 'pleasurable feeling plus excitement'. to perceive. Dithi is derived from ^l'dis', to see. It is usually transiated as vieu'. belief. and opinion. When qualified by 'satnm6' , it means right vierv or riglrt belief. llere the term is used without any qualification in
' Op. Cit. :2022 t Op. Cit. : 16. o Op. Cir. : 19.

' Comp.: 82f.

183 the sense of wrong sornetimes is tending shall examine cittas akusala view8. It usually towards later negative in the bears a neutral secrion exposing import the but we four

sense of micchadithi.

upekkhd originated

in dosa


The following list is an attempt to description of the first 8 akusala cittass. a boy instantly evil thereby. Prompted With joy


an illustrative

sreals an appIe, viewing


by a friend, a boy joyfully viewing no evil thereby. 4. The same illustration

steals an apple,

serves for the third and fourth types of citta with the difference that the stealins is done without any false view.

5. 6. 7. 8. The remaining four rypes of citta are similar to the above with. the difference that the stealing is done with neutral feeline.
And, they can be tabulated in a simple table as follows,

T A S L E 1 1: E r c H T A K U S A L I C | r r e s N" 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Feelings Sm Sm Sm Sm Up Up Up Up

Views Mc Mc

Activeness As Sa As Sa

Mc Mc

As Sa As Sa

MAb.: lE. Op. Cit.: 22-23

Sm: Mc: As: Somanassa Micchadithi Asankharikam




cittas 3, 4, 7, and 8 are those that are with motives and have nothing to do with micchadithi: their elimination should be done by bhava (practice),0. The four are not fixable to either side. moral and immoral". Cittas 1, 2,5, and 6 are those which are with motives and involved in micchaditlti. Their elimination should be done though dassana (knowledge). The four are fixed to the immoral side. (one-poinredness of Cittas'ekagata mind) is usually positive in meaning but as a complement of the akusala citta, cittas'ekagatd has another shade of meaning'2. In the exposition 'cittas'ekagatd ', 'solidity the double expression, and steadfastoess' is synonymous with stability. But that expression does not count here , cittas 'ekagatd is remarked 'weak'. Such meaning as non-scattering as the opposite of scattering. produced by way of distraction and perplexity is not obtained here. But that which does not disperse co-existenr states is nonscattering; that which is not distracted is non-distraction; b1' way of the immoral 'cittas'ekagatd' the state of mind is nonstates. This is strength of concentratior. Because the concentrating or fixing on the object is perverted, the concentration is false',. Whereas the first 8 akusala cittas are originated in lobha. the remaining 4 akusala cittas are originared in dosa (aversionl and moha (nescience) respectively. They are listed as follows, Automatic (asaikltarikarp) citta accompanied by grief ( d o m a n a s s a ) a n d c o n r e c t e d w i t h a v e r si o n ( p a t i g h a ) . scattering. It does not tremble through the co-existenr

Of the 8 cittas,

I oD h s .

S1394: 238. " Op. Cit.: 91412 24O " Op. Cit. 9275: 77. "'Exp.. 336.

185 Volitional (sasankharikam) and connecred by citta with accompanied aversion grief


(domanassa) Citta

(patigha). (upekkha)

accompanied with


indifference (vicikiccha).

and conjoined



Citta accompanied by hedonic indifference and conjoined with distractior. (uddhacca').


We have already known t}rat somanassa here means goodminded-ness or a pleasurable feeling plus excitement. The antonym of somanassa is domanassa. The terrn formed by 'du' 'mana' means bad-minded-ness, i.e. , bad, and , rnind displeasurable feelings. And, upekkha here as well as in the four larer akusala cittar originated in lobha implies simply the absence of felt pleasure or pain. the neutral aspect of feeling, or zero-point between pain and pleasure, joy and sorrow. It is to be distinguished from the more complex that intellectual and of ethical state also known nind, equanimityto. With as upekkha means balance

a comparison, Ndrada observes differently that somanassa, domanassa and upekkha are purely mental . Sukha and dukkha are purely physical; this is the reason why there is no upekkhd in the case of touch that, according to the Abhidhamma, m.ust be either happy or painfulr'. The four cittas mentioned above are immoral because the first two of which spring from patigha (aversion or ill-will), and the remaining two, from moha (ignorance)'u. Patigha is also meant by repugnance, a form of dosa. space to minutely elaborate on term upekkha. the troublesome UPEKKHA or UPE,KHA is ' u p c t' a n d ' l k $ ' composed of . It literally means 'looking or', indicating betweeu equanimity. hedonic neutrality or indifference, zero point joy and sorrow; disinterestedness, neutral feeling, Sometimes it is equivalent to adukhham-asukhaWe reserve the following

L oC o m p . : rsMAb.: o Op.

B3f. 18.

Cit.'. L5.

186 vedana (feeling which is neither pain uor pleasure)". It is as a vedana that upekkhd denotes hedonic neutrality or indifference. We should disrinct it in this sense from the equality or balance of mind (tatramajjhattata) which implies a complex intellectual

The Compendium of Philosophy gives the minute account of the term upekkha that is abridged as follows: There are three principle kinds of upekkha. First, the anubhavana-upekkha (upekkha of sensation or physical sensibility): the neutral feeling or zero-point between bodily to all pain and pleasure. This sensory stimuli, except kind of upekkha those of Touch. is applicable

kind is the indriyappabheda-upekkha, or upekkhd dividing the (ethical) regulative forces of somanassa. or joy. and domanassa. or grief (or of mental pleasure and pain). This class of upekkha is found in the forty-seven classes of consciousness (fifty-five classes called'accompanied b.'indifference,' minus those where four senses are involved).



Of tlrese two kinds of upekkh6. the former is sensational the latter is emotional. and both are hedonic. L^stly. there is a third class of upekkha, and that is a , cetasika. of the nineteen sobhana-cetasikA (as hedonic, upekkha comes under the cetasika of vedana), in other words, a mental 'morally property of element. of the nineteen beautiful ' properties. This is tatramajjhattata, 'balance of mind.' 'mental equipoise. ' It is intellectual and not hedonic, and appears as a nuance in conscious experience, when the object is of a 'higher'kind than those that evoke the hedonic upekkhd are. It is- e.g.. a bojjhanga. or factor of Wisdom. in the consciousness of Ari1,a's, and a factor of higher knowledge than the average. in the consciousness of average minds. It is this tatramajj lzattata which phrases we meer with in the

PED: l5O. Comp.: l4f .

187 brahmacariy upekkhd, or religious equanirnity, sankhcirupekkhd, or indifference to the world. ancl

Hedonic upekkha enrers into the composition of fifty-five classes of consciousness; intellectual (not ethical) upekkha enters into the composition of fifty-nine such classes. These two groups of classes sometimes overlaps each other, as in the case of the 'moral resultant,' or 'inoperative classes of kdmaconsciousness,' which are 'accompanied by indifference,' and jhana. again in fifth In these overlapping classes of consciousness hedonic indifference was taken as the chief basis of division, though intellectuai indifference was present as 'hedonic well. This applies to the upekkh'ekaggatd. indifference and individualizarion' characterizins fifth j hana'". The Atthasalini states: 'This is impartiality (majjhattam) in connection with the obj ect, and irnplies a discriminative knowledge (paricchindanakarh fianari)'. This explanation applies strictly to upekkftd found in sobhana citta accompanied b y w i s d o m . u p e k k h d f o u n d i n r h e a k u s a l a s a n d ,a h e t u k a s i s j u s t neutral feeling withour the least trace of any discriminative knowledge. In the kdmavacara sobhanas, too, there may arise that neutral feeling, &s in the case of one hearing t]ne d.hamma without any pleasurable interest, and also a subtle form of upekkha that views the object with deliberate impartiatity anc discriminative knowledge, as in the case of a wise person who hears tLe dhamma wit:.,L critical and impartial mind. a Upekkhd of tlre jhdna citta, in particular is of ethical and psychological importance. It certainly is not the ordinary kind of upekkha, generally found in the akusala citta that comes naturally to an evil-doer. The j hdna upekkha has been developed by a strong will-power. Realizing that pleasurable feeling is also gross, the yogi eliminates it as he did the other three jhdna factors, and develops the more subtle and peaceful upekkhd. On the attainment of the fifth jhana breathing ceases.

'o Op. Cit.: 230-23 1

188 As he has transcended both pain and pleasure by will-power, is immune to pain too. he

This upekkha is a highly refined form of the ordinary tatramajj hattatd, even-mindedness, one of the moral mental states. latent in all rypes of sobhana citta. In the Pdli phrase

upekkha of

satiparisuddhi equanimity), it

(purity is

of the




tatramajj hattata that is referred to. This is latent in the first four jhanas roo. In the fifth jhana this tatramajjhattatd is singled out and becomes highly refined. Both neutral feeling (upekkha vedand.) and equanimity that correspond to the one Pali term upekkha are found in the fifth jhana. At



fourfold division the six akusala (anublravana upekkhd) found in the eight ahetuka sense-door citta (dvipartcacittas) (excluding kayavifrfiana), (3) intellectual upekkhd. found mostly in the rwo sobhana kriya cittas. accompanied by knowledge, and sometimes in the two sobhana kusala cittas. accompanied by knowledge, (4) ethic aI upekkha, found in all the sobhana citta,r, especially in the fifth jhana. Brahmaviharupekkha

exposition of upekkhd N6rada gives of upekkha: (1) just neutral feeling, found in cittas (2) sensitive passive neurral feeling



and sankharupekkha may be included iu both iutellectual and ethical upekkhd. The first is equanimity amidst all vicissitudes of life. The second is neither attachmenr nor aversion with respect to al1 conditioned thingsro. In the exposition of the insight exerted by a meditator and its effect on his vision. the passage from the Compendium of Philosopltlt reads that by the insight of indifference to the activities of this life he is now indifferent to the world. In other words. the good and the bad in this world no longer affect lrim. Tlris feeling of indifferenc e (upekkha) is fostered by the balance of the mind, or equanimity (ratramajjhattata). which must not be confounded with upekkha. the neutral aspect of

189 feelirrg, sorrow. eventually two may or The zero-point former be exist by raised condition side is between a to by higher the pain dignity as the in and of pleasure, attitude, a the joy and may (an




indispensable accompanied consciousness.

or factor side,

of knowledge of eight

or wisdom). The 'consciousness of moral








Now we come to the 18 ahetuka (without roots) cittas. They consist of 7 akusala vtpaka (resultant) cittas, 8 kusala vipaka cittas, and 3 kiriya cittas2t. (see table 2 next page)
The along with the first ahetuka applied are absence the three to their of akusala that merely in the translation words is of intention only


in the seven cittas, to lobha, alobha, dosa adosa



of the six rootsrr. In other opposites: with hetu in mind

the term hetu in and is not Tll'e seven devoid should cittas of are of be are

is applied

and moha, and amoha. they are It

attributed borne

ahetuka (concomitant


.tampayuttaka further devoid by actions, remaining there is nibbattaka

conditions),,. cittas the

that even ahetuka cause)24. All they them are the Hence of moral are

are not devoid of ahetuka nor immoral immoral merely the two thre; In or



of all'roots. eight 7l only of cittas one

are neither and

moral three cittas are





functionals?s. With

the exception called in root,

of ahetuka sahetuka

18 in all, two

Iwith there




r oM A b . :

53-54. ,t Op. Cit.: 27-33; see also Comp.: 84-86" :: Comp.: 84. 2 3S a m p a y u t t d : a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , c o n n e c t e d ( P E D : 6 9 1 a ) . 2 1N i b b a t t a f t a : p r o d u c i n g , y i e l d i n g ( P E D : 3 6 1 b ) . 1 5M A b . : 157.


T tntn 12:
N" Types of Consciousness Consciousness by Way of Sight or Eye Consciousness Consciousness by Way of I:[earins or Eat - C onscious ness Consciousness by Way of Smell or Nose-Consciousness 4 Consciousness by Way of Taste or T o n g u e - C o n s c i o u s n e ss Consciousness by Way of Touch or B ody - Conscious ness Recipient Consciousness or Receiving Consciousrress ( Sampati ccana citta) Investigating Consciousness ( Sa n t I r a q t ac i t t a ) Feelings Hedonic Ind ifferenc e Hedonic Indifference Hedonic Indifferenc e Hedonic Indifference Pain (dukkha)

Hedonic Ind iff erenc e Hedonic Ind iffere nc e


A .





Buddhis r



Psycltological Ethics renders citta by intellect. and mano b1 thought. The citta is defined here as cakkhuviftfiana. sotavi iifiana. j ivhaviftfrdna. ghanavirtfi.ana, kayaviiiiiana
(cognition elements ideational accordance of applied ideation). cognition)'u with the to sense-impression). and (see manoviiifianad.hatu tables 3&4). of manodhdttt (the is elemenr totally This (the of in


we have ever seen in the Satta Pitaka.

citta and viflftana (see table 5)


'uDhs. lil187




I N"

Types of Consciousness Consciousness by Wav of Sight or Eye Consciousness Consciousness by Way of Hearins or Ear-C onsciousnes s Consciousness by Way of Smell or Nose-Consciousness Consciousness by Way of Taste or Tongue-C onsciousness Consciousness by Way of Touch or Body -ConsciousneSs

Accompanied Hedonic Indifference Hedonic Indifference Hedonic Indifference Hedonic Indifference Happiness (sukha) Hedonic Indifference
Pleasure (somanassa)


Recipient Consciousness or Receiving Consciousness (Sampati cchanacitta) Investigating Consciousness (Santlranacitta) Investigaring Consciousness (SantirarJacitta)

Hedonic Indifference

classes of cittas mentioned above are quit: similar to the extenr that if ethical aspect is put aside both the groups are hardly different from each other; the first five cittas of one group have actually a little difference from their counterparts in the other group. The ten, however, sometimes share the same common name Dvipaficavififidna. Nirada explains that in the Abhidhamma, these five pairs of consciousness are so narned because they are all dependent on the five senses. As they are comparatively weak they are



192 accompanied by neurral feeling. with the exception of bodyconsciousness that is accompanied by either pain or happiness; and this is a little difference we mean above. Sampaticchanacitta accepts or receives an investigates an objectr'. is thar moment of consciousness that object. Santlranacitta is that which

Somanassa the accompanied feeling of the seventh citta is here of psychological import, meaning simply'pleasurable feeling plus excitement'r'. the 18 ahetuka cittas. the last three are kiriya cittas. Kiriya is rendered as functional or inoperative. implying that they do not create kamma. They can be presented in the following table. TaeI-e 14: No Types of Consciousness Consciousness Turuing to Impressions at the Five Doors ( . P ac a d v a r a v a j j a n a c i t t a ) i Consciousness Turning to Impressions at the Mind-door ( M a n o d v d r d v a jj a n a c i t t a ) Consciousness of the Genesis of a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e ( . F / a st u p p a d a c i t t a ) i Feelings Hedonic Indiff erence ( U p ek k h a ) Hedonic Indifference ( U p ek k h a ) Joy (Somanassa) of

moment of consc iousness which turns towards one of the five sense-objects is called the paiicadvaravajjartacitta. Mttnod.varavajjanacitta is a moment of consciousness that turns



MAb.; 30. C o m p .; 8 2 n

193 towards mental object. Paficadvdrdvajjanacitta and are the only two moments of Kirilta Manodvdrdvajjanacitta Only c:ittas experienced by those rvho are not Arahants. the Burltlhas and Arahants experience all the other Kiriya cittas. Hasituppdda - smiling caused by a pleasurable feeling - is a citta peculiar to Arahantsze. Nirada that the five offers a brief iairs of
the number element).o.


account of all the 89 cittas, saying are sometimes referred





clvipaficavififiana, paficadvdravajjanacitta rest, 76 in consciousness

two sampaticchana 'Mano (mind as dhatu' 'Mano as

element), the ' (minddhatu

TasLr 15:
Cittas by Way of Sight, Hearing, SmeIl. Taste. Touch.
Dvtoaficavi iifiana

Pa fic adv dr dv aj j anac it t a and Samp ati c chanac ittas





The rest. 76 in number.


vififidna dhdtu




The functional extent.

representation understanding


the thought-process here.

would cittas

help such

the an

of the above-mentioned


is not our intention

It is rather painstaking to go back to the original account of those cittas given in the Dhammasanganl: nonetheless, it may be appreciable in regard with authoritative aspect to single out one of them, namely, that of the Sampaticchanacitta in its rron-substantiative designation kusalavipakamanodhatu:'When, as the result of good karma having been wrought, having been stored up in connection with the sensuous universe, an element
]eMAb.: 31

194 (dharu) of ideation accompanied by has aris en disinterestedness, and having as its object a sight, a sound, a smell, a taste, something tangible, or what not, then there is thinking, thought, conception, discursive thought, disinterestedness. self-collectedness; the faculties of ideation, disinterestedness, vitality. These or whatever other incorporeal, causally induced states there are on that occasion - these are states that are indeterminate'. It is noted that the significance of the affix '-dhatu ' (elemenr) here implies the absence of entity, the 'emptiness' or phenomenal character of the ideational facultv.'. contact. feeling, perceptior,

IIf . Twenty The next

Four types

I{EmEvacarana of



citta we discuss are 24 will Kdmdvacarana Sobhana Cittas ('Thoughts of Things Beautiful in the Sensuous Sphere' or'Beautiful Consciousness of the Sensuous Sphere') which is divided into 3 groups as follows:

Eight kusala (moral) cittas k d m a v h ca r a e x p e r i e n c e . Eight vipaka (resultant) kama vacara expetience : cittas










Eight kriya (functional or inoperative) cittas with roots arising in karnavacara expetience.

Kamdvacara is defined 'having its province in kama'. 'belonging to the realm of sensuous pleasures'. This term applies to the eleven grades of beiugs who are still under the influence of sensual desires and pleasures. as well as to all thoughts and conditions arising in this sphere of sensuous experience32. Nevertheless. it is noted that these 24 cittas are clraracterized by sobhana because they yield good qualities, and are connected with blameless roots such as gererosity, loving'maha' ts usually k i u d n e s s , a n d k n o w l e d g e 3 3 ,a n d t h a t t h e w o r d

'u Op. Cit. : 3Q. rI BMPE $455: 129 r 2D . i : 3 4 . rr MAb .: 39.

195 prefixed action. to them so as to indicate a more extensive field of

A. EIGHT KUSALA CITTAS WITH ROOTS ARISING TN KdMALOKA EXPERIENCE: 1. Automatic (somanassa) sampayuttam). 2. Volitional (sasankharikaryt) with knowledge citta accompanied by joy (.asankharikam) and connected citta with accompanied knowledge by joy


and connected 3. Automatic from 4.

(fiana-sampayuttam). by joy and disconnected



knowled ge ( ridna-vipp ay utta m) . citta accompanied by joy and disconnected

Volitional from

knowled ge (fidna-vipp ay utta m) . citta accompanied by hedonic with indifference



(Upekkhasahagatam) 6. Volitional citta

and connected by

knowledge. indifference

accompanied knowledge.


and connected 7. Automatic



accompanied from




and disconnected 8. VolitionaL citta

knowledge. by hedonic indifference

accompanied from

and disconnected Into this type of citta enters.

knowledse. called faculty and lvi * payuttal illustrations of reason are means for the

t}re cetasika terms the fidpa Vippayutta following


The use. offers


interchangeable in 'separated' . N drada first

eight sobhanacittas:

1. One understandingly once with joy.


something to

a beggar at

2. One understandingly gives something to a beggar with joy, after deliberation, or being induced by another. 3. A child, without any understanding, joyfully salutes a monk at once. Joyfully a person automatically recites Sacred Text without understandine the meaning.

196 salutes a monk, as instructed by the mother. A person joyfully recites a Sacred Text, as taught by another, without understanding the meaning. A child, without any understanding, The remaining four types should be understood same way, substituting indifference for joy. Next, the second eight sobhanacittas similar in the joyfully



foregoing, which are results of action done in a former birth in kamaloka, and are accompanied by their hetu's.







Automatic (asankharikam) citta accompanied (somanassa) and connected with knowledge sampayuttary). Volitional (sasankharikant) citta accompanied

by joy (fiana-

by joy

and connected with knowledge. Automatic citta accompanied by joy from knowled ge (iiana-vippay uttam) . Volitional citta accompanied by joy and disconnected

and disconnected

from knowledge. Automatic citta accompanied by hedonic indifference (Upe kkhdsahagatarp) and connected with knowledge.

citta accompanied by hedonic and connected with knowledge. Volitional Automatic citta accompanied by hedonic and disconnected from knowledge.



accompanied by hedonic and disconnected from knowledge. Volitional citta


As a seed sown on fertile soil germinates and fructifies itself sooner or later, according to its own intrinsic nature. even so kusala and akusala actions. in general, produce their due desirable and undesirable effects They are called vipaka. Similarly, those types of citta that aris e as the inevitable

r97 results of these corresponding kusala cittas are called vipaka (resultant) cittas34.In short, kamma is action, and vipaka is its reaction. It is the cause and the effect. Like a seed is kamma, like the fruit arising from the tree is vipdka (effect),'. It should be understood that both kamma and vipdka are purely mental. Figuratively speaking, vipdka is like a cool breeze that pacifies a person seated under the cool shade of a tree, even so mental states of resultant types of consciousness are causally related to coexistent mental states and material phenomena by way of 'effect' due to their effortless peaceful nature36. It is rnore minutely explained in the Athasalinl that the effects of ntoral and immoral (volitions) which are distincr from each other are called 'results', a name given to certain mental states which have reached the state of maturity (through distinct causes called moral and immoral volitions). 'states that involve resultant states' mean states which bear their own intrinsic nature of causing results.' Just as beings who by their intrinsic nature are liable to birth and old age, so states by virtue of their producing results should be understood to mean 'state possessing the intrinsic nature 'Vipakadhamma-dhamma dhammd' (in of causing results'3'. tl:.eDhamma Sangani) is 'dhamma' in this accounted: The first expression is synonymous with'sabhdva', which is further explained by'pakatika.' 'Vipakadhammd by itself would mean 'results,' but the whole expression refers to causes effeeting those results. Sabhdva [sa * bhava] denotes the three meanings: ( 1) state of mind nature, condition: (2) character, disposition, behaviour; and (3) truth, reality, Pakatika (adj) means being by nature,

sincerity; of a certain nature.

The last eight sobhanacittas are similar to the foregoing, which ate kriya (inoperative or functional), and accompanied bv their hetu's.



Op. Cit.: 22. Op. Cit.:255 Q p . C i t . - . 3 76 Exp.: 54.



1. Automatic (asankharikaqn) citta accompanied (somanassa) and connected with knowledge sampayuttam).

by joy (ftarya-

2. Volitional

citta and connected with knowledge.



by joy

3. Automatic

citta accompanied by joy from knowled ge (ftana -vippay utta an) . citta accompanied from knowledge.

and disconnected

by j oy and disconnected

Automatic citta accompanied by hedonic indifference ( U p e k k h a s a h a g a t a a n )a n d c o n u e c t e d w i t h k n o w l e d g e . 6. Volitional citta accompanied by hedonic indifference and connected with knowledge. 1. Automatic citta accompanied by hedonic indifference

and disconnected from knowledge. 8. Volitional c itta accompanied by hedonic and disconrected from knowledse. indifference

Kiriya. in a search for a better translation. is rendered b1' 'kartnically ineffective','inoperative' or'functional'.,. Kriya tn general means action, performance, and deed; in a special serse it denotes an act: promise. vow. dedication, intention. pledge. justice. But here in the philosophical contexr ir an action that ends in itself. In other words. it is used in the sense of ineffective acrion. Karnma is causally effective. Kiriya is causally ineffective. Good deeds of Buddhas and Arahants are called kirtya because they do not accumulate kantma as the] have gone beyond both good and evil'n. the Abhidhamma, vipaka and kiriya are collectivelr. called ahyakata (indeterminate). that which does not manifest In itself in the wav of an effect . Abvdkata literaliv means that indicates action ineffective as to result. non-causative.

'oMAb.; 15. tnOp. Ctt-. ZZ

199 which is not manifested. The former is abyd.kata, because it is an effect or result in itself and is not productive of another result; the latter, because it does not produce any effect. Rfipa (material form) is also regarded as an abydkata because it does not reproduce any kammic resultoo. Equipped with a synthetic
vlew over the whole

sobhanacittas we could observe that let alone their difference featured by moral, resultant, and i noperative, all the three groups of sobhanacittas share the same characterization as presented in the following table. Teel-e 16: N" Feelings Sm Sm Sm 4 Sm Up 6 Up Up Up Legends:
Sm: Somanassa Narja-sampoyuttam Asaikhdriknm Sa.' Sasankhdrikam Up: Upekkha

Views ttn

Activeness As Sa As Sa



As Sa As Sa



About discussed done by

the whole so far one there of

kamaloka first

division note eight

of cittas that all sobhana

that we have good cittas. The acts are Their eight

is a further are the eight


o oO p . C i t . :




L58 .



ahetuka vipaka cittas are also the due effects of these kusala cittas. It. therefore, follows that there are sixteen vipaka cittas corresponding to eight kusala cittas, whereas in the case of twelve cittas. akusala cittas there ate only seven ahetuka vipdka

The Buddha and Arahants also experience all these . twenty-three types of vipdka cittas as they are bound ro reap the good and bad effects of their past actions till they die. But they do not experience the first eight kusala cittas, as they do not accumulate fresh kamma rhat has reproductive power, since they have eradicated all fetters that bind oneself to existence. When they do any good act. instead of the usual kusala cittas. they experience the eight kriya possess no cittas that reproductive energy. Ordinary persons and even holy ones of the first three grades of saintship do nor experience these eight cittaso,.

B. Rfrpilvacarana The next division

Cittas we are going to work on should be

rupavacarana cittas 15 in number. As the foregoing twenty four cittas in the sensuous sphere. the fifteen cittas arisin,s in the form-sphere fall under the three divisions: (1) Five rypes of kusala as rupaj hana experience which one can develop in this very life; (2) Five types of vipaka citras which one cau experience after death; and (3) Five types of kriya cittas which are experienced only by Buddha and Arahants either in this life or by Arahanrs in the rupaloka". vipakas which are the correspouding resultants of the five jhana kusalas could be 'experienced in the rupaloka proper, not in the kamaloka whereas jhana kusalas and jhana kriyas could be experienced in It is noted that the five the kamaloka continuously are listed as follows. even for a whole day". The twelve jhana cittas arising

4l 17

Op. Cit.: 4O-4I Op. Cit.. 46-47 Op. Cit .: 49-5O

201 f- Five l{usala 1. Kusala Cittas (,ng as rfipajhana experience):

citta of the first

together with vitakka (sustained application), sukha (pleasure), and one-pointedness).

stage of jhana. This occurs (initial application), vicdra (pleasurable interest), ptti ekagatd (individualization or

2. Kusala citta of the second stage of jhdna. This occurs together with vicdra t piti, sukha, and ekagatd. 3. Kusala citta of the third stage of jhdna. together with pIti, sukha, and ekagatd. 4. Kusala citta of the forth stage of jhdna. together with sukha, and ekagata. 5. Kusala citta of the fifth together with ekagatd. stage of jhdna. This occurs









of Riipajhiina


one can

experience after death) : 1. Vipdka citta of the first stage of jhana. This occurs (initial vitakka together with application), vicdru (sustained application), plti (pleasurable interest), sukha (pleasure), and ekagatd (individualization or one-pointedness). 2. Vipdka citta of the second stage of jhana. This occurs together with vicdra, pIti, sukha, and ekagatd. 3. Vipaka citta of the third stage of jhdna. together with ptti, sukha, and ekagata. Vtpaka citta of the forth stage of jhana. together with sukha, and ekagatd. Vipaka citta of the fifth together with ekagata. (which are experienced only by Buddha and Arahants either in this life or by Arahants Five l{riyd Cittas in the rupaloka): stage of jhdna. This occurs








202 Kriy a citta together (sustained of the first with vitakka stage of j hana . This occurs (initial vicd.ra application), plti (pleasurable interest). (individualization or

application). sukha (pleasure). and ekagata one-pointedness).

Kriya citta of the second stage of jhdna. This occurs together with vicdra, plti, sukha, and ekagata. Kriya citta of the third together with piti, sukha stage of j hana. and ekagatd. This occurs

Kriya citta of the forth stage of j hana. t o g e t h e r w i t h s u k h a , a n d ek a g a t a . of the fifth together with ekagata. Kriya cittn stage of jhana.





Rupavacara or rupaloka lirerally means sphere of matter or material qualities, or sphere where rupa's or objects of sight are the principle medium of experience. Actually, the material and the corporeal frames in those realms seem to have been as varied in kind as in rhe lower planes of the kdmavacctra 'heavens.' but more refined or sublimated... The Compendium of Philosophy states that rupaloka is so called because t.he subtle residuum of matter is said. in that place of existence. to be still met with. Arfr.paloka is so called because no trace of matter is held to be found in it. That which frequenrs the rupaloka is rupavacara. On the basis of the notes given b-v Narada'5, we can get the general but comprehensive information that there ate three planes and of existencenamely. kamaloka, rupaloka, artipaloka. Kamaloka consists of the four states of miseries (ap dya) . human realm (manussa) . and the six celestial realms (devaloka). It is called kamaloka because sense-desires play a predominant part in this sphere. Those who seek no delight in ordinary sense-desires, but are interested in higher spiritual progress. must naturally be born in congenial places in harmony with their lofty aspirations: rilpaloka or arilpaloka. environment

" Exp.: 216n

203 Even in the human realm it is they who retire to solitude and

engage themselves

in meditation.

The meditation of two kinds: samatha, which

that the developed (concentration)



can do is (insight).


and vipassana

means calm or tranquiility, is gained by developing the jhdnas. vipassand is seeing things as they truly are. with the aid of jhdnas one could develop higher psychic powers Those rupaloka only (.abhififia). who mind. It is vipassand jhdnas In both are the mind that leads to enlightenment. born and by after body death are in higher but is a there is nobody there develop As a

and arupaloka. rule, and

artipaloka But

interrelated and. vice

interdependent, possibility versa temporarily.

inseparable. born

will-power realms forms.

for the mind

to be separared from in celestial subtle material

the body


and rfipaloka

are supposed to possess very The collectively consideration technically fourth the is eliminated, first is these happiness Sometimes three once6.


factors, in the in

vitakka, following

vicara, citta, pages, two

piti, which

sukha, we will

ekaggata put what in into is the even

found known

the appand

constitute are eliminated, in the by

as jhdna. third are

In the second jhana the and first is eliminated, while

the first fifth


in the three




five jhdnas as both

in the visuddhimagga. constituents

as mentionec In that case the second jhdna consists of vitakka and vicdra are eliminated at

are treated

as four,

VITAKKA difficult assumes Different different entirely


derived meanings are

from in


+ ^l'takk' for Suttas

to suggest a suitable different values different of attached For when

rendering the to it

ro think. It is this pali term that Abhidhamma4t. it is is used one used in of with in an the a

and when

vitakka is in


instance, vitakka

vitakka carita


connection means



1 rM A b . : 4 5 - 5 5 . - Op. Cit.: 5Q. n' Op. Cit.: 9O.

',-. the discursive temperamentrs. Nevertheless, generally in the sense of thinking or reflection In the Abhidhamma exposition of term

u s ed



application of mind), this is called ap-ply-ing in virtue of 'plying' the mind with objects. To what exrent is it plied? 'supplies' Vitakka a pot, a cart, a league. half a league - this is 'application'. what goes on in This is the primary notion in the 'initial application' word takka. Vitakka, in virtue of ap-plying, 'plyirrg're. sup-plying, is an emphatic term for Whereas in the Sutta Pitaka it has been employed sense of notions, ideas, thoughts, reasoning. etc. Abhidhamma it is used in a specific rechnical sense. It which directs the concomitant states rowards the object. in the in the is thar

a king's favourite would conduct a villager so vitakka directs the mind towards the object. In other words, as someone ascends to the king's palace depending on a king's favourite, relative or friend, likewise consciousness ascends to the object depending on vitakka whose chief characteristic is 'lifting' the concomitants to the objecr (abhiniropaga)''. Or, in the other direction in object-mind relation, it is said that rhe vitakka which arises as if mind were brought to object is really a dragging of object ro mind",. It is a bit expansive to give the following example: a villager who visirs the king's palace for the first time. needs the introduction of a favourite courtier; for his subsequent visits no such introduction acquainted with the palaces,. is necessary as he is

Just as to the palace, even

Vitakka is a mental stare which. when associated with a kusala or akusala citta, becomes either moral or immoral. As the ordinary vitakka, tt serves just the function of merely throwing to the surface of the obj ectr.. When it is deveioped and cultivated it becomes rhe foremost factor of the the mind

o oO p . C i t . : 9 1 . on xp .: L87. E i oM A b . : 9 0 . " Op. Clr.: l88f " Op. Cit.: 9l. " Op. Cir.: 90.

205 first 7/zdna" when the rnind is steadfastly fixed on rhe object it is termed appana. rt is this developed appana-vitakka that is k n o w n a s s a m a d h i o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n " I n t h e s u b s e q u en t j h d n a , vitakka is, however, inhibited, owing to the habitual association with the object. In metaphoric parlance, this is said that the villager now needs no introduction w ith the palace. owing ro his acquaintance

The vitakka as initial application of rhe j hdna citta (temporarily) inhibits thlna and mtddha (sIoth and torpor) one of the five nlvarana (hindrances) which is opposed to viriya (diligence)'0. A still more developed form of vitakka is found in the magga ci.tta (path-consciousness) as samma sankappa (right thoughts) . More exactly speaking, when y'itakka is presenr in tlae lokuttara magga citta (supramundane path citta) it is termed sammd sankappa thoughts) because it eliminates wrong thoughts and applies the mind to nibbana. In other words, the vitakka of the mag gacitta directs the mental states towards (right


and destroys micchd (wrong or evil) vitakka such as vydpada (thoughts o f h a t r e d ) , a n d v i h i m sd ( t h o u g h t s o f cruelty ) As piti is the precursor of vicdra". Vicdra precursor of sukha,




is derived frorn 'vi' + 'cer' to move or The kernel of the word cdro expresses a going-about the object 'Investigation' or that which moves around the object. is usually its primary meaning indicating general scrutiny. The next terms (in the original Dhamma sanga4l) with prefixes anu-upa-vi cdro investigation$. indicate order and c l o s e n e ss in the

Here vicara is used in the sense of sustained apprication or continued exercise of the mind on the object that is initiated by vitakka. consequently, the renderings for vitakka and.vicdra are so far initial and sustained application respectively.
'o Op. Cit. : 50-51; see also 99- 1OO. 5 sM A b . : 5 2 . 'uExp.: 189.

206 Examination (anumajjana) is its chief characterisric. It inhibits (temporarily) vicikicchd (doubt or indecision)". Like vitakka, vicd.ra too is employed in a technical sense , in the Abhidhamma. Both as jhana factors, vitakka and vicdra are correlates and should be distinguished. Like a bee alighting on a lotus is vitakka, like its gyrating or buzzing around the lotus is vicdra. Like the flapping of a bird about to fly is vitakka, like its planning movements in the sky is vicdra" Like the beating of a drum or bell is vitakka, Like its reverberation is vic dra . PITI is zest, j oy, or pleasurable interest. It is derived from r/'pi'. to please. to delight. It is not a kind of feeling ( v e d a n r T )l i k e s u k h a . I t i s . s o t o s a y . s u k h d ' s p r e c u r s o r . L i k e t h e first two jhana factors, pirr is also a mental state found in both moral and immoral consciousness. Creating an interest in the or object is its characteristic, piti inhibits vydpada (ill-will aversion). satisfies. develops. It has satisfaction as characteristic, the thrilling of body and mind (or suffusion) as function, and elation as manifestation. PIti is of Piti is literally that which five kinds: Khuddaka plti: the lesser thrill. the thriil of joy that causes 'the flesh to creep'. The lesser thrill is only abie to raise the hairs of the body. Kharika piti: momentary rapture, instantaneous joy like a flash of lightning. In other words, the momentary rapture is like the production of lightning moment by moment.Okkantika piti: flooding rapture. the flood of joy like

the breakers on a seashore. Like waves breaking on the seashore, the flooding rapture descends on the body and breaks

" MAb. : 51; 9I-92

207 4 Ubbega plti: transporting rapture, transporting joy which enables one in float in the air just as a lump of cotton carried by the wind. This rapture is strong, and lifts the body up to the extent of launching it in the air. Pharana which plti: all-pervading the whole raprure, body like suffusing a joy,



bladder or like a flood that overflows small tanks and pondsst. two srories are illustrative of the Ubbega plti: As the Elder Mahdtissa residing at Punnavallika on the full-moon day at went into the courtyard of the shrine, saw the moonlight; turning to the Great Shrine, he called up the t r a n s p o r t i n g r a p t u r e , w i t h t , | . eB u d d h a a s o b j e c t o f t h o u g h t , a n d virtue of having habitually dwelt upon the vision, vt the thought: -'In such an hour, lo! the four assemblies salute the on the cemented floor he rose in the sky like a ball with mind entranced, and stood even in the courtyard of the Shriner'. Great Shrine'. The following

a certain daughter of noble family in Vattakalaka village, the support of Girikandaka monastery, soared into the sky also by strong transporting rapture when thinking of the Buddha. It is related that her parenrs, going in the evening to you are the monastery to hear the Doctrine, said,'Dear, heavily burdened; it is not the time for you to be walking; you are not able- We shall hear the Doctrine, and make merit for you,'and went. Although desirous of going, she was not able to disregard their words, and remained behind stood at the door, looking by moonlight Shrine against the sky at Girikandaka, in the house. She at the courtyard of the saw the offering of


lamps to the shrine and the four assemblies doing honour to the perfumes, garlands etc. and by and scented shrine circumambulating it, and heard the sound of the mass-chanting 'Blessed of the Brotherhood. Then to her occurred the thought: indeed must be these who can get to the monastery and walk in

Op. Cit.: 5l-52; Exp.: 153"

see also Exp.: 153.

such a courryard, and hear such a sweet religious discourse', and to her. looking at the Shrine rising like a mass of pearls, arose transporting rapture. She soared into the sky, and descended therefrom to the courtyard earlier than her parents, saluted the Shrine. and stood listening to the Doctrine. Then her parents coming asked her: 'Dear, by which way did you parents, I came by the sky, and not by the road'. come?''Dear 'Dear, by the sky only saints con go; how could you have come?' Thus questioned, she said, 'As I was standing looking at the a strong rapture while thinking on rhe Buddha. Then I knew not whether I stood or sat, but I laid hold of a sign, and sprang into the sky, and stood in the courryard.' So far can rransporting rapture work*. SUKHA is composed of '.sL'easy, and 'kha'bear. What is easy to endure is sukha. It is usually rendered as bliss. ease or happiness. It is a kind of pleasanr feeling. The enjoymenr of the desired object is its characteristic. It is like a king that enjoys a delicious dish. It is opposed to uddhacca and kukkucca (restlessness and brooking). As vitakka is the precursor of vicdra. so is piti the precursor of sukha. Like the sight of an oasis to a weary traveler. is pIti. like drinking warer and batlring therein. is sukha. Piti creates an interest in the obiect. while sukha enables one to enjoy the objecr This meutal sukha, which should be differentiated from (physical) ahetuka kayika happiness. is identical with somanassa. But it is a joy disconnected with material pleasures. This pleasurable feeling is the inevitable outcome of renouncing material pleasures (n irdmisa sukha). Nibbanic bliss is yet far subtler than the jhanic bliss shrine in the moonlight, there arose in me

There is no feeling in experiencing the bliss of nibbana. The total release from suffering (dukkhupasama) is itself nibbdnic bliss. It is compared to the 'ease'of an invalid who is perfectll' cured of a disease. It is bliss of relief.

* Exp.: 153-154

209 sukhena sukha4nuindicates rhe idea that this happiness by r happy ways is won, as different from the ascetic theory in the Majjhima Nikdyau, which ralks about happiness is got through suffering6r. sometimes' sukha expresses physical happiness differentiated from, mental pleasuree. sukha rendered as bliss or ease is that which gives pleasures6i. That in whom it arises it makes him happy is its meaning. It is a synonym for joyous feeling. Its characteristics etc. are the same as those of a feeling. In another parlance, sukha has the characteristic of being pleasant; the development of associated states as its function, and showing favor to the same as its manifestation. Although in some kinds of citta. for instance in the first jhdna, piti and,sukha are not dissociated, plti is delight in the attaining of the desired object, sukha is the enjoyment of the taste of what is acquired. is, there is sukha; but where sukha is, there is not always ptti. PIti is classed under the aggregate of mental co-efficients; sukha, under the aggregate of feeling. p//i is like a weary traveler in the desert in summer, who hears of, or sees water or a shady wood. Ease is like his enjoying the water or entering the forest shade. For a man who, travelling along the path through a great desert and overcome by the heat, is thirsty and desirous of drink, if he saw a man on the w&y, would ask, 'where is water?'The other would say,'Beyond the wood is a dense forest with a natural lake. Go there, and you will get some.' He hearing these words would be glad and delighted, and as he went would see lotus leaves, etc. fallen on the ground and become more glad b.nd delighted. Going onwards, he would see men with wet clothes and hair, hear the sounds of wild fowl and pea-fowl, etc. see the dense forest of green like a net of jewels growing by the edge of the naturar lake, he would see the water lily, the lotus, the white lily, etc. growing in the lake, he would see the clear transparent water, he would be in the rnor: where plti

orPB, ver.22O. 6 ?M . i : 9 3 f . u'Exp.: 515f. 6 ' 'M A b . : 1 5 3 . s Dhs. g1O: iO.

2t0 glad and delighted, would descend into the natural lake, barhe and drink at pleasure ard, his oppression being allayed, he would eat the fibres and stalks of the lilies, adorn himself with the blue lotus, carry on his shoulders the roots of the manddlaka, ascend from the lake, put on his clothes, dry the bathing cloth in the sun, and in the cool shade where the breeze blew ever so gently lay himself down and say: 'O bliss? O bliss?' This illustration should be applied: The time of gladness and delight from when he heard of the natural lake and rhe dense forest till he saw the warer is like piti having the manner of gladness and delight at the object in view. The time when, after his bath and drink he laid himself down in the cool shade. saying. 'o bliss ! o bliss ! ' erc. is the sense of sukha grown strong. established in thar mode of enjoying the rasre of the objecr. Actually, the description (of the rwo rerms) is repeatedly illustrated, and so is the fact that where there is piti, there also is sukhaou. The following passage from the Atthas atinl gives an

analytical accounr of the word: sukha in associarion with pleasurable feeling, first of all means 'pleasurable feeling' (sukha-vedand),'root of happiness' (sukha-milla),'pleasurable obj ect' (sukharammana) , 'condition or cause of happiness ' 'objective (suklta-ltetu). station pleasure occasioning or conditioning state of pleasure' (sukhapaccayatthana).'freedom from cares or free from troubles' (abydpajjha). and 'Nibbanic happiness'. etc.67In such passages as. 'By getting rid of or eliminating sukha'u. sukha mears pleasurable feeling (sukhav e d a n d . ). I n s u c h p a s s a g e s a s ' s u k h a i s t h e s t a t e o f f r e e d o m from lust in the world or is non-attachment in this world '"'. sukha rleaus root of happiness or pleasure (sukha-milla) . In such passages as, 'O MahAli. inasmuch as matter is sukha, ot form is sukha. falls and descends on sukha',o, sukha mears object of pleasure or pleasurable object (sukhdrammana). In

nu xp.: I54-156. E '- Op.Cft.:5--53. o ts a e t h e F o u r t h J h a n a formula in the Dhamma Sangani gI65 6e . ii: I U " S. iii: 69.

211 O Bhikkhu, is synonym for sttkha,,,, sukha means cause of pleasure or condition of happiness (sukha_hetu). In'Not easy is it, bhikkhus, to succeed in describing how pleasant are the heavens or to attain to heavenly sukha by description"' or 'They know not srztha w]no see not Nandana,rr, sukha means 'place occasioning happiness or conditioning state of pleasure (sukhapaccayatthdna). In.these states ehdna) coustitute a sukha life in this very world', sukha means freedom from cares or from troubles (abydpajjhd). In ,Nibbana is the highest or supreme sukha'ro, sukha means Nibbana or Nibbdnic happiness.' But here 'preasure feeling, only is applicable'5. The above expositions enabre us to understand in what different senses the term sukha is used in the texts. The prominent meaning of sukha, however, is pleasurable feeling. And, that sukha is identical with Nibbana, ,.s in the rast sample, does not mean that there is a pleasurable feeling in Nibbdna although the term sukha is used . Nibbana is bliss of relief . The release from suffering is itself Nibbanic bliss,u. ,e k a ' + , EKAGGATA is composed of a g g a , + ,t a , . It literally means one-pointedness. This is a mental state common to aLl jhdna cittas. In the magga cittas, ekaggata is meant by samma samddhi (right concenrration). Ekaggatd temporarilv inhibits sensual desires". This is the element, in consciousness, of awareness of one object and one only, because, by the selective act, the mind is n o t d i s t r a c t e d b y s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t s T s .I n t h e s e n s e o f o n e pointedness, or concentration on one object, or focussing the mind on one object, ekaggatd is visualized by several images: a '(the word) Merit,

7t A. 7 ?M .



iii:- 172.

'r S. i: 2OO. 'o Dhp. 2O3-2O4. tt Exp.: 52-53. 7 6M A B . : . I 4 7 - 1 4 8 . " Op. Cit-: 55. '8 Comp.: 89.

steady lamp-flame in a windless place, a firmly fixed pillar that cannot be shaken by the wind, water that binds together several substances to form one concrete compound. This mental state prevents its adjuncts from dissipation unique object it works on'0. According to the Atthasalini, concentration . cittekag gatd and fixes them on the

cittekaggatd is another name for has the characreristic of leadership, also of non-distraction. passage in A the 'As, your majesty, Milindapafrho reads all the rafters of a gabled house go ro the ridgepole. incline towards, meet at ridgepole. the ridgepole is called the chief among rhem; so, your majesty. all moral states incline towards concentration, slop towards concentration, take refuge in concentration; concentration is called the chief among them"o. And as the king in battle goes wherever rhe army is giving way, and the army wherever he has gone becomes reinforced and the hostile army being broken follows the king; so concentrarion, from not allowing the co-existent states to be thrown out and scattered, has non-distraction as its characteristic". There is a further explanarion: This cittekaggatd bas nonscattering (of itself) or non-distraction (of associared states) as characteristic. the welding together of the co-existenr srates as function, as water kneads bath-powder into a paste. and peace of mind or knowledge as manifestation. For it has been said: 'He who is coocentrated knows. sees accordins to the truth'",.




Now, we go to the LZ cittas arising in the arfipavacara experience which fall into the similar divisions as the foregoing 15 rupavacara cittas: (1) Four types of kusala cittas. (2) Four types of vi.paka cittas, and (3) Four t)'pes of kriya cittas. The twelve is listed tosether below.

" MAb: 87. uo il, i: 60, M t'Exp.: 156. "'A.v:3.

2t3 f. Four l{usala experience):

Kusala citta dwelling on the infinitv of space



as arttpajhdna

(akds dnafic dyatana) .

2. Kusala citta dwelling


on the infinity .

of consciousness


citta dwelling

on the nothingness


4. Kusala citta wherein perception neither is nor is not ( n ' e v a - s a f i f i d - n ' a s a f i f i a ya t a n a ) . rr. Four vipiika (which are results cittas of Arfrpajhiina of jhdna of similar kinds practised in the life immediate ly previous ) : of space. of consciousness.

1. Vipaka citta dwelling on the infinity 2. Vipaka citta dwelling on the infinity

3. Vipaka citta dwelling on the nothingness. 4. Vipaka citta wherein perception neither is nor is not. fff.




(which are inoperative) :

on the infinity on the infinity of space. of consciousness.

citta dwelling citta dwelling citta dwelling citta wherein

2. Kriya 3. Kriyd 4. Kriya

on the nothingness. perception neither is nor is not.

Ayatana here is 'object of thought'. Of the three types of citta above mentioned, the first citta has as its object the inf inity of space; the second citta has as its obj ect the first citta or ylfifidna; the third citta has as its object rhe first citta regarded as 'nothing'. The object of the fourth citta is consciousness the expression of the fourth citta is a symbolical or representative term - wherein complete hypnosis is all but attained. Perception of any kind. The word safifid used in

214 can. therefore. be taken in its older wider sense as'that whereby the mind becomes conscious of anything"'. The four j hdnas (cattAri arupajjhanani) connected with Formles s acr


often appear in the Nikdyas. In the Sarhyutta Nikdyas' and frequently in the Majjhima Nikaya, they occur in immediate sequence to the four Jhdnas without any collective title, and not as concomitants of the Fourth Jhdna. The Dhammasanganl gives the account of the four jhanas connected with Formless Existence as follows. 1. The Sphere of Unbounded Space: When. that he ma)

attain to the Formless heavens. he cultivates the way thereto. and so. by passing wholly beyond all consciousness of form (rupasartfid), by the dying out of the consciousness of senser-y reaction (patighasaftfra), by turning the attention from any consciousness of the manifold (nanattasaftfrd), he enters inro and abides in that rapt meditation consciousness of a sphere of Fourtlr Jhana. to gain which all sense of sukfta must have been put away, and all the sense of ill must have been put away, and there must have been a dying out of the happiness and misery (the rapt meditation) which is imbued he was wont to feel with disinterestedness, and where no ease is felt nor any ill. but only the perfect purity that comes of mindfulness and disinterestedness then the contact. etc, the balance that arises- these are states that are sood". It is nored that the meditator is to withdraw all interest in and atterrtiorr to the world of rr.tpa, to cease so entirely to differentiate the plenurn of external phenomena (including his on his senses, that sersations cease. or resolve themselves into a homogeneous sense of extended 'pa[ighasariiid' phrase the in vacuunr. Patigho in the Dhsmmasanganr. rendered by sensory reaction. is explained to own form) which impinge be sight-perception.
B.r U1

which is accompanied by the unbounded space even the


smell, taste, and touch-

Comp. : 90n S iii: 237 BMPE.. 71 73

,r( is (here) not sustained by way of the five doors'. Hardest of all was it to abstract all attention from s o u n d s. A l a r a K d l a m a , one of the Gotama's teachers, and proficient in rhese rapt states, however, was credited with the power of becoming so absorbed that he failed to see or hear hundreds of carts passing near him'u. Ndnattasafifid is explained to refer to the various kinds of sensation, the corresponding vififidna, and the resulting feeling". In the vibhanga, it is explained to mean cognition of the mutual diversity or dissimilarity of narure in the eight kinds of good thoughts, the twelve bad thoughts, as well as in those ideas of good and bad results which are taken next to these. However, safifid which is substituted for cittdni, possibly limits the application of the discernment of diversity to the sensuous basis of all those 'thoughts'. The context, nevertheless, seems to point to a certain general, abstract, 're-representative, import in safifid as here applied. It is said to be the consciousness of one who is occupied with manodhdtu or wit! manovififidnadhdtu representative
those course, ideas. phenomena The

perception. 'Thought

with, Say, representative cognition with ideas or with

ideation their in this case is and the abstract nature

with recognition of
sensuous it lies. of of



as manifold,

in considering


as suchtt.

2. The attain and, to the having

Sphere passed into by have

of Infinite heavens, wholly

Intellection: beyond the

when, the sphere

rhat he may way therero,


he cultivates

space, enters accompanied intellection of ease must that

of boundless and .abides in that rapt meditation which is the consciousness of a sphere of infinite Jhdna, to gain which him in all sense explain: respect to been put away, etcse. Buddhaghosa is no end for

even in the Fourth state'there

in the mental

that which

has to be cogitated'*.

. E7 . rv: 113-114. S 8 8B M P E : 7 2 - 7 3 r ' t . n "O p . C i t . : 7 3 - 7 4 . * Op. Cit. . 'l 4r'r.

o uQ p . C i t . : 7 2 1

216 3. The Sphere of Nothingness: When, that he may attain to the Formles s heavens, he cultivates the way thereto , and, having passed wholly beyond the sphere of infinite intellection, enters which in that rapt meditation is accompanied by the consciousness of a sphere of nothingness even in the Fourth Jhdna, to gain which all sense of ease must have been put away, etc. 4. The Sphere where there is neither Perception nor Nonperceptior: When, that he may attain to the Formless heavens. he cultivates the way thereto, and, having passed wholly beyond the sphere of nothingness. enters into and abides in that rapt meditatiou which is accompanied by the con,sciousness of a sphere where there is neither perception nor non-perception even in the Fourth Jhdna. to eain which all sense of ease must have been put away. etce'. It is uoted that Buddhaghosa explains this mental state as into and abides

the cultivation of the functioning of the subtle residuum of conscious syntheses (sankhdrdvasesa-sukhuma-bhdvam). In so far as perception (presumably understood as being wholly introspective) has become incapable of effective functioning. the state is non-perceptual. In so far as those faint, fine cor.scious reactions are maintained, the state is 'not nonperceptual. ' zero-point about a in This oscillation consciousness is illustrated by the similes of a bowl containing just so much oil as suffices for cleansing purposes. but not to be poured out; also, of the little pool. sufficient to wet the feet. but too shallow for a bath. Both oil and warer exist. or do not exist. according to what action can be taken with respect to them. It is further said that this liminal point obtains not onl1' in saiiiia, but also in feeliug, thought, and contactn.

The arising

Loku ttaravacara
last cittas

Ci ttas
to deal with which are the 8 cittas two

we are going




fa11 under

9l V)

Op. Cit..74. Op. Cit.: 74-7 5n.

2.17 (1) Four types of kusala cittas, and (2) Four types of vipaka cittas. They are also known as (l) Four transcendental moral cittas, and (2) Four transcendental resultant cittas. All the eight can be named collectively as 'cittas in the paths and Fruition'. There is no kriya citta in this stage of development. The eight are listed as follows, divisions:

f. Four



belonging to the path of

Sotdpatti -Path Citta (citta Stream-attainment).

2. Sakadagami-Path




to the path of


Citta (citta


to the path of

Never-returning. 4. Arahatta-Path Arahantship. Citta (citta belonging to the path of






sotapatti -Fruit citta (citta belonging to the Fruition of Stream-attainment). 2. sakadagami-Fruit citta of Once-returning). (citta belonging to the Fruition

3. Anagami-Fruit
4. Arahatta-Fruit Araltantship).
Lokuttara ilreans Attachment). transcends. transcend that This trruits which are It this is

Citta (citta belonging to the Fruition of Never-returning). Citta (citta belonging ro the Fruition of

composed rneans of


'Ioka' (the


Here that

loka of which to

paftcup adanakkhandha Uttara is the world

five beyond citta that

Aggregates or enables therefore of Path one


supra-rnundane mind-body. of to appl ies the world

Lokuttara Aggregates the they Four have

meens The the

transcends strictly called

Attachment. Cittas.





218 world of Aggregates of Attachmentn'. In other words , lokuttara 'beyond the worlds,' i. e. beyond earth and heaven, or means getting to do with except nothing well-reborn, having incidentally, rebirth *. The in that such thoughts tend to expel the causes of






expresses the Citta is like

transcendental this :


for example, Sotapatti-Path

"'When he cultivates the Jhana of the Higher Ideal (the rapt meditation). whereby there is a going forth and onward (niyy anikant) . making for the undoing of rebirth (apacayagamim) and when. that he may attain to the First he has put away views and lpathamayabhummiya), opinions (Dittltigatanaryt), and so aloof from sensuous appetites, aloof from evil ideas, erters into and abides in the First Jhdna wherein conception works and thought discursive. which is born of solitude. is full of joy and ease. progress thereto being difficult and intuition sluggish - then there is contact, feeling, perceptiou, thinking, thought, conception, discursive thought, joy, ease, self-collectedness, the faculries of faith, energy, rnindfulness. concentration. wisdom. ideation, happiness. 'I shall vrtalrty. and the faculty of believing. come to know the (.attafiiiataftfiassamitindriyary) right unknowu.' views. right right livelihood, right endeavour. righr mindfulness, right concentration; rhe powers of mindfulness. conc entratl0n. wisdom, cousclenllousness. the fear of blame: the absence of lust. hate. d u l n e ss . covetousness and malic e, right vlews. conscienriousness, rhe fear of blame, serenity, lightness. plasticity. faciliry, fitness and directness in both sense and




speech, right



thoughr. mindfulness. t r a l a n c e" * . The First




grasp and

Path or Sotapatti-Path

is the first

stage of the

way or course of life leading to Arahantship

MAb.; LI: Op. Cir. Comp. ; 9l n. B M P E ; E 3- E 4 ,

or Nirvana. Bhurni


219 (stage) [the original passage quoted fully above reads it in this inflected form: 'bhumntiya'l is substituted for path. And the 'First Bhfimi'is declared to be equivalent to the first-fruits (or fruition) of recluseship; in other words, to the fruit of sotdpattt, or of 'conversion', 4S it has been termednu. The jhdna characterized by 'apacayagdmim' (making for the undoing of rebirth) is rhe special kind of jhana which he who has turned his back on the rhree lower ideas of life in the worlds of sense, form, or the formless, and has set his fac, steadfastly toward Arahatship, must 'practise, bring forth and develop'. Buddhaghosa describes this special jhana as being
ekacittakkhanika m appa,na-j hana m rapt meditation on a

concept induced by the momenrary flash of a thought - and by the text itself as niyydnikam apacayagdmim. Ekacittakkhanikam appana-jhanam is thus commenred upon: 'It is a going forth (down from) the world, from the cycle of rebirth. or, there is a going forth by means of it. The man who is filled with ir, comprehending (the Fact of) Ill, goes forth, putting away the uprising or the cause (of Ill) goes forth, realizing the cessation (of Ill) goes forth cultivating rhe path (leading ro thar cessation) goes forth'. niyyanikam apacayagdmim is commended this is not like the heaping rogether and multiplying effected by the good which belongs to the rhree being. This is even as a man who, having heaped up And, upon that of rebirth worlds of

a stockade eighteen cubits high, should afterwards take a great hammer arrd set to work to pull down and demolish his work. So it, too, sets about pulling down and demolishing that potency for rebirth heaped up the three-world-good, deficiency in the causes thereof-. Ditthigatdni reads it Ithe original in the inflectEd form: by bringing about a

resorting to views. All either without evidence or on insufficient

passage as quoted fully above ditthigatdnamf literally means traditions or speculations adhered to evidence, such as are

Qp. Cit.:82u. Op. Cit.: 82-83n; see also Exp.: 2a9-29O.

220 implied in the srares called 'rheory of individuality, and the contagion of mere rule and ritual'o'. perplexity,

The faculty of believing rhat I shall come ro know the ( A n a f t f i a t a f t f i a ss d m i t i n d r i y a m ) unknown is the controlling faculty which has arisen. by means of former reflection, in one who practises accordingly, 'I shall know the unknown dearhless path, the doctrine of the Four Truths, in the.continual stream of becoming, of unknown beginning.' Its characteristic. erc. should be known by the method given above in the controlling faculty of understandingno.In other words, the inspiring sense of assurance thar dawns upon the earnest, uncompromising student that he will come ro know the doctrine of the great truths that Ambrosial way unknown in the cycle of worldly pursuits and consequences where he goal is not ambrosial - is to him as the upspringing of ^ new faculty or moral principle'-. The faculty of believiug that I shall come ro know the unknown (Anafiiiatafifi.assd.mttindriyary)is further explained as wisdom or understanding of, for, or from, the realization of. etc. 'Bringing righr opposite the eyes is the paraphrase'. The student while 'in rhe First path citta' learns the full import of those concise formulae known as the Four Noble Trutlrs. which the Buddha set forth in his first authorirative utterarce Previousiy he will have had mere second-hand knowledge of them, and as one coming to a dwelling out of his usual beat, and receiving fresh garland and raiment and food, realizes that he is encountering new experiences, so are these truths. not known hitherto by him, spokeu of as 's11ft11s1ry1'r0,. away views and opinions and the faculty of knowing the unknown' (all rhis we have already worked on in detail above) are the distinct consriruenrs of the First path citta. the hallmarks of the second path citta is of more 'diminishing advance by the constiruent the srrength of sensual passions (kama) and of malice (raga)' . In the comparison with
n ' o p . C r 1 .: 8 3 n . o nE x p . ' . 2 9 3 'mBMPE,: 86n. ''' Exp | i 2l 8 : 2 9 5



in the Dtgha Nikaya,o,, it is striking that the diminution of moha is not included herein, however, it is only really conquered in the Fourth Path Citta. The diminution is described as coming to pass in two ways: ( 1) vicious the counterpart dispositions arise occasionally and no longer habitually, and (2) when they do arise it is with an attenuated intensity. They are like the sparse blades of grass in a newly mown field, and like a flimsy membrane or a fly's wingto:. That the faculty of knowledge is made perfect is the other distinct constituent that helps highlighting the elevation of the Second Path Citta in comparison with the First Path Citta. It is expounded that the faith and hope of the Sotdpatti, or student of the First Path Citta, while struggling with the limitations of

his stage of knowledge are now rewarded by his attainment, as a Sakadagdmt, of that deepening philosophic insight into the fuli implication of the 'Four Truths' termed afifid, or knowledge par excellence, and applied, in Buddhist writings, to evolving or evolved Arahatship. The Third Path Citta is chiefly marked by the constituent, i. e. 'putting a\ilay the entire residuum of sensual passions and of malice'. And, the Fourth Path Citta, by 'putting away absolutely and entirely all passion for Form, ali p a s si o n for the Formles s, all conc eit, e x ci t e m e n t and ignorance "oo.

r o rp , '* Op.

,i: l5 6. 96n. 96-97. Cir.;

r o rB M P E :




The investigation come ro an end in settled, done. research irrevocable,

into such a concept the sense of It, f inality complete).

as citta (i .e.

should of

never final,



is bound

to come

to some end when


in the bud of my scholarship,

is said and

The little







that field our



to do with

particularly in the

distinctive broadest into into heart; the (3)

quality The of

in terms mental

of its states of

characteristic states and under its however. senrient heart; (7)

integral that been (2)

involvement come molded

in the whole sense. scope ( 1) Evil

of mental attention, state

activities range have




Lustful (8)


(4) Purposed citta; (9) and

(5) Ready-for-truth citta;


(6) Calm

and passionless citta;



kindnes s

Emancip ated cttta. depictions of citta to sum up the comprehensive i so l a t e d and at dry arrive may chapters in the prev i ous definitive norions about what citta is. This way of approachinwill to the knowledge of citta is reasonably warned against, but in terms of sharpness and briefness it review help a quick and elaborative is that all of removal the after appears mentioned, superfluous. In addition of nine mental states above Attempts we can collect the several groups of meanings that the citta should be assumed to PurPort. Citta,lnostgenerally,isthenonphysical,allmental activitieS or mental agencies. Citta in regard to the direction mental heading activities as well' is the heading and the subordinate to

of the

Towards its ernPlacement, citta is advocated to be the corof PercePtual of one 's PersonalitY; the center of understanding, of all and cognitive activities; the possessor of knowledge

2U types, ordinary or super-mundane. citta is the center and focus of man's emotional nature; the conscious center of activity, purposiveness, continuity and emotionality. citta is the ideological personality. leadership in man's mind, his character and It goes further to say that citta is a personal identity or surviving entity from existence to existence.

Citta in action is mental instrument and also the reactions to impressions. It is both the subj ective and obj ective aspecrs of consciousness or thinking. It accepts and investigates object. citta sometimes is simply an idea or a thought or a feeling. citta is striving, impulse and reasoning. citta, expressively speaking, is'inner speech'. In the form of mano, citta is one of the six psychological senses. desire, volition perceprion, design; purpose; intention, judgment memory, and and

As a seat and organ of thought citta'thinks'of its object by arranging itself in a thought process. citta is both the cause of a variety of mental effects and the resultant thought. It is the store house of 'mental seeds' or the arsenal of dispositional p r o p e f t i e s. is a flux of thought or a wide and complex nexus of mental states in flux or a series of events in an incessant process of mentation. citta is that which comes to be and passes away. It is the experience in Nibbdna-release. Att the conceptual cuttings above by no means pertaining to citta. On the with strong precaution that given Citta, in another parlance,

exhaust the variety of definitions other hand. it should be warned none of them can be exactly correct in regard to the meaning of citta per se; they are not rotally wrong either. They are actually the conceprion molds whereas citta seems to be that which is rot to be molded. The conceptual cuttings, nevertheless. should be but something helpful as a guide map particularly cut reference or consultation. for clear-


225 involved in multi-dimensional and Although multifunctional manifestations , citta depicted in Buddhist system, sometimes too general to have a delineated sketch, sometimes so specific as a idea or a thought, has basically nothing to do with metaphysics. The Buddhist citta does not suggest any idea about an entity or an eternal reality of the kind that (b. c.515 BC) holds up. The Parmenides, a Greek philosopher multiplicity of existing things, their changing forms and motion, in his opinion, are but an appearance of a single eternal reality. The Buddhist non-substantial position would not easy for those as Sdti and Parmenides to comprehend because in the deprh of their mind there must be an inherent craving for continual existence. Buddhist light thrown upon the origination of citta also reflects the freedom from such a craving. Citta is but one phase in the circle of ever changing process of becoming and The passing away. This phase conventionally clad in the term citta is preceded by other phases that can be named sankhara, updddna, dyatana, anusaya,, according to the specific canonical passages that we chance upon with the conclusion-orientated mind. Considering the preceding phases the cause or the origin of citta is similar to acting as the blind who touched a particular segment of, and began to boast his knowledge about, the elephant. All the references recorded in the Buddhist canonical literature about the origination of citta or any other phenomena do not break away from the principle of depending origination. although a competent candidate for representing one's personality, is depending upon other factors for its coming into being disapproves of the speculations about the creator deity who has been credited with the creation of the world where we live. The common knowledge about of the supreme crearor deity can be briefed into the six characteristics: (1) He is all wise and all powerful. The world comes into being because of his wisdom, and he is able to actualize the world because of his power. (2) The deity exists alone prior ro the crearion of the That citta,

226 No explanation can therefore be given of his existence, before which one confronts the ultimate mystery. ( 3) His creation a conscious and deliberate one with a definite plan in mind and is not based on a trial-and-error basis. This again is an aspect of the creator's wisdom and power. (4) The creation of the world is simultaneously an expression of the freedom and purpose of the deity. His relationship to the created order after the creation is again an aspect of his freedom. (5) The creator deity removes himself from the world after it has been created. After the creation the deity goes away and only appears again when a catastrophe threatens the created order. (6) The supreme creator deity is often a sky god, and the deity in this form is an instance of the religious valuation of the symbolism of the sky. All of the above mentioned six points and their possible corollaries are speculative and extrinsic to the Buddhist system. Ou the other hand, the Buddhist citta does not involve in ,, a sudden or casual creation that seems to need no material. like the trick of a magician who 'creates'a pigeon with the 'power' of his magical hat, mantras, and stick. world.

Iu Hinduism and Tantric Buddhism, sacred utrerances (syllables. words, or verses) are considered to possess mystical or spiritual efficacy. Various mantras are either spoken aloud or merely sounded internally in one's thoughts, and they are either repeated continuously for some time or just sounded once. Mosr mantras are without any apparent verbal meaning. but they are thought to have a profound underlying significance and are in effect distillations of spiritual wisdom. Thus. repetition of or meditation on a particular mantra can induce a trance-like state in the participanr and can lead him to a higher level of spirituai awareness.
Besides the mantras that ate credited trance -like state and spiritual awarene ss, there of another purposes. kind such that are said to be for as protectirg oreself other from with inducing

are the mantras or spiritual powers.


evil psychic

227 is usually considered to be among the earliest Buddhist texrs, records the Atanatiya of this protective kind seems not to be consistent in the context
That the Dtgha Nikdya (sutta 32),


of the early


E,xamination of the citta in the main trait of Buddhist system renders the effect that the Buddhists would consider language no more than a means that matters only on the basis of its functioning. The value of a word or a sound, though a certain number of specific words or utterances as above mentioned are usually credited with magical and sacred power especially in Vedic literature and some later Buddhist one, should be empirically reduced to the conveyance of ideas. Irr the same line, the earliest texts do not show much care about must consistently citta, mana, or vififidna which word stand for the aspects of human psyche in case they are asserted together. The scholastic selection of the word to be used seems to concede and give place to the instantaneous conveying of ideas. No matter which word was chosen in the primitive period of time, the spontaneous understanding of the Dhamma on the side of the audience who were consequently supposed to tend towards a positive perspective of life was all that had been first and foremost concerned for. Hence the three terms at the period of time seem to share a dearth of distinct usage and were interchangeab Ie. The ancient people in general seem to be with a lack of reason in their fetishism but the present day intellects whose sense of reason is highly advanced are still under the sway of which is in the guile the same fetishism of an'advanced'kind of the very reason. Friedrich Nietzsche in Twilight of the Idols argues that we find ourselves in the midst of a rude fetishism when we call to mind the basis presuppositions of the metaphysics of language... only thus does it create the concept .thing'. .. 'Reason' in' language: oh what a deceitful old woman ! t

I PEW. Vol. 49, No. 3, July 1999: 245

228 to a lack of sound educational discipline, the limited assess to a handful of partly and casually gathered data and a tinge of gung-ho arrirude have brought about the belief t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s o - c a l l e d eg o o r citta or self and the Dhamma: (1) both are exisrences, (2) the former is uonexistence and the latter is exisrence, and (3) both are nonexistence. The first position is then imposed on the lay people; rhe next, or the Hlnayanist or the Buddhism expressed in the Nikdyas; and the 1asr. ro the Mahayanists. This conviction would fade away in the light from tbe Nikayas: The Dhamma is expressed in the form of ranguage. Both the Dhamma and language are but a means that should be made use of to attain an desirable end; it then is ro be left aside as a rafr after the faring. Neither the Dhamma nor the ego (or citta or self) in the Buddhisr system has much ro do with rhe metaphysical speculation about existence or nonexistence. In addition

and rhe vedic one share together to some extent the common range of meaning, the latter diverges to another direction insomuch as its emotional aspect is concerned. The divergence towards emotional tone is reasonable on the sacrificial background of the vedic sacred literature. They ate hymns or verses composed around 1s00IZOO BC in archaic Sanskrit and current among the IndoEuropean-speaking peoples who entered India from the Iranian regions. The hymns formed a liturgical body that in part grew up around the cult of the soma ritual and the sacrifice. They extolled the hereditary deities. who persouified various natural and cosmic the most parr for phenomena, such as while both the Buddhist citta

fire, sun. dawn. storms, war and rain. honor, divine authority, and creation. The extolment is the main rheme in their sacrificial rituals so as to glorify rhe god(s) in blessing and to appease in case of their wrarh. In this direction the Vedic citta, therefore. is not one of mental processes and psychical events as that of Buddhism but a citta of emotion. The emotional citta is not only the agent. on the part of the sacrificers, that incites the god(s) to take pathetic acrions as requesred, but also the receptor. on the part of the god(s), of the incentives.


On the other hand the Upanishadic citta is different from the Buddhist one in its tending towards the metaphysical tone. The reason for this. is suggestible on its ideological background: The old Upanishads may be part of the Brahmanas (commentaries) of their respective vedas but are distinguished from them both by increased philosophical and mystical questioning and by their diminished concern with Vedic deities fundamenral importance ro all Hindu thought is the equation in some of the Upanishads of atman (the self) with Brahman (ultimate reality). The nature of morality and of eternal life is discussed, so are such themes as the transmigration of souls and causality in creation. expressed in a morality-orientated setting and characterized by the absence of a supreme god competent for creation and tends towards the state freed from impurities and self-inflation of all kinds. The Upanishadic texts, otherwise, mention citta in the context of the philosophical concern with the nature of reality and of a development toward the concept of a single supreme being which the knowledee is directed toward reunion with. The supreme being with characteristic power and wisdom have been said to be super-sensuous and credited with the creation of the world whereas Buddhism does not assigned the creation to any specified agent, more exactly, it does not build the concept of creation. There is creation lneans there is the starting point. Buddhism, however, consents that the world, by and large, has neither the beginning, nor the end. The reality is an ever ongoing process that escapes our capacity of fathoming. The identification of the world with dukkha, &S sometimes referred to in the Buddhist canon, opens a new perspective of its ending. There is then an end of such a world, which is the extinguishment of all kinds of defilements and cravings. On the other hand, the Upanishadic citta that survives the dissipation or the end of the world is not traceable in the Buddhist literature. The citta in the Buddhist literature is and sacrificial rites. of


It is remarkable that the citta in Buddhist system does not seem to be per se (to be by itself). The manifestations of citta as recorded are usually in association with more specified mental variables that decide the function or the character it is bearing. Some scholar goes further to say that it is nothing but the wholeness of all the attributing variables. So citta is not something like rhe tabula why when putting it forth This helps in undersranding general state we are bond to as a quality. whether sensational or rasa.

associate it with some gmotional. safeguarded or subjected ro downfall, and why, in the Abhidhamma literature, ro define a single citta means ro ger in touch with many orher facrors relating to it. All this once again suggesrs the non-substantiality position of Buddhism regarding to rhe concept of citta and the phenomena of all other kinds as we11. ci.tta. expressively speaking, is visualized as a kitchen jar that is so flimsy and insubstantial that only the sugar or salr or some spicy contained in it marrers and is counted. The jar somehow is nor at ail. Such an visualization reduces citta ro oothing but a loose and false 'boundary' or concept that is made of human limited and defective menration for keeping and etpressing tbe more specifiable of menral activities and features. Hence some later interpretations in terms of absolute truth regard citta as the wholeness of all the mental properries that are preseot at the given point of time.

Conclusively. citta as a concepr is bafflingly elusive and we have to grasp ir ind irectly by setting up a variety of its manifest facets gleaned from the Sutta Pitaka and by representing its multilevel in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. Investigation philosophical position, its into the concepr such as of its citta has inspired the origin and masterful fraudulence and feasibility. its hindrance and liberation, and so on. Citta, moreover, proves to be among the enquiries

231 most important psychological concepts in Buddhism therefore a_ full-fledged understanding of it would culminare in the rnastery of the Buddhist psychology. The mastery, nonetheless, would by no rreans be complete incorporates in all contents a self-transformation since the nature of the knowledge is in correspondence with the nature of the knower - also transformed. Rather than being given is discovered and foundr. The self-transformation by nature, nonetheless, is self-transcendence for which the actual and painstaking taming of the citta is an inevitable process. it and purposes until it towards the ultimate truth

: JIP.


26, No.

5, October

1998: 384


A. OnrcrNAL SouncBs:

Vol. i, ed. R. Morris, 1885, PTS, reprinted 1989. Vol. ii, ed. R. Morris, 1888, 1976. Vol. iii, ed. E. Hardy, 1897, PTS, reprinted e d . E . H a r d y , 18 9 9 , P T S , r e p r i n t e d 1 9 79 ; V o l . v , Afiguttara-Nikdya:

1961, PTS, reprinted

2nd ed.

1976. Vol. iv, ed. E. Hardy, 1900, PTS, reprinted 1979; Vol. vi, indexes by M. Hunt and Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids. 1910, PTS. reprinted 1981. Dhammapada, Oxford , 1994. ed. O. von Hinuber and K.R. Norman, PTS,

Dhammasat'rgaFi, ed

E. Muller,

PTS, 1885, reprinted 1978


Vol. i, ed. T..W. Rhys Davids and J.E. Carpenter,

1889, PTS, reprinted 1975. Vol. ii, ed. T.W. Rhys Davids and J.E. reprinted 1992. Vol. iii, ed. 1903, PTS, J.E. Carpenter, 1992. Carpenter, 1910, PTS, reprinted Vol. i, ed. V. Trenckner, 1888, reprinte' Majjhima-Nikdya: 1979. Vol. ii, ed. R. Chalmers, 1896-98, reprinted I977. Vol. iii, ed. R. Chalmers, 1899-19O2, reprinted I977. Vol. iv, Indexes by Mrs C. A. F. Rhys Davids , I925,

reprinte d I97 4.

Saryyutta-Niknya , e d . L . F e e r : V o l . i , 1 8 8 4 , r e p r i n t e d 1 9 9 1. Vo1. ii, 1888, reprinted 1989. Vol. iii, 1890, reprinted I975. Vol. iv, I894, reprinted 199O. Vol. v, 1898, reprinted 1976. Vo1. vi, Indexes by Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids, 1904, reprinted 1980. ed. Dines Andersen Sutta Nipita, Oxford, 1913, reprintecl 1990. Ud6na, and Helmer Smith, PTS,


ed. P. Steinthal, PTS, 1885, reprinted 1982

Vinaya Pi{aka, ed. H. Oldenberg; Vol. i: Mahdvagga, PTS, 1879, r e p r i n t e d 1 9 6 4 . V o l . i i : C u l a v a g g a , P T S , 1 8 8 0 , r e p r i n t e d 19 9 5 . Vol, iii: Sutta vibhanga, part I, PTS. 1881, reprinted 1993. Vol" p a r t I I , P T S , 18 8 2 , r e p r i n t e d 19 9 3 . V o l . v : iv : Suttavibhanga Parivara, PTS, 1883, reprinted 1982. Index to the Vinaya Pitaka, comp. I 996. Y. Ousaka, M. Yamazaki, K.R. Norman, PTS, Oxford,

Translations: 10. A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Caroline tr. A. Davids, F. Rhys Corporation, Delhi, L 9 75 . Ethics (Dhammasangaqi), Oriental Books Reprint (Abhidhammattha Sangaha), tr. Maha 11. A Manual of Abhidhamma Thera Narada, Singapore Buddhist Meditation Center, Singapore, 1989. l2.Compendium of Philosophy, tr. S.Z. Awg, PTS, Oxford,1995.

l3.Dialogues of the Buddha, tr. T.W. and Mrs C.A.F. Rhys Davids. Vol. i, tr. T.W. Rhys Davids, PTS, 1899, reprinted 1956. Vol. ii, tr. T.W. and reprinted Mrs C.A.F. 1989. Vol . iii , Rhys tr. Davids, Rhys PTS, 1910, 4th PTS , edn. 1 9 2 1, Mrs Davids,

reprinted 1957. 14. Middle Length Sayings, tr. I.B. Horner. Vol. i, PTS, 1954. Vol.

ii, PTS, 1957. Vol. iii, PTS, 1959. 15. Milinda's i, tr. I.B. Homer. Vol. Questions, r e p r i n t e d 1 9 9 0 . V o l . i i , P T S , L 9 6 4 , r e p r i n t e d 1 9 9 1. PTS. 1963.

16. Psalms of the Brethren, 17.The Book of the Gradual

tr. Mrs. Rhys Davids, PTS. 1994.

Sayings, tr. F.L. Woodward and E.M. Hare. Vol. i, tr. Woodward, PTS, L932, reprinted 1960. Vol. ii, tr. Woodward, PTS, 1933, reprinted L962. Vol. iii, tr. Hare, 1952. Vol. iv, tr. Hare, PTS , 1.935 . reprinted 1955. Vol. v, tr. Woodward, 1936, reprinted 1955. PTS, 1934, reprinted

18. The Book of the I(indred Sayings, tr. Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys Davids and F.L.Woodward. Vo1. i, tr. Mrs Rhys Davids, PTS, L917, 1922, reprinted 1989. Vol. ii, tr. Mrs Rhys Davids, PTS, Woodward, PTS, 1925, reprinted reprinted 1982. Vol. iii, tr. F.I 'Woodward, PTS , 1927, reprinted 1980 . L 9 75 . V o l . i v , t r . F . L . Vol. v, tr. F.L. Woodward. PTS, 1930, reprinted 1997. 19. The Expositor , tr. Pe Maung reprinted as one vol. 1976. Path of Purity, Tin, 2 vols. , PTS , l92O , I92I ,


tr. Pe Maung Tin, Parts i, ii, iii, PTS, 1923,

1929. 1931. reprinted 1975.


S ' , AN 21. Brahmachari. Philosophy (Buddhist 1990 ' Publications, 22.Carpenter, 1903. J' E',


TO ABHIDHAMMA Barua Jadab Psycholgy) ' CTION





23.Davids'C'A'F'Rhvs'BUDDHISTPSYCHOLOGY'G'Belland S o n s L t d , L o n d o n , 1 9 1 4' 24.Davids'C-A'F'Rhvs'THEBIRTHOFINDIANPSYCHOLOGY Oriental BUDDHISM ' IN ITS DEVELOPMENT AND RePrint CorPoration' Delhi' T' W' Rhys' BUDDHIST 25. Davids. 1997 ' Publishers, Pvt' Ltd' Delhi ' INDIA' Motilal Books


25.Davids,T.W'Rhvs'THEIIISTORYANDLITERATUREOF Calcutta' 1952' BUDDHI^SM, Susil Gupta Ltd'

TREATISE ON BUDDHIST A A" C ' L' 27.De Silva. PHILoSoPHYABHIDHAMMA,SriSatguruPublications.

Delhi ' 1988 ' 28. Govinda, L' A', THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTITUDE OF

EARLYB(JDDHISTPHILoSoPHY,MotilalBanarsidas 1991' Publishers. Pvt, Ltd' Delhi' 2g.Goyal.S.R.,AHIST7RYoFINDIANBUDDHISM'Kusumanjali' Prakashan' JodhPur' 1994' 30.Hazra'KanaiLal'PALILANGUAGEANDLITERATURE.VoI.I' 1994' D.K-Print Work' Delhi '

AND PHILOSOPHY 31.Jayasuriya, Vy''F" THE PSYCHOLOGY C o l o m b o ' L 9 6 3' OF BUDDHISM, Y'M'B'A' Press'
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE DYNAMIC Rune' E' A'' 32.Johansson, EARLYBUDHISM,CurzonPressLtd'LondonandMalmo'1985. BUDDHIST OF HISTORY A J' ' David 33. I(alupahana' PHILoSoPHY,MotilalBanarsidasPublishers,Pvt,Ltd.Delhi. t994 BUDDHIST OF PRINCIPLE THE J' ' David 34.I(alupahana' PSYCHOLOGY'sriSatguruPublications'Delhi'1992'

35.I(atz. Nathan. BUDDHIST Press, Boulder, 1983. 36. Law, Bimala AND WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY, Prajfla

Churn , HISTORY OF PAIi Indological Book House, Varanasi, 1983. lJ Ko, GUIDE TO TIPITAKA, Sri


VoI. 1 ,

37.Lay. Delhi,



1990. LITERATURE, Otto Harrassowitz,


Kenneth Roy. PALI Wiesbaden, 1983. MANUAL The Corporate

39. Nyanatiloka, DOCTRINE.S,

OF Body






Foundation, Taiwan, 1970. 40. Nyanatiloka. PITAKA, GUIDE THROUGH Colombo, 1938. THE ABHIDHAMMA-

Lake House,

OF ORIGINS THE IN Chandra , STUDIES Govind 41 . Pande. Delhi, Pvt, Ltd. Banarsidas Publishers, BUDDHISM , Motilal 199s. 42. Quang, Minh Dd ng , CHON LY , the 1993. Asian Municipal Buddhist

Association 43.Reat,

of HCMcity,


N. Ross, THE ORIGINS OF INDIAN PSYCHOLOGY, Humanities Press, Berkeley, California, 1990. K. T.

44. Sarao.

AND NATURE OF ANCIENT S. , THE ORIGIN INDIAN BUDDHISM. Easrtern Book Linkers, India, 1989. Indra Narain, .z{ STUDY BUDDHISM, THERAVADA of Delhi, 1993. HISTORY OF INDIAN LITERATURE, 1993. VO1. FLUX IN OF THE UNMRSAL Studies, of Buddhist Dept.


THE University

46.Winternilz, 2, Motilal


Banarsidas Publishers, Pvt, Ltd. Delhi,



A F T DP E R I O D I C A L S :

OF PALI PROPER NAME by G. P. Malalasekera, 4T.DICTIONARY Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, 1983. 48. DICTIONARY OF PSYCHOLOGY by J. Atkinson, E. Berne and R. S. Woodworth. Goyl SaaB, Delhi, 1988. ed. Jotila Dhirasekera, The

OF BUDDHISM 49.ENCYCLOPAEDIA Government of Sri Lanka. I979.

50.JOURNAL OF DHARMA, Bangalore, 1997. Dharma Research

237 Association.

SL.JOURNAL OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY, ed. Phyllis Granoff. Dept. of Religious Studies, Mc Master University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1, pub. Kluwer Academic, Netherlands.

5 2 . N E w S H o R T E R K F O R D N G L I S HD I C T I O N A R Y d . b y L e s \ e y O E e
Brown, pub. by Clarendon press, Oxford , Igg3. 53. PALr-ENGLISH Stede, Motilal 54. PHILOSOPHY DrcrroNA.RZ by T.w.Rhys Davids and william Banarsidas publishers, pvr, Ltd. Delhi. 1993.

Quarterly Brown Universiry. 55. PHILOSoPHY

AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH, A Journal, pub. International Phenomenological Society, EAST & WEST.

Philosophy, University of Hawai'i

A euarterly press.



239 APPENDIX 1 : T. W. Rhys Davids s scheme of stratification

1) vs rhat by K. L. Hazra (PLL: I5l) abstracted by B. C. Law (HPL:

by B. C. Law
The simplc statcments found, of Buddhist worcis,

by K. L. Hazra
Scv erai statemcnrs which of Buddhist arc now found



in identical


in paragraphs or verscs recurring in all the books.

in paragraphs in

or verses


all the book s.

Episodes found, in identical words, two or more of thc cxisting books.


Episodcs which are found in two or morc of the existing books.








the same)

the Petimokkha.







the samer

Sar.nyutta Niknyas.



Nipdta, thc

the Thcra


t basically

the samc,



and the




and thc



the same)



and the Dhammaoadas


the same)



thc itivuttakas.

and tbc


the same)


Thc Pcta aqd Vimaoa Vattthus, thc Apadanas, thc Cariya Pitaka, and thc Buddha Vamsa.


the sameJ



Abhidhamma thc the



last of carlicst

(basicaily Hazra's



but probably


End thc


is more



It w c mcrcly

would notc

be out thc

of point

f or in

us to No.

decide and

which 10.

ab stract

is morc


dif f crcnccs

1. :.



APPENDI){ Vietnamese


Paragraph Numbers

of the Dhammasanganr: (E)'i

versron f V)'r's English


16 I7 I8 19 10 21 22
', I

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 7I 72 73

90 9L 92 93 94 82 95 96 8J 91 98 99 100 101

112 113 111 115 116 1t7 II8 119 120 121 122 123
111 tL+

154 1 5 5 l7r 156 172

V v sE
2t3 214 2t5 216 217 218 219 220 221

V v sE
258 259 260 19]1

I ) 3 4 5 6 7 E 9 10 11 t2 13 14 15 16 t7 18 t9 20 2l

46 47 48 49 50 51

53 54

134 135 136 137 138 139 140 t4l

143 144 t45

25 26 27 28


58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
7l n1

20 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 11 J6 23 39 24 ,10 'ra
. 1| .11


103 1M 105 106 10t 109 110 111 112 113 tt4 115 116 t17 9) 118 96 119 97 120 98 99 tzl 100 122 101 1?'3 102 IA 103 1,?5 104 126 10s t27 106 na t07 729 108 130 109 131 1 1 0 t32 1 1 1 133 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 91



125 126 127 128 129 130 131

t47 148 149


158 159 160 161 162 163 164 l6s 166 167 168 169 170 171 172

173 r74

26r 262

153 154


155 1 3 1 156 1JJ r57 136 137 158 1 3 8 159 1 3 9 160 tun 161 t4I 142 762 143 163 1+4 163a 145 164 146 165 147 148 166 119 167 I5A 168 Isl 152 169 t 5 3 170



175 176 177 178 179 180 181 L82 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 173 190 191 t92 193 1a/ 194

182 2?3 224 1 8 3 ,,,,. 226 184 1 1 ' 7 228 229 230 231 185 ,,7J 233 234 1 8 6 235 236

263 264 t92 265 266 267 268 193 269 270 191 271 'r1', 1 9 5 273 274

276 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 2t0 2tI 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221


45 46 47 1B :19 50 51 52
JJ <,1

55 56 57

5S 60

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 4l 42 43 44 45


238 239 240

73 79 74 75 76 77 78 79 EO E1 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

175 19E 199 200 201 176 202 177 203 178 204 205 179 206 207 208 209 210 180 ztl 'r11 181

24r 242
243 187 24 245 188 246

189 248 249 250 190 251

253 254 r(5 256


278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302

222 223 221 22s 226 227 228 229 220 231 232 231 23s 236 237 z-te 210 241 212 243 241 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 315 316 317 31E 320 321 322 323 324 32s 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 345 . 266 346 347 348 349 350 267 351 352 268 353 354 355 356 357 269 358 270 359 360 361 27t 362 272 363 273 364

233 3r4

i 238 31e

" 252 333

253 2s.1 25s 256


334 335 336 337

259 338 260 339 261 340 262 34t 26.t 342 26-1 343

27s 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 2Bs 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 2q1 295 2e6

365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 37E 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386

298 388 299 389 300 390 301 391 302 392 303 393 301 394 305 395 306 396 307 397 308 309 310 398 311 399 312 400 313 314 401 315 402 316 403 317 404 405 il6 407 318 319 408 320 409 32t 410 322 323 411 324 412 325 413 326 414 415 416 417 418 419 327

332 3 3 3 426

26s 344 I 297 387

328 420 329 421 3-10 422 331 423 4U 425

375 464 376 465 377 466 J-t+ 427 378 467 J-?-t 428 379 429 380 336 38r 468 337 430 382 469 338 431 383 470 339 432 384 471 310 433 385 472 311 434 386 473 312 435 387 474 343 436 388 475 344 437 389 476 34s 438 390 477 316 439 391 478 317 M0 | 392 479 393 480 349 394 481 350 395 482 351 442 396 3s2 M3 397 353 W 398 483 3s4 445 399 484 -3-r.t 446 400 485 3.i6 M7 401 486 357 M8 402 487 J58 449 403 488 359 450 401 489 360 451 40s 490 361 452 406 491, 362 453 407 492 363 408 493 364 409 494 365 454 410 495 366 455 411 496 367 456 112 368 457 113 369 458 111 497 370 459 1ls 498 371 460 416 499 372 461 417 500 373 462 118 501 371 463

419 502 420 503 421 504 122 505 423 506 421 507 42s 508 426 509 427 510 428 511 429 5t2 430 513 431 514 432 515 433 516 431 517 43s 518 436 519 137 5?I 438 521 439 522 440 523 441 5U 112 525 143 526 444 527 /u5 529 446 529 417 530 448 531 419 532 150 533 151 534 452 535 453 536 451 537 155 538 4s6 539 157 540 158 541 4s9 542 460 543 161 54 462 545

463 464 465 166 467 468 469 470 471

546 541 548 549 550 551 552 553 554


472 556 173 557 558 559 560 471 475 561 476 562 177 478 563 479 564 480 481 565 482 566 483 481 567 485 568 486 569 570 571 572 487 488 573 489 574 490 491 57s 492 576 493 494 577 495 578 496 579 497 580 498 581 499 582

501 502 s03 s04 sqs 506 507 s08 s09 510 sll s12
j SI3

s83 S84 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593

626 627 628 s24 629 630 631 632

szs 633 s26 634

527 528 529 s30 531 532 s-t3 s34 5J5 536 537 5J8 539 540 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 6s5 656 657 658 659 660

. sI4 595 5/5 596 ) 516 597

; 517 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 61t 679 620

I | 518 ) 5t9

54t 542 543 s41 sls


-t51 (t71 672 552 673 674 553 675 676 554 677 678 555 679 680 s56 681 682 557 683 6E4 558 685 686 5s9 687 688 560 689 690 s6t 691 692 s62 693 694 563 695 696 564 6y7 698 s65 699 700 s66 70r 702 567 703 7M

575 s76 577 s78 579

775 716 717 778 719 720 721 722 723 724

s80 726

591 760 761 762 59s 763 764 765 s96 766 767 768 597 769 770 771
io.a .rn.
I It

581 728 729 s82 720 731



s46 661 662

663 664 548 665 666 s49 667 668 550 669 670 s47

s6E s69 705

706 s70 707 708

s22 62r 622 623 624 523 625

s1r 709 7to s'72 7tl

573 574

733 584 734 735 585 736 737 586 738 739 587 740 741 588 742 743 744 589 745 746 747 590 748 749 750 591 751 752 753 592 754

712 713 774

756 s93 757

7s8 759

773 774 599 775 776 777 600 778 779 780 601 781 782 783 602 784 785 786 603 787 788 789 604 790 791 792 605 793 794 795 606 796 797 798 607 799 800 801 608 802 803 804

609 805 624 850 806 851 807 625 852 610 808 853 809 854 810 626 855 61I 811 856 8t2 857 813 627 858 612 814 859 81.5 86{) 816 628 861 613 817 862 818 863 819 629 864 611 820 865 821, 630 866 822 867 615 823 63I 868 824 869 825 870 616 826 632 871 827 872 828 873 617 829 633 874 830 875 831 876 618 832 634 877 833 878 834 87g 619 835 880 836 63s 881 837 882 620 838 883 839 884 840 636 885 621 841 886 842 i 887 843 888 622 844 i 637 889 845 i 8 m 846 r 891 623 847 892 i 848 , 638 893 849 894

895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 9t4 91s 916 917 918 919 920 921

939 940



6s0 941
942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 9',76 971 978 979 980 981 982 66s














6-t-t 656

670 671 672 673 674



923 924 6.16 925

926 927 928 647 929 930 931 932 518 933 934 935 936 619 931 938

657 658 659 660

983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011

lo27 681 1028 lo29 1030

1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 to42 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061

r07l 69s t072

696 lO73 1074 697 1075 lo76 698 1077 1078 699 1079 1080 700 1081 1082 701 1083 1084 702 1085 1086 703 1087 1088 701 1089 1090 70s 1091 lo92 706 1093 1094 707 1095 708 1096 709 1097 710 1098 711 1099 712 1100 1101 713 lt02 714 1103 1104 7Ls 1105 1106 716 1107 1108 717 1109 1110 718 1111

721 722 723 721 725 726 727 728 729

1115 1116 t1t7 1118 1119 tl?fr tt21 tt22 tt23

753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761

730 ttu
731 tt?S ll?6 732 lt27 tl?a 733 1129 1130 734 1131 ll32 73s L133 tt34 736 1135 737 1136 738 ll37 739 113E 740 1139 741 tt4/i 742 1t4l



762 763 761 765 766 767 768 769 770 771


689 690

743 1143





676 1013 1014 , 691 1015 677 1016 1017 1018 692 r062 678 1019 693 1063 to64 1020 1065 lo2l 679 t022 1066 1067 1023 1068 r0u 680 1025 1069 L070 1026

tt4/741 1145 tt45 745 tl47 114t 746 tt49 1150

747 748 749 750 7s1 1151 1ls2 1153 lt54 1155 1156 ll57 752 L158

773 771

719 1.113 720 tLt4

1159 1160 1161 1162 1L63 tl64 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 lt70 ll71 tt72 tl13 tl14 1775 tt76 tt17 ll78 lt79 1180 118 r 1182 1183 1184 118s 1186 1187 1188 1189 119(l 1191 1192 L193 ll94 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 120{) l2t}7 1202

245 L203 1204 1205 1206 LZ07 1208 1209 tzto tzll t2t2 t2t3 t2t4 12t5 t2t6 t2t7 t2t8 t2t9 t220 r22l

lus tug
1250 t25l
809 EI0 811 812 813 811 81s 816 817 818 819 820

778 779 780 781 782 783 784

/ ?t)

t253 1254 1255 r256 7257

1258 1259 1260 L26l 1262 1263 t264


788 1223

789 1225

790 1227 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803

tz28 7229 7230 t23l t23Z 1233 1234 l?35 1236 t?37 1238 1239 1240 t24l

1265 8 2 1 1266 1267 822 1268 t?59 823 1270 1271 824 1 i , t ' , 1273 825 tz74

826 1276 1277 827 1278 t279 828 1280 829

r?3r naz

804 L743 805 L244 1245 1246 1247

l2t3 830 r284 1285 8 3 1 tzE6 t2t7 832 1268 1289 BJ.' 1290

1291 831 1292 1293 8J5 1294 1295 8 J 6 t296 1297 837 1298 L299 838 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 841 1306 842 1307 843 1308 841 1309 1310 815 1311 l3I2 1313 t3t4 817 1315 1316 1317 1318 849 1319 1320 8s0 t32l t322 851 1323 t3z4 852 1325 L326 1327 1328 1329 1330 855 1331 1332 856 r333 1334 857 1335

1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 134l 1342 861 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 t362 871 1363 1364 1365 1366 873 874 875 1367 876 877 878 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 t373

1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 r385 1386 881 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 r394 1395 1396 t397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 889 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 891 1409 1410

1420 t42l 1422 1,423

r424 r425 901 r426 t427 t428 t429 1430

l43l 904 1432 1433 90s 1434 1435 906 1436 1437 907 1438 1439 908 1440 r441 909 1442 1443 910 1444 lM5 911 1446 r447 912 913 1448 tM9 914 1450 1451 9 1 5 1452 1453 916 t454 1455 9 1 7 1456 t4s7 9 1 8 1458 1459 9 1 9 1460 l46l 920 1462 1463

1412 l4t3 t414 893 1415 894 t4t6
895 896 t4t7 897 1418 89E 1419

1375 1376

921 1464 1465 922 1,466 1,467 923 1468 1469 921 1470 t47l vl) 1472 1473 926 1474 1475 927 1476 r477 928 1478 1479 q29 1480 148r e30 r482 1483 9 3 1 1484 1485 1486 1487 932 1488 1489 9 3 3 1490 1491 934 1492 1493 9 3 5 1494 1495 936 1496 l4v7 937 1498 1499 9 3 8 1500 1501 939 r502 1503 910 1504 1s05 941 1506 1507 an 1508

1509 1510 1511 l5t2 1513 1514 151s 1516 l5t7 1518 1519 1520 1521 919

rs22 l
9s6 957 958 9s9 960

n1 I

1523 950 1524

9 5 1 1526 r52',7 9,J2 1528 1529 9 s 3 1520 1531 n<1 1532 1533 9-5-5 1534

945 916


1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 l54l 1542 1543 t5M 1545 1546 1547

I' nut iseo

962 1548 1549 963 1550 1551 961 1552 1553 96s 1554 1.555 966 1ss6 j 1557 i 967 1558 t 1559 r

1561 975 1574 969 1562 t575 976 7576 1563 970 r564 1577 977 1578 1565 971 1566 1579 978 1580 t567 972 1s68 1581 1569 979 1582 973 1570 1583 980 1584 l57l 974 1572 1585 981 1586 rszr ]

1587 982 1588 1589 983 1590 1591 981 1592 1593 985 1s94 1595 986 1596 1597 987 1598 1599


Tq n8 Diiu

Phrip: Bci Ptrrip 1990.


tr. by Maha



Sd. pub, by Municipal


Association HCMcrty. " A Budtthist Manual Books Reprint

of Psychological Ethics. tr. by C.A.F. New Delhi.

Rhys Davids, pub. by O:iental