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5 (85)

- 2006


. ?

12

18

27

, .


( )

38

.

(
)

51

67

68
69
71

I. ""
II. ,
List of Questions for the General Population
SUMMARY

115
118

5 (85)
September-October 2006
CONTENTS

PRINCIPAL TRENDS

ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION


Man Discontented? (Yury LEVADA)

12

Two Dates and One More: The Symbols


of the Past as an Index of the Russians Attitude
to Changes (Boris DUBIN)

18

Labor in the System of Life Orientations


of the Russian Population (Ludmila KHAKHULINA)

27

Financial Situation of Scientific Organizations


under the Reformation of Science State Sector
(Larisa ZUBOVA, Olga ANTROPOVA)

38

Values and Identity of the Young Generation of the Russian


and Polish Intelligenstia (on the Basis of the Comparative
Survey of Students of Universities of Moscow and
Warsaw, 2nd part (Tomasz ZARYCKI)

51

Authors of the issue

67

INFORMATION: SURVEYS FINDINGS

68
69
71

I. Technical Notes
II. Attitudes, Opinions and Evaluations of the Population
List of Questions for the General Population
SUMMARY

115
118

:
1.

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5 (85) 2006

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1 ,

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, 2004 ., , ""
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, 2. 1 .
// : . 
. . 2006. 2 (82). . 4761.
2 
2004 .,
,
. . (.:
Studenci Warszawy. Studium dugofalowych przemian postaw i
wartoci / Ed. S.Nowak. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa uniwersytetu
Warszawskiego, 1991).


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1).
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1 Bourdieu P. Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of


Taste. L.: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.
2 Domanski H. Hierarchie i bariery spoeczne w latach
dziewiCdziesitych. Warszawa: Instytut Spraw Publicznych, 2000.

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1 .: Bourdieu P.
The Forms of Capital // Handbook of Theory and Research from
Sociology of Education / Ed. J.G.Richardson. N.Y.; Westport
(Conn.): L.Greenwood Press, 1986.


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1 Bourdieu P., Passeron J.C. La reproduction. Elments pour
une thorie du systme denseignement. P.: Editions de Minuit,
1970.
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31.01

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2392

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16.06

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2426

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1.06

11.07

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2328

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27.03

3973

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29.09

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9.09

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2430

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6.09

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4001

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29.01

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3977

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5 (85) 2006

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17

List of Questions for the General Population

(Page numbers in brackets indicate where opinions and characteristics of various groups of population are presented)

9. What could you say about your mood in the recent days? 1) Excellent mood; 2) Normal, calm condition;
3) I experience strain, irritation; 4) I feel fear, distress; 5) Difficult to answer. (71, 79, 84, 89, 94, 99, 106)
9a. Speaking in general to what extent are you satisfied with the life you are leading now? 1) Quite satisfied;
2) Mainly satisfied; 3) Partly satisfied, partly not; 4) Mainly not satisfied; 5) Not satisfied at all; 6) Difficult
to answer. (79, 84, 89, 94, 99, 106)
10. How would you evaluate the financial position of your family at present? 1)Very good; 2) Good; 3) Average;
4) Bad; 5) Very bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (71, 79, 84, 89, 94, 99, 106)
11. How would you evaluate the economic situation in your town, rural district? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad;
4) Very bad; 5) Difficult to answer. (72, 79, 84, 89, 94, 100, 107)
12. How would you evaluate the economic situation in Russia? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad; 4) Very bad;
5) Difficult to answer. (72, 79, 84, 89, 95, 100, 107)
13. What do you think, which of the statements given below describes better the situation having been developed?
1) Everything is not so bad and its possible to live; 2) Life is difficult but its possible to bear it; 3) Its impossible
to bear our disastrous situation any longer; 4) Difficult to answer. (72, 80, 84, 89, 95, 100, 107)
13A. What do you think, will you (your family) live better or worse then now in a year? 1) Better to a great extent;
2) Somewhat better; 3) The same matter as now; 4) Somewhat worse; 5) Worse to a great extent;
6) Difficult to answer. (73, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 107)
13B. Which of the following statements most exactly describes your attitude to the present life? 1) "I simply
cant adapt to the present life"; 2) "Ive got accustomed to the fact that I had to refuse from customary way
of life, to live, limiting myself in great and small"; 3) I have to "spin", seize upon any opportunity to earn only
to provide a tolerable life for my family and me"; 4) "I succeeded in using new opportunities to achieve
more in life"; 5) "I live in the same way as before: nothing has particularly changed for me in the recent
years"; 6) Difficult to answer. (73, 80, 85, 90, 95, 101, 107)
14. What do you think, market reforms should be continued now or ceased? 1) Market reforms should be continued;
2) Market reforms should be ceased; 3) I dont know, its difficult to answer. (74, 80, 85, 90, 95, 101, 108)
19. How would you evaluate the political situation in Russia in general? 1) Safe, good; 2) Calm; 3) Strained;
4) Critical, explosive; 5) Difficult to answer. (74, 80, 85, 90, 95, 101, 108)
20. Generally speaking, how much are you now satisfied with your life? 1) Quite satisfied; 2) Rather satisfied;
3) Partly satisfied, partly not; 4) Rather unsatisfied; 5) Not satisfied at all; 6) Dont know. (71)
22. What do you think, will our life improve more or less during the coming year or there will be no improvement?
1) Will improve; 2) There will be no improvement; 3) Difficult to answer. (74, 80, 85, 90, 95, 101, 108)
26. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of V.Putin as the President of Russia? (80, 85, 90, 95, 101, 108)
26*. How would you rate on a scale from 1 to 10 the performance of Boris Yeltsin as Russias presi
dent/Vladimir Putin as acting president/Vladimir Putin as Russias president? Average on the scale. (75)
27. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of M.Fradkov, chairman of the minister cabinet? (80, 85,
90, 95, 101, 108)
27*. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of chairman of the minister cabinet? (75)
28. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the political life? 1) Considerable improve
ment of the situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse;
4) Considerable change of the situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (75, 81, 85, 90, 95, 101, 108)
29. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the economic life? 1) Considerable improvement
of the situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse;
4) Considerable change of the situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (75, 81, 85, 91, 96, 101, 109)

5 (85) 2006

115

31. What of the following problems of our society worry you most of all and which you believe to be the most
urgent ones? 1) Poverty, impoverishing of the majority of population; 2) Prices growth; 3) Unemployment
increase; 4) Economic crisis, poor condition of industry and agriculture; 5) Increase of criminal offences
rate; 6) Morals and cultural crisis; 7) Environment deteriorating; 8) Threat of explosions and other terrorist
actions in your neighborhood; 9) Nationalism increase, national relationships worsening: 10) Inaccessibil
ity of many kinds of medical services; 11) Increase of drug addiction rate; 12) Dramatic stratification into
the poor and the rich, unfair income distribution; 13) Increase of education costs and its inaccessibility;
14) Limitation of civil rights, democratic freedom (of speech, of the press, etc); 15) Corruption, bribery;
16) Dominance, arbitrariness of officials; 17) Impossibility of getting fair treatment in court; 18) Rudeness,
cruelty of militia servicemen; 19) Weakness of government authority; 20) Conflicts between various
branches of power at different levels; 21) Withholding wages, pensions, benefits, etc.; 22) Warfare in
Chechnya; 23) AIDS sick rate growth; 24) Influx of newcomers, migrants; 25) Something else (what
particular); 26) Difficult to answer. (81, 86, 91, 96, 102, 109)
32. What do you think, to what extent mass violence of the population against the decrease of the living
standard and for the defense of their rights is possible now in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible;
2) Hardly possible; 3) I dont know, difficult to answer. (75, 81, 86, 91, 97, 103, 110)
33. If such rallies and protest demonstrations happen, will you personally take part in them? 1) Most probably
yes; 2) Most probably no; 3) Dont know. (75, 81, 87, 91, 97, 103, 110)
33c. Is the protest movement with political demands possible in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible;
2) Hardly possible; 3) I dont know, difficult to answer. (75, 82, 87, 91, 97, 103, 110)
35. How much money does your family need now per capita month to lead a normal, to your idea, life? (78,
83, 88, 93, 98, 105, 112)
37. The income that would provide in respondents opinion the "the minimum living standard"? (78, 83, 88,
93, 98, 105, 112)
42. To speak of the major purchases for the family (such as furniture, refrigerator, household electronics, TV
set) do you think this is on the whole a good or a bad time now for such purchases? 1) Good; 2) Neither
good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (76, 82, 87, 92, 97, 104, 111)
43. To speak in general, do you think this is a bad or a good time now to save up money? 1) Good; 2) Neither
good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (77, 83, 87, 92, 97, 104, 111)
L15. How has the financial situation of your family changed during the last year? 1) Rather improved; 2) Re
mained the same; 3) Rather got worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (76, 82, 87, 92, 97, 103, 111)
L16. How do you think the financial situation of your family will change in the nearest year? 1) Rather will improve;
2) Will remain the same; 3) Rather will get worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (76, 82, 87, 92, 97, 103, 111)
L17. Will you please tell us what makes the life of your family most difficult at present? 1) Low incomes, lack
of money; 2) Fear of losing a job; 3) Poor health, problems with medical treatment; 4) Bad dwelling;
5) Everyday life difficulties; 6) Impossibility of giving good education to children; 7) Bad relations
within the family; 8) Drinking or drug addiction of a family member; 9) Fatigue and exhaustion;
10) Hopelessness and absence of prospects in life; 11) Lack of free time; 12) Something else;13) Dif
ficult to answer. (83, 88, 93, 98, 104, 111)
L33. Which of the following population groups would you rather ascribe yourself to? 1) We hardly make both ends
meet, there is not enough money even for food; 2) There is enough money for food but clothes buying causes serious
difficulties; 3) There is enough money for food and clothes but buying the durable goods (TVset, refrigerator, etc.) is
difficult for us; 4) We can easily buy durable goods. To buy really expensive things is difficult for us; 5) We can afford
rather expensive purchases apartments, dacha and many others. (74, 82, 87, 92, 97, 103, 110)
L88. To speak of the economical situation of the country on the whole, do you think the following 12 months will be
a good or a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good; 2) Good, but not in everything; 3) Neither good, nor
bad; 4) Bad, but not in everything; 5) Bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (76, 82, 87, 92, 97, 103, 111)
L88a. To speak of the following five years, will they be a good or a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good;
2) Neither good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (76)
LL10. What do you think, since what average monthly money income per capita a family may be considered a
rich one? (78, 83, 88, 93, 98, 105, 112)
LL11. What do you think, with what average monthly money income at the rate for one person a family may be
considered poor one? (78, 83, 88, 93, 98, 105, 112)
116

5 (85) 2006

1f. What stratum of the society would you rather ascribe yourself to? 1) To the lowest one; 2) To the workers;
3) To the lowest part of the middle stratum; 4) To the middle part of the middle strata; 5) To the higher
stratum; 6) Difficult to answer. (72, 79, 84, 89, 94, 99, 106)
6+10. General respondents earnings during the last month. (78, 83, 88, 93, 98, 105, 112)
8A. Did you have any job or occupation last month, that brought additional income besides your main job or
occupation? 1) Yes; 2) I had odd extra earnings; 3) No. (77)
10. How much money did you personally earn for extra work during the last month? (78, 83, 88, 93, 98, 105, 112)
15b:5. Average income per capita during the last month: (83, 88, 93, 98, 105, 112)
25:5. Average per capita income: (78)
026c. 026 c. Have you or has any of your family members got access to Internet networks? If so, is it at home or
at jobplace? 1) No access to Internet; 2) Access only at home; 3) Access only at jobplace; 4) Access both
at home and at jobplace; 5) Know practically nothing about this network. (77)
026e. Do you personally use personal computer? If you do how often do you use it? 1) Never; 2) Daily, several
times a week; 3) About once a week; 4) 23 times a month; 5) About once a month; 6) Less than once a
month. (78)
026f. Do you personally use Internet at home, at work or at any other places (except email)? If you do how often
do you use it? 1) Never; 2) Daily, several times a week; 3) About once a week; 4) 23 times a month;
5) About once a month; 6) Less than once a month. (78)
29. What mark on the scale from 1 to 10 wouls you give to your position in the society? (1 high; 10
low)? (77)
38A. Journalist Anna Politkovskaya was murdered a week ago. Have you heart about she before this happened?
1) No, I havent; 2) Yes, I read her articles; 3) Yes, I heart her appearances on the radio; 4) Yes, I saw and
heart her in telecasts; 5) I heart about she, but was not acquainted with her appearances/dont know. (113)
38B. What feelings did the report about the murder of journalist Anna Politkovskaya evoke in you? 1) Bewilder
ment; 2) Indignation, anger; 3) Anxiety, fear; 4) No special feelings; 5) I know nothing about it; 6) Dont
know. (113)
38C. What do you think, who organized the murder of Anna Politkovskaya? 1) The Russian special services;
2) The milieu of Ramzan Kadyrov; 3) The Russian nationalists; 4) The oppositional forces, interested in the
destabilization of the situation in Russia; 5) The foreign forces, interested in undermining of Russias
authority; 6) Its a murder on the personal or everyday life motives; 7) Dont know. (113)
42A. In your opinion, the energies of the special services aim now for the most part at... 1) The safety provision
of the commonwealth; 2) The provision of interests of the authorities; 3) The provision of their own
interests; 4) Dont know. (114)
42B. In your opinion, the energies of the General Office of Public Prosecutor aim now for the most part at...
1) The safety provision of the commonwealth; 2) The provision of interests of the authorities; 3) The
provision of their own interests; 4) Dont know. (114)
42C. In your opinion, the energies of the militia aim now for the most part at... 1) The safety provision of the
commonwealth; 2) The provision of their own interests; 3) Dont know. (114)

5 (85) 2006

117

SUMMARY

1. Man Discontented? (by Yuri Levada). One of


the evident paradoxes of modern Russian reality is
practically general widely spread discontent with the
situation in the country and ones own life combined
with high level of optimism and approval of the
country leadership expressed by the citizens, the
discontent practically not turning into protest. The
level of satisfaction with the situation in the country
has increased in all age groups during recent five
years but dissatisfaction evidently dominates in all
the groups. The transformations in the country are
perceived as wrong by elderly people, less educated,
the supporters of Communists and conservative
populist opposition. The main sphere of discontent
in society is financial situation of families. Domineering preference of "material well-being" in domestic socio-political sphere is an indicator of not
only general "economic" poverty of the country but
of the poverty of value orientations of society.
Under the existing conditions widely spread societal discontent is not aimed against the authorities,
the regime, particular political figures. Neither is it
aimed at assertion or support of certain institutions,
rights, level of opportunities achieved earlier, etc.
Lack of organization in mass discontent provides
background for its manipulation by the authorities.
Diffused and helpless mass discontent actually
proves to be a means of neutralization and devaluation of protest potential.
2. Two Dates and One More: The Symbols of the
Past as an Index of the Russians Attitude to
Changes (by Boris Dubin). The author analyses the
data of Levada Center surveys connected with two
memorable dates: the 50th Anniversary of the XX
Congress of CPSU (Communist Party of the Soviet
Union) with the "secret" report by N.Khrushchev
made there and the 15th Anniversary of the August
1991 putsch and the victory over the State Committee on the State of Emergency. These events viewed
by the author as the symbols of "the other way"
possible for the country, the way out of totalitarian
past, however, remain meaningful only for an extremely narrow group of respondents getting more
and more narrow during the 1990s. Changes in the
118

attitudes to the two dates mentioned which could


have become common feasts of shifting towards the
new are compared to the changes (also during the
1990s) in collective evaluations of meaningfulness
of the Victory in Patriotic War and the figure of
Stalin as the symbols of nostalgically reviving the
Great Power past. Both evaluations are considered
by the author in a wider context of the 1990s transformations in power structures, attitudes and evaluations of masses, intelligentsia and mass media that
predetermined the shaping of V.Putins political regime in the 2000s.
3. Labor in the System of Life Orientations of the
Russian Population (by Ludmilla Khakhulina). This
paper sets forth the main outcomes of the research
on the attitude to labor basing on the data of two
surveys carried out in 1998 and 2005. It was shown
that while occupying an important place in the peoples life labor is still not a dominating value. Family, leisure, recreation, friends are those spheres
which people would like to spend more time on.
Instrumental attitude to labor, i.e. only as to a means
of earning money, is rather spread as before. However the gap between the claims and actual estimation of their work in terms of getting high earnings
remains the greatest as earlier.
At the same time one can observe during recent
years the wider expanding of the attitude to labor as
to a sphere where a person gets an opportunity to
realize his/her abilities, knowledge and experience,
to achieve success and acknowledgement. During
the past seven years the gap between such claims
and evaluations of the work has decreased sharply
though still remains considerable.
But on the whole the improvement of subjective
evaluations of various aspects of labor has resulted
in that 2/3 of respondents are satisfied with their
jobs, rather high labor satisfaction being combined
with high potential mobility. Half of the respondents
would change their jobs should an opportunity arise.
At the same time actual willingness to change a job
is twice lower than the potential one which is not in
the last place connected with low evaluations by the
majority of respondents of their chances at labor

5 (85) 2006

market. And though with unemployment decreasing


the estimations of opportunities to find a suitable job
have become more optimistic the beliefs that it
would be difficult to find a suitable job are still
prevalent in public opinion.
The findings of the survey have shown substantially increased attractiveness of self-employment
and business for a considerable part of respondents.
Orientations at work "for themselves" and for employer are approximately equally popular at present.
Actually the share of self-employed is several times
less which testifies to the fact that peoples striving
to go in for small and average business is not used to
a full extent.
4. Financial Situation of Scientific Organizations
under the Reformation of Science State Sector (by
Larisa Zubova, Olga Antropova). Making up innovation economy in Russia increases the requirements to the sphere of scientific research and developments. To get a systematized idea on the activity
of scientific organizations of the state sector for
research and developments during transformation
period the Center for Science Research and Statistics carried out a sociological survey in SeptemberNovember 2005. The sample includes scientific
organizations of various legal forms: state institutions, state Unitarian enterprises, joint-stock
companies with state participation. The organizations under study encompass three research and
developments spheres: natural, technology and
medical sciences. The findings of the survey gave
the opportunity to evaluate the financial situation
of the organizations from the perspective of their
top managers. State sector organizations for research and developments have adjusted on the
whole to the conditions of market economy
though to different extents. They make extensive
use of all possible sources for gaining financial
support not limiting themselves to only budget
sphere but drawing more actively non-budget
means, both from Russia and abroad. For scientific
organizations the stage of survival is turning gradually into the stage of their development.

5. Values and identity of the young generation of


the Russian and Polish Intelligenstia (on the basis of
the comparative survey of students of universities of
Moscow and Warsaw, 2nd part) (by Tomasz Zarycki)
The paper presents a second part of the discussion
of the results of the surveys of Moscow and Warsaw
universities conducted in 2004 in both capitals. It
analyses first of all the levels of identification of
students with the intelligentsia (as well as some
other identities, including the middle class identity,
which is sometimes considered to be a rising competitor to the intelligentsia identity). Second, the students have been asked about their confidence in the
future of the intelligentsia and its main roles. In the
same time the support for critical opinions about intelligentsia in Poland and Russia has been analyzed as
well. Discussion includes also comparative analysis of
idealism and views of the selected period of the contemporary history of both countries. The results shows
much stronger level intelligentsia identity in Poland
than in Russia as well as stronger confidence in its
future. Polish students while seeing more positive
functions for intelligentsia have been in the same time
more critical of this group. The paper uses these findings to conclude a stronger role of the cultural capital
in its embodied form in Poland than in Russia. This
also includes much higher readership of newspapers
among Polish students as well as their more idealistic
attitudes and more coherent views on the recent history of Poland. Russian students view the post-communist period as the worst in the modern history of
their country while they do not have a clear opinion on
the communist times. Polish respondents see the period after 1989 as the best in the contemporary history
of Poland and in the same time appear to have more
consistent view of hierarchies of music genres, which
may be seen as a proof as a higher role of culture in a
dimension of social stratification in Poland.
6. Information: Surveys Findings
I. Technical Notes
II. Attitudes, Opinions and Evaluations of the
Population (July, 2006)

5 (85) 2006

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