Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 127

. .

1(93)
6 . 16-


(-)



()

2008



.

, .

:

:
..
()
..
..
..
..
.
..
..
:
. .
( )
..
..
(. )
..
( )
..
..
..
(. )

33
59

. 2007
:

65

. :

71

, .

77

86


, .
-

92

93

94
95
97

I.
II. ,
List of Questions for the General Population
SUMMARY


..
..

..


83193

..

..

(-)
109012, , . , 17. . : (495) 629 5545
E-mail: direct@levada.ru
()
119571, , . , 82. .: (495) 564 8582

,
77981 10 2003 .
-, , 2008

The Russian Public Opinion Herald


Data. Analysis. Discussions
1(93)
Bi-monthly

Analytiv Centre
Yury Levada
(Levada-Centre)
The Interdisciplinary
Academic Centre for
social Sciences
(InterCentre)

Members of
the Editorial Council
Taryana Zaslavskaya
(Chair)
Abel Aganbeghian
Anatoly Vishnevsky
Leokadia Drobizheva
Natalia Rimashevskaya
Teodor Shanin
Vladimir Yadov
Yevgenii Yassin
Editorial Board
Lev Gudkov
(Editor-in-Chief)
Boris Dubin
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Alexei Grazhdankin
Ludmila Khakhulina
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Marina Krasilnikova
Galina Sterlikova
Natalia Zorkaya
(Executive Secretary)

JanuaryFebruary 2008

CONTENS
PRINCIPAL TRENDS

ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION


The Society with Limited Imputability
(Lev GUDKOV)

Life Values of the Russian Population: Similarities


and Differences in Comparison to other European Countries
(Vladimir MAGUN, Maxim RUDNEV)

33

The Idols of the Square Place


(Larissa KOSOVA)

59

2007 in the Russians Public Opinion: Threat to Stability


(Denis VOLKOV)

65

Unemployment in Populations Evaluations: Apprehension


and Expectations
(Irina PEROVA)

71

Trans-National Interaction and the Quality of Human Capital


(Irina KRUTYI, Irina ZANGUIEYVA)

77

Populations Attitude to Health and Public Health Care


(Valentina BODROVA)

86

CHRONICLE OF SCIENTIFIC LIFE


Jubilee Conference of Levada Center
(Denis VOLKOV, Sofia Dolutskaya)

92

Autors of the issue

93

INFORMATION: SURVEYS FINDINGS

94
95
97

I. Technical Notes
II. Attitudes, Opinions andEvaluations of the Population
List of Questions for the General Population
SUMMARY

:
1.
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 


































































(
; )

 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   


,
1998 ., 2004 . , 2005 ., .
2005 . , . 2006 .
,
.

2.

(
; )



























































 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

, 2004 ., .
2005 ., , 2005 . .
2006 . , ,
. 2007 . , .

1 (93) - 2008

3.













































































,
, ,
? ( % )

 































 


 


 

. 2005 .
. ,
2006 ., 2007 ., , , .

4.

























































 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 







 



 






















2004 .,
. 2006 . , , . 2007 .
. (46-49%)
.

5.

( ,
)
































































 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 (93) - 2008

 

 

 

 

 

  

6. 5-0 ,
Y ( % , N=1600 )
6. .






























































































. 2007 . , 2006 ., 5056%. : , .


, ., . .,
.

6. . 5-0 ,
( % , , 2%)

2008 .

2007 .

2
2
3
11
8
15
8
6
14
4
4
49
1
3
4
6
6
20
3
14

2
3
3
10
9
24
6
5
21
3
2
52
1
2
2
6
4
16
3
12

2
3
4
12
8
22
7
5
20
3
5
50
2
1
4
5
3
20
2
12

2
3
3
12
11
25
9
4
18
2
5
49
2
1
2
7
3
19
2
13

2
3
4
12
7
22
9
5
21
3
4
52
1
1
2
6
3
23
1
13

3
2
5
9
6
22
7
6
17
4
4
49
1
2
3
5
4
20
3
12

2
3
6
10
9
23
10
6
17
4
5
52
2
2
3
5
3
20
3
13

2
1
3
8
7
22
8
4
19
4
4
54
1
1
3
7
2
19
2
11

2
3
5
10
8
22
8
4
19
3
3
51
1
1
3
4
3
22
2
12

2
2
4
10
8
22
9
5
18
2
4
55
1
1
2
2
4
19
2
10

1
1
4
11
10
22
8
5
21
5
4
56
<1
1
1
1
3
19
2
11

1
1
4
11
8
21
7
7
21
6
3
61
1
1
1
1
2
18
2
7

1
2
3
10
9
23
8
3
39
5
4
65
1
1
2
1
2
17
2
8

1
1
4
11
10
20
6
4
39
3
4
62
1
<1
1
1
2
15
1
9

16

15

17

14

16

17

17

16

18

14

14

13

10

11

1 (93) - 2008

6.

































































































,
? ( % , N=1600 )
2007

2007

2008

18

40

28

35

40

48

17

11

25

11

2000

2008

40

45

, ,

25

25

17

21

12

26

: , ,

52

38

11

10

16

: , ,

11

11

: , ,

12

11

: ,

15

17

, ?..
( % , N=1600 )

1 (93) - 2008

, , ?
( % , N=1600 )
2007

2008

42

, ,

12

14

10

10

20

14

: , ,

14

16

23

24

11

: , ,

21

19

: ,

26

21




 () (),
1998.=100%



















































()
. () (
, -).
.
2008 ( ) ( 9% 2007.) , .
.
5% .

1 (93) - 2008



1


,
, .2
.
. , ( )
.
( )
, .

,
2
,
, ,
, , , ..
,
,
, , .
,
, ,
?

, 7 2008 . , 21.00.

.. . //
, , 2008, 1 (8), . 49. ( :
.. ..,
. ..)
2


.
, ,
.
,
, 3.

, ,

4.
, , .

..

, ,
( 1881-1885, 1905-1907, 1914-1920,
1956-1968, 1987-1999 .), . . / : , , . ., , 2007, .31-60.
4

.
,
. , , ,
. .,
( 137) 129 ,
,
. .: .
. ., / , , 2004. .
3

1 (93) - 2008

, ,
, .
. ,
,
, .

, : .


. ,
,
.5
- ,
, , ,

.

, ,
, , , .
,
, . ,
, ( ) , . .
1925 ,
. [ -] , ,
,
, ,
, , ...
. . ., ,
2007, .337. ,
,
: , ,
, , , ,
, . ( , ,
).
5

(, ,
..)
, - -
, . , ,
, .. ,
, ( , ,
..).


.6 ,
,
,

.


( ),
, : , , ,
, ,
.. ,
- ,
, . - ,

,
, -:


.

,

, ,
,
.

1 (93) - 2008

, ( ,
, ,
) , . ,
, (
).
, , ,
,
, , .
, , ,
. ,

, ,
,
.
( )
, .

,
,
.
:
, , /
.
( ) ,
(

, , ), ,
, , ,
.7 ,

7
No taxations without representation,
.

10

, . ,
,
.8

, , :

,
, ..,
90- , ( )
. ,
. (
): ( ), ,
-
, ,
2 ? 9.

, ,
, ,
, . , ,
8
-
, , - , ,
,
,
, ,
.. ,
( , ,
-
).
9
(22-25.02.2008,
N=1600), 76% ( ,
) 2 .. (
69% , , ).

1 (93) - 2008


10%, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
,

. , , ,
- (=)
, . ,

(, -) . , ,

( ,
) :
, ,
. , ,
, , (Reziprozitt). ,
, ,
, , , .. .
,
;
, ,

, , .
,
,
- , ,
, ,

,
, ..10
, ()
,

.
.
. ( ),
, , , ,
.
.


. (
,
- ), ,
, , ,
,
,
, .. 11
,
, , () .

- . , ,

( ) . ()
(
, , , , , ..).
.
. ,
.
.
, , ..
11
, , (
) ,
.
10

1 (93) - 2008

11

.12, ., .
,
(,
, , ,
, ), 13.
/

, ()
, , , , /
,
/ //, /,

/
, /
.. ,


. ,
(
)
, :

, , ,
, , ,
- .
, ,

,
( ).
, ,
Inglehart R. Kultureller Umbruch. Wertwandel in der westlichen Welt.
Frankfurt a.M.; New York, Campus Verlag. 1989; Inglehart, R. Culture Shift
in Advanced Industrial Society. Princetion (New York), 1990; Inglehart, R.
Modernization and Postmodernization. Princetion (New York), 1997.
13
. . . ,
(, 2007, 3
4); .., ..
. .
// , 2007, 4, . 43-72.
12

12


?
.
, ( ) ,
, .
,
, , ,
70- XIX . (
)
14, () , ,
(
XIX XX ). ,
, ,

.

,
,
.15

XVIII XIX
( , , )
, 14
( Wert , ),
,
... ., .,
. .

( .),
, , .

, , , , .
.
15
. ., ., . ,
,
.

1 (93) - 2008

,
() . ,

.
,
,
-
.


( ) ,
:

, , (
,
), ,
, , ,
16. ,


, ,
.
:
, ,
; ,


.
( , -, , , , ..)
.17

() ( ),
() ,
.
:
() , . (
, ,
, ). , , ,
(, , )
,
,
.
, ,
- - .

.18
( , , ,
..)
, .
, . :
, ;
.
, ,
, (
) ,
,

. ,
( ), , .
gelten;

, , ,
.
17
,
, ,

, , . ,
, ,
XVII-XVIII . ,
.
18
,
. , ,
- (, .).

16

1 (93) - 2008

13

.19 , ,
, , ,
,
,

( ),
.

, ,
,

, ,
, , .
.
( ) , ,
.
,

,
,
( ).

,
, , .
-
, (
, ,
).
()
.
. .,1994. ( ,
. .20-29 63-69).
19

14

, ,
.
, .
,
, ,
(
) .20
, , , ,
.
( )
, -
, , ,
. ,


, ,
.
,

.
( ) ( , )
.
().

. ,

-
.
20
,
,
( , , , , ), ( ), ( , ) .
,
, , , .

1 (93) - 2008

,

( ).21 , (, :
) .
, , , , , ,
. ,

;
,
.
.

,

( ) , ,
.
,
. ,
, , 22
, , , 21
. , ,
( , , ,
).
, -
. .
, ,
, , .
22
, , .
. , ,
(, ) ,
,
( 1956 .,
.). .: . //
, 2005, 2 (76), .43-52.

, ,
.
,
(point of view)
,

( ).

. , , .


, .
. . memento mori

.
.
23 (
,
, ,
,
, , .., ?).

.
.1 ,
.
24. (, ).
Vaihinger H. Die Philosophie des Als Ob. Leipzig, 1922. ,
, , ,
.
24
, , , .
, ( ,
, , , ,
, ..),

( ).
23

1 (93) - 2008

15

1
? , ?
,

15
14
16

18-24
25-39
40-54
55

7
10
10
31

12
13
21

10
17
17
16
13

21
6
8
0
8
12
9
6
33
20

34
31
37

27
36
40
29

42
35
28

45
34
35
37
27
,
34
59
41
38
30
36
43
26
28
21

44
47
41

7
8
6

63
50
43
30

4
4
7
10

40
47
43

6
6
8

37
42
41
43
52

8
7
7
4
8

39
29
45
50
57
49
47
66
29
48

6
6
6
12
5
4
1
2
10
11

% , 2007, N=1600


( , ), .
(
), ,
,
. , , ,
. ,
,
-

16

.
:

4,5
. 30-40% , -
67%.
, , ,
,
.

, ,
, .
( , -

1 (93) - 2008

) 25.
,
,
. , , ,
.26

( )
, ,
.


,
, -
, ,
,
, .


, ,

(
,
),
,
, 27.
25
.. //
, , 1989, 2.
26
,
, , , . , 10-15%
,
, , , .
27
( )
(
. , ., .). ,
,
. ,
, , (
), ., .
() (. ).
, .

,
.
. 6-7
( 1989 )
,
, 19% ( 1989 70
76% ) 70% 90-


: 2-5%

.28 1993 ,

. , , .
,
,

.
( )
. , . ;
, .
( , , , ).
(. .2) ,
. .
, , ,
. , :

;

. , ..
.
28

1 (93) - 2008

17

, ,
(, ,
). ,
,
.

( ).


, , ,
( ,
), , .
. .

, ,
(
).
().
,
20% (,

68% 12% ). ( 18-24


28%,
30%; : 15%),
, , , .
, ,
. ,
, , . ,
, .
, ,
,

.
, .

( ), ,
(

-

2
?

22

33

43

35
38
34
27

31
35
45
53

40
33
30

30
44
48

38
35
38
34
27

30
37
37
47
50

18-24
25-39
40-54
55

31
26
18
17

28
21
19

31
24
23
17
22

% , , 2007, N=1600

18

1 (93) - 2008

). (
)
,
, . 29
(
) ,
,
44 63-72% (.3)
37 12-17%,
. , ( ) ,
,
(, , ): 2528% 44%. (. 4).


(19-20%).
, , ,
,
, , .


(. .6). , , .
3
?

1992
1998
2000
2006
2007

19
22
21
16
20

44
60
66
72
63

37
18
13
12
17

% , 1992, N=1800, 1998-2007,


N=1600
29
1997 (N=1600) ,
42% , ; 39%; 37%;
22-23%, 19%. ,
-36%. , , . 1990- . : .
// , 1993, 8, . 5-7;
. // , 1996, 6, .15-18;
. // , ,
1997, 1, . 43-47; .. ( 90- ) // , 2004, 3 (71), .35- 44.

( 4 51%)
-
, , ,
,
,
, (), ,
.
,
,
, ,
, , .. (
). ,
, , ,
, , (
,
), ,
,
,

.
,
.
-
,
, ,
.

,
, .

,
. 30 , ,
.

, ,
. ., ., .
. ., . 2007.

30

1 (93) - 2008

19

1991

25

57

18

28

51

21

25

54

21

1998

24

52

24

24

52

24

2003

44

40

16

46

35

19

44

38

18

% , N=1600;

1992
51
45
28
34

2006
54
43
30
21

1992
23
28
32
28

2006
41
52
62
63

1992
26
27
39
39

2006
5
6
8
16

% ,1992, N=1800, 2006, N=1600

.
,

. ,

(.6).
, ,
,
90- , (
20-21% 1992-1994 . 12% 2007 ). -

,
,
(.. 9 13 29%).
,
, (
),
, ,
, ,
:
? (.7).
. , -

6
, , , , ,
?
1992

1994

1998

2007

32

34

28

26

24

26

40

32

20

21

19

12

24

18

13

29

1800

3000

1600

3500

56

53

41

55

N=
: +
+
%

20

1 (93) - 2008

(, )
- .
7

?

,
,
,

,
,

,
/

;


1991

1998

2007

47

43

54

42
25
34
21
13

36
32
25
17
12

39
38
34
22
21

11

11

19

3
7
3

5
4
4

6
6
6

>1

>1

% , 1991, N=2400; 1998 2007, N=1600

, , ( )
,

, (
)
.
,
:
, ,
,

.31
,
. , , 80%
. ( ) 2%, 2% ,
15% ( ,
..).
31

1991 ( , )
. , ,
, ( ). 17

(
21%
13%). 10-11% ;
,
, , ,
: 28-25-30%.
: ,

, , ,
.32
, ,

.33
(
) . ,
, , , , ,
.
(, )

32
:

: ;
: .
. 22, 37-39
33
, ,
?, + = 50%; +
= 32%. ,
, ?, 84%,
10%. 2008, N=1600.

1 (93) - 2008

21

8
, , , ?


,
,

, ,

,
,

N=

1991

2008

32
11
10
7
5
2
2
19
10
3000

31
14
16
7
5
3
3
12
12
1600

2007 5-6%
(9- 12 ),
, , (1%). ( 1998 ).34

,
- . 9
,
?

,



,
-


,

1989

1997

44

51

4
5
10
4
4
7
35

10
8
9
1
1
1
19

% , N=1600
:
, , (9%; 26-
), 1 .
(8%). (2002, N=4500). .
,
.
34

22


, -,
,
. (,
, 83%
,
).
10
?

2002

2005

2007

8
21
36
32
3
29
68
0.4

11
28
40
20
2
39
60
0.6

6
26
41
24
3
32
65
0.5

% , N=1600

,
,
, , , ,
( , ).
,
,
, , ,
, -

1 (93) - 2008

11
?


, ,
,


,
,






1991, N=3000

1998, N=1700

36
34
26
9
8
8

34
28
26
14
8
6

10

15

% ; 1991

..

, ,
.
,
, , .
, ,

, . ,
. ,

( ,
..).35
.
.: , ,
...
-
// , 2008, 1, .26. ( ).
- - . , , ...,
.

35

, .
, , ,

.
- ,
,
. .
. , ,

.
,
(
, , , - ,
..),
1995-96 . 1998-2000 .
(
20 ) 36:
,
12-15 , ., 2004, .678, ... ., 2006. (.116, 291,
754). , -

( 100 . ): 1990 . 29, 1995 49, 2000 194,
2003 238, 2005 . 242.
36

1 (93) - 2008

23

12
( 100 . )

1970
1980
1985
1990
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2004
2005

30
35
31
26
41
38
39
40
36
34
32

7
13
10
14
31
24
26
30
29
27
25

14
23
16
11
29
19
20
29

412
580
634
617
790
751
816
869

31
34
32

927
895
908

13
(.)

1990


( 100 . )
1240

1995

1860

141

62

1368

191

1996

1977

121

53

1207

181

1997

1627

112

46

1054

129

1998

1758

122

45

1143

131

1999

2052

139

48

1414

129

83

41

913

107

2000

2023

132

50

1310

125

2001

2044

149

56

1273

135

2002

1756

167

59

927

133

2003

1907

198

57

1151

114


.
( ,
,
- ), ,
(. 14 15).
,
, , (
, ,
,
,
, ,
, .).

24

14

( 100 . )
( 100 .)

190

264

88

82

82

115

79

192

67

187

65

144

65

81

53

40

52

56

52

172

1 (93) - 2008

. 14
( 100 .)

51

107

46

105

41

109

38

112

38

95

38

30

36

111

35

106

34

65

34

110

26

122

26

75

15


( 100 .)

190

264

152

253

144

307

125

465

108

399

92

243

78

254

68

584

58

379

56

465

39

253

37

309

. .
,
, ,
19 , ,
. , ,
XVII , -
.37 Dittrich O. Geschichte der Ethik. Bd.1-4. Leipzig, Verlag von Felix Meiner
in Leipzig. 1923- 1932

37

,
- (). .
,

(, ),
( ),
,
, ( ),
XVIII . .
,
, ,
, ( ). -
(., . )
public spirit common
sense
, .
,
, ,
, , , . (,

)
. , ,
,
, ,
(Legalitt) (Moralitt). . , :
, , ,

(
, , ).
, (
,
).
,
,
,

1 (93) - 2008

25

.38
, , (,
, ), , ,
, .

,
: , ,
, , , ,
(), . ,
. (, .)


.
. (
,
, , ,
,
, ,
, ,
. ,
.

( ) - .
. . 6 . .6 ., , 1966, .302.
,
:
,
.
( ),
( ). [.303].

,
;
, , . [.289-290]
,
,
, , ,
, ,
. . 309.
38

26

),
. , ,

, .
, , , . ,
,
. , ,
. :
, , -,
.., , . ,

-
(

,
).
:
( ) (, ).
(
)

, , , , , ,
,

,
, ,
,
. ,
, , , ,
.
,
, . , -

1 (93) - 2008

( )
,
, . ( )

, ,
.
,
,
,
,

. , ,
- . ,
. (
, , ,
) ,
.
.
.

.
( ).

,
, , , 39, ,
.
,
39
57 % ( 28%) ,
. (1998, , N=1500)

,
,
.
, , .

,
(
,
- ,
, ,
, ..).
,
. ,
,
,
,
,
(
).
,

,
,

.

, , , , , (
, , , ),
,
, ,
, ..
(, , ,
..) ,
- ,
,
. -

1 (93) - 2008

27


.

, , , ( )
, ,
,
.

.
,
. .., ,
,

.40

30-50 , , ,

, ,
, ( ), ,
. (
) .
, , , , ,
- . ,
,
- (
).

( ), , ,
.
1980-
.. 1990 . http://www.unlv.edu/
centers/cdclv/archives/Interviews/levada-90.html

40

28

90- ,
. ,
, .. ,
, , , ,

.
,
, , , , .
,

,
( ) ,
-,
. ( ,
,
,
, ) ,
, ..
,
,

.

.

, 41.

(
,
,
,
20 25 % . // 2007. .
., -, 2007, . 44.
41

1 (93) - 2008

),
, , .
, .. ,
(
),

. ,
, , ,

,
.


,
, . , , ,
,
, , , ,
, . 42
.

, ,
, , . , ,

,
,
,
, ,
.
,
-

42

( ) .:
, ., 1993, .140-149; . ( 1989 1994 .). //
, 1995, N 2, c.23-27;. . .
. //
, 1999, 3, .46-64; . // . . ., 2000, . 467-488.

.
(
), , (,
,
,
)
.43
,
,
,
, , .
,
, , , , ,

( , ).

, ,
, , ,
44,
-
( ).
,
,
, ,
.
,
, ,


, , ,
, , ,
..

, , , , ,
, , ,
(
).
44
()
.: . , .
// . . ., , 2004,
.541-609.
43

1 (93) - 2008

29

, ..45.
,
.
. ( )
, ,
,
.46

,

,
, - .
(
), , ()
()
. , , -200, :
. , 2007, 7. . :
, , , , , ( ,
). , .35. :
,
.
, , (
, ) .
( ),
( - )
.
46
, , , . -,
-,
,
,
, .
, ,
,
, . ,
, - - ... .
90-. ., 1993, . 33-34.
45

30

, -,
, .
.
, , ,
,
.
, , ..
, , , ..
,
,
. ,
, .
, , , , ,
.
, ,
.

,
. ,

.47
(

). ,
, ,
. ,
47
, .
,
,
, .

1 (93) - 2008

,

, , ,
(
, ).
,
,
.
,
,
30 40% .

(
), , , .

.
16,
,

(.1-7 9),
(
, ), . ,
6, 7 , ,
.
, ,
9, 11.
. 10, - , .
, .
, ,
, , , , , , , ,

.
(

16
,

84
84
74
73
73
63

: +
+
13
12
19
20
19
28

62 / 54

29/ 34

6,9 / 4,5

62
53
38

27
37
42

5,6
5,3
1,9

36

42

1.6

36
30

41
43

1.6
1.1

29

36

0,8

29
23
22
14

35
42
44
49

0,8
0,7
0,6
0,4

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
(/)
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

28
21
11
10
9
7

2007, N=1600, %

1 (93) - 2008

31

, , , ), ,
, , . ,
,
.

. ,
,
, , , .
,
,
( ).

-

,
:
(
) ,
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, ..
.
(

, , , ).
, : , ,
.
-

32

,

, .



, , , , ,
,
.
.
(.),
, ,
.

, ,
.., 15 , ( ,
), ,
, ,
, , .
,
,
,
-,
. ( )
,
,
, ,
, ,
. .

1 (93) - 2008

:

1

,

,
25
(http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org).
(), .. (www.cessi.ru).

.

.

,
.

(European Social Survey ESS) , ,
2.
;
25 , 2006
2007 . 2006
2007 , 2437 .
() ..
.. . .. , ..
, .., .. . (Shalom H.
Schwartz) . ,
.
2
Jowell R., Roberts C., Fitzgerald R. and Eva G. (editors). Measuring
Attitudes Cross-Nationally: Lessons from the European Social Survey.
London: Sage Publications, 2007.
1


. , ,
, ,
.
; .
,
5 .

3.

, , ,
. ,
.

( )
, ,
.
3
,
,

. ,
,
- - ,
, , ,
. .: Vasja Vehovar, Tina Zupanic.
Weighting in the ESS Round 2 ( , 2007); Jaak
Billiet. Population base weights as estimation and adjustments for bias R1 &
R2. Review and some results ( , 2007).

1 (93) - 2008

33

( ,

, ,
, .)
, ,

;
,
,
, , ,
, . ,
,

. , ,
,

.

(2004-2005 .)4,

.
,

:
,
24 . ,

.

, 5.

,
,
.

4
., . : 23 . //
. . . . 2007. 3, 4.
5
., .: Inglehart, R., Baker, W. E. Modernization, Cultural Change,
and the Persistence of Traditional Values // American Sociological Review.
2000. Vol. 65. P.1951.

34

,

. , ,
,
,
6.
ESS
(Portrait Values Questionnaire) .7. 8,

(. .
1); 10 (
) 9.
21
, (. . 1),

6- :
: (, ,
) (.:
., . ).
7
Schwartz, S.H., Lehmann, A., & Roccas, S. Multimethod Probes of Basic
Human Values// Social Psychology and Culture Context: Essays in Honor
of Harry C.Triandis / Ed. by J. Adamopoulos, Y. Kashima. Newbury Park,
CA: Sage Publications, 1999; Schwartz, S. H., Melech, G., Lehmann, A.,
Burgess, S., Harris, M. Extending the Cross-Cultural Validity of the Theory
of Basic Human Values with a Different Method of Measurement // Journal
of Cross Cultural Psychology. 2001.Vol. 32. P.519542.
8
.
( ..
: . .: ,
2004). ,
, . ( ..
-
// . 22. 2001. 3), .
. ( .., ..
//
/
. .., ... : - , 1997. .
32-46), . (.. .
(http://www.tolz.ru/library/?id=436,
23.01.08), . . (
.., . -
// . 1999. 3. .80-90).
9
Schwartz, S.H., Bilsky, W. Toward a Theory of the Universal Content and
Structure of Values: Extensions and Cross-Cultural Replications // Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology. 1990. Vol.58. P.878891; Schwartz,
S.H. Universals in Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances
and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries // Advances in Experimental Social
Psychology / Ed. by M.P.Zanna. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1992.
Vol.25. P.165.
6

1 (93) - 2008

(6 ), (5 ), (4 ), (3 ),
(2 ), (1
) 10.
, .
, , ,
, , 11.
ESS 2006-2007
. 25 , 20
, .

, , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
.
,
.
,
() ()
()12.

; , ,
10
,
,
. ESS
ESS .
11
, ,
. . ,
,
, , , , ,
, ,
(.: Inglehart R. Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural,
Economic and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 1997).
12

: .

( ) //
. .:
, 2008 ( ).

, ,
13.
, ,
; , , 2413
,
2395 (,
2437 ). 983 995 ,
2889 2896. ,

,
.
21
, ,
1 6. ,
,
10 .
( ) . ,

, ,
: , ,
, 14.
()
. , .
21
, mrat15.
. .
,
- ,
.
14
: Smith P.B. Acquiescent
Response Bias as an Aspect of Cultural Communication Style //Journal of
Cross-cultural Psychology. Vol. XX. 2003. 10.
15
Schwartz, S.H. Instructions for Computing Scores for the 10 Human Values
and Using them in Analyses // Documentation for ESS-1, 2003. Mrat mean rating, .. . ,
,
, ,
( ), , ,
, , , , , , ,
mrat.
13

1 (93) - 2008

35

mrat (
) . . ,
10
,
, . ,

.
, ,

. ,

(mrat), ; , ,
, .
,
, , . , ,
, ()
.
.
, 10
.
4
(. . 1), ,
, : .
, ,

-16,

.
.
(Stimulation)

16

36

( -17
)
(
).
1 , . , ,
.
, 1,
.
, 18
ESS.
21

,
, .

,

.
,

(, 21),
( 10), 4
, ,
(
). 10
,
, ,
,
19.

10 , () .
10 .
.
(Power)
18
., . : 23 . .
19
- ,
.
17

1 (93) - 2008

1 (93) - 2008

()
, *

. ,
, . ,

, , . ,
,

. ,

.

.
. -,

, .
, . ,

.
.

. ,
. , ,

. ,
. ,

, . , ,
.

.
, . ,

, . ,
, .

* -

1
, .

37

, ,
( , p<0,05).

, ,
4-, 5-
6- .
1-10 2.
20 ,
.

;
983 () 2889 ().
,

(
), .
1 4-10
, ,
, , , , ,
. 2 3 ( ) ,

, , ,
.

10

(ANOVA).
(p < 0,05).
2 .
, ,
, , ,
.
8 10
20 ,
8

. , , -
17 19,
-
. , ,
, , ,
. ,

3- .
,

1
20

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

38

1 (93) - 2008

2
20

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


3
20

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


4
20

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1 (93) - 2008

39

5
- 20

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 


6
20

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


7
20

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

40

1 (93) - 2008

8
- 20

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


9.
20

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 


10
20

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1 (93) - 2008

41

1 (93) - 2008

-0,15

0,08

-0,20
0,37

0,41

-0,11

-0,66

-0,88

0,18

0,72

,
, N = 2395

( , , , , , ,
)
12 , .

( , )
.
16 , .

17 , .


, 14 , . , ,
.
, .

, 14 ,
. 2 .
, , .

, 12 , . 6 , ,
, , , , .

,
. 12 , . 5 , , , , ,
. ,
, .

, ; 6
6 , 7 , , , ,
( , ), .

, ; 7
, 5 , 6 , ,
, , , , .

, , , ,
. .

* (p < 0,05). 0,04 .

()

2
10
ANOVA

42


:
1) , :

, ,

, .
,
, , ,
(. 4-6
,
-)20.
, ,
, ,
,

.
2) ,
:

4 ,
( 7-10). -
( ), ,

, (
) , , ,
.
- ,
1990- . , . ,
21.

( )
(.: ..
: 19912004 .//
. 2006. 4).
21
.. /
// 1994, 11; Inglehart R. Modernization and Postmodernization; Inglehart R., Baker W.E.
Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values.
20


2000- 22.
, ( ),
,
, .

10 ,
(),

(.. 1).
.
11
19
.

: ,

. :
,
.
,
, . ,
(
)

(
).



13
!
22
.. :
19912004 .

1 (93) - 2008

43


: , , , , , ,
, , ,
( , ), , .
,

23.
, , ,
, ,
10 , . , ,
,
(
)
, ( ) .

,
( ).

, 10 , ?
. 12
. ,
, - , ,
. , , , ,
, 10 ( ) .
, , , , ,
10 ( -

11
20 ,



 

 

u

 
 

 
 


 
 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

u


 


u


u


ANOVA,
, p < 0,05.
23

44

1 (93) - 2008


),
, ,
. ,
, ,
, -,
, . ,
-
-.

, , , 0,96 (

), 0,91 (

), 0,86 (
); .
<0,001.
,

-
, .
, 0,42 (
( 12), ), 0,42 ( ), 0,55 ( ); <0,05
, -
, ,
. -
, , ,
0,64 ( -
<0,01).
(. 7-10). ( , ,
.
, , -
-

,

, , . (
.
,
, 12,
1;
, ,
0,42 0,96,
<0,01,
,
24.)
).
12
, , , , ,
( 10 , )

 

     

N=2395

     

N=525
, ,

24

1 (93) - 2008

45

. 12


      

      

N=2108

N=1745
 

      

       

N=1983

N=949

       

N=1464

46

      

N=1606

1 (93) - 2008

, ,
, , ,
,
( ) ;
, ,

,
.

, .
,
,
( ,

). ,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
( ,
, )
, (
).

.
,
25,

,
, , . ,

,

,
., . : 23 . //
. . . . 2007. 3, 4.

25

.
, ,
, , . ,

, :
, , , .

,
, ,
, ,
, , ,

26.

,
27.
:


, , , 28.
,

,
26
, , -,
(
)
.
( , ,
, ..)
( , ..) , ,
, .
27
.: .., .. . , 2001. . 101-107 (. : http://www.narcom.ru/ideas/
socio/35.html#5. 5 6); .. ,
// , 2003,
6. .80.
28
.. // ?.. . .
I / . .. .. . .: 1994.

1 (93) - 2008

47

, ,

.
- ,
.
,
. ,
,
.
, , ,

, , .

.
,

,


.

10 ,
(). -,

() .
, . ,
,
, , ,
,
, . ,

,

? ,

.
( k-) .

, 10

13
. (
;
).

u
 

 
**



 

*7



 

 

*



***



 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

u



48

1 (93) - 2008

, . , 4 ,
, ,
. I 6770 (18%), II
13074 (36%), III 8870 (25%) IV 7334 (20%) .
13 4

.
, ,
I,
, ..
,
,
( )
(-) (
). ,
II,
,
,
. III
,

( ,
,
)

( ). IV
I
( ),
-
(
). , 4
:
(
) ,
( ),
- -
(

).

,

.
,
10 ,

.
- , ?
3,
,
.
,
4
20 .
- , .. ,
, ,
( ) .
1, , ,
,
-

,
, ,
,
, , 10% . ,
18% , 29. II,
, ,
, :
,
(
!), (
) , , ,
( ,
, 36% ).
III, ,


- - ( p<0,05
).
29

1 (93) - 2008

49

50

1 (93) - 2008


49
26
36

11

17

18

52
43
24
19
24
27

48
60

25
27
39
31
46
51

31
37
31
41
32

9
9
23
22
22
26
27

8
14
15

12
14
23

23
15
24
18
25
30

II:



25

35

11

6
4
9
20
36
48
41
37

34
16
27
29
28
33
34
23
22
11
14

III:



* - , -

()

( )

I:
-

20

21

29

11
9
9

36048

957

532

1752
1466
1660
1984
1799
1617

30
14
19

27

21
31

18
13
16
12
28
23
23
36

1797
1370
2367
1476
2900
1469
1868
995
1564
1711
2219
2421
2118

12
32

IV:
-

3
20 , ,
% *

.
, ( 37 48% ),
, ,
, (
10% ). ,
. ,
, ,
-
, : ,
.
, ,
( 10%). ,
.
, , :
, .
, ,
, , .
,
,

. ,

:
(
)
( , ).

. ( 80%) (48%) (31%)
, , . ,
: (15%
) 6% (
).
,

. , , , ,
,

(. . 11). ,
( )
,
.
(31%) (
)

()
. ,
,
, , (
). ,
( ).

,

.

. 15 % , ,
,
, ( )
( )30.
30
,
. ,
1 ,
- ( 2-3 ),
(4 ).
( 6-8 -). (. . 12), : 1 ,
4 ,
6-8, -
.

1 (93) - 2008

51

6% , ,

,
, .
,
, , -,
,
. -,
,

,

31.
, :
.
,
,
, ,

.
. ,
,

.

, -
,
. ,
.
, (55%
43%, p< 0,05), (50% 30 ,
22%, 60%
39 29%
). ,

,
(22% 17%). , , ,
, . ,
.
31

52

()
, .
, ,
,
, , , ( -
?
14 ,
? ?
, 14
?
- ?).
, ( )32.

- .

10 ,
33,
,
,
(21
) .
4 - 10
. - ( 10
p < 0,0001).
, ,
.
,
(/), , -
, .
( )
, .
33
,
:
6 ,
.
32

1 (93) - 2008

0,02** 0,01** 0,01** -0,004** -0,02**


-0,04* -0,31** -0,22** 0,11** 0,22**

-0,10** 0,65** 0,28** 0,03* 0,29**


0,26** 0,40** -0,02* -0,27** 0,36**
-0,65** 0,73** 0,60** 0,52** 0,24**
-0,25** 0,48** -0,08** 0,22** 0,27**
-0,27** 0,67** 0,25** 0,45** 0,13**
0,03* 1,04** 0,33** 0,45** 0,37**
0,10** 0,80** 0,57** 0,20**
0,03
0,15** 0,61** 0,60** 0,34** 0,53**
-0,32** 0,72** 0,85** 0,20** 0,33**
-0,19** 0,63** 0,25** 0,29** 0,50**
-0,55** 0,26** -0,02* 0,18** 0,13**
0,40** 0,74** 0,32** 0,29** 0,39**
0,53** 0,23** 0,26** -0,06** 0,21**
-0,29** 0,37** 0,08** -0,06** 0,33**
0,36** -0,21** -0,03** -0,04** 0,13**
-0,20** 0,68** 0,40** 0,42** 0,47**
-0,15** 0,07** -0,01
0,14** 0,55**
0,33** -0,05** 0,00
0,05** 0,20**
0,06** 0,61** 0,38** 0,27** 0,48**
0,03
-0,09* -0,02
-0,05
0,07*

-0,79**
-0,11**
-0,82**
-0,10**
-0,57**
-1,23**
-0,17**
-0,45**
-0,69**
-0,52**
-0,10**
-0,77**
-0,27**
-0,52**
-0,38**
-1,14**
-0,71**
-0,19**
-0,36**
-0,21**

-0,07**
0,14**
-0,22**
0,16**
-0,26**
-0,56**
0,04*
-0,38**
-0,08**
-0,26**
-0,14**
-0,40**
0,12**
-0,06**
-0,21**
-0,28**
-0,01
0,13**
-0,17**
-0,23**

0,04*

-0,03*

0,00

0,02

0,06*

0,01

0,00

-0,05

-0,04

0,06*

0,06

0,07*

-0,05

0,01

0,03

0,01

-0,01

-0,02

0,00

-0,01

0,00

-0,27** -0,24** -0,22**

0,01** 0,02**
-0,21** -0,18**



( )

( )
()
14 ,

14 ,

14 ,

14 ,






- (
0.0001)
Log pseudolikelihood

4
- 10 .
10 ;
6 ,

-0,02** -0,01** -0,01**


0,13** 0,19** 0,22**
0,99**
0,24**
1,04**
0,47**
0,76**
1,04**
0,38**
0,54**
1,12**
0,56**
1,17**
0,34**
-0,18**
0,57**
-0,07**
1,01**
0,80**
-0,10**
0,48**
0,31**

-0,40**
0,58**
-0,44**
-0,49**
-0,24**
-0,54**
-0,79**
-0,72**
-0,86**
-0,36**
-0,11**
-0,48**
-0,28**
0,03*
0,21**
-0,63**
-0,01
-0,16**
-0,63**
-0,02

-1,03**
-1,47**
-0,99**
-0,71**
-0,90**
-0,91**
-1,09**
-1,29**
-1,33**
-0,99**
-0,83**
-0,89**
-0,61**
-0,61**
0,05**
-0,89**
-0,91**
-0,45**
-1,19**
-0,04

-0,01

-0,03

-0,04*

-0,04**

0,00

0,01

0,03

0,01

-0,06*

0,03

0,02

0,00

-0,02

-0,04

-0,04

0,02

0,02

0,00

0,00

0,01

-0,02

-0,02

0,00

0,06

0,03

0,00

-0,10*

0,08**

-0,02

0,00

0,08*

0,22**

0,16**

0,09*

0,15**

0,09**

0,12

0,18**

0,07**

-0,03

-0,08

-0,18**

-0,09

-0,12*

0,02

0,08

30997

31011

30970

30990

31030

30986

30972

30980

30962

31019

159450 261248 238115 905943 443558 281314 116780 172570 393587 424634
-52701 -52589 -52542 -53420 -54530

-54530

-52576 -51698 -52770 -53057

* p<0,05
** p<0,001

1 (93) - 2008

53

10
). 4 .

, ,

. , ,
( ).
? ,

. ,
, ,


- . 4 ,
10 .
,
,
(p < 0,001).
, ,


,

, (
). (gross)
10 ,
,

. ( ) ,
10 200.
- . ,
,
, , ,

. , -

54


(-, ) (
-) ,
.
.
, -,
, -,
. ,
, (, ) (
).
, . , ,
,
ANOVA (.
1-10 2). ,
, ,
: ,

ANOVA
. ,
() ,
.
5
,

. (

,
-, .) , R2
, ,
0.26 0.23.
, ,
-,

1 (93) - 2008

5
.

()


( )

( )
()
14 ,

14 ,

14 ,

14 ,






; R2=0,26
-

-0,87
-0,26**
0,02**



; R2=0,23
-

-0,13**
0,43**

0,63
0,15**
0,00*

0,08**
0,01*

-0,14**
0,04
-0,24**
0,06*
-0,25**
-0,42**
0,33**
-0,09**
-0,11**
-0,21**
-0,20**
-0,16**
0,26**
-0,19**
-0,08**
-0,42**
-0,21**
0,08*
-0,13**
-0,20**

-0,03**
0,01
-0,05**
0,01*
-0,06**
-0,08**
0,07**
-0,02**
-0,02**
-0,05**
-0,04**
-0,04**
0,06**
-0,04**
-0,02**
-0,09**
-0,04**
0,02*
-0,02**
-0,02**

-0,98**
-0,36**
-1,28**
-0,62**
-0,91**
-1,06**
-1,02**
-1,04**
-1,53**
-0,88**
-0,68**
-0,73**
-0,23**
-0,53**
0,23**
-1,05**
-0,69**
-0,11**
-0,93**
-0,08

-0,21**
-0,06**
-0,28**
-0,10**
-0,23**
-0,21**
-0,22**
-0,24**
-0,33**
-0,21**
-0,13**
-0,16**
-0,05**
-0,12**
0,05**
-0,23**
-0,13**
-0,02**
-0,14**
-0,01

0,03*

0,02*

-0,05**

-0,02**

-0,00

-0,00

-0,05*

-0,03*

0,01

0,00

-0,02

-0,00

-0,00

-0,00

-0,01

-0,01

0,04*

0,02*

-0,01

-0,00

-0,22**

-0,08**

-0,12**

-0,04**

0,11**

0,03**

0,18**

0,04**

* p<0,05
** p<0,001

1 (93) - 2008

55

, ,
ANOVA (.
, 11). ,
-,
5,
:
,
. ,
, .
5,
.

,
, , ( )
34, .
0,43,
0,09.
, , , (
- )
, .
0,08, 0,01,
( )
0,16. ,

, ,
-
,
,
.
, ,

,

,
. 19 20 .

34

56

:
, ?

,
,
, , .
, , ,
.., ,

.

, .
.
19
. ,
.
. :

21 , 10 ;
, ,
4 ,
().
:
1. ( ) , - ,
,
. , ( - ),
-.
2.
10 , ,
,
( )
,
, ,
-

1 (93) - 2008


.
, , .

, ,
.

, (, ,
).

, , ,
,
, .
3.
,
, ,
-
(
).

13
. (
)

. ,
,
,
, ,
(
) ,
( ) .
4.
, .
,
( ,

),
,

: I
- ; II

;
III
;
IV
-
.


20 . ( 80%) (48%) (31%) ,
. ,
, :
(15%
)
6% (
).
,
, -,
,
. -,
,

,

.
5.
()
,

.

-
,

,

1 (93) - 2008

57

. (.. ),
(
ANOVA), ,
.
,
.



,
( - ) .

,
, , ( -
) ,
. , , ,

-

58

,

, .
6. , ,

, , , , ,

( )
, ,
.
7.
,

, .
,
, .

1 (93) - 2008


,
.
,
, .
.
.

. ,
, .

90-
.
, , ,
,
. ,
-
, 1990
,

, ,
.1

, .
,

, ,
,

. ,
,
,
, , ,
,

.
, ,
1
: .
. . . . /
, , - ., . ; [. . .], . 1991, .65

, - 2006 2.

, , , ,
, ,
, , , ,
. . 1. 80%
, ,
. , ,
.

- . -- ,

- - , , -
.

(. .1,
,
0.35).
24- 27 2006,
1600 . 2006 , .

1 (93) - 2008

59

1

.


















1


1
2
3

0,818

0,788

0,725
0,662

0,736

0,701 -0,411

0,662

0,726

0,514 -0,558

0,366
0,422
0,429

, ,
,
,
. - . . 2

.
, , , -
,
. ,
,
-

60

. , ,

.
, ,
.
( 719 ). , ,
,
,
. , , , ,


( 11% 10% , ), ,
( 8%),

( 6% ,
)3. /
4 ,
, , ,
, , , Sign < 0.05.
- 0.8046; -12 ( ) +12
( ).
3

1 (93) - 2008

, ,

(. . 3). , ,
.

, :
, ,
,
(. . 4).
5,
, .
. , ,
, ,
(. . 5).

( 14% , ),
, ,
(+14%), ,
(+12%),
(+11%),
5-6
(+6%)6. , , ,
. .
,

, ,
(.
. 6). ,

( ) . .2

2
( )

,
?
,
.
(
, ,
)
,

47%

51%

42%

21%

24%

22%

25%
7%

16%
9%

28%
8%

3

,

?
, .
( , , )
,

:
., , . . // , 2006, 1(81),
. 50-57. ..
// , 2006, 2(82), 25-31.

1.33

719

-0.75

336

-3.62
-0.93
-0.51

378
167
1600

6 . . 3

1 (93) - 2008

61


,
, ?, . 7
.
.
,

. ,
,
.

, ,
-

.
( 40 ), .
, .
,
, 65%


(
39%), ( 36%

4

,
?

, ,

, .

50%

45%

39%

44%

45%

( , , )

24%

20%

21%

15%

21%

19%

21%

29%

31%

24%

6%

13%

11%

10%

10%

5

,
?

,
,


,
.

37
39
49
60

4145
3938
3140
2741

41%
25%
23%
11%

52%
31%
15%
2%

6
, ( , ,
425 )

62

,
?

, ,

47%
29%
16%
7%
38%
26%
21%
14%
27%
21%
31%
19%
1 (93) - 2008

/
1%
2%
2%

7
( ,
).
,
?
,
, ?



6
5
8
24

5
5
5
23

13
4
4
19

20
3
2
18

44%)7.

, ,
,
, , , , .
,
,
,

,
. -


, , ,
, , ,
.
,
, , .

,
.

2
,
, ?














 

 





 

 

 

 



 







 

  **

 





,
.

1 (93) - 2008

63

, .
,
,

: 8%

.
1980-

,
, -

,
, . ,
,

, , ,
.
, ,
, .
-
, 8.
8
., .. : // . , ., 2007, .61

64

1 (93) - 2008

2007 :
1
I. 2007
,
.
2.
, .
,
.
. 2007 . 12
, ,
, ,

, . ,
,
, . ,
,
2007 , , .


. ,
, -.
1600 ,
23-27 2007 ,
:
? (
, , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
,
, ,
).
: ,
,
.
1

.: . //
, 2007, 5 (91), .8-29.
2

. , (
), , .
.
(. 1 2) , ( ) 1

( ).
:
.











 








2

( ).
:
.














1 (93) - 2008

65


, .

,
. , , , . ,
, , . ,
,
,
, . , ,
, ,
3.

,
,
,
,
.
( )
,
. ,
. , ,
, ,
.
(. 3).
(. 4).

, 2007
3
( ). .





















4

( ). .










66

II. , .
(
, ,
) .
, 2007
. , ,
,
, ,
.
-
. ; 55 ,
.
,
. , .
. .
( ) , . ,
, ,
; ,
, 2005.
3





1 (93) - 2008


,
.
, ( ),
,
. ,
, ,
, , .
,
, ,
.
(
),
. , ,
, -,
.

(
,
), ,
, .

, (37%) , 2007
. , .
,
, . , , , ,
.
, 79%
2007 , . ( 2005
82%.)4 -

37 .
. ,
, ,

, ,
; ,
, 2005.
4

5.
( 5.).
5


.



















































,
2003 (31%)
2007 (32%). , ,

,
.
12 38%
2000 26% 2001 .

.6 ,
( , ).

, ,
. , ,

,
.

, .
: , ? ( ,
), N=1600.
6
: ,
( ), N=1600.
5

1 (93) - 2008

67

. . : //
. . .:

68

22
21

37
17

52
38

15
22
61

39
17
36

1

8

-
, (
15%, 36%!) , ,
.
, : , .
,
( , ,
, ).
, ,
,
.
,
, .
, .

.
18 39

,
. ,
,
.
,
.
,
,
-,
.

500 , (.1)
.
, ,
,
,
. ,
-
.7 -

6
8
2
8

,
, ,

.
,
, .
III. , ,

.
,
.

2006 : , ,
8. (. .
1 2) 2007
, ,
2000 . 2006
2007
-, 2007. . 187-201., . :
// :
. .: ,
2004. . 185-208.
8
: ? ( , , ). 23-27 2007,
N=1600.
,
2004 , ,
.
9

1 (93) - 2008

, (
, ).
?
, .

,
,
:
, , .
,
, , (61%
56%). ,
,
, ,
.
.
55 , , .
,

, .
,
, , , . ,
, ,
, .
.

,
, , -
(
, , ).

, . 7-10 (!), ,

, 3 .
, 71% , ,
2007 , (71%),
(68%) (69%) .
.

:
18-24 , , ( , 1% , 58% ,
).
, .

.
IV.
, , .
-, , , 2000

,
. .
,
, .
.

. , ,
.

.

,
. , .
, , , .
,
,
, , .

1 (93) - 2008

69

2006 ,
,
,
, .
2007 . ,
.

,
2007
54 (
).

, ,
.
, - , ( 2/5 )

. ,
( ).
,
,
, -

70

,
. ,
.
.

. , , ,
.
, . ,
,

,
.
,

,
,
, . , ,
: ,
,
.

1 (93) - 2008

:

,
?.
1,
.
, 2007
(.1).
1994 1996 . , ,
,
.
1997-1999. 60%
.
,

, , .., 1999.
.
, , , 90-
, 1999. 9322,6 . .
2000 .
2.
:
2000.
19% , 1999-.
,
, , , , .



: , ,
.
,


: (, ,
.), ,
, ..

,
,
,
.
.
,
, -
, :
,
- ,
.
,
-, : -

: ; , ; ; ,
; ; , , ;
; ; , ; ; ; , ; , ; , (
, ); , ; , ; ; , , ; ; , ; .



(. )

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

6712

6732

8058

8902

9323

7515

6416

5839

6216

5683

5209

4999

4600

.2004., ., , 2005, . 110; www.gks.ru

1 (93) - 2008

71

1
,
? ( 5-6 ) ( % )



, /

, , ..
,


, /

,

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

56
3
81
1
51
4
67
2

50
3
77
1
48
4
59
2

51
3
74
1
50
4
63
2

61
2
55
4
55
5
59
3
66
1

60
2
52
4
45
6
52
3
65
1

60
2
87
1
58
3
43
5
56
4

49
2
82
1
44
3
44
4
28
8

43
3
79
1
40
4
53
2
17
12

2003

2004

2005

2005

2006

2006

2007

2007

34
4
70
1
31
6
43
3
10
16
61
2
2008

40
3
71
1
32
5
39
4
31

40
3
52
2
24
8
27
7
28

35
4
75
1
37
3
27
9
29

39
3
71
1
33
4
29
5
27

36
3
71
1
31
5
29
7
32

34
3
70
1
27
9
29
6
30

33
3
70
1
31
6
26
9
32

30
5
64
1
28
7
28
6
32

28
6
81
1
29
5
23
12
35

61
2
30
7

56
1
33
5

58
2
31
6

53
2
29
6

55
2
30
6

51
2
31
4

52
2
32
4

52
2
32
3

49
2
31
4

1994

2001. :
2001 .
2008 .
, , , , .
:
, ,
- , ?
.

72

, ,

:
2005 . 39% 38% ,
2008 , , 28% 28%.
, ,
() ,
(. 2). , 2008 .,
, (1 ), , (2 ),
(3 ),
, (4 ),
, , (5 ),

1 (93) - 2008

,
(6 ). 7
.
(1 ), , (2 ),
,
(3
), , (4
) (5 ).
2005 .
, ,
( ), ,
( ).
(.2).
, ,
, , , 55

,
, , , ,
, .

.
.
: 2005 64% (
), 2008- 52%
(3 ,
).

(25% 8 2005 . , , 19% 11 2008.).
2008., , ,
(1 ), (2 ), ,
(3 ), , (4 ), , , (5 ),
, (6 ), ,

(7 ), (8
), (9 ), (10 ).

(, , , )
, , ,
, ( ), ,
, , ( ).
5-12
(.2).
2


()

2005

2008

3
3

5
7

:
24
3
25-39
3
40-54
3
55
5
- :

4

3

3

6
93
6
7
11
12
8
5
8
3

,
.
.
,

6 9 2%. ,

1 (93) - 2008

73

(. 3): 2005 . 30%


, 12 , 2007.
22-24%.
3
, 12 (,
) ,
, ?
( % )

2005

2006

2007

2007

30
44
8
18

27
49
7
17

22
52
8
18

24
47
9
20



. , 2007. 23% 22% ,
12 .
, , :
15% , ,
25-39 -22%, 40-54 21%
55 28%.

: , ,
, ,
.
. , 2006., 42% ,
12 , 2007. 33%.
,
:
2006. 23% , ,
, 2007., 15% .
, ,
:
,
2005. . , -

74


(28%)
, 24% , . ,
, ,
?
, ,
, ,
,
, .
,

,
.
, , , ,
,
, ? , 2007 ,
42% .
( 33%
), (47%
49% ) (.4).
:
25% .
(23%
).
, , ,
: , 32% 24 , 27%
25-39 , 24% , 40 54
20% 55 .
, ,

1 (93) - 2008

4

? ( 2007 .) ( % )

42

33

33

38

47

49

21

13

26

18

22

29

20

42

28

22

15

17

12

13

22

16

14

5

? ( 2007 .) ( % )


,

25

23

28

24

27

28

20

17

21

27

18

22

35

44

33

28

39

38

20

16

18

21

16

12

6

? ( 2007 .) ( % )


,

77

75

84

78

78

72

14

11

13

11

10

13


. 77%
(.6).
, , 75%
84% .

, , .

, , ,

, . ,
,
, (91% ).
,
,
(.7).
, (60%) :

.
,
(70 56% ).

1 (93) - 2008

75

7
,
, ? ( 2007 .) ( % )

,

24

25-39

40-54

55

91

89

90

91

93

89

92


,
(
, 2008. 2 ),
,

, .

, , , ,
,
.


. , -

8
,
? ( 2007 .) ( % )

,

76

24

25-39

40-54

55

60

70

59

60

56

60

60

29

20

29

28

35

28

29

11

10

12

12

12

11

1 (93) - 2008



. () ,
,

(Becker, 1975; Mincer, 1974; Schultz,
1971).
, ,
,
.

, .
( ,
, ). : (,
2001; , 2002; , 2003).


,
(Rumford, 2003).

( ),
.
:
, ,
(., :
Albrow, 1996; Beck, 2000; Robertson, 1992; Axford,
2001; Held et al, 1999).
, ,
. :
; ,
. ,
, . ,
(, ) (,
),

,

, (Sassen,1991).
, ,

(., : Glick Schiller et al, 1992;
Rouse, 1996). (Rumford, 2003).

.


,

;
;
; ;
, ,
,
.


,
, .
, :
;
(
) (
) ;

;
.

1 (93) - 2008

77


,
( )
, (-) ;

, ( ),
;
: , ,
( ),
;
, ,
: , ;
,
(,
);

(), ()
() .
, -
,
,


:
(
);
(

-
);
( , ).

,
,
/
(, , . .), ,
.
,
,

: - ()
( ). (.1).
:

1

2

78

1 (93) - 2008

, .
, ,
, ,
( , , , ).
:
1.

. , ,
;
,

.
2.
. , ,

, , .

.
3. .


.
4. . , ,
- ,
.



()
2007 . , ,
.


, ,
,
.
,

.
, .
.

,
, .
, , .
, ,
,
, .

: , , .
,
,
- , .
- :
, ,
.
, 2/3 .

, , ,
( ).
,
,
( 1 0,016);
, . ( )
( ),
, ,
1
, .

1 (93) - 2008

79

. -, , ,

(0,027). -,
.
,
.
-
, ,
, .
- ,

, .
-

, , , . : 1/5 ;
1/5 ;
; 1/10 ; 1/10
-; 1/10 -
.
: 1/5 ; 1/10 ;
1/10 ; 1/10
; 1/10
; 1/10
- .
.
,
, , ,
, . ,
, , .

:

80

, ,
. , ,
.
, , .
,
,
, ,
, .
,
, .

.
,
, , , , , ,
, , , .
,
, , .
,
.
,
, ,
, , .


(.1). ,
,
,
.
,
; , ;
, ;
. ,
, . ,

1 (93) - 2008


(Z)


(p-level)

-0,816496581

0,414

-1,581749191

0,114

-1,603567451

0,109

-1,095445115

0,273

- ,
, , ,
.
.
, , ,
.
.
,
, .
,
,
. -
; ,
.
,
, , , , ,

,
.
, , , ,
,
, , , .
,
;
.
, .


,
.
, ,
. ,
, .
.

(Z)


(p-level)

-2,69407953

0,007

-2,046726877

0,041

-2,539244217

0,011

-2,031856384

0,042

-2,5648938

0,010

1 (93) - 2008

81

,
, .

,
,

.
, .

, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, - ,
.
.
,
,
, .
, , , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
, , . - , - . ,
, ,
; , .
.
, ; -
, , , .
, .
. ,
, ;
. ,
.

, ,
, .
, -

82

.
, ,
,
, .

, , ,
,
, ,
,
,
. , , ,

()
, .
, , .

Varimax
, 74% (. 3).
1. , .
45% . : ,

, ,
.
. , ,
, . , , ,
.
2. .
16% . , ,

1 (93) - 2008

3
,

0,882
0,866
0,835
0,726
0,638
0,800
0,723
0,670

0,840

0,763

0,646

,
.

, ,
.
;

, .
3. .
12% .
,

, ,
.
- .

, ,
,
, .

.

. , .
, . ,
- ,
,
.
.

, ,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
.

1 (93) - 2008

83

,
.
,

.
,

, . , ,
, ,
. ,
. 2.
: 1
; 2 ; 3 ; 4
; 5 ; 6 ; 7
; 8
; 9
; 10 : .
,
, -


(, , ). ,

, , , .
, :
,
, , , , .
,
.
1. . , ,
, ,
.


.
.
2. , . , -

2
. :

 








 


84

1 (93) - 2008

,
, .


.
3. . ,
.
.
, ,
, .
,
.
, .
.
,
, , .
.

:
1.
,
, ,
,
.
.


,
, ,
, .
2. ,
, .
, ,
.
.

3. .
.
4. ,
, ,
. , ,
.


, ,
.
5. ,
,
- .

,
.
, , - , .
,
,
, .
6.

.
, , .
, ,
, -
. ,
,
, .

1 (93) - 2008

85



,


1.

, . :


;

;

;


,
.

. , . 2005.

74 , 60 ;
, ,
73,5 ., 61,5 2. 17,9,
9,93. 4
., - ..
.. .
,
. 18 . :
(face to face). 2100 : 1000
100 .
: - 2006 . .. ,

2
2025. . ,
2006., .. 96, 98, 107, 109
3
, .96
4
2005. . . .
. 2006., . 35-36
1

86


2004. - 13,6, - 2,8;
, : 9,5,
2,6. 2004. ( ,
, 1000 ) 714,2, 897,3 5.
18 ,
, 1000 2004. 134.4, 55,56.
, : 5,1%
.
, , , , 21,8 . .
,
:
1000 5,1,
0,3 .


.

.
2004 .
3,1 . , , , 3,7 . ,
, .
.
,
.
, , ,
5
6

, . 75-76
, .183-184

1 (93) - 2008

(2004 .)

3042

2009

60

35,5

7588

3299

10 000

151

58,2

24

13

7,4

1,8

10 000

146

31,0

47

70

- , ,
.

21,5

11,2

- ,
10 000 .

428

198,3


10 000

, , ,
, ,
, ..

.
.
5- , <1> , <5> - .
, ,
, 14 , ,
(
, 4,2
).
3,7 3,9
- .
, .

.

( ), ,

4,2 ,
( 3,5 3,6 ).
. -
. . . . . 2006., .51,273

(
3,5,
4,2 ).
3,4 . 3

( 3,1 ).
,
( 3,4,
, ).
3- (3,1 3,2) ,
,
. , ,

2,9 .
( 2,9,
2,8, 2,6 ).
-
,
: 3,3
, 3,0 2,8 , ..
.
,
2,9 ,
2,8 2,2 .

1 (93) - 2008

87


(, .)
3,0; 2,9; 2,5 . ,

( 2,7; 2,4; 2,1).

.
(21%) , 15,8% 14,5% .
? ,
. 17,5% , 23,4% -
, (31,2%)
.
, . ,
, :

,
,

.
.

.

, (3,6 3,7 ).
( 0,2 0,3 )
(3,5
; 3,3 3,4
) (: 3,5; 3,4; 3,3
).

- .


.

(2,8 , 2,7 , 2,9
).
-

88

. (3,4 ), ,
.

.
,
( ) ,
, ,
,
.
. ,
, ,
, , , () 78.

11 2- .
18 29 (71,8%),
( 30 ) 76%;
(79,4%),
(68,0%); (77,9%);
(77,2%); , (79,1%), ,

(72,5%) (70,9%). ,
, .
, :
18 59 - (40%)
, .
: 27,1% -
32,9% - . 8
.. . .
.2006, .37

1 (93) - 2008


.
5- ,
<1> - , <5> - .
(4,7 ), , .

, , ,
.
,
,
. 18 29 (79,9%) 30
39 (80,8%), (79,6%)
, , (80,7%).
. 36,7% . 46,5%,
14,9%.
.
: 39,9% 20,4% , ;
55,7%
43,9%
. , , : :
2,4 , 2,1 .

. 18-29
: 82,4% -
72,5% - .
, ( )
83,2%.
,
,
52,6%; ,
, 39,8%; 12,6%.


30- ,

(, , , ).
? ,
, ,
,
,
(, ,
..), .

15,5% ,
(51,9%) ,
(13,9%) , ,
(11,2%) .


: , , 4
, ,
, .
,

(29,0%), ,

(5,7%) .
.
,
(42,7%)
,
(53,6%) (20,5%), 3,2%
, , , .
, ,
,
: (41,6%),
(43,2%),
14,3% -
.
(11,5%), (16%)

7,4% , 5,5% .
-

1 (93) - 2008

89

.

: 67,3%, 65,4%,
35,8%, , 31,3%,
37,3%, 35,2%,
32,9%,

32%, 29,4%,

24,5%, 25,3%, 23,8%, 22,5%.

, , , ( ) : 18,3%;
11,6%; ,

10,5%; ,
(4,7%). (10,4%)
,
.


.
, 9, . 70%
10.
5- , <1> - ,
<5> - ,
(29,9%) , (2,5 ), (26,6%)
(2,5 ), (26,8%) , (2,5 ).
1,1%, 7,2%.
9
.., .. . . : - . .2003, .32-33
10
.. . . .
2006, .166

90


:
,
(0,4% , 4,3% -
),
(2,3% 23,1% - ).
,
(4 5 )
(3,7 5 ) (3,2 5 ).


( 38,8% 40,5%) :
, .
,
: , , (46,6%); ,
- (48,4%). 4-
(3,2 ).
: ,
,
( 82,7%), ( 77,1
80% - ), (79,0%)
(84,2%)
(86,9%).
, (2-
11 ),
.

.
?

. :
1. ;
2. ,
, -

1 (93) - 2008

,
;
3. , , ( , ),
,
;
4.
, , ;
5. , , ;
;
6.
;
7.
, ;

8. , , ;
;
;
9. ( , ,
,
..)
10. ,
;
11. , ().
: 1%
.

1 (93) - 2008

91

-
20 2007 . ()

, . . ,
, , , , .
2007
, 20 ,
,
,
.
,
- .
. 2007 ,
,
,

.
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
.

.

2
2007 . -

92

.
, ,
, , , , ,
. ,
, ,
, , , , -, , .

,
,
,
.
.
,
, ,
, ,
, . , ,
.
, ,
. , , , , , .
,
,
( )
.
. , ,
.
,
, .

1 (93) - 2008


, ,
,
.
, , . .
/
-
20 . ,
,
,
,
.

, -. ,
, . 1990 .

, ,
.

(

, 2000-2007) .
,
, , , ,
, .
,
:
, , .
.

: , .

(1991-2007).
,
.
1991, 2000, 2007 . 2007
4- .

,
,

; .

,

.


(-)
(-)
(-)
,
((
)
( )
(
)
( )
()
( )

1 (93) - 2008

93

:
I.
II. ,
A. ( 1995 . 2007 .)
. , , ( 2007 .)
B. - ( 2007 .)
. ,
, ( 2007 .)
.
( 2007 .)
. , ,
( 2007 .)

97
103
107
111
115
119

1993 III

3990

19.03

1.04

1995 IX

2392

10.09

1.10

1993 IV

3992

12.04

12.05

1995 XI

2551

12.11

6.12

1993 V

3919

17.05

16.06

1996 I

2426

12.01.96 .

31.01

1993 VI

3918

1.06

11.07

1996 III

2328

12.03

27.03

1993 VII

3973

10.07

9.08

1996 V

2405

6.05

24.05

1993 VIII

3924

1.08

31.08

1996 VII

2404

1.07

27.07

1993 IX

3981

9.09

4.10

1996 IX

2430

6.09

29.09

1 993 X

4001

4.10

4.11

1996 XI

2399

1.11

21.11

1993 XI

3959

1.11

5.12

19971

2406

7.01.97 .

29.01

1993 XII

3933

10.12

3.01.94 .

1997 III

2395

14.03

2.04

1994 I

3977

10.01

2.02

1997 V

2401

11.05

1.06

1994 III

3776

3.03

2.04

1997 VII

2322

4.07

27.07

1994 IV

2935

16.04

7.05

1997 IX

2407

11.09

30.09

1994 V

2975

12.05

30.06

1997 XI

2401

10.11

1.12

1994 VI

2958

3.06

6.07

1998 I

2410

14.01.98 .

1.02

1994 VII

2957

1.07

15.08

1998 III

2408

17.03

30.03

1994 IX

2959

12.09

10.10

1998 V

2407

17.05

30.05

1994 XI

2957

10.11

9.12

1998 VII

2407

17.07

31.07

1995 I

1989

10.01.95 .

5.02

1998 IX

2408

17.09

31.09

1995 III

1980

10.03

3.04

1998 XI

2409

17.11

31.11

1995 V

2550

10.05

31.05

19991

2406

12.01.99 .

28.01

1995 VII

2549

4.07

21.07

1999 III

2385

6.03

22.03

94

1 (93) - 2008

1999 V

2431

5.05

26.05

2003 V

2107

1.05

21.05

1999 VII

2407

8.07

24.07

2003 VII

2107

1.07

15.07

1999 IX

2409

1.09

19.09

2003 IX

2093

1.09

25.09

1999 XI

2388

1.11

19.11

2003 XI

2112

30.10

24.11

2000 I

2407

6.01.2000 .

26.01

2004 I

2110

8.01.2004 .

28.01

2000 III

2407

13.03

19.03

2004 III

2107

1.03

13.03

2000 V

2407

29.04

19.05

2004 V

2107

1.05

22.05

2000 VII

2409

30.06

17.07

2004 VII

2108

1.07

15.07

2000 IX

2405

30.08

14.09

2004 IX

2107

1.09

15.09

2000 XI

2404

1.11

18.11

2004 XI

2107

1.11

16.11

2001 I

2410

4.01.2001 .

21.01

2005 I

2107

2.01.2005 .

23.01

2001 III

2409

1.03

18.03

2005 III

2107

1.03

16.03

2001 V

2407

2.05

20.05

2005 V

2107

1.05

18.05

2001 VII

2407

5.07

27.07

2005 VII

2107

1.07

14.07

2001 IX

2414

30.08

19.09

2005 IX

2107

1.09

15.09

2001 XI

2447

3.11

25.11

2005 XI

2107

1.11

10.11

2002 I

2106

30.12

20.01.2002.

2006 I

2107

4.01.2006 .

20.01

2002 III

2107

27.02.2002 .

17.03

2006 III

2107

1.03

14.03

2002 V

2107

4.05

28.05

2006 V

2107

2.05

18.05

2002 VII

2107

29.06

19.07

2006 VII

2107

1.06

16.07

2002 IX

2106

31.08

16.09

2006 IX

2107

1.09

17.09

2002 XI

2106

30.10

18.11

2006 XI

2107

1.11

16.11

2003 I

2107

10.01.2003 .

28.01

2007 I

2107

3.01.2007 .

22.01

2003 III

2107

1.03

19.03

I.
1. (: ?).
:
(() / ,
, );
(() 34 1991 . 2-3
1991 .; ,
);

(() , ,
; -
(, ,
); (() , , , ,

, , );
; -
(, ,
, , ).
2. -
1 (:
,
? ( )
?).
,

(8,8%).

1 (93) - 2008

95

:
,
, ,
,
;
, (, , ),
;
(

, );
;
( );
;
(
);
;
,
, , , ,
;
, , ; ;
, , ,
;
,
, .
3. ( ).
.-;
500 . ,
.-;

100 . 500 . ;
100 . ;
.
4. 2 (: , ,
,
, ?
,
, ,
?).
2,3,4

96

2007 .



.
:
20%
( 790 .)3;
60% (790-2000 .)2;
20%
( 2000 .)4.
, 2002 . .

2407 (, , , 2107 ,
300 ), ,
(2107,
, ,
).
,
,
, 1,0000 (
1,1424 = 2407/2107, ), , , 0,3007 ( 429/
120), 0,3435, .

,
,
0,8573 (2107/2407).
,
.

, , , ,
, , 2107 , , 2407 .
,
,
429 .

. 100%,
. , ,
0,5% .

1 (93) - 2008

,
. ( 1995 . 2007 .)

( % )

1995
.

1996
.

1997
.

1998
.

1999
.

2000
.

2001
.

2002
.

2003
.

2004
.

2005
.

2006
.

2007
.

2007

2007

2007

2007
.

2007
.

2008
.

185970

4946

2107

2106

2107

2106

2107

2107

2106

2107

2110

2107

2107

2107

2107

2107

2011

2005

2009

2003

22 9. ?

1.
2. ,

3. ,

4. ,
5.

13

11

11

10

10

12

45

34

31

35

35

33

45

49

50

56

53

53

56

51

52

57

53

53

54

56

34

43

42

40

42

44

33

32

30

28

29

27

26

27

28

24

24

25

27

23

9
7

11
9

14
11

12
10

11
8

13
7

10
7

8
5

10
4

6
3

5
6

7
6

6
4

6
4

5
4

6
3

7
5

6
6

5
4

6
4

30 20. , , ?

1.
2.
3. ,

4.

5.
6.

6
14

3
9

2
6

2
8

3
8

2
6

5
11

8
12

7
14

7
14

7
17

6
16

9
19

11
24

10
18

10
21

14
21

12
22

11
20

14
26

36

33

35

27

30

30

34

38

40

42

41

40

40

37

38

41

35

35

42

37

25

31

30

33

29

32

26

24

23

23

21

21

21

17

20

19

18

19

17

15

17
2

21
3

24
3

29
2

26
2

29
2

22
3

16
2

14
2

12
2

11
2

16
2

9
2

11
1

12
2

7
2

10
2

9
3

8
1

7
1

23 10. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

0
6
48
33
10
2

0
5
47
35
10
2

0
3
42
39
12
3

0
4
40
39
15
2

0
4
40
40
14
2

480 O1f. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

13
1
26

0
3
34
41
19
2

1
3
44
36
14
1

1
5
51
32
10
1

0
7
50
34
7
1

1
6
54
31
7
2

0
7
55
29
7
2

0
4
45
36
13
1

0
8
59
26
5
1

1
10
55
24
7
2

1
9
55
27
7
2

1
10
57
26
5
1

1
12
54
26
6
2

1
10
58
24
5
3

1
10
58
23
6
2

1
15
56
22
4
2

16

29

15

27

13

27

14

27

12

24

12

24

13

25

11

25

11

24

11

24

11

23

24

47

42

45

47

48

50

53

48

52

47

50

51

53

4
1
9

4
1
9

4
0
8

4
0
8

4
0
7

4
1
8

4
1
6

4
1
10

4
0
8

7
1
10

4
1
10

5
1
10

5
0
9

0
5
38
39
8
10

1
5
42
37
7
9

1
6
40
37
7
9

0
7
37
34
14
7

0
7
41
37
7
8

1
8
44
33
6
8

1
6
37
37
8
10

0
10
42
32
7
8

1
11
44
26
9
10

1
10
40
31
7
11

1
10
41
34
7
8

1
13
44
27
5
11

24 11. , ?

97

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

0
5
34
40
11
10

0
2
29
47
10
12

0
2
30
44
12
11

2
22
48
20
7

0
3
28
41
16
11

0
1
22
52
18
7

1
2
32
46
10
9

0
4
37
40
9
9

98

1995
.

1996
.

1997
.

1998
.

1999
.

2000
.

2001
.

2002
.

2003
.

2004
.

2005
.

2006
.

2007
.

2007

2007

2007

2007
.

2007
.

2008
.

185970

4946

2107

2106

2107

2106

2107

2107

2106

2107

2110

2107

2107

2107

2107

2107

2011

2005

2009

2003

0
1
17
50
22
11

0
0
9
52
32
6

1
1
19
55
15
9

0
2
27
50
11
10

0
3
35
42
8
12

0
3
39
40
7
10

1
5
43
34
6
11

0
5
37
37
10
11

0
5
43
34
5
12

1
8
48
26
4
13

0
8
40
32
6
13

0
8
47
27
4
13

1
12
47
22
5
13

2
9
45
23
5
17

2
10
47
23
4
13

0
13
53
18
2
14

25 12. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

0
3
27
44
15
11

0
1
15
51
22
12

0
1
18
50
20
12

0
1
12
53
26
8

26 13. , ?

1.

2. ,

3.

4.

15

10

10

13

18

15

20

14

22

29

23

26

26

30

24

33

49

50

49

41

42

42

50

56

56

59

57

49

51

51

49

49

50

46

53

50

30

33

36

45

40

47

34

25

21

23

18

29

21

15

23

19

17

17

16

11

5
13
35
10
3
33

4
15
35
7
3
37

3
17
37
12
6
24

4
16
30
7
5
37

4
16
36
7
3
34

4
14
30
9
6
38

4
16
32
7
3
38

5
17
36
5
4
33

5
16
30
7
3
38

4
16
32
8
3
36

5
18
33
5
2
37

483 13A. , ( ) , ?

1.
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.

4
15
35
8
4
34

4
19
35
10
5
28

484 13B. ?

1. " "
2. " , ; ,

"
3. " "",

,

"
4. "
,

5. " , , -

6.

12

15

13

10

15

10

12

10

24

29

29

25

21

22

22

22

23

22

20

19

21

28

25

26

27

33

31

26

30

29

29

28

28

26

10

11

11

13

12

12

21

18

20

24

16

21

28

22

22

22

25

24

23

10

28 14. , ?

1.
2.
3. ,

34
24

30
28

31
27

32
25

34
26

25
29

36
21

33
25

38
21

40
23

39
19

34
22

40
21

36
22

35
22

40
21

38
19

38
19

36
20

40
19

41

42

42

43

40

45

43

42

41

37

43

44

39

42

43

39

43

43

44

41

485 L33. ?

1.
;

2. ,


3.
,

(,
..)
4.

.



5.

- ,

18

25

19

17

20

13

13

16

12

12

13

14

11

38

40

41

39

35

37

30

33

33

31

28

33

29

34

28

33

34

35

38

41

37

43

41

43

37

42

10

10

12

16

14

11

15

16

15

17

31 22. , , ?

1.
2.

3.

23

17

17

17

16

15

24

28

34

24

31

20

28

31

26

29

31

27

30

34

53

62

57

64

64

65

49

50

43

54

44

54

48

43

48

43

39

42

41

36

23

21

25

19

20

21

27

21

24

22

25

26

24

25

25

29

30

31

30

30

34 26. 1 10 /.. / ?

1. ( 1 ) 1
2. ( 2 ) 2
3. ( 3 ) 3
4. ( 4 ) 4
5. ( 5 ) 5
6. ( 6 ) 6
7. ( 7 ) 7
8. ( 8 ) 8
9. ( 9 ) 9
10. ( 10 ) 10
:

19
6
12
9
17
8
8
9
4
7
4.76

32
13
17
11
13
5
3
3
1
1
3.19

35
11
16
11
16
6
2
2
0
1
3.06

34
11
20
11
14
4
3
2
0
1
3.04

38
11
19
11
11
3
3
2
0
0
2.82

59
15
14
4
6
1
1
0
0
0
1.93

44
13
17
8
11
3
1
1
0
1
2.54

35 27. 1 10 ?

99

1. ( 1 ) 1
2. ( 2 ) 2
3. ( 3 ) 3
4. ( 4 ) 4
5. ( 5 ) 5
6. ( 6 ) 6
7. ( 7 ) 7
8. ( 8 ) 8
9. ( 9 ) 9
10. ( 10 ) 10
:

17
10
17
13
20
8
6
5
2
3
4.15

24
13
19
13
16
6
3
3
1
2
3.49

23
9
16
12
20
7
4
5
2
2
3.81

23
11
20
12
16
5
5
5
1
2
3.65

31
12
19
13
12
5
3
3
1
1
3.24

11
6
17
14
21
9
7
7
2
6
4.74

6
5
11
10
22
10
10
9
7
11
5.70

6
2
9
11
26
11
10
11
5
10
5.73

4
3
7
9
22
13
14
13
6
10
6.07

4
2
9
8
19
11
13
15
7
11
6.21

3
2
6
7
21
11
15
15
7
13
6.43

5
3
10
10
21
10
13
14
7
7
5.84

5
3
8
8
21
11
14
14
7
10
6.03

4
2
7
6
14
11
13
20
10
15
6.64

6
3
7
7
17
9
11
15
10
16
6.46

2
2
7
7
15
9
13
18
10
16
6.75

2
1
6
8
15
9
12
19
10
19
7.00

6
2
4
3
15
11
11
18
11
19
6.89

3
1
4
4
13
10
11
18
12
23
7.18

1
1
4
4
13
7
14
18
13
25
7.49

10
6
17
13
26
7
6
7
3
4
4.67

10
7
13
13
27
11
8
6
3
3
4.72

12
8
17
12
22
10
7
6
3
3
4.48

12
9
16
14
22
10
7
5
2
3
4.41

16
13
21
14
20
6
5
3
1
1
3.76

16
11
17
14
21
8
5
5
2
2
4.03

12
8
15
12
21
11
8
6
4
4
4.64

14
9
15
11
21
8
9
6
3
4
4.49

8
11
17
14
21
11
8
7
2
3
4.61

10
7
16
13
22
13
6
8
3
3
4.68

11
8
14
11
23
13
8
6
3
3
4.65

8
4
12
12
25
11
10
8
5
6
5.24

5
4
11
10
25
13
11
9
5
6
5.51

100

1995
.

1996
.

1997
.

1998
.

1999
.

2000
.

2001
.

2002
.

2003
.

2004
.

2005
.

2006
.

2007
.

2007

2007

2007

2007
.

2007
.

2008
.

185970

4946

2107

2106

2107

2106

2107

2107

2106

2107

2110

2107

2107

2107

2107

2107

2011

2005

2009

2003

37 28. , ?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

25

12

20

16

18

16

38

35

37

31

38

24

30

31

28

28

34

27

29

35

22

31

28

29

26

30

17

18

17

22

15

21

18

14

15

17

15

17

22

14

11

25

16

20

15

22

41

30

36

35

41

32

36

38

39

41

43

47

46

48

47

48

46

48

42

45

38 29. , ?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

24

12

19

15

20

15

32

37

36

28

37

23

29

29

30

31

30

29

28

30

24

27

28

28

27

27

20

21

19

27

19

26

21

18

16

19

19

18

21

17

15

35

17

26

19

32

10

11

35

25

36

29

34

25

36

33

35

36

38

37

40

46

44

44

44

44

41

43

53 32. , / ?

1.
2.
3. ,

26
57

27
57

23
59

30
52

31
48

36
43

18
61

17
65

16
67

21
62

19
67

25
57

25
58

20
60

30
55

30
54

23
56

21
63

22
62

18
65

17

16

19

17

21

21

21

18

17

17

15

19

18

21

15

16

20

16

16

16

27
57
16

23
58
18

22
63
16

25
60
15

23
63
14

20
65
15

22
63
15

17
69
14

18
69
14

54 33. , , , ?

1. ,
2. ,
3.

23
62
16

23
59
18

24
57
19

27
55
18

25
55
20

29
52
19

20
60
20

19
65
16

17
67
16

24
62
15

22
65
12

57 33. , , , , (, ,
) , , ?

1.
2.
3. ,

24
59

31
48

38
39

16
63

13
70

16
68

20
61

18
67

21
58

24
59

16
63

28
55

20
61

18
61

18
65

18
66

16
67

18

22

23

21

17

16

19

15

21

17

22

17

19

21

17

16

17

15
52
27
5

14
53
30
3

17
55
25
3

14
49
33
4

19
51
26
4

19
55
22
3

15
54
27
5

17
55
24
4

15
62
19
3

19
55
21
6

16
56
23
5

18
57
20
5

12
46
19
23

15
48
14
23

14
41
23
22

16
42
15
27

16
45
14
26

16
42
17
26

17
43
13
27

17
45
12
25

15
43
16
26

15
41
19
26

16
44
15
26

73 L15. ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

11
45
40
4

7
32
59
2

8
39
50
4

2
20
73
5

8
40
47
5

13
47
36
4

74 L16. , -, ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

11
38
26
25

7
30
36
26

5
33
33
28

5
21
48
27

9
34
28
28

14
40
20
26

15
40
17
28

101 L88. , , 12
, , - ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.
6.
7.

2
10
26
12
15
35
0

1
4
12
18
32
33

0
4
24
16
18
37

1
6
22
17
25
29

2
6
17
13
21
42

1
3
18
18
31
29

3
10
24
12
13
37

3
14
30
9
10
34

3
14
29
9
9
36

2
12
30
12
11
32

4
16
32
8
6
34

3
10
29
14
12
32

102 L88a. , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.
5.

9
23
11
58
0

4
26
21
49

5
15
14
66

3
18
18
61

7
24
8
61

12
23
7
58

12
23
6
59

9
27
9
55

13
26
4
57

8
27
12
53

66 42. , ,

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

17
27
40
16

9
25
54
12

9
24
56
11

12
26
55
8

19
22
41
18

4
21
61
14

12
28
37
23

16
29
34
21

17
28
37
18

67 43. , , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

6
21
57
17

3
16
70
11

2
16
73
10

3
15
75
7

5
19
54
22

2
14
70
15

4
19
57
20

4
21
55
20

5
20
55
20

3
16
28
8
8
37

3
13
33
7
7
36

4
14
28
6
9
40

4
12
35
6
6
37

4
14
34
8
5
33

4
16
32
7
5
37

3
14
29
7
7
40

5
15
30
6
5
39

9
22
7
61

10
26
6
58

10
21
7
61

11
22
6
61

12
29
5
54

13
23
5
59

11
22
6
61

13
24
5
58

21
29
33
17

24
32
27
17

26
31
25
18

27
29
22
21

28
36
22
14

25
32
25
18

28
33
22
18

25
36
20
19

25
38
18
19

21
38
19
22

30
34
17
20

7
24
52
17

10
26
46
18

8
25
48
19

8
26
44
22

10
31
39
20

10
27
42
21

10
32
39
20

11
30
38
21

10
33
31
25

9
31
37
24

9
29
41
22

189 O8A. , - , ?

1. ,

2. ,

3. ,

4. ,
(
94-4 - 95-7, 95-1,95-3)

15

12

10

37

11

10

10

10

10

87

84

83

85

49

89

86

88

90

90

88

85

87

89

87

89

87

86

87

89

236 O29. ?

101

1. ( 1 ) 1

2. ( 2 ) 2
3. ( 3 ) 3
4. ( 4 ) 4
5. ( 5 ) 5
6. ( 6 ) 6
7. ( 7 ) 7
8. ( 8 ) 8
9. ( 9 ) 9
10. ( 10 ) 10

:
11.

1
3
5
21
12
15
17
11

1
3
5
23
14
14
14
10

1
3
7
22
11
15
15
9

1
4
6
21
13
13
16
11

1
2
3
13
10
12
11
13

1
2
6
17
9
15
18
13

2
4
6
19
8
13
17
12

1
4
4
23
12
14
16
11

1
2
6
24
14
16
16
10

0
3
6
25
12
16
15
9

2
4
6
28
13
14
14
9

2
3
8
24
13
15
14
10

2
4
7
25
12
16
17
8

1
3
8
29
12
14
14
9

0
3
5
24
13
15
17
11

1
2
4
21
14
17
18
11

2
3
4
21
12
16
16
11

1
3
6
23
14
14
17
9

1
3
5
22
16
14
14
11

2
6
9
29
14
14
10
7

15

15

16

14

25

17

19

15

11

13

10

11

10

11

14

12

12

6.92
0

6.83

6.85

6.80

7.48
8

7.13

7.02

6.91

6.77

6.74

6.46

6.56

6.42

6.48

6.76

6.86

6.83

6.70

6.74

6.09

102

1995
.

1996
.

1997
.

1998
.

1999
.

2000
.

2001
.

2002
.

2003
.

2004
.

2005
.

2006
.

2007
.

2007

2007

2007

2007
.

2007
.

2008
.

185970

4946

2107

2106

2107

2106

2107

2107

2106

2107

2110

2107

2107

2107

2107

2107

2011

2005

2009

2003

408 O26c. ? , - ?

1.

2.
3.

4. ,

5.

77

78

75

73

69

11

10

15

10

18

500 O26e. ? , ?

1.
2. ,

3. 1
4. 2-3
5. 1
6. 1

77

85

81

79

74

74

69

69

65

64

15

11

12

16

17

20

21

24

25

4
2
1
2

3
1
0
1

4
1
1
1

4
2
1
2

5
2
1
2

5
1
1
1

6
2
1
2

5
2
1
2

5
2
1
3

6
2
1
2

501 O26f. , , ( )? , ?

1.
2. ,

3. 1
4. 2-3
5. 1
6. 1

87

94

92

91

16

85

81

81

75

75

26

11

12

3
2
1
2

1
1
1
1

2
1
1
2

2
1
1
1

22
11
12
13

3
2
1
2

5
2
1
2

6
2
2
2

5
3
2
4

6
4
1
2

251 (O25/5)

1823.6

( .)
171.5

331.0

421.7

508.3

552.4

802.0 1140.8 1677.7 2082.4 2951.5 3147.3 4301.6 5006.8 4902.2 5550.8 5798.1 6220.7 5870.7 6511.4

250 , ( ) (O6+O10+O1c)

3457.7

274.8

667.5

785.2

956.1

1098.2 1569.2 2169.9 3292.3 3855.6 5207.7 6060.0 7939.5 8805.3 8825.8 11478.8 9846.7 11395.4 10081.6 10957.0

192 O10. , ?

1657.5

211.4

412.6

489.6

534.5

672.4

843.1

1405.7 1541.5 2066.0 3329.1 2563.9 3753.3 3851.2 2977.6 13003.6 4104.3 4607.5 3898.0 4622.7

249 ( ), , , (35/5)

5595.6

534.1

255 10% (q37-10%)

2258.8

271.9

919.9

1398.9 1732.7 2039.4 3088.7 4255.1 6116.3 7404.1 8336.5 10297.8 11939.8 13253.4 14825.2 14651.1 14735.8 15694.1 14594.0 16861.7

569.4

567.5

673.4

793.1

1156.8 1609.4 2244.2 2888.5 3411.5 3848.4 4905.0 5399.5 5915.0 5883.0 5634.3 5689.6 6150.2 6549.3

103 LL10. , , ?

37501.0

0.0

0.0

4900.3 7795.4 10703.2 13079.9 31933.9 33830.3 39504.7 43596.8 51121.2 53624.6 55768.5 75703.8 69519.7 62110.4 75955.0 59804.2 69343.9

104 LL11. , ?

1671.0

0.0

0.0

327.6

385.2

453.6

776.0

1049.4 1380.2 1757.5 2073.4 2671.6 3077.8 3665.4 3830.2 3821.7 3688.6 3980.2 4112.4 4526.6

. , , ( 2007 .)
( % )

2009

9. ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

10
54
27
5
4

29

3049

50

995

1014

546

734

730

396

1176

436

12
60
22
3
4

9
48
31
7
5

18
57
20
3
3

10
60
22
3
5

5
45
36
9
5

9
64
20
3
4

11
52
27
5
4

9
49
30
7
5

11
18
43
19
7
1

21
29
34
11
3
2

9
18
52
13
7
1

7
16
39
25
12
1

9
28
47
10
6
1

14
19
41
17
7
2

8
15
42
22
12
1

9a. , , ?

1.
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.

11
20
42
17
8
1

12
22
42
14
9
1

10. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

O1f. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
58
23
6
2

1
12
60
18
7
2

1
8
56
28
5
2

1
15
65
13
4
2

1
9
61
21
5
2

0
6
51
32
8
2

1
12
66
13
3
6

1
10
58
24
5
2

0
7
52
31
10
0

11
23
51
5
1
10

9
23
52
7
1
8

13
23
50
3
0
11

4
15
54
10
2
15

8
23
56
5
0
7

19
28
43
1
0
8

5
17
60
6
0
12

11
24
50
5
1
9

18
24
45
4
1
8

11. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

12. ?

103

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
41
34
7
8

1
12
40
33
8
6

1
8
41
35
6
10

0
14
50
25
3
8

1
11
38
36
7
6

0
6
36
39
9
10

2
12
41
35
5
5

0
11
40
34
6
9

0
6
41
35
9
8

2
10
47
23
4
13

3
10
50
22
6
9

2
10
44
25
3
18

3
16
49
14
3
14

3
10
49
24
4
11

0
5
43
30
6
16

3
11
47
27
5
8

2
10
47
24
4
13

1
9
47
19
6
19

104

2009

29

3049

50

995

1014

546

734

730

396

1176

436

49 S1. , ?

1.
2.
3.

41
28
31

50 S2. .. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

32
41
14
5
8

51 S3. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

9
35
25
9
22

43
30
27

40
25
35

48
20
32

47
25
29

31
36
33

43
32
25

43
26
31

35
29
36

32
39
17
6
6

31
44
12
3
9

38
42
11
4
5

30
44
12
4
10

29
38
18
5
9

29
43
15
5
8

32
43
13
4
8

34
36
18
6
7

9
36
25
12
18

9
34
25
7
25

10
39
21
6
24

10
36
25
7
21

7
31
27
14
20

8
38
23
10
21

11
34
25
8
22

4
36
27
12
21

2
27
23
3
45

3
38
17
4
38

2
30
22
4
42

3
19
26
6
45

2
32
24
4
38

3
30
21
3
42

3
22
23
8
45

3
28
21
5
43

6
38
12
5
38

2
30
24
7
36

2
18
24
9
46

2
32
21
7
38

4
28
21
6
40

3
23
19
11
44

65 28. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3
29
22
5
42

4
30
21
6
39

66 29. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3
28
21
7
41

4
27
20
9
39

67 32. , / ,
?

1.
2. (
3. ,
:

22
62
16
1.95 1.91

22
65
13
1.99

21
59
20
1.96

21
62
17
1.94

68 33. , ?

1. ,
2. ,
3.
:

17
69
14
1.98 1.96

17
70
13
1.99

17
68
16
1.98

17
67
16
1.98

22
62
16
1.95

22
62
16
1.85

24
66
9
1.99

20
61
19
1.93

23
62
15

16
70
14
1.96

17
69
14
2.00

15
70
15
1.98

17
68
15
1.93

19
69
12

19
63
18

15
71
14

69 33. , , / (, , )
?

1.
2.
3. ,

18
66
16

18
70
13

18
63
19

17
69
15

21
65
15

16
65
19

17
70
13

71 L33. ?

1. ;

2. ,

3. ,

4. .

5. ,

14

10

18

10

23

12

25

33

31

35

23

33

41

24

31

45

37

39

34

44

38

30

41

40

23

15

18

12

25

17

24

15

14
55
24
6

28
50
12
10

16
60
21
4

8
56
33
4

20
58
19
3

18
51
24
7

8
64
23
4

28
35
9
28

14
42
16
27

5
43
28
23

13
44
16
27

17
42
18
23

10
35
23
32

107 L15. ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

16
56
23
5

18
56
22
4

109 L16. , -, ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

15
41
19
26

17
39
19
25

12
43
18
27

110 L88. , , 12
?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.
6.

3
14
29
7
7
40

4
15
30
8
7
36

2
13
27
7
6
44

6
15
28
5
4
41

4
17
31
8
7
34

112 L88a. , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

11
22
6
61

14
24
7
56

9
20
5
66

19
20
5
55

11
23
5
60

1
10
27
8
8
45

2
18
30
10
8
33

4
14
29
7
6
39

2
9
26
6
7
49

5
23
7
65

15
25
7
53

12
22
6
60

6
20
4
71

113 42. (, , , , ), ,
, ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

21
38
19
22

24
40
18
18

18
37
20
25

32
39
10
19

21
40
18
20

12
36
27
25

25
41
12
21

22
38
19
21

14
37
25
24

9
28
40
24

4
31
44
20

12
35
36
18

9
31
35
26

7
28
42
23

3
9
88

2
5
92

10
10
81

3
11
86

1
4
95

115 43. , , , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

9
31
37
24

9
30
38
23

8
31
36
24

14
34
23
28

130 O8. - , ?

105

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,

4
9
87

4
12
84

3
7
90

7
16
77

106

2009

23
66
2
3
7

62
14
31
14
22
9
2
4
19
14
15
2
8

29

3049

995

1014

546

734

730

396

1176

436

24
67
3
2
4

21
70
0
2
7

19
69
3
3
7

24
63
2
3
8

22
73
1
1
3

67
9
61
9
18
6
1
5
20
13
3
3
4

47
12
21
15
22
8
1
6
29
10
21
2
8

63
17
28
12
22
9
2
3
17
16
14
2
9

70
8
46
16
19
7
2
5
14
12
10
1
6

32
56
1
3
8

14
76
2
2
6

23
60
2
5
10

182 L17. . , , ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. , -
9. ,
10. ,
11.
12.
13.

50

N10 O30a. ? , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

58
16
25
13
22
8
1
2
16
13
17
2
10

65
13
36
14
21
9
2
6
21
15
12
1
6

51
12
10
19
23
6
3
2
17
11
22
2
15

64
21
15
14
24
14
2
5
19
17
20
1
7

( .)
197 o15b_all/5.

5870.7

6426.7

5334.6

199 o6+o10. ( ).

10081.6

12357.6

7616.4

6723.4

5968.6

5230.7

8379.6

5791.9

3938.2

10406.4

10321.6

9042.7

13753.2

9464.2

6127.2

4032.7

3171.9

4722.1

3570.1

3516.3

17497.0

14766.0

11504.3

7999.7

7323.9

6843.3

67637.2

59564.0

53195.9

4807.3

4001.7

3793.6

131 O10. , , ?

3898.0

4666.9

2593.3

4152.5

73 35. , , , ?

14594.0

15874.9

13327.3

15846.3

15796.2

12472.1

75 37. , ?

7351.9

7633.1

7077.7

6853.2

7861.8

7204.2

156 LL10. , , ?

59804.1

60195.1

59416.9

58574.4

60970.9

59559.3

77 LL11. , ?

4112.4

4213.0

4011.6

3871.9

4321.9

4074.4

B. - ( 2007 .)
( % )

2009

57

295

214

350

109

163

518

97

128

24
61
13
2
1

9
63
21
2
5

17
45
27
5
6

11
68
16
1
4

11
51
30
5
4

24
56
16
2
2

2
42
40
11
5

8
53
30

13
55
26
6

12
30
39
10
6
3

14
11
46
20
8
1

14
18
54
9
3
2

11
7
49
30
4
0

25
39
29
6
0
1

4
17
36
28
14
1

15
20
44
16
4
1

8
20
40
14
19

0
10
85
3
1
0

1
15
59
19
4
2

2
4
54
33
6
2

0
10
69
17
1
3

3
14
45
34
3

0
22
69
7
1
1

0
4
45
34
12
4

1
10
60
22
6
2

10
60
19
10
0

0
10
82
6
0
2

1
22
63
10
0
4

12
25
48
4
1
11

9
21
56
2
3
9

13
30
49
3
0
5

1
12
58
13
1
16

22
29
38
1
0
10

5
14
53
4

24

16
28
43
7
0
6

9. ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

10
54
27
5
4

9a. , , ?

1.
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.

11
20
42
17
8
1

7
29
54
4
6

10. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
58
23
6
2

O1f. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

11
23
51
5
1
10

11. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

12. ?

107

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
41
34
7
8

0
14
56
20
6
4

2
16
36
38
2
6

2
10
41
39
3
3

0
9
44
36
4
7

6
31
40
11
11

0
25
43
18
3
10

0
3
38
37
11
10

0
15
39
30
7
9

11
35
34
11
9

2
10
47
23
4
13

1
7
56
26

4
12
44
25
4
12

2
12
46
30
2
9

2
7
56
20
2
12

1
6
45
17
10
22

3
20
49
13
2
14

0
4
43
28
7
18

3
18
48
17
1
14

5
13
45
20
9
7

108

2009

57

295

214

350

109

163

518

97

128

49 S1. , ?

1.
2.
3.

41
28
31

55
16
29

50 S2. .. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

32
41
14
5
8

14
64
5
2
15

51 S3. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

9
35
25
9
22

3
43
36
2
16

42
22
36

51
17
32

41
28
31

36
21
44

55
17
28

27
42
32

46
19
35

44
41
15

30
44
14
5
7

31
44
12
8
6

31
43
15
1
9

36
36
13
4
10

46
40
6
3
5

28
37
21
5
9

40
34
7
2
17

29
49
13
7
2

10
40
26
6
19

16
30
25
11
18

8
31
31
6
25

11
37
17
9
26

11
43
12
5
29

5
31
28
15
22

10
42
15
8
25

7
45
17
14
17

1
31
19
4
45

4
29
18
2
47

6
18
15
10
52

5
47
13
2
33

2
19
28
7
44

2
34
14
2
47

1
45
12
4
38

2
28
19
7
44

2
31
23
8
37

6
21
12
12
49

10
48
9
2
31

1
16
26
10
46

3
31
13
4
49

8
42
13
4
34

65 28. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3
29
22
5
42

1
29
24

47

5
23
32
4
35

66 29. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3
28
21
7
41

1
24
19

57

4
30
23
7
37

67 32. , / , ?

1.
2.
3. ,

22
62
16

30
68
1

18
64
19

25
51
24

18
70
13

68 33. , ?

1. ,
2. ,
3.

17
69
14

12
70
18

19
65
16

15
66
19

17
70
13

26
45
29

18
65
18

24
61
14

14
58
28

25
67

23
57
20

14
70
16

18
71
11

10
72
18

22
67
11

69 33. , , / (, , ) ?

1.
2.
3. ,

18
66
16

10
60
29

21
67
12

21
60
19

18
73
9

12
60
29

18
66
15

16
66
18

17
60
23

22
61
17

L33. ?

1. ;

2. ,

3. ,

4.
.
5. ,

33

12

13

35

18

42

22

37

32

40

23

45

35

36

21

15

23
59
15
3

12
44
32
11

25
56
7
11

5
58
34
3

11
60
22
7

24
41
28
8

15
46
19
20

15
11
35
39

32
36
7
26

5
42
31
23

13
34
16
37

18
44
11
27

11

33

29

37

32

37

51

43

39

43

15

40

24

12

16

21
56
17
5

12
57
25
7
20
45
8
28

16
56
23
5

22
65
7
6

109 L16. , -, ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

L15. ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

24

14

15
41
19
26

16
43
12
28

16
47
9
28

110 L88. , , 12 ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.
6.

3
14
29
7
7
40

0
9
35
5
0
52

2
24
27
4
9
35

3
14
28
10
7
39

4
11
35
7
7
35

112 L88a. , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

11
22
6
61

8
18
2
72

12
22
7
59

11
21
2
66

7
23
5
65

8
6
20
12
6
47

6
16
28
1
2
46

1
8
29
8
9
45

4
14
28
10
2
42

7
20
22
11
8
33

8
13
11
68

26
20
2
53

6
24
8
62

15
18
1
66

22
20
6
52

113 42. (, , , , ), ,
, ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

21
38
19
22

31
48
3
18

25
41
12
22

16
45
22
17

26
41
13
19

9
26
29
36

37
33
3
27

11
34
31
24

18
37
18
27

30
36
24
9

7
18
48
27

17
30
17
35

4
31
47
18

14
26
32
29

6
34
34
26

6
5
89

4
20
76

0
4
96

4
6
90

10
26
64

115 43. , , , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

9
31
37
24

9
36
28
27

11
29
33
28

10
37
34
19

10
29
38
24

130 O8. - , ?

109

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,

4
9
87

26
2
72

3
9
88

3
11
86

3
11
86

110

2009

57

295

214

350

109

163

518

97

128

26
56
2
5
11

18
75
0
2
6

8
67
2
10
13

30
63
0
3
4

45
4
15
7
16
4
4
2
14
6
28
2
20

72
1
71
11
22
4
1
6
16
15
1
2
4

52
10
13
27
25
12
0
3
16
15
18
0
13

66
4
17
11
36
8
6
2
15
31
15
6
8

N10 O30a. ? , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

23
66
2
3
7

22
68

4
6

16
71
3
2
8

20
67
5
2
5

32
59
1
1
7

27
63
1
1
7

182 L17. . , , ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. , -
9. ,
10. ,
11.
12.
13.

62
14
31
14
22
9
2
4
19
14
15
2
8

16
25
11
10
15
2
6
6
48
1
25
0
7

52
19
13
12
24
11
1
5
22
10
24
2
10

67
19
23
14
18
6
5
6
23
11
14
1
8

65
32
15
18
21
16
1
0
13
17
19
1
7

79
26
20
17
12
15
0
6
26
11
6

11

( .)
197 o15b_all/5.

5870.7

9357.0

8407.5

6395.9

199 o6+o10. ( ).

10081.6

17568.3

11824.3

6780.4

6231.2

4375.1

5863.8

4069.9

4801.0

4478.9

9827.9

4733.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

2383.3

3788.7

3443.0

3114.0

3922.1

11585.3

15609.9

14949.7

7155.9

6755.0

7029.2

57362.2

61197.9

59375.9

4049.2

3444.3

3379.8

131 O10. , , ?

3898.0

2984.7

3673.9

2894.8

5499.1

73 35. , , , ?

14594.0

21440.4

17017.2

13737.6

15491.5

12615.8

15288.6

75 37. , ?

7351.9

9979.7

7905.9

6593.5

7668.2

7085.1

6848.3

156 LL10. , , ?

59804.1

59111.7

66555.3

51741.1

61440.1

62862.1

58631.9

77 LL11. , ?

4112.4

5757.5

4637.8

3807.5

3975.5

3540.1

4122.4

. , , ( 2007 .)
( % )

..

.-

879

352

208

359

397

531

514

7
52
30
6
5

7
52
30
6
5

17
63
17
1
2

8
56
29
3
5

11
48
32
4
5

7
58
27
4
4

10
57
24
5
4

14
50
24
7
5

12
15
45
21
4
3

7
11
46
22
13
1

12
17
44
17
8
1

15
36
35
10
3
2

4
34
41
16
4

12
23
41
18
5
1

12
20
43
12
11
1

14
15
45
16
8
2

11
17
41
20
9
2

0
1
36
46
16
2

1
20
53
20
1
5

5
52
29
13
1

6
61
27
4
1

1
24
59
10
2
4

0
24
51
22
2
2

1
6
57
24
7
6

0
11
58
22
6
3

0
8
63
23
6
0

2
8
58
24
7
1

25
34
31
1
0
8

8
13
52
12

16

19
29
42
4
0
6

10
22
51
4
1
12

4
17
60
10
1
8

7
29
55
5

16
21
42
7
1
14

11
23
48
6
0
13

10
22
54
4
2
8

10
23
54
5
0
8

2009

323

1115

460

110

528

5
38
45
7
5

8
54
22
4
11

43 9. ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

10
54
27
5
4

23
62
11
2
2

9
58
24
5
4

44 9a. , , ?

1.
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.

11
20
42
17
8
1

24
29
36
6
2
2

12
23
46
12
6
1

1
8
38
35
18
1

45 10. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
58
23
6
2

2
22
70
3
2
1

1
9
65
20
3
2

46 O1f. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

11
23
51
5
1
10

1
9
68
9
4
9

8
23
54
5
0
10

47 11. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
41
34
7
8

2
15
45
28
2
7

48 12. ?

111

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

2
10
47
23
4
13

4
14
58
15
1
9

1
12
42
33
5
7

0
3
31
43
14
9

8
50
25
4
13

0
5
37
39
10
8

0
5
45
37
5
7

2
27
44
20
3
4

0
28
49
21
2
0

2
9
38
32
3
16

0
11
42
32
5
9

0
6
38
35
10
9

1
6
40
41
9
3

2
11
48
22
3
14

1
5
36
33
11
14

4
8
45
22
2
19

2
7
50
21
6
14

1
8
45
26
4
15

4
20
46
22
3
5

0
20
50
18
5
7

3
7
44
27
3
16

3
13
43
25
3
14

1
9
49
21
6
15

2
7
49
24
4
13

112

..

.-

879

352

208

359

397

531

514

2009

323

1115

460

110

528

49 S1. , ?

1.
2.
3.

41
28
31

63
15
22

44
25
31

50 S2. .. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

32
41
14
5
8

49
40
2
1
8

33
42
15
4
6

51 S3. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

9
35
25
9
22

16
46
13
5
21

9
36
26
7
22

21
45
35

30
23
47

37
30
33

42
29
30

42
26
32

34
39
27

34
34
31

42
25
33

46
27
27

43
21
35

17
41
21
9
12

32
46
9
3
11

33
42
10
6
8

31
40
17
4
7

30
40
19
3
7

12
58
19
4
6

26
36
22
3
13

28
48
10
6
7

40
35
14
6
5

38
40
10
3
9

4
26
30
19
22

8
35
25
9
23

9
34
20
10
27

8
35
27
10
19

13
36
28
7
17

4
45
30
9
11

8
28
31
9
23

5
38
25
9
23

13
35
23
9
20

10
34
21
10
25

3
25
18
5
49

3
27
26
5
39

3
35
24
3
35

1
30
37
2
30

2
29
33
4
31

5
27
17
4
46

3
30
16
5
46

2
27
18
5
47

4
24
24
7
42

2
25
23
9
41

3
38
19
4
36

1
33
30
4
32

3
24
28
12
33

4
34
12
4
46

3
28
19
9
41

4
23
20
7
46

65 28. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3
29
22
5
42

8
44
15
1
32

3
29
20
3
45

0
18
34
11
37

1
25
11
4
60

66 29. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3
28
21
7
41

9
44
12
1
34

3
28
19
6
44

0
16
34
16
33

1
26
10
8
56

67 32. , / , ?

1. (1 )
2. (2 )
3. (3 ) ,
:

22
62
16
1.95 1.95

17
71
12
1.97

19
65
16
1.84

31
55
15
2.20

19
42
39
1.95

20
64
15
1.92

23
61
15
1.98

68 33. , ?

1. (1 ) ,
2. (2 ) ,
3. (3 )
:

17
69
14
1.98 1.98

16
70
14
1.97

14
76
11
1.92

26
55
19
2.25

13
49
38
1.99

15
71
14
1.95

19
67
14
2.01

18
67
16
1.95

20
65
15
1.86

31
51
17
1.90

26
58
16
1.92

21
67
13
2.07

13
66
20

14
72
14
2.10

8
74
18
1.94

22
63
16
1.92

18
73
10
1.95

20
65
15
2.02

13
71
15

69 33. , , / (, , ) ?

1.
2.
3. ,

18
66
16

15
75
10

16
69
16

26
56
18

14
56
31

19
65
15

18
65
17

15
73
12

15
69
17

22
61
16

25
52
23

16
73
11

12
72
16

71 L33. ?

1. ;

2. ,

3. ,


4.
.
5.
- ,

14

34

12

26

13

15

15

13

17

33

16

35

40

33

40

38

15

22

34

29

35

37

37

45

40

24

36

27

40

47

41

33

37

42

32

15

32

15

19

36

26

18

17

13

100

9
55
30
6

14
56
26
5

26
59
14
2

12
61
23
4

18
53
24
5

15
55
25
5

19
52
25
5

14
59
19
7

12
34
27
27

13
43
17
26

22
49
12
16

8
53
16
23

16
36
18
29

20
36
17
28

12
44
21
24

16
39
19
26

107 L15. ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

16
56
23
5

100

100

100

109 L16. , -, ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

15
41
19
26

49
29
3
19

9
53
12
27

6
24
48
21

12
23
10
55

110 L88. , , 12 ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.
6.

3
14
29
7
7
40

13
28
26
5
3
25

1
12
36
4
4
42

2
10
16
18
16
38

1
9
20
1
1
67

2
9
29
8
7
44

3
16
27
7
8
39

112 L88a. , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

11
22
6
61

24
31
3
43

11
23
3
64

5
18
14
63

8
8
5
80

7
19
7
66

12
20
6
62

6
17
40
6
5
26

1
9
41
14
4
32

6
16
29
12
7
30

5
18
23
4
5
45

2
14
28
8
9
38

3
11
29
3
5
48

16
31
5
49

6
37
8
49

15
23
9
53

13
23
3
61

11
17
7
65

10
19
4
67

113 42. (, , , , ), ,
, ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

21
38
19
22

47
36
4
14

19
44
16
21

9
28
41
21

11
37
1
51

14
34
27
25

21
37
21
21

26
51
7
15

18
51
17
14

20
42
15
23

23
31
19
27

18
39
22
21

23
36
20
20

16
43
21
20

5
45
36
14

8
34
36
22

11
22
38
30

10
30
38
22

8
30
37
25

115 43. , , , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

9
31
37
24

21
34
20
24

8
36
33
24

4
15
63
17

2
38
13
48

5
24
45
27

7
33
40
20

130 O8. - , ?

113

1. ,

2. ,
3. ,

9
87

15
80

7
89

9
90

19
78

9
88

9
89

12
83

8
87

7
89

13
84

5
90

14
84

114

..

2009

323

1115

460

110

528

879

N10 O30a. ? , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

23
66
2
3
7

21
64
3
4
8

21
69
1
2
7

30
61
2
2
5

16
68
1
3
11

26
67
1
3
3

24
66
2
2
6

.-

352

208

359

397

531

514

17
68
1
2
11

23
60
3
0
13

22
64
1
4
8

18
69
3
4
6

23
71
0
1
5

27
63
1
4
6

182 L17. . , , ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.

7.
8. , -

9. ,
10. ,

11.
12.
13.

62
14
31
14
22

41
20
15
16
20

58
13
30
14
21

88
14
46
12
24

53
9
17
7
17

81
10
33
14
22

66
17
36
14
24

31
15
21
17
21

43
12
28
17
32

57
17
30
8
20

61
10
35
15
17

71
17
30
19
21

63
14
30
10
23

14

13

10

19

23

17

16

26

15

18

27

24

23

16

17

17

14

13

22

10

19

13

10

13

17

17

15
2
8

20
1
16

17
1
8

4
2
1

20
5
20

9
2
6

12
1
5

30
2
13

22
1
10

14
2
9

12
1
13

16
1
5

12
3
6

( .)
197 o15b_all/5.

5870.7

8138.1

6010.3

4500.3

4194.2

1956.9

4884.9

14199.7

10976.5

6843.3

5860.6

4715.8

4344.0

4001.7

8852.3

17320.5

16338.9

11961.9

11207.9

8392.8

6408.9

5285.8

4895.9

5127.1

3222.0

3379.6

3913.0

16437.2

14686.4

12485.2

12165.5

7852.5

7491.9

6134.5

6367.8

69868.3

65483.0

54579.6

50945.6

4178.8

4338.4

3651.6

3451.1

199 o6+o10. ( ).

10081.6

14058.3

9980.0

7773.4

6183.7

131 O10. , , ?

3898.0

3954.1

4388.2

3399.1

2024.8

2342.6

4061.3

73 35. , , , ?

14594.0

15339.8

14560.2

14368.5

13649.4

10429.3

14093.3

20837.2

22621.9

75 37. , ?

7351.9

6919.8

7380.8

7744.1

6665.3

5925.4

7294.4

9633.3

11781.9

156 LL10. , , ?

59804.1

54372.1

59143.4

64953.7

60170.2

49533.9

58596.8

70238.2

66695.9

77 LL11. , ?

4112.4

3810.2

4152.8

4321.0

3689.0

3242.8

4180.0

5336.2

6415.2

. ( 2007 .)
( % )

2009

220

459

1020

117

192

284

661

739

303

7
46
34
7
5

11
63
20
3
3

23
63
12
2
0

15
51
23
2
11

2
29
50
13
6

6
46
34
7
7

12
67
17
1
3

19
66
12
2
1

13
26
46
11
4
1

21
39
31
7
0
1

24
19
36
19
0
2

3
6
29
37
24
2

6
15
47
21
10
1

15
21
49
11
3
2

20
43
31
5
2
0

43 9. ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

10
54
27
5
4

6
25
53
10
6

44 9a. , , ?

1.
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.

11
20
42
17
8
1

4
1
35
30
28
2

5
13
44
26
12
1

45 10. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
58
23
6
2

46 O1f. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

11
23
51
5
1
10

0
0
13
58
28

0
4
45
41
7
3

1
12
76
9
2
0

2
39
47
12
0

0
8
54
21
2
14

0
26
44
26
4

0
3
49
40
6
3

0
8
80
10
1
1

2
36
58
1
0
2

100

100

100

87
13

100

41
19
26
0
0
13

13
35
39
4
0
9

3
21
62
4
1
9

5
72
14
1
8

1
13
46
30
5
6

1
17
53
26
1
3

1
13
38
25
8
15

4
24
43
16
12

0
5
41
39
8
8

0
10
48
31
4
7

3
28
38
23
2
6

47 11. , ?

115

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
41
34
7
8

0
2
14
54
17
14

0
5
39
41
7
7

2
10
47
23
4
13

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

48 12. ?

2009

220

459

1020

117

192

284

661

739

303

0
4
26
42
11
18

1
7
42
26
9
15

2
12
54
20
2
10

11
18
47
10
0
14

2
8
43
20
3
25

1
4
31
31
10
23

2
7
43
27
6
16

1
9
56
21
2
10

6
23
47
15
2
8

49 S1. , ?

1.
2.
3.

41
28
31

21
51
29

50 S2. .. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

32
41
14
5
8

21
39
23
6
11

51 S3. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

9
35
25
9
22

8
21
36
15
20

34
32
34

48
24
28

57
9
33

39
22
40

16
48
36

35
32
33

50
20
30

54
19
27

24
41
17
9
9

35
43
12
3
7

32
55
10
0
3

45
29
13
2
10

23
32
18
7
19

27
43
18
6
6

37
42
13
3
6

36
47
7
4
5

8
34
22
15
21

9
39
25
6
21

7
43
29
2
19

14
30
16
12
28

4
25
27
19
25

6
30
28
12
24

11
41
24
6
19

14
43
19
4
19

3
32
20
2
42

7
42
25
4
23

3
28
15
5
49

0
15
23
9
52

1
21
29
7
42

5
36
17
2
40

4
41
19
1
36

3
32
20
4
41

13
40
13
7
26

3
22
12
8
56

1
13
16
17
54

1
23
28
10
38

4
35
19
4
39

7
37
17
2
37

65 28. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3
29
22
5
42

0
11
27
11
51

3
27
26
6
38

66 29. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

3
28
21
7
41

116

1
13
21
20
45

3
25
27
9
35

67 32. , / , ?

1.
2.
3. ,

22
62
16

27
54
19

27
61
12

18
65
17

20
63
16

20
59
20

31
48
21

24
63
13

18
64
18

17
71
13

68 33. , ?

1. ,
2. ,
3.

17
69
14

25
56
19

17
70
13

16
72
12

12
73
15

15
62
23

23
58
19

23
62
15

12
77
12

13
74
13

69 33. , , / (, , ) ?

1.
2.
3. ,

18
66
16

24
54
23

20
64
16

71 L33. ?

1. ;

2. ,

3. ,

4.
.

5.
- ,

27
61
12

16
60
24

23
58
20

21
65
14

13
71
16

19
67
14

14

53

12

19

100

33

38

51

25

22

31

100

37

33

45

31

36

100

15

21

38

12

100

22
59
14
6

35
48
5
11

16
56
20
9

4
37
55
5

8
59
28
5

20
60
15
5

34
56
3
7

37
35
2
26

23
29
18
30

5
26
42
27

6
43
23
28

22
42
12
25

24
46
6
23

107 L15. ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

15
72
14

16
56
23
5

2
42
52
4

6
57
34
3

109 L16. , -, ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

15
41
19
26

3
30
40
26

9
40
26
24

16
46
13
26

110 L88. , , 12 ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.
6.

3
14
29
7
7
40

2
5
17
11
15
50

2
12
34
7
10
35

3
15
30
7
4
41

12
35
23
3
0
27

5
11
27
9
4
43

112 L88a. , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

11
22
6
61

2
10
13
76

8
29
5
58

12
23
6
60

31
16
4
49

13
19
2
66

3
6
17
8
13
53

2
10
28
10
9
42

3
19
34
5
5
35

7
18
31
5
1
36

4
14
16
66

6
19
6
69

13
27
4
56

23
23
2
52

113 42. (, , , , ), ,
, ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

21
38
19
22

5
24
50
21

19
41
19
21

25
41
15
19

42
29
1
28

11
39
18
32

115 43. , , , ?

117

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

9
31
37
24

3
15
59
22

6
27
44
22

10
34
33
22

20
30
9
42

6
41
30
23

6
18
49
26

14
35
25
26

24
50
10
16

40
37
2
21

6
12
60
22

6
28
42
24

9
39
31
21

17
36
18
29

2009

220

459

1020

117

192

284

661

739

303

130 O8. - , ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,

4
9
87

1
9
90

3
9
89

5
8
87

4
24
72

N10 O30a. ? , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

23
66
2
3
7

118

20
73
0
1
5

21
70
1
2
6

24
65
2
3
7

28
56
2
6
8

3
11
86

0
7
93

3
9
88

5
9
87

6
15
79

20
65
3
2
9

20
71
1
2
5

24
68
1
2
5

22
64
2
3
9

23
67
0
3
6

92
6
53
12
25
11
3
9
16
21
3
1
3

77
13
39
15
25
9
2
3
16
19
8
2
2

55
17
23
16
21
9
2
4
22
12
17
2
7

18
18
10
7
12
5
1
2
20
3
31
1
26

182 L17. . , , ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. , -
9. ,
10. ,
11.
12.
13.

62
14
31
14
22
9
2
4
19
14
15
2
8

92
15
52
10
29
10
0
7
15
16
0
2
2

73
14
35
11
27
11
2
2
17
21
6
2
5

53
16
26
16
18
9
2
4
21
11
19
1
9

40
10
11
10
30
5
1
0
19
7
44
4
17

55
12
32
11
18
4
1
4
15
15
11
1
13

( .)
197 o15b_all/5.

5870.7

3592.0

4924.3

6545.5

9683.4

5139.8

2920.2

4434.5

6408.7

10499.8

10081.6

5865.4

7744.3

10757.9

15960.1

10391.0

4708.4

6803.7

10591.3

15535.4

3898.0

3232.5

4110.9

4199.7

3144.0

3607.7

2279.1

4282.6

3933.4

3774.2

14594.0

12139.5

14448.7

14880.8

19427.1

13205.8

10822.4

14375.8

14352.6

18348.3

7351.9

6575.0

7688.9

7375.3

8478.7

6566.5

7183.7

7462.5

6913.2

8407.1

59804.1

63433.7

55411.0

59532.1

67390.2

62895.5

64345.0

56227.4

59284.8

64398.0

4112.4

3784.1

4461.8

4045.8

4475.1

3779.5

3682.8

4096.8

4099.2

4561.9

199 o6+o10. ( ).

131 O10. , , ?

73 35. , , , ?
75 37. , ?

156 LL10. , , ?
77 LL11. , ?

. , , ( 2007 .)
( % )

,
; ,

,
,

, ,

2009

488

1073

320

128

208

382

565

237

476

141

597

814

598

43 9. ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

10
54
27
5
4

22
63
10
2
3

7
57
26
5
5

2
33
53
10
1

15
45
25
3
11

1
34
51
8
6

4
44
37
9
6

12
52
27
4
4

22
64
10
1
3

10
66
17
5
2

15
56
20
1
8

17
63
16
3
1

6
48
35
7
5

11
53
25
5
7

8
6
38
24
23
1

6
14
40
31
9
1

8
15
49
20
8
1

21
45
29
2
1
2

15
27
45
8
4
1

16
16
44
13
7
4

18
26
43
9
2
1

6
16
41
24
13
0

12
19
44
14
8
2

44 9a. , , ?

1.
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.

11
20
42
17
8
1

24
31
40
4
1
1

7
21
46
18
6
1

4
5
32
34
24
0

18
13
44
14
7
4

45 10. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
58
23
6
2

2
23
66
8
0
1

0
7
64
24
2
3

46 O1f. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

11
23
51
5
1
10

2
11
64
10
3
11

8
26
53
3
0
8

2
29
42
27
0

3
6
50
26
6
9

0
34
45
21
1

3
53
34
7
3

0
4
63
27
5
1

1
33
60
4
0
2

1
15
65
14
3
2

3
10
61
12
4
9

1
14
66
16
2
2

8
53
27
9
2

1
8
58
25
5
3

35
31
24
2
0
8

9
18
48
9

16

35
26
33
0

16
32
40
1
0
11

8
29
56
2
0
6

0
7
58
20
4
10

4
18
56
7
1
14

14
12
57
3

14

4
23
58
8
1
7

17
25
45
4
1
8

10
20
52
3
0
14

3
29
42
16
9

0
3
40
40
9
8

0
7
43
37
8
5

2
27
42
22
0
6

1
14
43
27
5
9

1
7
39
39
2
12

1
13
49
28
1
7

0
8
34
40
12
7

1
10
42
32
5
10

47 11. , ?

119

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
10
41
34
7
8

2
20
49
23
0
5

0
9
44
36
4
7

0
1
22
45
22
8

0
3
28
34
13
22

120

,
; ,

,
,

, ,

2009

488

1073

320

128

208

382

565

237

476

141

597

814

598

48 12. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

2
10
47
23
4
13

3
17
62
10
1
7

1
9
46
26
3
15

2
4
30
37
13
14

7
5
38
16
8
26

0
1
41
33
10
14

2
6
42
32
4
12

49 S1. , ?

1.
2.
3.

41
28
31

70
8
23

38
30
32

17
52
31

32
41
14
5
8

52
40
4
1
3

30
46
14
3
7

51 S3. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

9
35
25
9
22

17
49
17
0
16

8
36
23
9
24

3
29
22
5
42

7
43
9
0
41

2
29
25
2
41

3
28
21
7
41

8
44
7
2
39

2
27
25
4
42

3
11
50
18
2
16

1
6
49
25
3
16

2
16
62
11
1
10

2
7
39
35
7
10

2
9
42
20
4
22

34
37
29

42
29
28

59
17
24

48
17
35

34
23
43

65
11
24

27
44
29

38
21
41

15
29
29
14
13

15
39
16
6
24

18
33
22
13
15

26
48
19
3
5

30
40
16
6
8

43
49
5
2
1

35
44
11
3
7

44
21
10
2
23

48
42
6
1
3

19
43
21
8
8

33
38
14
3
13

3
15
38
23
20

6
23
33
12
25

5
13
38
20
24

10
35
25
12
19

8
33
25
11
23

12
45
27
4
11

8
45
22
4
22

18
26
15
6
35

14
52
16
1
17

6
29
32
15
18

9
27
24
9
31

0
11
38
7
45

3
22
31
7
38

1
30
20
5
43

10
50
17
3
20

3
32
18
2
45

2
19
7
1
71

6
53
13
0
28

2
20
35
9
34

1
16
13
3
66

0
7
29
19
44

4
24
25
10
37

2
31
25
6
36

6
47
10
3
33

4
28
16
6
46

2
22
16
2
58

7
51
13
1
28

2
16
33
14
35

2
21
13
6
60

0
9
33
15
42

0
16
22
13
49

66 29. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

4
20
49
14
0
11

21
47
33

65 28. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1
12
48
21
7
12

20
21
59

50 S2. .. ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

1
11
29
22
37

0
17
16
22
44

67 32. , / , ?

1.
2.
3. ,

22
62
16

14
70
16

20
67
13

38
44
18

24
36
40

38
41
21

24
65
11

68 33. , ?

1. ,
2. ,
3.

17
69
14

12
77
12

16
72
12

30
52
17

10
49
40

27
51
21

24
67
9

18
68
14

17
71
12

20
61
19

19
49
32

19
66
16

25
62
13

20
58
21

15
70
15

12
76
11

11
75
13

17
56
26

14
74
12

22
67
11

13
66
21

69 33. , , / (, , ) ?

1.
2.
3. ,

18
66
16

15
71
14

16
71
14

30
47
23

14
58
27

28
44
28

17
69
14

17
73
10

18
72
10

15
66
19

14
56
30

14
75
10

23
62
15

14
63
23

71 L33. ?

1. ;

2. ,

3. ,


4.
.

5.
- ,

14

10

45

11

44

20

12

15

18

17

33

14

40

35

42

38

51

35

13

28

20

25

38

35

37

48

39

16

33

17

27

46

39

40

39

47

32

33

15

33

11

10

45

25

20

22

12

13

17
42
24
17

7
43
45
5

5
53
38
3

18
53
26
4

40
51
4
5

15
68
10
7

16
57
13
14

26
60
10
4

10
52
34
4

15
56
20
9

8
36
30
26

17
41
17
25

34
45
3
18

13
44
12
31

14
39
15
32

28
43
7
21

8
44
31
17

10
34
13
43

107 L15. ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

16
56
23
5

33
51
9
7

12
63
21
4

3
44
51
2

109 L16. , -, ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.

15
41
19
26

30
38
6
27

11
47
19
23

5
30
39
26

12
25
17
46

6
36
36
21

110 L88. , , 12 ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.
6.

3
14
29
7
7
40

7
27
25
1
1
40

2
12
31
9
6
40

2
4
26
10
18
40

5
2
36
10
9
38

4
6
29
13
14
34

1
11
29
10
8
41

2
16
28
7
9
38

112 L88a. , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

11
22
6
61

25
16
1
58

8
24
5
63

1
26
17
55

16
17
2
65

3
23
20
54

7
21
8
65

10
21
6
63

9
27
33
3
2
25

3
14
31
4
3
45

4
5
15
13
2
62

6
27
30
3
3
30

1
9
31
13
10
35

3
8
24
4
5
56

25
29
2
44

14
20
2
64

6
22

72

26
25
3
46

5
26
11
58

5
13
2
79

121

113 42. (, , , , ), ,
, ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

21
38
19
22

38
39
4
19

18
40
22
19

5
34
38
23

16
29
7
48

7
28
39
26

13
36
26
24

21
47
19
13

36
42
3
19

26
37
12
25

17
26
23
34

35
40
9
16

13
40
26
20

17
35
19
29

122

,
; ,

,
,

, ,

2009

488

1073

320

128

208

382

565

237

476

141

597

814

598

115 43. , , , ?

1.
2. ,
3.
4.

9
31
37
24

17
34
21
28

6
33
40
20

5
22
50
24

12
20
37
32

1
19
47
33

6
30
44
20

130 O8. - , ?

1. ,
2. ,
3. ,

4
9
87

5
13
82

3
9
88

2
6
93

7
9
84

1
4
95

4
5
91

N10 O30a. ? , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

23
66
2
3
7

26
64
1
3
6

22
64
2
3
8

19
74
1
1
4

21
70
0
1
7

21
71
1
3
3

27
65
1
2
6

8
34
44
15

18
43
17
22

10
30
28
31

10
23
36
31

14
38
24
24

6
31
44
20

8
24
39
28

6
13
81

5
13
82

2
10
89

2
9
89

4
13
84

4
8
89

4
9
87

27
63
1
3
6

20
65
3
3
9

19
68
3
2
9

14
70
1
4
11

21
68
1
4
7

26
65
1
2
6

20
66
3
3
7

182 L17. . , , ?

1. ,
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.

7.
8. , -

9. ,
10. ,

11.
12.
13.

62
14
31
14
22

43
17
12
15
14

64
14
36
13
24

84
14
43
12
25

57
12
25
14
22

80
15
43
13
24

73
10
55
14
24

68
21
20
18
27

36
15
13
10
13

51
11
28
13
19

57
10
29
4
11

48
16
26
14
20

71
12
35
13
23

62
15
29
14
22

12

16

14

11

19

17

18

18

28

19

17

19

21

14

32

18

19

18

14

12

26

16

18

18

16

12

19

14

15
2
8

21
2
16

13
2
4

7
0
6

18
1
16

3
3
4

5
1
2

16
1
4

33
3
17

17
2
14

14
0
13

21
1
12

13
1
5

10
3
9

( .)
197 o15b_all/5.

5870.7

7288.6

5533.7

4558.3

7249.4

3691.2

4689.8

5497.5

10517.5

5951.6

6376.0

6710.7

5451.8

10499.8

8697.1

9033.2

15738.6

10309.4

6645.4

11325.2

9158.9

9888.4

4536.5

3035.0

2942.3

3471.5

3396.6

5179.4

17637.7

14321.5

14465.9

15050.3

7859.0

6769.4

7333.6

7964.0

199 o6+o10. ( ).

10081.6

14157.6

8638.1

7333.5

11277.5

7725.7

131 O10. , , ?

3898.0

4403.6

3459.9

3169.0

5537.1

7957.2

3437.3

3957.0

73 35. , , , ?

14594.0

16081.8

13593.3

13187.6

20954.6

13062.5

13628.2

13707.1

18678.5

14137.1

75 37. , ?

7351.9

7674.0

7215.2

6962.4

8252.8

7155.4

7645.5

6906.2

8421.7

7036.9

156 LL10. , , ?

59804.1

61453.9

58485.7

61254.5

60870.3

56231.7

61364.9

58430.5

56532.9

60137.6

71019.4

55540.5

60577.5

63103.2

4302.9

3911.4

3983.0

4077.6

4288.8

77 LL11. , ?

4112.4

4270.7

3921.5

4162.0

4970.7

4175.7

4053.6

3974.5

4219.5

123

list of Questions for the General Population

(Page numbers in brackets indicate where opinions and characteristics of various groups ol population are presented!
9. What could you say about your mood in the recent days? 1) Excellent mood; 2) Normal, calm condition;
3) I experience strain, irritation; 4) I feel fear, distress; 5) Difficult to answer. (77,85,90,95,101,107)
9a. Speaking in general to what extent are you satisfied with the life you are leading now? 1) Quite satisfied; 2) Mainly satisfied;
3) Partly satisfied, partly not; 4) Mainly not satisfied; 5) Not satisfied at all; 6) Difficult to answer. (85, 90, 95,101,107)
10. How would you evaluate the financial position of your family at present? 1 )Very good; 2) Good; 3) Average; 4) Bad; 5) Very
bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (77, 85, 90, 95,101,107)
11. How would you evaluate the economic situation in your town, rural district? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad; 4) Very bad;
5) Difficult to answer. (78, 85, 90, 95,101,108)
12. How would you evaluate the economic situation in Russia? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad; 4) Very bad; 5)
Difficult to
answer. (78, 85, 90, 95,102,108)
13. What do you think, which of the statements given below describes better the situation having been developed?
1) Everything is not so bad and it's possible to live; 2) Life is difficult but it's possible to bear it; 3) It's impossible to bear
our disastrous situation any longer; 4) Difficult to answer. (78, 86,90,96,102,109)
13. What do you think, will you (your family) live better or worse then now in a year? 1) Better to a great extent;
2) Somewhat better; 3) The same matter as now; 4) Somewhat worse; 5) Worse to a great extent;
6) Difficult to answer. (79, 86, 91, 96,102,109)
13B. Which of the following statements most exactly describes your attitude to the present life? 1) I simply can't adapt to the
present life; 2) I've got accustomed to the fact that I had to refuse from customary way of life, to live, limiting myself in
great and small; 3) I have to spin, seize upon any opportunity to earn only to provide a tolerable life for my family and
me; 4) I succeeded in using new opportunities to achieve more in life; 5) I live in the same way as before: nothing has
particularly changed for me in the recent years; 6) Difficult to answer. (79, 86, 91, 96,102,109)
14. What do you think, market reforms should be continued now or ceased? 1) Market reforms should be continued;
2) Market reforms should be ceased; 3) I don't know, it's difficult to answer. (80,86,91,96,102,109)
19. How would you evaluate the political situation in Russia in general? 1) Safe, good; 2) Calm; 3) Strained; 4) Critical, explosive; 5) Difficult to answer. (86, 91, 96,102,109)
20. Generally speaking, how much are you now satisfied with your life? 1) Quite satisfied; 2) Rather satisfied; 3) Partly satisfied, partly not; 4) Rather unsatisfied; 5) Not satisfied at all; 6) Don't know. (77)
22. What do you think, will our life improve more or less during the coming year or there will be no improvement? 1) Will
improve; 2) There will be no improvement; 3) Difficult to answer. (80, 86, 91, 96,103,110)
26. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of V.Putin as the President of Russia? (86,91,96,103,110)
26*. How would you rate on a scale from 1 to 10 the performance of Boris Yeltsin as Russia's president/Vladimir Putin as acting
president/Vladimir Putin as Russia's president? Average on the scale. (81)
27. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of M.Fradkov, chairman of the minister cabinet? (86,91, 97,103,110)
27*. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of chairman of the minister cabinet? (81)
28. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the political life? 1) Considerable improvement of the situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse; 4) Considerable change of the
situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (81, 87, 91, 97,103,110)
29. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the economic life? 1) Considerable improvement of the
situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse; 4) Considerable change
of the situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (81, 87, 91, 97,103,110)
31 a. What of the following problems of our society worry you most of all and which you believe to be the most urgent ones?
1) Poverty, impoverishing of the majority of population; 2) Prices growth; 3) Unemployment increase; 4) Economic crisis,
poor condition of industry and agriculture; 5) Increase of criminal offences rate; 6) Morals and cultural crisis; 7) Environment deteriorating; 8) Threat of explosions and other terrorist actions in your neighborhood; 9) Nationalism increase,
national relationships worsening: 10) Inaccessibility of many kinds of medical services; 11) Increase of drug addiction
rate; 12) Dramatic stratification into the poor and the rich, unfair income distribution; 13) Increase of education costs and
its inaccessibility; 14) Limitation of civil rights, democratic freedom (of speech, of the press, etc); 15) Corruption, bribery;
16) Dominance, arbitrariness of officials; 17) Impossibility of getting fair treatment in court; 18) Rudeness, cruelty of
militia servicemen; 19) Weakness of government authority; 20) Conflicts between various branches of power at different

124

1 (93) - 2008

levels; 21) Withholding wages, pensions, benefits, etc.; 22) Warfare in Chechnya; 23) AIDS sick rate growth; 24) Influx of
newcomers, migrants; 25) Something else (what particular); 26) Difficult to answer. (87, 92, 97,103,111)
32. What do you think, to what extent mass violence of the population against the decrease of the living standard and for the
defense of their rights is possible now in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible; 2) Hardly possible; 3) I dont know,
difficult to answer. (81, 87, 92, 98,104,111)
33. If such rallies and protest demonstrations happen, will you personally take part in them? 1) Most probably yes; 2) Most
probably no; 3) Dont know. (81, 87, 93, 98,104,111)
33c. Is the protest movement with political demands possible in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible; 2) Hardly possible;
3) I dont know, difficult to answer. (81, 87, 93, 98,104,111) 35. How much money does your family need now per capita
month to lead a normal, to your idea, life? (84, 89,94,100,106,114) 37. The income that would provide in respondents
opinion the the minimum living standard? (84, 89, 94,100, 106,114)
42. To speak of the major purchases for the family (such as furniture, refrigerator, household electronics, TV set) do you think
this is on the whole a good or a bad time now for such purchases? 1) Good; 2) Neither good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult
to answer. (82, 88, 93, 99,105,113)
43. To speak in general, do you think this is a bad or a good time now to save up money? 1) Good; 2) Neither good nor bad;
3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (83, 88, 93, 99,105,113)
L15. How has the financial situation of your family changed during the last year? 1) Rather improved; 2) Remained the same;
3) Rather got worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (82, 88, 93, 98,104,112)
L16. How do you think the financial situation of your family will change in the nearest year? 1) Rather will improve; 2) Will
remain the same; 3) Rather will get worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (82,88,93,98,104,112)
L17. Will you please tell us what makes the life of your family most difficult at present? 1) Low incomes, lack of money; 2) Fear
of losing a job; 3) Poor health, problems with medical treatment; 4) Bad dwelling; 5)
Every-day life difficulties; 6)
Impossibility of giving good education to children; 7) Bad relations within the family; 8) Drinking or drug addiction of a
family member; 9) Fatigue and exhaustion; 10) Hopelessness and absence of prospects in life; 11) Lack of free time; 12)
Something else;13) Difficult to answer. (89,94,99, 105, 113)
L33. Which of the following population groups would you rather ascribe yourself to? 1) We hardly make both ends meet, there
is not enough money even for food; 2) There is enough money for food but clothes buying causes serious difficulties; 3)
There is enough money for food and clothes but buying the durable goods (TV-set, refrigerator, etc.) is difficultfor us;
4) We can easily buy durable goods. To buy really expensive things is difficult for us; 5) We can afford rather expensive
purchases apartments, dacha and many others. (80, 88, 93, 98,104,112)
L88. To speak of the economical situation of the country on the whole, do you think the following 12 months will be a good or
a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good; 2) Good, but not in everything; 3) Neither good, nor bad; 4) Bad, but not in
everything; 5) Bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (82, 88, 93, 98,105,113)
L88a. To speak of the following five years, will they be a good or a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good; 2)
Neither good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (82, 88, 93,99,105,113)
LL10. What do you think, since what average monthly money income per capita a family may be considered a rich one? (84, 89,
94,100,106,114) LL11. What do you think, with what average monthly money income at the rate for one person a family
may be considered poor one? (84, 89, 94,100,106,114) 01f. What stratum of the society would you rather ascribe yourself
to? 1) To the lowest one; 2) To the workers; 3) To the lowest part of the middle stratum; 4) To the middle part of the middle
strata; 5) To the higher stratum; 6) Difficult to answer. (78, 85, 90, 95,101,108)
06+010. General respondents earnings during the last month. (84, 89, 94,100,106,114)
08A. Did you have any job or occupation last month, that brought additional income besides your main job or occupation?
1) Yes; 2) I had odd extra earnings; 3) No. (83)
010. How much money did you personally earn for extra work during the last month? (84, 89, 94,100,106,114) 015b:5. Average
income per capita during the last month: (89, 94,100,106,114) 025:5. Average per capita income: (84)
026. Please, point out in the list given below the items youve got in your family: 1) Colored TV set; 2) Photo camera;
3) Radio clock; 4) Mixer; 5) Electric drill; 6) Stereo radio system; 7) Separate freezing camera; 8) Microwave; 9) Video
tape-recorder; 10) Video camera; 11) Vacuum cleaner; 12) Home computer; 13) Piano; 14) Motor car bought new; 15)
Motor car bought second-hand; 16) Country-house (dacha), a house at garden plot; 17) House in a village; 18) Plot where
you grow vegetables, fruit; 19) CD player; 20) Home cinema; 21) Have got nothing of the listed. (89, 94, 99,105,113)
026 c. Have you or has any of your family members got access to Internet networks? If so, is it at home or at job-place?
1) No access to Internet; 2) Access only at home; 3) Access only at job-place; 4) Access both at home and at job-place;
5) Know practically nothing about this network. (83) 026d. Have you got your personal mobile telephone? 1) Yes; 2) No.
(89, 94, 99,106,114) 029. What mark on the scale from 1 to 10 wouls you give to your position in the society? (1 high;
10 low)? (83)

1 (93) - 2008

125

SUMMARY
The Society with Limited Imputability (by
Lev Gudkov). The processes of transformation of
post-totalitarian Russia go on extremely unevenly
in different segments of society. Fast changes in
economy, mass culture, communications system
and other social spheres which do not deal directly
with symbolic structures of national identity are
in sharp contrast with scarcely changing, rigid
institutions of power and State authority. To
understand the nature of their conservatism it is
necessary to analyze the values and moral notions of
the Russias population. The author asserts that the
main reason for sluggishness of the Russian society
and its resistance to modernization is a long-lasting
experience of adjusting to repressive Soviet State
that has deformed public morals and the very ability
for collective solidarity and mutual understanding
between people. Todays political authoritarianism
relies on unusually high significance and legitimacy
of violence in Russian society which are breaking
down universalistic morals. Violence is not just
inertia of traditional cult of imperial past, heroic
conquests, and militarism but is a consequence of
devaluating human life during communist terror.
Preserving non-differentiation of institutional
system, subordination to the present authoritarian
power of all other spheres of social life from
economics to education suppresses the possibilities
of individuals autonomization and emancipation
from the State control, of acknowledging selfsufficiency of human rights and freedoms. Mass
cynicism and amorality of post-totalitarian society
may be viewed as a result of acknowledging the
legitimacy of power arbitrary rule and the failure of
the 1990-s reforms in dividing power branches and
consistent differentiating social institutions.
Life Values of the Russian Population: Similarities
and Differences in Comparison to other European
Countries (by Vladimir Magun, Maxim Rudnev).
Vladimir Magun and Maxim Rudnev present
the data of international comparative European
Social Survey in 2006-2007 analyzing the values of
Russian population in comparison with those of the
inhabitants of 19 European countries. An average
Russian as compared to the inhabitants of other
countries is characterized by a higher caution (or

126

even fear) and the need in protection by powerful


State, the needs in novelty, creativity, freedom and
independence are less expressed in average Russians,
they are less inclined to taking risks and striving for
merriment and pleasures. In terms of the importance
of the enumerated values average Russians are like
representatives of a number of other countries,
primarily post-socialist ones. They aspire to wealth
and power, as well as to personal success and social
recognition (but creativity and innovation are less
important for them). Strong orientation to individual
self-assertion leaves in the consciousness of these
people, as compared to the representatives of other
countries, less space for concerning about equality
and justice, tolerance, nature, for taking care of the
close people (lower significance of the indicators of
universalism and goodwill).
The Idols of the Square Place (by Larissa
Kosova). Larissa Kosova analyzes the data of Levada
Center surveys on the Russians attitudes to such
different notions as communism, capitalism,
market relations, etc. and with the help of factor
analysis develops three types of respondents naming
them derzhavniki (supporters of powerful State),
communists and democrats. The author shows that
the adherents of all the three types of attitudes display
rather peculiar understanding of democracy. Thus
they are rather tolerable to the hypothetical alteration
of the Constitution for the sake of retaining Putin
as the President of the country, the years of Putins
governing being considered democratic more often
by those of the respondents who has managed to
achieve relative success during this time.
2007 in the Russians Public Opinion: Threat to
Stability (by Denis Volkov). The author scrutinizes
the evaluations of the changes having occurred
during the recent year in various spheres of life
(social security, ecology, ethnic relations, work of
law-enforcement agencies, etc.). The majority of
them are negative and the population, particularly
its younger section, considers the only achievement
of this pre-elections year (so called Putins
achievements) to be the possibility to earn more.
The inhabitants of the capital express the most
critical attitudes. Willingness to vote for the party of

1 (93) - 2008

the power somewhat improves average evaluations


but does not change their vector. Thus stability
proclaimed by the authorities and admitted by the
population proves to be fragile and peoples behavior
to be arch: on the one hand they demonstrate the
high level of supporting the Presidents image, the
candidate for his successor and the Party of the Power,
and on the other hand, peoples dissatisfaction with
whats going on is increasing.
Unemployment in Populations Evaluations:
Apprehension and Expectations (by Irina Perova).
Using the data of Levada Center surveys the author
describes the changes in perceiving the issue of
unemployment by various groups of the Russian
population. In 2008 the threat of remaining
unemployed is no longer evaluated by the majority
of the Russians as the most acute issue, the most
urgent ones being now prices growth, poverty,
inaccessibility of many kinds of health services.
This threat is still thought to be more acute by women
and the unemployed believe this problem to be the
most important. The expectations concerning the
situation in the labor market in future also became
more positive, particularly among young people.
At the same time 90% of the respondents kept on
thinking the duty of the State is to provide citizens
with job and 60% believe it should provide a decent
level of life for the unemployed.
Trans-National Interaction and the Quality
of Human Capital (by Irina Krutyi and Irina
Zanguiyeva). The paper is concerned with the
way a persons life changes after moving to another
country. It summarizes the findings of the survey of

Russian specialists with higher education and high


professional qualification living in Japan (2007).
The authors show that strong social interconnections
within Russian community in Japan have not
developed; rather interaction with friends,
relatives, and acquaintances left in Motherland gets
more intensive. Stability of social ties both with
country fellows and Japan colleagues is not high.
Differences in basic temporal notions in Russian
and Japanese cultures account for slow making up
the stable professional structures. A certain part of
newcomers to Japan prefer mutual cultural noninterference. Internet is actively used for enhancing
both interpersonal and professional nets; it is also a
means of getting additional professional education
and increasing ones own human capital through it.
Populations Attitude to Health and Public
Health Care (by Valentina Bodrova). In this paper
the author analyzes the data of the research carried
out by the Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy
of Sciences, in Lipetsk, Tumen, and the village in
Lipetsk area. The respondents attach high value
to health but self-evaluations of health in Russia
remain lower than those of representatives of other
countries (Great Britain, the USA, Finland), the
minority of respondents turning to a doctor for
help when they fall ill, the rest preferring to cure
themselves with domestic facilities or buy drugs
on the advice of friends and acquaintances. The
majority of the respondents (46%) evaluate the work
of Health Care Centers only as satisfactory (but not
as good or excellent). Only 1% of respondents are
satisfied with the present level of providing primary
medical aid.

1 (93) - 2008

127