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2(94)
6 . 16-


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2008

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67
69
69
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71

I.

72
73

II. ,
III. , ,

109

List of Questions for the General Population

115

SUMMARY

118


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(-)
109012, , . , 17. . : (495) 229 3810
E-mail: direct@levada.ru
()
119571, , . , 82. .: (495) 564 8582

,
77981 10 2003 .
-, , 2008

The Russian Public Opinion Herald


Data. Analysis. Discussions
2(94)
Bi-monthly

Analytic Centre
Yury Levada
(Levada-Centre)
The Interdisciplinary
Academic Centre for
Social Sciences
(InterCentre)

MarthApril 2008

CONTENTS
MONITORING OF CHANGES: PRINCIPAL TRENDS
ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
Is Russia Becoming a Normal Society? (Richard ROSE)

Application of Labor Legislation: the Role of Judicial System


(Vladimir GIMPELSON, Rostislav KAPELUSHNIKOV)

16

The Russian Libraries Today: Is the State Returning?


(Valeria STELMAKH)

Members of
the Editorial Council
Tatyana Zaslavskaya
(Chair)
Abel Aganbeghian
Anatoly Vishnevsky
Tatyana Vorozheikina
Leokadia Drobizheva
Natalia Rimashevskaya
Teodor Shanin
Vladimir Yadov
Yevgenii Yassin
Editorial Board
Lev Gudkov
(Editor-in-Chief)
Boris Dubin
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Alexei Grazhdankin
Ludmila Khakhulina
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Marina Krasilnikova
Galina Sterlikova
Natalia Zorkaya
(Executive Secretary)

A Male Role and Gender Order (Igor KON)

30
37

What do Similarity and Difference between Levada Center


Pre-Election Forecast and Official Results of Central Election
Commission mean?
(Denis VOLKOV, Alexey GRAZHDANKIN)

44

Multiple Wavelet Analysis in Sociology


(Yekaterina SHUSTENKOVA)
A Note from the Field (Yelizaveta DYUK)

49
60
67

Autors of the issue

69

Anniversary of Igor Kon

70

Trialby Gazprom (Sergey NIKOLYUK)

71
I. Technical Notes
72
II. Attitudes, Opinions and Evaluations of the Population
73
III. Attitudes, Opinions and Evaluations of the Population, Curier 2008 109
List of Questions for the General Population
115
SUMMARY
118
INFORMATION: SURVEYS FINDINGS

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:
. (RES-062-23-0341).
2
E. Keenan. Muscovite Political Folkways, The Russian Review,
45 (April 1986): 11581. T. McDaniel. The Agony of the Russian Idea
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996). H. Eckstein, F. J. Fleron,
E. P.Hoffmann, W. M. Reisinger, Can Democracy Take Root in Post-Soviet
Russia? Explorations in State-Society Relations (Lanham, MD: Rowman and
Littlefield, 1998).
3
R. Rose. Russia as an Hour-Glass Society: A Constitution without
Citizens, East European Constitutional Review 4, no. 3 (1995): 3442.
4 V. Shlapentokh. A Normal Totalitarian Society: How the Soviet Union
Functioned and How It Collapsed (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2001), xi.
1

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R. Rose. Uses of Social Capital in Russia: Modern, Pre-Modern and
Anti-Modern, Post-Soviet Affairs 16, no. 1 (2000) 3357. N. Tchernina.
Rising Unemployment and Coping Strategies, in The Mortality Crisis
in Transitional Economies, ed. G. A. Cornia, R. Panicci, 15173 (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2000).
6
See R. Rose, M. Bobak. Stresses and Opportunities of Post-Communist
Transformation: The Impact on Health, Aberdeen Studies in Public Policy
no. 432, 2007.
5

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World (State College: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007).
8
.: www.abdn.ac.uk/cspp/barometers (accessed December 2, 2007).
R.Rose. The Climax of the Putin Years: New Russia Barometer XV (Aberdeen,
UK: Centre for the Study of Public Policy, 2007).
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E. Carnaghan. Out of Order: Russian Political Values in an Imperfect
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Political Learning through Russias Transformation, American Journal of
Political Science 51, no. 4 (2007): 82234.
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in New Democracies: A Social-Democratic Approach (NY: Cambridge
University Press, 1993).
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and Experience, Aberdeen Studies in Public Policy no. 432, 2007.

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Strategy, Archives Europennes de Sociologie 36, no. 2, (1995): 24780.
R. Rose. How Patient Are People in Post-Communist Societies?, World
Affairs 159, no. 3 (1996): 13044.

15

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R. Rose, W. Mishler, N. Munro. Russia Transformed: Developing Popular
Support for a New Regime (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2006), 1.
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J. S. Hellman. Winners Take All: The Politics of Partial Reform in
Postcommunist Transitions, World Politics 50, no. 2 (1998): 20334.

2 (94) - 2008

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Protection. IZA, DP 381. Oct. 2001. .:
Kugler A. The Effects of Employment Protection in Europe and the US.
Universitat Pompeu Fabra. CREI. 18. Feb. 2007.
5

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Unemployment in Germany. // CESifo Working Paper. 1752. June 2006.
8
Bertola G., Boeri T., Cazes S. Employment Protection and Labour
Market Adjustment in OECD Countries: Evolving Institutions and Variable
Enforcement. // ILO Employment and Training Papers. 48. Geneva ILO.
1999.

Ichino A., Polo M., Rettore E. Are Judges Biased by Labor Market
Conditions? // European Economic Review. 2003. 47 (5). P. 913944.
10
Autor D., Donohue III J., Schwab S. The Costs of Wrongful-Discharge
Laws // The Review of Economics and Statistics. 88 (2). May, 2006.

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.: Kaiser G. A Friendly Guide to Wavelets. Boston:
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7
22
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63

11
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53

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1.
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3.
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7
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9
23
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12

14
17
53
16

19
27
47
8

4
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12

43. , , ?

1.
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4.

251 (O25/5)

3
16
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11

2
15
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14
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26
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14
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14

8
28
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31
32
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23
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24
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3
21
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8
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20

8
28
43
20

10
27
42
21

9
29
41
22

13
26
44
16

2669.6

3042.0

4017.0

4902.2

6511.4

6451.6

( .)
174.2

354.0

397.9

490.0

543.5

810.1

1239.6

1846.5

2193.7

250 , ( ) (O6+O10+O1c)

270.3

660.7

867.4

873.7

1020.4

1650.6

2469.1

3431.3

4477.9

O10. , ?

201.8

360.5

481.2

442.7

720.6

738.3

1029.5

1455.8

1757.7

249 ( ), , , (35/5)
255 10% (q37-10%)

5163.7

5801.9

7436.2

8825.8

10957.0

12012.9

2279.4

2642.2

2852.3

2977.6

4622.7

4414.0

491.1

1067.2

1747.7

1623.0

2148.4

3219.3

4778.4

6375.0

7886.2

8851.4

10116.4

11709.9

14825.2

16861.7

17529.0

282.2

580.5

589.6

639.7

825.6

1247.5

1760.8

2296.9

2943.9

3537.4

4019.1

4972.1

5915.0

6549.3

6770.9

55823.4

53248.6

75703.8

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2570.9

3206.2

3830.2

4526.6

4725.2

LL10. , , ?

0.0

0.0

6780.2

6043.5

9915.3

16695.4

31270.8

42625.3

85536.2

48130.1

LL11. , ?

0.0

300.2

314.4

382.1

529.1

855.8

1116.3

1468.1

1849.7

2215.2

75

76

. , , ( 2008 .)
( % )

2003

9. ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

12
56
23
6
4

29

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912

1091

543

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763

397

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20
3
4

10
53
24
8
4

24
56
16
2
2

9
62
20
4
6

4
51
30
11
4

14
58
21
5
2

12
58
21
4
4

8
49
27
11
5

12
24
38
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7
3
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38
14
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18
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21
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37
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22
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9a. , , ?

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14
26
37
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16
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37
13
5
1

10. ?

1.
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6.

O1f. ?

1.
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3.
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6.

1
15
56
22
4
2

1
18
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20
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13
55
24
6
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2
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61
9
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1
16
57
21
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59
15
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58
22
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11
48
31
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9
24
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25
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15
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11

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21
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6
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11

11. , ?

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47
19
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31
49
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10
42
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23

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32

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6
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48
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5
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10

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16

78

29

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912

1091

543

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7.47

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4
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29. , ?

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4
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7.50

7.77

7.26

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4
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18
57
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79

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5
15
30
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29

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1091

543

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1147

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14.
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8
2

10
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6
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3
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12
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( .)
o15b_all/5.

6511.4

7010.8

6112.3

o6+o10. ( )

10957.0

13057.2

8872.6

7124.2

7229.5

5484.1

9602.1

6391.9

4374.3

10500.8

11887.4

9443.4

15082.9

9808.3

8486.5

5562.0

2840.7

4747.6

4893.9

2648.8

20643.2

16996.2

13278.1

8929.3

7790.1

7136.1

99353.3

68880.7

44790.2

5411.8

4449.1

3959.1

O10. , , ?

4622.7

5070.7

4106.8

4234.1

35. , , , ?

16861.7

18911.9

15163.0

17618.5

18988.9

14414.6

37. , ?

7866.5

8047.2

7717.1

7750.1

8438.6

7430.4

LL10. , ?

69343.9

73961.4

65526.7

71513.0

73342.3

64150.1

LL11. , ?

4526.6

4775.8

4319.1

4292.3

4973.6

4290.4

81

82

. - ( 2008 .)
( % )

2003

84

313

191

334

99

158

511

92

108

15
66
15
0
4

14
58
22
2
4

10
63
19
3
5

13
61
16
4
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6
59
24
6
5

31
52
14
1
2

3
45
35
12
5

18
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19717.0

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7866.5

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3682.5

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( % )

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2003

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8
12

4
48
33
5
10

O1f. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

9
24
53
5
0
9

2
14
64
13
1
5

11. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
13
44
27
5
11

1
16
48
21
2
11

1
13
45
25
5
11

1
7
35
41
9
7

89

90

..

867

408

207

358

396

529

513

0
11
53
19
2
15

1
21
48
17
2
11

2
27
40
20
1
10

1
15
48
19
2
15

12
53
16
2
16

0
9
57
20
3
12

0
8
58
16
1
16

2003

358

1143

408

94

557

0
12
54
17
1
15

0
6
48
27
4
15

0
12
52
13

22

0
7
56
19
2
15

12. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

0
13
53
18
2
14

0
20
56
13
1
9

S1. , ?

1.
2.
3.

47
19
34

69
9
22

44
20
36

35
29
37

43
10
48

41
23
36

47
19
34

51
18
31

50
20
30

44
21
34

45
15
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50
20
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20
35

20
52
11
5
11

42
34
1
1
21

32
47
9
2
10

31
50
6
3
10

29
51
9
3
9

27
51
10
2
10

33
41
10
4
12

25
54
6
3
12

31
53
7
2
7

37
44
8
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10

6
31
25
16
21

16
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9
2
33

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24

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17
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42
17
7
24

7
39
20
8
26

10
42
19
9
20

13
42
18
6
22

S2. .. ?

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2.
3.
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31
49
8
2
10

42
44
5
1
7

31
50
8
2
9

S3. ?

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3.
4.
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10
42
18
8
23

11
46
16
4
22

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17
6
22

13. , ?

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3.

4.

40
39

18
61

30
52

49
37

52
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35
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34
51

26
54

29
54

25

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10

11

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33
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59
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53

13
57

11

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

6
27
48
13
4
2

18
63
16
2
0
1

3
23
63
7
1
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1
6
38
38
16
2

8
34
31
7
3
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16
54
17
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5
28
49
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41
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4
38
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6
25
48
13
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5
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4
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5
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11
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26
46
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1

2
12
34

5
18
34

6
23
31

5
29
31

7
19
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4
13
35

4
19
32

5
15
35

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2.
3. ,

5
18
33

13
36
20

3
15
41

4
8
29

3
23
18

4.
5.
6.

5
2
37

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0
28

4
1
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53

7
3
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6
2
35

4
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3
38

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4
19
27

10
28
23

4
19
29

1
11
22

2
18
23

3
14
25

4
20
27

6
23
26

5
30
23

5
21
29

4
14
28

3
21
27

5
16
25

7.49

8.07

7.59

6.59

7.99

7.45

7.55

7.33

7.49

7.40

7.30

7.54

7.64

6
21
11
2
60

4
28
17
2
48

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36
13
3
44

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43

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26
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42

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46

26. . ?

28. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

4
35
14
2
45

7
48
10
1
35

4
36
11
2
46

2
21
25
6
46

29. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

4
30
17
6
43

8
45
14
2
31

4
31
15
4
47

2
16
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13
43

31a. ?

91

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,
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10.

11.
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14. ,
( ,
)
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49

34

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56

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81
28

74
24

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29

87
32

72
17

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38

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26

71
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9

79
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32

87
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26
27
21

20
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28
24

21
31
28

17
31
33

31
28
24

26
29
22

20
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23
18

16

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31

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31

35

26

30

36

26

30

38

36

28

26

26

41

24

19

25

23

25

29

23

28

25

25

27

35

37

33

40

26

32

38

36

28

33

40

34

35

26

32

24

23

28

21

28

29

21

26

28

24

27

22
9
6

24
11
7

22
9
6

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8
7

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4

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7
5

21
9
5

28
13
7

27
12
6

25
9
8

22
14
10

19
4
4

23
10
6

92

..

867

408

207

358

396

529

513

10

10

10

3
6
9
3
3

2
3
6
1
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5
13
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3
5
7
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3
7
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4
7
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2
6
13
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9

2
10
10
1
2

5
10
7
1
2

3
5
7
2
1

3
5
9
2
1

2003

358

1143

408

94

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3
7
8
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12
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4.
.

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,

11

30

27

12

11

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24

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42

46

44

29

55

29

48

47

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41

47

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17

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3

8
57
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55
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20
54
19
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16
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16
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9
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10
58
8
24

18
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18
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43
13
30

17
45
18
21

17
41
15
27

L15. ?

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2.
3.
4.

18
57
20
5

100

100
100

100

L16. , -, ?

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2.
3. ,
4.

16
44
15
26

47
29
2
22

9
56
10
25

4
28
42
25

23
20
4
53

L88. , , 12 ?

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5.
6.

5
15
30
6
5
39

16
26
21
3
2
31

3
14
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2
7
25
11
14
41

7
14
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3

53

3
11
30
6
6
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5
15
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6
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39

L88a. , ?

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3.
4.

13
24
5
58

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23
1
51

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61

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56

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1
64

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7
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6
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42. (, , , ,), ,
?

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30
34
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9
29
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20
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11.
12.
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31
46
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18
59
19

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6
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28
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10
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26
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31
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21

7
24
40
29

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29
44
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22
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22

60
14
32
13
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34
11
16
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21

61
16
34
13
20

81
13
42
14
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48
11
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83
13
41
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63
15
36
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17
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36
10
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10
19

58
13
25
19
17

60
15
34
8
23

62
15
29
11
21

67
16
39
14
22

11

10

10

16

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15

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12

12

15

22

20

16

16

14

15

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13

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16

12

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11

13

13

13
2
12

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4
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10

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1
4

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6
22

4
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2

12
2
10

25
4
20

18
3
21

17
2
12

16
1
11

7
3
14

12
2
6

96
34
29
25
5
28
32
6

95
56
41
31
11
57
44
15

95
29
23
21
6
18
25
3

97
47
37
35
11
35
38
9

97
70
62
56
20
65
60
27

98
72
61
57
23
70
67
30

94
48
37
35
12
37
38
11

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50
44
36
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37
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41
32
28
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6

97
42
31
35
11
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38
8

O26. , :

93

1.
2.
3.
4.
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6.
7.
8.

46
33
5
16

97
47
38
36
12
38
40
12

95
68
53
53
19
49
54
16

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45
37
34
12
37
38
12

94

9.
10.
11.
12. -
13.
14.

75
28
28
29
8
2

O26d. ?

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2.

71
29

80
44
44
44
12
4

77
26
26
29
7
1

66
16
21
18
3
2

74
46
30
21
14
4

62
10
20
22
3
3

77
24
27
25
7
2

87
52
40
44
15
1

86
52
33
42
13
1

72
33
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27
6
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80
34
29
29
9
2

73
19
28
28
7
2

70
19
31
27
6
2

90
10

69
31

59
41

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17

56
44

70
30

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10

81
19

74
26

76
24

74
26

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41

57
30
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1

66
20
6
4
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78
13
5
3
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2

O26e. (, , )? , ?

1.
2. ,
3. 1
4. 2-3
5. 1
6. 1

63
25
6
2
1
2

44
39
10
5
1
2

68
22
5
2
1
2

74
16
4
1
2
2

42
42
13
0
1
2

83
9
4
2
1
1

65
21
7
3
1
3

49
44
4
1
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41
49
7
2
1
1

55
32
8
1
1
3

O26f. , , ( )? , ?

1.
2. ,
3. 1
4. 2-3
5. 1
6. 1

75
12
6
4
1
2

58
20
10
9
1
1

78
10
5
3
1
2

87
6
3
1
1
1

58
18
15
0
3
6

92
3
2
2
0
0

77
8
6
3
2
3

56
24
11
6
2
1

56
29
9
3
2
2

69
13
9
5
2
3

68
14
7
5
2
2

79
8
5
4
1
2

89
5
4
2
1
1

( .)
o15b_all/5.

6511.4

8391.3

6558.6

4575.7

7753.8

2510.8

5420.2

14293.4

13469.7

6379.2

7022.3

5479.6

4664.3

4730.4

8804.8

18357.2

21131.0

10737.3

10593.2

9486.7

8120.0

6802.9

7007.6

4921.0

3741.5

3719.1

5036.3

18683.8

17303.3

15607.0

13266.9

8218.3

8077.9

6982.4

6938.6

55174.4

104406.6

55892.4

51091.5

4494.8

4457.6

4067.0

3625.6

o6+o10. ( )

10957.0

13720.9

10250.7

9139.3

12855.8

O10. , , ?

4622.7

5938.0

3954.8

4390.5

4042.1

2688.0

3817.5

35. , , , ?

16861.7

19575.2

16095.9

15764.6

20608.7

12683.1

15425.7

24210.0

24855.3

37. , ?

7866.5

8360.0

7801.7

7562.1

8087.4

6266.5

7494.1

10705.7

11401.8

LL10. , ?

69343.9

88262.2

65635.0

61845.3

74186.8

47273.1

58658.3

125663.6

105501.3

LL11. , ?

4526.6

4348.4

4537.9

4544.2

5005.0

3382.0

4297.8

6445.9

8076.9

. ( 2008 .)
( % )

2003

179

479

1058

115

172

230

573

844

342

2
37
39
17
4

6
50
31
9
5

13
64
16
4
4

32
43
22
1
3

17
51
22
2
7

2
30
45
17
6

7
54
28
7
4

13
63
18
4
4

22
61
12
1
4

16
32
37
11
3
1

33
31
31
4
1
1

16
20
38
12
8
6

4
6
27
31
29
3

8
20
41
23
8
1

17
29
41
9
2
2

21
41
31
6
0
1

9. ?

1.
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5.

12
56
23
6
4

9a. , , ?

1.
2.
3. ,
4.
5.
6.

14
26
37
15
7
1

2
9
30
29
29
1

8
18
43
22
8
1

10. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1
15
56
22
4
2

1
24
56
19
0

0
6
42
44
6
2

1
18
69
10
1
1

6
43
44
5
1
1

16
50
20
4
9

0
20
56
21
2

0
3
53
39
4
1

1
15
69
11
1
3

3
43
50
2

100

100
100

93
7

21

100

37
33
42
1
0
7

12
36
64
1

3
19
67
4
0
10

1
8
72
17
1
7

1
15
50

2
18
42

10
39

2
27

1
6
43

1
14
47

1
26
47

O1f. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

9
24
53
5
0
9

11. , ?

95

1.
2.
3.

1
13
44

5
30

1
10
38

96

2003

179

479

1058

115

172

230

573

844

342

27
5
11

41
9
15

34
6
12

23
4
8

21
9
9

18
6
26

40
13
19

33
6
11

25
4
9

14
2
10

0
13
53
18
2
14

4
42
27
4
24

1
10
50
22
2
16

0
15
57
15
2
11

1
29
50
17
1
1

0
4
53
15

27

0
3
41
25
5
26

0
7
57
19
2
14

0
14
54
17
2
14

1
24
52
14
1
8

4.
5.
6.
12. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

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19
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31
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12

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19
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2003

98

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22. , ?

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34
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22
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7.73

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5.
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11

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100

2003

179

479

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573

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4.
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8.
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( .)
o15b_all/5.

6511.4

3957.0

5305.2

7232.8

10349.3

6068.5

3266.5

4768.5

6671.9

11659.7

10957.0

6674.5

10449.8

11207.5

15966.5

9586.3

5746.7

8325.0

10006.8

16971.0

4622.7

3554.8

4899.6

4684.9

5531.5

3837.8

5476.0

3798.9

4159.1

6022.1

16861.7

12622.1

15471.4

18089.5

18735.6

16347.5

11928.8

14646.7

18161.2

20521.8

7866.5

7081.4

7662.5

8061.7

8760.5

7460.1

6588.6

7128.2

8094.1

9382.3

69343.9

88987.3

72092.4

61856.5

87815.9

74801.3

55949.8

63500.0

77287.6

68808.8

4526.6

4274.4

4695.3

4500.6

4811.6

4282.7

3990.2

4166.0

4581.6

5354.4

o6+o10. ( )

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LL11. , ?

102

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654

995

225

129

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421

528

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466

193

681

718

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5.

12
56
23
6
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23
60
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2

6
57
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30

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10
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29

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46
13

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14
49
22

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12
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25

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17
51
18

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10
40
35

1
11
41
28

11. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.

1
13
44
27

1
23
49
16

1
7
45
31

2
5
28
40

0
13
38
25

5.
6.

5
11

2
9

12. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

0
13
53
18
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14

0
23
57
8
1
11

6
11

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4
20

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15

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12

7
9

4
6

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10

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17

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11

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13

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22
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32
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18

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19
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16

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58
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11
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15
2
20

0
20
59
9
1
10

1
9
47
28
3
12

8
54
16
1
22

S1. , ?

1.
2.
3.

47
19
34

66
8
26

41
22
37

19
43
37

38
15
48

23
37
40

41
22
37

45
22
32

63
14
23

53
10
37

48
17
36

71
7
22

30
33
37

40
16
44

13
45
18
11
13

30
46
7
1
16

16
45
18
5
16

29
48
9
3
10

29
50
9
3
9

40
48
5

34
51
5
1
9

34
47
5
3
10

48
45
3
0
4

18
51
13
5
13

28
50
7
1
14

5
23
30
21
20

9
35
14
6
36

6
26
22
20
26

7
42
21
10
20

10
38
24
6
22

13
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16
4
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13
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20

13
39
8
6
34

17
57
9
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15

5
32
27
15
20

7
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17
6
34

S2. .. ?

1.
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31
49
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10

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48
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33
50

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19. ?

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12
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4
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29. , ?

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4
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1
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106

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4.

18
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L16. , -, ?

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44
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L88. , , 12 ?

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5
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L88a. , ?

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13
24
5
58

20
25
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54

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23
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42. (, , ,), , , ,
?

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34
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43. , , , ?

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L17. ?

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7.
8. , -

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11.
12.
13.

30
28
14
28

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33
11
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25
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28
31

3
11
60
26

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26
48
19

8
23
48
20

12
49
27
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12
33
32
23

7
27
29
37

13
33
33
21

6
23
55
16

6
30
34
30

38
12
18
11
18

69
16
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23

81
9
49
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19
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56
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73
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52
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27

63
21
21
16
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27
19
10
10
16

53
11
32
13
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51
14
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23

67
14
36
14
21

61
14
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9
19

13

16

14

16

16

14

13

15

17

20

17

14

17

16

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28

22

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16

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2
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4
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2
4

14
3
8

33
4
23

13
1
15

14

23

16
2
15

10
2
6

13
2
14

97
47
38
36
12
38
40
12
75
28
28
29
8
2

97
64
51
45
17
51
51
18
81
43
36
40
12
2

107

O26d. ?

1.
2.

30
39
13
18

60
14
32
13
21

O26. , :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12. -
13.
14.

50
37
3
10

71
29

86
14

97
39
33
32
8
32
34
8
73
20
26
24
6
2

94
34
28
29
10
24
33
7
64
18
16
20
4
2

95
52
29
32
18
43
42
14
74
36
27
30
6
2

95
22
14
23
7
16
23
3
59
10
10
14
0
2

96
29
27
27
8
25
29
6
65
15
19
12
4
3

97
53
42
38
12
43
42
12
80
30
35
37
10
1

96
75
61
54
17
61
53
27
84
50
36
47
14
2

97
52
41
37
13
40
45
12
79
34
32
32
7
2

97
51
41
33
14
39
44
12
74
28
27
29
9
3

97
50
39
36
14
43
42
13
77
31
30
36
9
2

96
43
38
36
9
36
39
12
73
25
26
25
6
2

97
49
38
35
12
35
39
11
74
29
29
26
7
3

66
34

53
47

71
29

39
61

55
45

80
20

95
5

74
26

74
26

78
22

67
33

69
31

108

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,

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, ,

2003

654

995

225

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162

421

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233

466

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681

718

604

O26e. (, )? , ?,

1.
2. ,
3. 1
4. 2-3
5. 1
6. 1

63
25
6
2
1
2

46
38
10
3
1
3

72
18
5
2
1
2

82
14
0
2
0
0

55
34
6
1
3
1

85
8
4
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80
12
5
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64
23
6
3
1
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49
11
3
1
2

59
31
5
4
0
2

56
30
9

1
3

56
32
6
2
0
3

70
20
6
2
1
2

64
23
6
3
2
2

81
9
5
2
1
2

78
8
6
5
2
1

O26f. , , ( )? , ?

1.
2. ,
3. 1
4. 2-3
5. 1
6. 1

75
12
6
4
1
2

59
21
10
6
2
2

83
6
5
3
1
2

92
4
2
1
1
0

70
17
7
4

95
3
0
1
2
0

89
4
5
2

77
12
4
4
1
1

41
27
17
9
3
3

75
12
6
3
2
2

68
12
10
5
1
4

67
17
7
4
2
2

( .)
o15b_all/5.

6511.4

8438.6

5617.7

5180.8

6886.6

4308.2

5031.2

6278.3

10089.1

7030.4

7053.1

6664.9

6415.9

6459.6

8942.9

9964.3

15295.9

10880.8

12832.2

11261.7

10766.0

10829.8

4718.9

5444.6

4251.1

3837.2

4683.7

4519.8

4668.9

16979.3

17107.0

16781.3

16722.5

17118.5

8110.3

7645.9

7518.4

8042.4

8048.7

74485.2

68360.9

78833.0

62906.3

66248.9

4589.0

4880.7

4147.3

4701.4

4746.4

o6+o10. ( )

10957.0

13009.2

9664.7

9411.8

11356.4

7331.5

O10. , , ?

4622.7

5063.9

4170.9

4921.9

4468.6

2380.4

4649.6

35. , , , ?

16861.7

18465.7

16266.6

14899.8

16717.3

14717.6

14420.8

17812.7

20218.9

37. , ?

7866.5

8283.9

7613.8

7412.8

8598.5

7178.9

7573.5

7994.2

8289.1

LL10. , ?

69343.9

66270.4

68011.5

93359.6

50350.3

46829.5

48903.5

83983.4

79028.7

LL11. , ?

4526.6

4702.9

4394.1

4530.9

4660.2

4061.1

4486.9

4501.2

4575.6

III. ,
. , ( 2008 .)
( % )

1600

29

3049

50

722

878

404

581

615

336

924

340

1. , , , ?

1.
2.
9.

55
29
15

56
30
13

55
28
17

62
25
13

2. ( ) , 1992 .?

1.
2.
9.

36
37
27

36
37
27

36
37
27

43
21
36

3A. ?

1.
2.

86
12

84
15

88
11

93
6

58
27
14

48
34
18

62
25
13

55
29
16

50
34
17

42
33
25

26
51
23

46
32
23

35
35
29

30
45
24

88
11

80
18

87
12

88
11

83
15

3B. - ?

1.
2.

72
22

69
24

4A. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

8
36
43
11
2

9
35
43
11
2

73
20

79
16

70
23

68
24

71
21

72
22

72
22

8
36
43
10
3

11
45
38
5
1

7
35
45
11
2

8
29
45
15
3

10
40
40
7
2

9
35
43
12
2

6
33
45
13
3

7
30
43
15
5

11
42
32
12
4

6
32
44
14
5

6
26
43
19
6

9
36
36
15
4

7
33
40
16
4

5
28
45
14
7

17
42
27
15

12
51
23
14

17
40
29
14

16
40
27
16

16
49
21
13

14
44
28
15

18
36
31
15

16
31
35
9
8

18
32
28
12
10

18
33
28
9
12

17
33
32
11
7

19
31
30
10
10

16
35
27
9
13

4B. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

7
32
40
15
5

7
35
37
16
5

6. , ?

1.
2.
3.
9. ,

15
43
27
15

13
45
28
14

6. - ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

18
32
30
10
10

15
31
31
13
10

20
33
28
8
11

109

110

1600

29

3049

50

722

878

404

581

615

336

924

340

11

11

10

16

19

44

42

45

36

47

46

45

43

45

14

16

13

18

14

12

18

14

11

20

21

19

27

19

16

24

21

12

12

10

13

14

12

10

10

12

12

48
17
27
8

46
17
28
9

49
16
27
8

49
17
26
9

43
17
31
9

23
27
37
14

20
28
36
15

21
28
38
13

23
27
36
14

22
25
35
17

21. ?

1.
2.
3.
9.

47
17
27
9

49
17
26
8

46
17
28
9

49
17
25
9

21. ?

1.
2.
3.
9.

10. , ?

1. ,
2. ,

3. ,

4. ,

9.

22
27
36
15

24
28
34
14

21
26
38
15

25
24
36
15

22. ?

1.
2.

9.

22

24

20

20

23

22

23

20

24

67

66

68

69

67

67

66

69

65

11

10

12

11

11

11

11

11

11

24
58
12
2
5

24
57
11
2
7

25
51
10
3
11

26
49
16
2
6

24
58
9
1
8

22
53
11
4
10

22. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

24
55
11
2
8

26
54
11
1
7

23
56
10
3
8

. ( 2008 .)
( % )

1600

( 7000
.)

(7000
14000
.)

(14000
21000
.)

(
21000
.)

400

327

380

341

292

260

100
500 . 500 .

119

340

309

100 .
432

1. , , , ?

1.
2.
9.

55
29
15

65
25
10

55
29
16

55
28
17

50
31
19

2. ( ) , 1992 .?

1.
2.
9.

36
37
27

48
27
25

33
37
30

35
39
26

34
37
29

3A. ?

1.
2.

86
12|

93
7

82
15

89
11

83
16

60
28
12

49
32
18

51
36
13

60
24
16

62
26
12

57
26
18

39
38
23

30
48
22

29
48
23

37
30
33

49
26
25

39
30
31

90
10

83
16

85
14

88
9

88
11

87
11

3B. - ?

1.
2.

72
22

81
19

4A. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9. |

8
36
43
11|
2|

16
48
26
8
3

66
22

66
27

69
24

81
15

71
25

70
22

71
21

73
21

74
19

9
28
49
12
2

8
38
37
13
3

6
34
47
11
2

8
37
43
9
3

6
29
45
15
5

7
32
50
9
2

8
43
38
11
1

10
41
37
9
2

10
33
44
10
3

4
36
33
20
7

7
32
43
13
5

6
29
45
13
6

4
24
44
19
9

6
29
47
15
3

6
36
39
15
4

11
42
31
12
4

11
32
39
13
5

18
40
28
14

14
43
28
16

19
41
26
15

19
40
29
12

18
38
32
12

15
41
27
17

10
53
24
13

13
47
21
19

13
35
33
8
10

18
35
25
10
12

19
33
25
11
11

17
36
27
8
11

19
30
34
10
8

19
29
32
13
7

14
31
31
8
16

4B. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9. |

7
32
40
15
5|

15
48
23
10
4

9
27
44
18
2

6. , ?

1.
2.
3.
9. ,

15|
43
27
15

8
62
16
14

12
43
31
14

6. - ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

18|
32
30
10
10

8
34
35
15
9

21
29
27
13
10

23
28
30
8
11

111

112

1600

119

100
500 . 500 .
340

10. , ?

1. ,
2. ,

3. ,


4. ,

9.

( 7000
.)

(7000
14000
.)

(14000
21000
.)

(
21000
.)

100 .

309

432

400

327

380

341

292

260

11
44

3
44

5
47

7
50

12
43

19
37

22
39

10
50

6
45

6
46

7
37

14

16

18

13

14

11

10

12

18

17

14

20

25

21

20

17

20

17

19

18

23

22

12

11

14

13

11

13

19

46
14
33
7

48
18
27
7

44
15
32
8

48
18
26
8

52
16
25
8

45
17
26
12

26
26
36
12

24
29
35
12

24
23
40
13

21
30
35
13

25
26
34
15

18
25
35
22

21. ?

1.
2.
3.
9.

47
17
27
9

56
15
27
2

48
19
25
8

44
23
25
8

48
14
26
11

21. ?

1.
2.
3.
9.

22
27
36
15

31
20
40
10

20
34
35
12

21
27
37
16

20
23
37
20

22. ?

1.
2.

9.

22
67

40
48

18
70

13
73

20
69

28
64

23
67

25
68

17
73

24
64

20
64

11

12

11

14

10

11

10

11

16

17
62
10
2
9

24
52
13
3
8

26
49
12
2
10

21
60
10
2
7

25
57
10
1
7

25
51
15
2
6

24
57
7
3
9

22. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9. |

24
55
11
2
8

24
54
16
-6

26
52
11
3
7

32
52
8
2
7

. - ( 2008 .)
( % )

1600


(
. .)

(, ), ..

32

69

265

140

420

82

412

85

62

1. , , , ?

1.
2.
9.

55
29
15

66
21
14

60
24
16

60
27
13

58
30
12

2. ( ) , 1992 .?

1.
2.
9.

36
37
27

47
23
30

46
31
23

46
26
29

41
33
26

3A. ?

1.
2.

86
12

88
12

83
16

91
8

87
11

56
30
15

58
25
17

48
32
20

59
25
17

49
38
12

33
39
28

36
20
43

25
53
22

47
22
31

40
36
24

87
12

88
8

80
19

97
3

88
12

3B. - ?

1.
2.

72
22

65
25

69
23

4A. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

8
36
43
11
2

7
28
56
6
2

6
38
45
8
3

74
18

75
23

68
23

78
17

69
24

80
16

73
22

9
38
44
8
1

9
44
40
5
2

7
36
42
13
2

12
40
45
2
1

9
28
44
15
4

10
43
39
6
2

3
37
44
13
3

8
33
41
13
5

6
39
44
10
0

7
31
40
18
4

15
39
29
12
6

7
23
45
18
8

8
43
38
10
1

-43
29
21
7

14
47
24
14

14
50
26
11

17
38
29
15

6
58
18
18

17
40
27
16

14
42
32
12

13
46
33
8

15
31
37
11
5

19
29
29
11
13

19
28
36
13
4

18
29
28
10
16

18
39
24
8
11

18
31
27
10
13

4B. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

7
32
40
15
5

9
32
40
6
12

7
39
39
13
2

6. , ?

1.
2.
3.
9. ,

15
43
27
15

17
47
32
4

12
41
24
23

6. - ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

18
32
30
10
10

23
45
25
8
--

13
39
39
7
2

17
39
28
10
6

113

114

1600


(
. .)

(, ), ..

32

69

265

140

420

82

412

85

62

10. , ?

1. ,
2. ,


3. ,


4. ,

9.

11
44

-37

3
32

5
47

5
44

9
45

4
32

21
44

5
55

14
40

14

28

25

14

16

15

17

14

13

20

31

33

23

21

18

31

15

14

20

12

11

14

13

16

11

12

12

47
18
26
9

48
13
23
16

47
15
29
9

40
16
38
6

52
22
21
5

24
28
33
15

28
21
38
14

20
28
36
16

16
21
46
17

22
22
49
7

21. ?

1.
2.
3.
9.

47
17
27
9

46
10
33
11

44
12
37
6

45
18
29
7

56
19
17
8

21. ?

1.
2.
3.
9.

22
27
36
15

31
12
40
16

30
24
30
16

19
26
42
13

27
33
29
11

22. ?

1.
2.

9.

22
67

12
74

23
63

20
71

22
69

21
67

17
73

23
65

20
70

23
66

11

14

13

12

10

13

10

10

27
57
8
1
8

26
56
9
2
7

23
60
11
1
6

25
50
9
3
13

18
66
14
-3

21
59
13
2
6

22. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
9.

24
55
11
2
8

28
54
14
-4

26
48
11
8
7

21
56
15
1
7

List of Questions for the General Population

(Page numbers in brackets indicate where opinions and characteristics of various groups of population are presented!)
9. What could you say about your mood in the recent days? 1) Excellent mood; 2) Normal, calm condition;
3) I experience strain, irritation; 4) I feel fear, distress; 5) Difficult to answer. (73, 76, 82, 89, 95, 102)
9a. Speaking in general to what extent are you satisfied with the life you are leading now? 1) Quite satisfied; 2) Mainly satisfied; 3) Partly satisfied, partly not; 4) Mainly not satisfied; 5) Not satisfied at all; 6) Difficult to answer. (73, 76, 82, 89, 95,
102)
10. How would you evaluate the financial position of your family at present? 1) Very good; 2) Good; 3) Average; 4) Bad; 5) Very
bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (73, 76, 82, 89, 95, 102)
01f. What stratum of the society would you rather ascribe yourself to? 1) To the lowest one; 2) To the workers; 3) To the lowest
part of the middle stratum; 4) To the middle part of the middle stratum; 5) To the higher stratum; 6) Difficult to answer.
(77, 83, 90, 96, 103)
11. How would you evaluate the economic situation in your town, rural district? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad; 4) Very bad;
5) Difficult to answer. (73, 76, 82, 89, 95, 102)
12. How would you evaluate the economic situation in Russia? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad; 4) Very bad; 5) Difficult to answer.
(73, 76, 82, 89, 95, 102)
S1 Do you think things in Russia are going today in the right or in the wrong direction? 1) In the right direction; 2) In the wrong
direction; 3) Difficult to answer. (77, 84, 91, 97, 104)
S2 Do you approve of V. Putinsactivity of the President of Russia? 1) Undoubtedly yes; 2) Rather yes; 3) Rather no; 4) Undoubtedly no; 5) Difficult to answer. (77, 84, 91, 97, 104)
S3 Do you approve of the activity of the present Russias Government? 1) Undoubtedly yes; 2) Rather yes; 3) Rather no; 4)
Undoubtedly no; 5) Difficult to answer. (77, 84, 91, 97, 104)
13. What do you think, which of the statements given below describes better the situation having been developed? 1) Everything is not so bad and its possible to live; 2) Life is difficult but its possible to bear it; 3) Its impossible to bear our
disastrous situation any longer; 4) Difficult to answer. (74, 78, 84, 91, 97)
13A. What do you think, will you (your family) live better or worse then now in a year? 1) Better to a great extent; 2) Somewhat
better; 3) The same matter as now; 4) Somewhat worse; 5) Worse to a great extent; 6) Difficult to answer. (75, 78, 84, 91,
97,105)
13B. Which of the following statements most exactly describes your attitude to the present life? 1) I simply cant adapt to the
present life; 2) Ive got accustomed to the fact that I had to refuse from customary way of life, to live, limiting myself in
great and small; 3) I have to spin, seize upon any opportunity to earn only to provide a tolerable life for my family and
me; 4) I succeeded in using new opportunities to achieve more in life; 5) I live in the same way as before: nothing has
particularly changed for me in the recent years; 6) Difficult to answer. (79, 85, 98, 96,105)
14. What do you think, market reforms should be continued now or ceased? 1) Market reforms should be continued; 2)Market
reforms should be ceased; 3) I dont know, its difficult to answer. (79, 85, 98, 105)
19. How would you evaluate the political situation in Russia in general? 1) Safe, good; 2) Calm; 3) Strained; 4) Critical, explosive; 5) Difficult to answer. (79, 85, 98,105)
22. What do you think, will our life improve more or less during the coming year or there will be no improvement? 1) Will
improve; 2) There will be no improvement; 3) Difficult to answer. (79, 85, 98, 105)
26. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of V.Putin as the President of Russia? (79, 85, 88, 92, 98, 101, 105)
28. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the political life? 1) Considerable improvement of the situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse; 4) Considerable change of the
situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (75, 79, 92, 97, 106)
29. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the economic life? 1) Considerable improvement of the
situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse; 4) Considerable change of
the situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (75, 79, 92, 97, 106)
31a. What of the following problems of our society worry you most of all and which you believe to be the most urgent ones?
1) Poverty, impoverishing of the majority of population; 2) Prices growth; 3) Unemployment increase; 4) Economic crisis,
poor condition of industry and agriculture; 5) Increase of criminal offences rate; 6) Morals and cultural crisis; 7) Environment deteriorating; 8) Threat of explosions and other terrorist actions in your neighborhood; 9) Nationalism increase,
national relationships worsening: 10) Inaccessibility of many kinds of medical services; 11) Increase of drug addiction

2 (94) - 2008

115

rate; 12) Dramatic stratification into the poor and the rich, unfair income distribution; 13) Increase of education costs and
its inaccessibility; 14) Limitation of civil rights, democratic freedom (of speech, of the press, etc); 15) Corruption, bribery;
16) Dominance, arbitrariness of officials; 17) Impossibility of getting fair treatment in court; 18) Rudeness, cruelty of
militia servicemen; 19) Weakness of government authority; 20) Conflicts between various branches of power at different
levels; 21) Withholding wages, pensions, benefits, etc.; 22) Warfare in Chechnya; 23) AIDS sick rate growth; 24) Influx of
newcomers, migrants; 25) Something else (what particular); 26) Difficult to answer. (79, 85, 88, 93, 99, 106)
32. What do you think, to what extent mass violence of the population against the decrease of the living standard and for the
defense of their rights is possible now in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible; 2) Hardly possible; 3) I dont know,
difficult to answer. (98, 102, 106, 110, 114)
33. If such rallies and protest demonstrations happen, will you personally take part in them? 1) Most probably yes; 2) Most
probably no; 3) Dont know. (98, 102, 106, 110, 114)
33c. Is the protest movement with political demands possible in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible; 2) Hardly possible;
3) I dont know, difficult to answer. (81, 87, 93, 98, 104, 111) 35. How much money does your family need now per capita
month to lead a normal, to your idea, life? (98, 102, 106, 110, 114) 37. The income that would provide in respondents
opinion the the minimum living standard? (98, 102, 106, 110, 114)
L33. Which of the following population groups would you rather ascribe yourself to? 1) We hardly make both ends meet, there
is not enough money even for food; 2) There is enough money for food but clothes buying causes serious difficulties; 3)
There is enough money for food and clothes but buying the durable goods (TV-set, refrigerator, etc.) is difficultfor us;
4) We can easily buy durable goods. To buy really expensive things is difficult for us; 5) We can afford rather expensive
purchases apartments, dacha and many others. (80, 86, 93, 99, 107)
L15. How has the financial situation of your family changed during the last year? 1) Rather improved; 2) Remained the same;
3) Rather got worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
L16. How do you think the financial situation of your family will change in the nearest year? 1) Rather will improve; 2) Will
remain the same; 3) Rather will get worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
L88. To speak of the economical situation of the country on the whole, do you think the following 12 months will be a good or
a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good; 2) Good, but not in everything; 3) Neither good, nor bad; 4) Bad, but not in
everything; 5) Bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
L88a. To speak of the following five years, will they be a good or a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good;
2) Neither good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
42. To speak of the major purchases for the family (such as furniture, refrigerator, household electronics, TV set) do you think
this is on the whole a good or a bad time now for such purchases? 1) Good; 2) Neither good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult
to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
43. To speak in general, do you think this is a bad or a good time now to save up money? 1) Good; 2) Neither good nor bad;
3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107)
L17. Will you please tell us what makes the life of your family most difficult at present? 1) Low incomes, lack of money;
2) Fear of losing a job; 3) Poor health, problems with medical treatment; 4) Bad dwelling; 5) Every-day life difficulties;
6) Impossibility of giving good education to children; 7) Bad relations within the family; 8) Drinking or drug addiction of
a family member; 9) Fatigue and exhaustion; 10) Hopelessness and absence of prospects in life; 11) Lack of free time;
12) Something else;13) Difficult to answer. (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
026. Please, point out in the list given below the items youve got in your family: 1) Colored TV set; 2) Photo camera; 3)
Radio clock; 4) Mixer; 5) Electric drill; 6) Stereo radio system; 7) Separate freezing camera; 8) Microwave; 9) Video taperecorder; 10) Video camera; 11) Vacuum cleaner; 12) Home computer; 13) Piano; 14) Motor car bought new; 15) Motor
car bought second-hand; 16) Country-house (dacha), a house at garden plot; 17) House in a village; 18) Plot where you
grow vegetables, fruit; 19) CD player; 20) Home cinema; 21) Have got nothing of the listed. (81, 88, 94,101,109)
06+010. General respondents earnings during the last month. (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
010. How much money did you personally earn for extra work during the last month? (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
015b:5. Average income per capita during the last month: (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
025:5. Average per capita income: (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
LL10. What do you think, since what average monthly money income per capita a family may be considered a rich one? (100,
104, 108, 112, 116)
LL11. What do you think, with what average monthly money income at the rate for one person a family may be considered poor
one? (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
1. Do you believe things are going in the right direction today on the whole in our country or does the country seem to go the
wrong way? 1) Things are going in the right direction; 2) The country goes the wrong way;9) Difficult to answer
2. Have you personally, your family benefited by or lost due to changes that have been taking place in the country since 1992?
1) Have benefited; 2) Have lost; 9) Difficult to answer

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3A Do you approve or disapprove on the whole the activity of Vladimir Putin the as the President of Russia? 1) Approve; 2)
Disapprove
3B Do you approve or disapprove on the whole the activity of Dmitryi Medvedev as the First Vice-Prime Minister of the Government of Russia? - 1) Approve; 2) Disapprove
4A To what extent are you contented with whats going on in the country on the whole now? 1) Quite contented; 2) Mainly
contented; 3) Not quite contented; 4) Completely discontented; 9) Difficult to answer.
4B To what extent are you contented with the present economical course of the countrys leadership? 1) Quite contented; 2)
Mainly contented; 3) Not quite contented; 4) Completely discontented; 9) Difficult to answer.
6. Are we going through the most difficult time now or is it already behind or yet ahead? 1) We are going through it now;
2) It is already behind; 3) It is still ahead; 9) Dont know, difficult to answer
6A Are you worried by the threat of the coming world financial and economical crisis? 1) Certainly yes; 2) Rather yes; 3)
Rather no; 4) Certainly not; 9) Difficult to answer
10. What course do you think Russia should follow in the current conditions? - 1) Return to what there was in the Soviet
Union; 2) To change the trend of the reforms enhancing the role of the State in the economy and providing public welfare;
3) Continue the reforms gradually decreasing the role of the State in the economy and promoting more opportunities for
private enterprising; 4) To carry out social and economic reforms undertaken swiftly, resolutely and completely; 9) Difficult
to answer
21A. Who should real power in the country belong to after Dmitryi Medvedevs election President of Russia? 1) To Medvedev; 2) to Putin; 3) To both in equal degree; 9) Difficult to answer.
21B. Who will real power in the country belong to after Dmitryi Medvedevs election the President of Russia? 1) To Medvedev;
2) to Putin; 3) To both in equal degree; 9) Difficult to answer
22A. Will Dmitryi Medvedev act independently after his election the President of Russia or under the control of Vladimir Putin
and his environment? 1) Will act independently; 2) Will act under the control of Vladimir Putin and his environment; 9)
Difficult to answer
22B. Will Dmitryi Medvedev continue Putins policy or will he pursue a completely new policy? 1) Will continue Putins policy
exactly; 2) Will continue Putins policy in general; 3) Will gradually change political course; 4) Will pursue a completely
new policy; 9) Difficult to answer

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SUMMARY
Is Russia Becoming a Normal Society? (by
Richard Rose). Using the findings of the survey New
Russian Barometer carried out by Levada Center in
April 2007 the author analyzes what the Russians
imply by a normal society, whether the Russian
society is normal today and how much time it will
take it to reach a normal condition, if at all. According to the evidence of this one and other surveys
conducted by Levada Center the belief that the Russian society may become anyhow a normal one is
spread widely enough among the Russians and refutes the idea of the Russian exclusiveness, of mysterious Russian soul. The Russians see the main
hindrance to society normalization not in the
national manners and customs but in the policy of
countrys leadership, who turned out to be incapable
of making the officials observe the laws, of providing
more effective functioning of economy.
Application of Labor Legislation: the Role of
Judicial System (by Vladimir Gimpelson and Rostislav Kapelushnikov). The authors scrutinize the
variations in actual observing the labor legislation
from the perspective of the main actors of judicial
system, that is basing on the expert opinions of the
representatives of judicial bodies themselves. They
analyze the opinions of judges on the degree of observing the labor legislation; evaluate the activity of
judicial system according to available variations in
law application; outline the possible consequences
of insufficient enforcement of working law norms.
In the opinion of the majority of experts the violations of labor legislation are met far and wide, only
insignificant part of them being brought to sight of
judicial system. The main violators of labor legislation are employers. Observing labor legislation varies
greatly, and the existing differences are evaluated by
the majority of respondents as very significant. Essential variations in the enforcement of law norms
are noted in various regions, types of enterprises,
sections of working legislation. And though the Russian labor market is still extremely regulated selective observance of the norms of labor law creates
unjustified competition advantages just for the least
law-abiding enterprises.
The Russian Libraries Today: Is the State Returning? (by Valeria Stelmakh). The author analyzes
the situation with distributing books through mass

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public libraries and the way it is influenced by the


governmental policy of recent years: removing from
cultural and librarian space the major public foundations and organizations that had undertaken in
the 90-s of the XXth century systematic support of
mass libraries keeping them alive (Soros Foundation, Open Russia Foundation, etc.); significant
increase in governmental financing of libraries, first
of all of those belonging to the system of the Russian Federation Ministry of Culture; enforcing the
rhetoric of catastrophes about the present situation
of libraries in official texts. The author draws a conclusion that the libraries are being incorporated into
general governmental social and political programs
(patriotic education, creating the positive image of
Russia) even being used sometimes for pre-election
campaign of the power Party . As a result there are
still no libraries in the Russian society which it could
enjoy and might be proud of.
A Male Role and Gender Order (by Igor Kon).
The paper considers a normative canon of the male
and the idea of hegemonic masculinity (a strict standard of a real man) in the frameworks of post-industrial society of the last third of the XXth early
XXI-st centuries which is characterized by a crisis
of a customary gender order and traditional masculine ideology. The findings of numerous mass surveys in the countries of Western Europe show that
there is neither a common male life style, nor a common canon of masculinity there: though their values and beliefs are extremely contradictory, Western
European men are more and more oriented to the
principle of gender equality. The Russian data testify that the direction of masculinity transformations
and connected with them social and socio-psychological problems in Russia are principally the same
as in the Western countries. It should be noted that
in the course of social transformations during two
recent decades two opposite trends in the Russian
masculinity canon have developed: on the one hand,
the acknowledgement of ones own male insolvency,
and on the other hand, enhancing aggressive masculine ideology which is promoted by moods of moral
panics maintained in the society and the idealization
of male, and more over, warlike heroes of the past.
What do Similarity and Difference between Levada Center Pre-Election Forecast and Official Re-

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sults of Central Election Commission mean? (by


Denis Volkov and Alexey Grazhdankin). D.Volkov
and A.Grazhdankin analyze the techniques of collecting and processing the corresponding sociological data by Levada Center, evaluate a possible scope
of violations in the organization and in the process
of December 2007 Parliamentary Elections, examine the mechanisms of shaping electoral preferences
in different social layers. The authors come to a conclusion that the December elections had been won
by the present Administration long before they had
taken place: three fifths of the electorate had made
up their minds whom to vote for long before the beginning of the election campaign or at its very beginning; changes in electoral legislation in 2004-2007
eliminated non-system opposition. The picture
was completed after Vladimir Putin had announced
his intention to head individually the list of Yedinaya Rossiya (United Russia): then people voted in
order to join the majority and not to stay aside. Under the conditions of organized consensus between
the authorities and the most mass layers of population, under the strict control over electoral process
the voters behavior becomes predictable already at
its early stages, there is no longer any necessity for
large scale falsifications and the forecasts of sociological Centers coincide to a rather considerable extent with officially declared results of the elections.
Multiple Wavelet Analysis in Sociology (by Yekaterina Shustenkova). The attempt is made in the
article to apply wavelet transformation for quantitative analysis of long rows of sociological data - of the
findings of Public Opinion Monitoring which has
been carried out since April 1994 by Yury Levada
Analytical Center (previously VCIOM, VCIOM-A).
The answers to the questions on economical situation in the country and in the family, on political situation in Russia, on satisfaction with life, on moods,
etc. were used. The analysis carried out shows weak
differentiation of mass evaluations. Their scope is
extremely narrow: when individuals evaluate various indicators they tend to keep to only one certain
pole either positive or negative and extend the
chosen valency to all the rest evaluations irrespective
of the subject of appraisal. Comparative differentia-

tion of evaluations manifests itself only in the degree


of their polarization (from categorical to moderate
ones) and is more characteristic of negative rather
than of positive evaluative statements. Grounds for
discontent of the contemporary Russians are more
diverse than reasons for satisfaction.
Trial by Gazprom (by Sergey Nikolyuk). The
author who works at the Independent Institute for
Socio-economic and Political Studies analyzes the
dynamics of social dispositions in Byelorussia during
recent years, the evaluations of the citizens material
well-being, the influence of the expected increase in
prices over the latter, the level of electoral support for
A.Lukashenko and the main leaders of Opposition.
The shaping of consumer society under Lukashenko
regime will be accompanied by the growth of tension
which will lead not to changes in the current power
system but, on the contrary, to demands of restoring
a strong State.
A Note from the Field (by Yelizaveta Dyuk). The
paper presents a concise report on all-Russia survey
carried out by Levada Center and the Center for
Strategic and International Research with the aim
of finding out the opinions of 16-35 year old women
about the role of work and family in their lives, interrelations between the sexes, mens behavior towards
women at job-places, permissibility of sexual harassment on the part of teachers, bosses, fellow-workers
(March 2008, N=2000 persons). A number of questions were rather intimate therefore the interviewers information about the respondents attitudes to
the survey are of significant informative value. The
interviewers testify to rather considerable differences in reactions to more intimate questions and in
willingness to answer them between rural and urban
women, and to a considerably less extent between
women belonging to various age subgroups, as well
as specific attitudes to such questions on the part of
women from such regions as Karachayevo-Cherkessia. On the whole it was found out that by observing
certain conditions proper choice of interviewers,
guarantee of confidentiality it is possible to successfully carry out the surveys on the problems concerning the intimate spheres of peoples lives.

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