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3(95)
6 . 16-


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2008


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42

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76

I.

77
78

List of Questions for the General Population

116

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SUMMARY

118
120

II. ,


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109012, , . , 17. . : (495) 229 3810
E-mail: direct@levada.ru
()
119571, , . , 82. .: (495) 564 8582

,
77981 10 2003 .
-, , 2008

The Russian Public Opinion Herald


Data. Analysis. Discussions
3(95)
Bi-monthly

Analytic Centre
Yury Levada
(Levada-Centre)
The Interdisciplinary
Academic Centre for
Social Sciences
(InterCentre)

MayJune 2008

CONTENTS
MONITORING OF CHANGES: PRINCIPAL TRENDS
ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
Russias Becoming World Economic Power:
Achievements and Problems (Sergey MITSEK)
Belarus, Ukraine and Russia: East or West?
(Stephen White, Ian McAllister)
Middle Class As If: Opinions and Moods of High-income
Youth in Russia (Lev Gudkov, Boris Dubin and Natalya Zorkaya)

Tatyana Zaslavskaya
(Chair)
Abel Aganbeghian
Anatoly Vishnevsky
Tatyana Vorozheikina
Leokadia Drobizheva
Natalia Rimashevskaya
Teodor Shanin
Vladimir Yadov
Yevgenii Yassin
Editorial Board
Lev Gudkov
(Editor-in-Chief)
Boris Dubin
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Alexei Grazhdankin
Ludmila Khakhulina
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Marina Krasilnikova
Galina Sterlikova
Natalia Zorkaya
(Executive Secretary)

8
14

Football as a Catalyst of Patriotism (Lubov Borusyak)

27
42
51

Triangulation in content analysis: a case of in-depth interviews with


members of the Russian elite (Anton Oleinik)

62

Telephone justice in Russia (Alena Ledeneva, Natalia Shushanian)


Members of
the Editorial Council

INFORMATION: SURVEYS FINDINGS


I. Technical Notes
II. Attitudes, Opinions and Evaluations of the Population
List of Questions for the General Population
SUMMARY
Autors of the issue

76
77
78
116
119
120

:
1.
3,6
3,4
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2000 2007 . , -,
1.
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.
, ()
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-, (10% ,
2006 .) -.
1 .: Allison, Light and White (2006). Allison, Roy, Margot Light and
Stephen White. 2006. Putin's Russia and the Enlarged Europe. Oxford and
Maiden MA: Blackwell. Allison, Roy, Stephen White and Margot Light.
2005. Belarus between East and West // Journal of Communist Studies and
Transition Politics 21:4 (December). P. 487511.
www.lbss-gla.ac.uk/pQlitics/
inclusionwithourinembership;
http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/
ESRCInfoCentre/AdvancedSearchPage3.aspx.

14

, ,
,
XVI.;
2. - ,
:
,

3.
( ) ,
, , 1980- .
,

1991 .
,
,
. ,
,
.
1996 . ,
4. . -

. .: Snyder, Timothy. 2003. The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland.


Ukraine, Lithuania. Belarus. 1569-1999. New Haven CT: Yale University
Press. Plokhy, Serhii. 2006. The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Prempdern
Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. N. Y.: Cambridge University
Press.
3
Huntington, Samuel P. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking
of World Order. N. Y.: Simon & Schuster. P. 159.
4
Rice, Condoleezza. 2005. . http://news.bbc.
co.Uk/l/hi/world/europe/4472613.stm. 10
2007.
2

3 (95) - 2008


, ,


1994 .
, 1997.

, .

, ,
, 1997 .
,

, .
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.
, ( 2006 . 51% ,
,
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). , ,
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,
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, 1.
2004 .,


. , ,

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..
// .
2004. 3(30). . 45.

, , , 2.

.
, XIV XVII .
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.

- , , 1939 .,
. , , 1954 . ,
1944., .
, ,
.
2006 .,
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, 26%
. ,
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, 46% .
,
, ,
,
. 2006 ., 76%
77% -.
, 91%
78% -. 35%

- ,
8%.
,
.
3.
,

2
Allison, Roy, Stephen White and Margot Light. 2005. Belarus between
East and West // Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 21:4
(December). P. 490.
3 DAnieri, Paul. 2007. Understandine Ukrainian Politics: Power. Politics,
and Institutional Design. Armonk NY: Sharpe. P. 106.

3 (95) - 2008

15

, ; .
-
1.

,
:

.
- 1991 .,
.
2002 .,

2003 ., , , , 2002 . , .

,
, 2006 .
- 40%
.

2.
, 1997 ,
, ,
,
3.

.

., ,: Birch, Sarah. 2000. Interpreting the Regional Effect in


Ukrainian Polities. Europe-Asia Studies 52:6 (September). P.10171041;
Shulman, Stephen. 2004. The Contours of Civic and Ethnic National
Identification in Ukraine. Europe-Asia Studies 56:1 (January). P. 3555;
Barrington, Lowell and Erik Herron. 2004. One Ukraine or Many? Regionalism
in Ukraine and Its Political Consequences. Nationalities Papers 32:1 (March).
P. 53-86; Katchnovski, Ivan. 2006. Regional Political Dimensions in Ukraine
in 19912006. Nationalities Papers 34:5 (November). P. 507532.
2
www.ukrstat.gov.ua, 23 2008 .
3
Kuzio, Taras. 2007. Ukraine-Crimea-Russia: Triangle of Conflict. Stuttgart:
Ibidem-Verlag.
1

16

, 1994 . ,
2007 .
.

,
1997 .,
,

.
,
1994 . . 2002 . ,
, .

. 2006 .
-
. . , , ,

4.

-

(Cederman, Lars-Erik, ed. 2001. Constructing


Europes Identity: The External Dimension. Boulder CO and London: Lynne
Rienner. P. 1),
.

, , . (.: Baycroft,
Timothy. 2004. European identity, in Gary Taylor and Steve Spencer, ed..
Social Identities: Multidisciplinary Approaches. London: Routledge. P.154.).
Herrmann,
Richard K., Thomas Risse and Marilynn B. Brewer, eds. 2004. Transnational
Identities: Becoming European in the EU. Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield;
Buonanno, Laurie and Ann Deakin. 2004. European Identity, in Niall Nugent,
ed., European Union Enlargement. Basingstoke: Palgrave. . 84102;
Bruter, Michael. 2005. Citizens of Europe? The Emergence of a Mass
European.
White, Stephen, Julia Korosteleva and Roy Allison. 2006. NATO:
the View from the East, European. Security 15:2 (June). . 165190; White,
Stephen, Julia Korosteleva and Ian McAllister. 2008. A Wider Europe? The
View from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Journal of Common Market Studies
46 (forthcoming). Korosteleva, Julia and Stephen White. 2006. Feeling
European: the View from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Contemporary
Politics 12:2 (June). P. 193205. Identity. London: Palgrave.
4

3 (95) - 2008

2004 .1
,
2004 .,
.

,
. ,

2006 ., ,


2. , , 2008 . 3.
,
, , ,
,
,
(
,
,
).
, ,
, . ,
. ,
.
,

,
.
,
. .: Kuzio, Taras, ed. 2007. Democratic Revolution in Ukraine:
from Kuchmagate to Orange Revolution. Special Issue of the Journal of
Communist Studies and Transition Politics 23:1 (March); Wilson, Andrew.
2005. Ukraines Orange Revolution. New Haven and London: Yale University
Press; Aslund, Anders and Michael McFaul, eds. 2006. Revolution in
Orange: The Origins of Ukraines Democratic Breakthrough. Washington DC:
Carnegie; Hesli, Vicki L. 2007. The 2006 Parliamentary Election in Ukraine.
Electoral Studies 26:2 (June). P. 50711.
2
.: . 2006. 15 . . 6.
3
.: -. 2008. 15 .
1


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monitoring. Kyiv: Institut sotsiologii NAN Ukraini. 2006. . 17.

3 (95) - 2008

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Opinion, Voting and Legislative Behaviour. Europe-Asia Studies 52:2
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.143144.
2
., : Kubicek Munro, Neil. 2007. Which Way Does Ukraine
Face? Popular orientations Toward Russia and Western Europe. Problems of
Post-Communism 54:6 (November-December). P.4358.
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European: the View from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Contemporary
Politics 12:2 (June). P. 193205.
25

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and Ministry of Justice in Eugene Huskey (ed.) Executive Power and Soviet
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2006.
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7. . 126147, in Kornai, Janos, Bo Rothstein and Susan Rose-Ackerman
(eds.) Creating Social Trust in Post-Socialist Transition. N. Y. Palgrave
Macmillan, 2004; Woodruff, David. Law as a Threat to Property Rights:
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2006; Biberman, Yelena. The Spoils of Success: Dmitry Medvedev Opposes
State Confiscation of Privatized Property, in Theory. Russia Profile, April 10,
2008, accessed at www.russiaprofile.org (April 2008).
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998

0,5

92

15,5

37

86,0

4150

2,2

25

4,2

14

32,6

1076

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25

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15

34,9

929

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23

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26

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1455

0,8

.: Gray J., Densten I. Op. cit. P. 422.


.: ., ., . . . . 106.

1
2

3 (95) - 2008

65

,
,
(, ., [] 61+).

(, ., 5160).
.
, , ,
, ,
, (
, ., 5160).

(economy and infrastructure). (
2008 .), - ,


.
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, ,
.
( , ., 50).
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, .
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.

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,
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,
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66

(actions of power elite; power holders). ,


, .
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., 61+).
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(,
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3 (95) - 2008

),

.
,
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,
, ,
.
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., 5160).
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, . ,
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1.
,
. , , , ,
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, ,
, , , , ,
, ,
,
. ( , ., 50).
.: HarsanyiJ.
Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social
Situations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. P. 2225.
1

{,
? :
} .: 60,
20. { }
.: , (
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(uncertainty).
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.
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. 1860-.
, XVIII .
- 2.
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(, .,
50).
. , ,
- , ,
.
,
.
(, ., 50).

.: Lincoln W. B. The Great Reforms: Autocracy, Bureaucracy and the


Politics of Change in Imperial Russia. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University
Press, 1990; . : 1789
// : -
/ . . ,
.-. .: , 2008.

3 (95) - 2008

67

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., 5160).
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, , ( , ., 5160).
(popular support). 2.
.
. , (, ., 61+).
[] .
[]. (, .,
5160).

.: Ledyaev V. Power: A Conceptual Analysis. Commack, N.Y.: Nova


Science Publishers, 1997. P. 190191.
2
10- . , -, 5,78 ( 2005 .) 6,35 ( 2006
.). : . 3,90,
.: . . . . 2007.
4 (90). . 75.
1

68


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.: . : . .:
, 2006. . 163.

3 (95) - 2008

3
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129

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29

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122

14,2

31

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81

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29

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49

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21
23

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53,5

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74

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31

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28

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18

41,9

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18

41,9

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120

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27
30

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4
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TF-IDF

162
148
142
140
138
137
129
127
120
120
113

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0,4
0,3
0,3
0,3
0,3
0,3
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0,3

30
31
32
31
28
31
31
28
32
27
31

69,8
72,1
74,4
72,1
65,1
72,1
72,1
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62,8
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18,2
19,9
25,7
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15,4
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3 (95) - 2008

69

TF-IDF

101
101
100
100
98
97
97
96
96
96
94
94
94
93
92
92
92
91
90

0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2
0,2

32
30
32
30
30
29
27
29
27
22
32
32
29
29
31
30
27
26
30

74,4
69,8
74,4
69,8
69,8
67,4
62,8
67,4
62,8
51,2
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74,4
67,4
67,4
72,1
69,8
62,8
60,5
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12,8
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19,6
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2
-

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0.506**

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70

3 (95) - 2008

.

, .

,
(., 50 ).
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(iii).
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-,

.
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),
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1.
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.
,
,
20052006 .
-,

(Jaccards coefficient),
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(. 4).
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,
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:
-
.
..2,
1
. : . : // / . . . .: , 2005.
2
.: Mills W. C. The Power Elite. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1957.
.34.

3 (95) - 2008

71

4
, ,

5
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B

A
B

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170

33

11

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92

41

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38

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170

42

17

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15

35,7

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47

20

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19

40,4

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170

23

5,3

34,8

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16

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170

29

16

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14

48,3

4,3

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25

13

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12

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59

36

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31

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0,4297

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31

20

11,8

16

51,6

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170

25

15

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72

3 (95) - 2008

, , -
. . -,
(adverse selection): ,
.
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] : . ,
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: , ,

( 2005
2006 .) .

(
).
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, (2=12,024,
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(2=9,612,
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:
, , , ,
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.: . //
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3 (95) - 2008

73

: p<0,05

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2
. :
// . 2001. 5.
1

74

Brym R., Gimpelson V. The Size, Composition and Dynamics of the


Russian State Bureaucracy in the 1990 // Slavic Review. 2004. 1 (63).

3 (95) - 2008



, .
11
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3 (95) - 2008

75

:
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. , , ( 2008 .)
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76

2 (94) - 2008

77
83
90
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1
,
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2,3,4

2008 .

2 (94) - 2008

77

78

,
. ( 1995 . 2008 .)

( % )

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1990

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
.

2008

2008

2975

2107

2105

2101

2107

2107

2107

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1006

2007

4
37
42
11
7

4
36
43
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6

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36
39
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50
30
7
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52
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51
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57
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29
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L33. ?

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21

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80

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1990

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008
.

2008

2008

2975

2107

2105

2101

2107

2107

2107

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1006

2007

22. , , ?

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18
59
23

18
62
21

21
51
28

17
68
16

15
68
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12
63
25

33
44
23

26
50
24

30
49
21

22
54
24

30
46
24

23
52
25

29
46
25

29
43
29

34
36
30

39
37
24

43
30
27

3.42

5.45

4.72

4.27

4.54

4.08

4.05

3.70

4.22

4.61

5.51

5.62

--

3.28

--

--

--

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4
44
12
4
36

2
29
18
6
46

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35
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39

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26
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25
19
7
46

3
28
17
4
49

2
28
17
5
48

4
35
14
2
45

5
44
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2
37

4
41
12
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41

3
43
15
5
34

2
32
22
8
37

2
35
23
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33

1
23
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45

2
32
18
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43

1
27
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10
38

2
26
21
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44

2
31
19
4
44

4
30
17
6
43

7
41
15
5
32

4
37
20
6
34

27. 1 10 ?

3.83

3.52

3.76

3.11

27. 1 10 ?

--

--

--

2.62

2.75

2.82

28. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1
15
29
24
31

1
15
28
21
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2
18
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0
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1
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0
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37

29. , ?

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1
13
29
31
26

1
15
29
30
26

2
20
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15
39

0
16
31
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32

1
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0
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32. , / ?

1.
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31
55
15

27
53
21

24
58
18

40
43
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43
40
17

31
52
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16
67
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32
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18
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33. , , , ?

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3.

25
60
15

24
56
20

19
64
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25
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27
54
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22
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23
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18
69
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3
25
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9
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L15. ?

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5
39
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4

6
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53
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41
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-----

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5
33
32
29

6
31
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L88. , , 12 ,
, - ?

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----

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1
7
19

1
4
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6
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3
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L88a. , ?

1.
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------

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6
22
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4
15
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6
22
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7
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11

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15
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20
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17

43. , , ?

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251 (O25/5)

3
15
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8

3
17
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2
17
67
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5
16
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15

5
20
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18

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10
11
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6
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7
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8
23
9
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14
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8
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11
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59
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11
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61
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13
24
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58
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18
32
6
44
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16
29
4
50
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14
26
39
21

17
27
37
19

19
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31
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18
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24
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16

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26
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22
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28
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29
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17
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4
18
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19

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21

10
29
43
17

10
32
39
20

9
29
41
22

13
26
44
16

9
29
41
21

( .)
89.8

232.2

378.5

486.7

470.4

587.3

859.7

1437.2 1905.8 2199.0 2831.6 3419.8

4686.5

5550.8 6511.4 6451.6 7670.6

250 , ( )
(O6+O10+O1c)

148.7

432.9

736.0

829.1

974.8

1101.5

1802.3

2624.0

3392.5

4310.6

6177.9

7876.7

11478.8 10957.0 12012.9 12129.0

2799.6

2881.8

5779.6

13003.6 4622.7

5320.1

O10. , ?

88.5

292.8

428.0

445.0

443.7

689.4

961.5

1257.9

1643.2

1926.8

249 ( ), , , (35/5)

288.2

255 10% (q37-10%)

185.0

4414.0 6295.1

845.2

1224.4

1850.3

1776.6

2442.5

3176.9

4722.3

6376.0

8502.6

8776.8

9930.9

12563.0 14651.1 16861.7 17529.0 18913.4

408.5

491.7

598.1

690.9

904.1

1305.9

1880.4

2583.0

3160.9

3551.2

4136.0

4903.3

5883.0

6549.3

6770.9 7229.5

LL10. , , ?

0.0

0.0

4811.3

9197.5

7614.7

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LL11. , ?

0.0

0.0

313.7

334.4

470.8

579.6

847.2

1154.6

1565.0

1844.1

2257.9

2608.2

3042.3

3821.7

4526.6

4725.2 4947.1

81

82

. , , ( 2008 .)
( % )

1006

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5.

12
59
22
5
3
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5
1
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29

3049

50

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466

270

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12
67
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52
27
7
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18
70
9
1
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13
59
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49
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15
59
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59
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11
58
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27
59
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52
20
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50
30
7
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31
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19
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56
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53
25
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58
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11. , ?

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12. ?

1.
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6.

14
45
27
5
8
11

17
46
27
7
4
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12
44
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4
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21
48
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4
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27
4
5
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9
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18
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20
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22
1
12
22

S1. , ?

1.
2.
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55
19
26

S2. .. ?

1.
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4.
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10. ?

1.
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3.
4.
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6.

27
53
11
4
5

57
21
23

53
18
29

61
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24
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31
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11
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20
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27
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30
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1.
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6
33
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13A. , ( ) , ?

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5
22
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6
23
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5
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28
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13
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S6. , , , ?

1.
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4.
5.
6.

13
43
20
6
18

6
25
27
5
2
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29
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13B. - , .
?

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,

4. ,

5. , ,

6.

14

10

20

15

25

16

36

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33

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33

17

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15

11

20

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12

25

25

26

34

20

23

28

25

23

47
10
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51
18
32

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51
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22
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28
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52

14. , ?

83

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39
21
40

46
21
33

34
21
45

84

1006

19. ?

1.
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5.

9
47
25
4
16

29

3049

50

376

630

237

303

466

270

557

179

10
53
25
4
9

8
41
25
4
22

10
52
21
2
16

11
45
28
1
15

6
44
26
8
16

13
50
26
4
7

9
43
25
4
19

6
51
25
3
15

22. , ?

1.
2.
3.

39
37
24

45
35
20

26. . ?

7.37

7.39

27. .?

5.62

5.51

35
38
27

44
27
29

44
32
24

32
49
20

36
42
21

40
34
26

40
39
21

7.36

7.39

7.64

7.12

7.16

7.35

7.61

5.70

5.50

5.54

5.77

5.81

5.37

6.04

S13. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6
37
25
8
24

5
41
26
7
21

6
35
24
8
27

8
46
17
3
27

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34
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12
23

9
33
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8
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38
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10
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39
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7
49
16
3
25

6
42
11
2
39

3
43
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41

9
45
15
5
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5
37
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5
37

9
46
5
5
35

8
42
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3
30

4
35
22
6
32

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40
21
4
26

7
42
14
6
32

5
40
12
4
39

72
18
4
5

70
13
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12

71
14
3
12

75
15
2
8

68
17
8
8

61
22
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12

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14
3
10

78
12
6
4

23
40
16
21

32
42
11
16

21
48
17
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43
23
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25
42
23
11

23
41
18
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23
56
10
11

28. , ?

1.
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4.
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5
44
12
2
37

7
47
16
3
28

29. , ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

7
41
15
5
32

29aa. , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

71
15
4
9

29ab. , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

23
44
17
15

25
49
18
8

29ao. , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

20
37
13
30

23
40
14
23

29ac. , , ?

1. /
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3. /
4.

30
39
13
17

34
41
14
11

17
35
12
36

23
38
8
32

18
43
12
27

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31
18
31

20
36
23
21

18
38
11
32

24
36
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32

27
38
12
23

35
35
9
21

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46
10
17

29
37
19
15

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38
19
16

30
40
12
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34
39
11
16

27
35
23
14

30
29
32
10

23
36
29
11

27
34
24
16

35
31
25
9

29ad. , , (, ) ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

28
34
25
13

30
38
24
9

26
31
26
17

27
39
18
16

29ae. , , ( , ) ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

24
33
30
13

23
36
30
11

25
31
30
14

26
39
22
13

24
31
30
16

23
31
37
9

21
41
29
9

25
30
29
15

23
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33
9

10
42
33
15

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33
33
24

9
38
28
25

12
36
35
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8
37
35
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8
38
36
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9
33
35
23

13
46
25
16

17
33
21
28

15
38
26
22

19
30
18
34

19
41
16
23

17
34
23
26

16
26
24
34

15
39
27
20

17
31
21
31

20
34
16
30

37
33
12
18

38
32
13
17

36
34
12
18

39
31
14
16

35
35
13
17

37
32
10
21

31
35
19
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33
12
18

42
31
7
20

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28
15
23

31
29
10
31

34
34
10
22

36
28
11
25

28
25
14
33

27
32
16
26

34
28
13
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27
7
34

15
37
32
15

14
38
36
11

16
36
29
18

16
41
32
12

14
40
31
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17
32
35
17

12
41
36
12

15
36
34
15

19
38
27
17

15
35
25
25

12
39
30
20

17
32
22
29

18
34
25
23

13
42
24
22

13
31
28
29

12
35
34
20

15
35
25
25

16
37
18
28

29al. , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

10
37
33
20

29ap. , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

29af. , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

29ag. , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

32
29
12
27

29ah. , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

29an. , , ?

85

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

86

1006

29

3049

376

630

237

303

466

270

557

179

9
28
30
32

14
22
29
34

11
34
21
34

12
26
33
29

12
16
34
37

10
34
32
24

12
25
30
34

13
18
27
41

44
22
8
26

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28
12
26

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24
10
27

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23
8
23

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29
15
22

38
26
11
26

50
18
5
28

27
39
16
17

33
34
15
19

25
42
22
11

27
42
17
14

18
39
27
16

28
41
17
15

37
38
13
13

12
25
30
33
40
24
10
25

36
27
13
24

29ak. , , , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
4.

29aj. , , , ?

1. /
2. /
3. /
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71
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23
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28
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10
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4.

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29
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21
68
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22
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25
58
17

7
27
66

29
51
20

33. , , / (, , ) ?

99

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16
68
16

20
68
13

15
69
16

15
72
13

6
32
61

17
64
19

14
73
14

15
69
16

24
70
6

16
73
11

22
67
10

11
69
20

12
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100

..

464

202

103

189

191

265

258

1006

227

574

179

26

258

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4.
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12

37

21

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34

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20

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40

42

25

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40

49

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44

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17

10

18

39

39

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18

20

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15
56
24
4

20
62
17
1

38
55
5
3

28
61
11
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24
57
15
3

19
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16
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21
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20
3

25
54
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2

11
42
14
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50
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36
4
20

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46
6
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16
20

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9
27

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45
13
23

16
48
9
27

L15. ?

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3.
4.

23
57
17
3

100
----

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---

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--

L16. , -, ?

1.
2.
3.
4.

22
43
11
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26
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56
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25

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L88. , , 12 ?

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6.

6
24
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7
4
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6
2
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3
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14
15
15

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3
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20
28
10
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33

4
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8
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22

L88a. , ?

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4.

18
32
6
44

31
28
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38

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47

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9
79

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22
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1
21

5
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3
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5
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33

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?

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30
36
22
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51
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7

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43. , , , , ?

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33
38
15

9
20
54
17

13
23
46
18

( .)
o15b_all/5.

6451.6

8103.8

6376.8

4736.8

5174.9

2481.8

5602.6

14436.9

12698.2

6925.7

6623.1

5603.4

4478.4

5290.2

10175.7

17510.9

21464.0

13261.5

11040.4

10534.7

7613.7

6195.5

9296.2

4542.1

3057.6

3266.8

3279.1

21669.0

15236.1

15459.1

14623.3

6539.9

6986.1

6384.8

80409.5

67269.4

53085.8

69266.3

4331.3

4544.2

4666.9

4096.3

o6+o10. ( )

12012.9

13595.3

11655.4

9173.5

16397.6

O10. , , ?

4414.0

5385.2

3999.2

2474.4

5254.6

2064.5

3213.8

35. , , , ?

17529.0

19493.3

17093.7

16967.2

12993.4

13424.9

16357.5

23656.7

27118.9

116 , , , ? ( ) (.37 10%)

6770.9

7048.3

6835.0

6357.1

5699.0

6338.7

6470.3

8109.8

8717.1

6427.3

LL10. , ?

68477.4

69809.2

69100.0

62851.7

78331.0

62445.3

61769.1

77984.7

88453.5

LL11. , ?

4725.2

5001.0

4597.1

4831.3

4379.6

3717.5

4274.2

6597.2

7437.5

101

102

. ( 2008 .)
( % )

1006

120

297

385

190

4
40
35
19
2

8
55
27
8
1

9
67
18
2
5

26
60
14
0
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6
51
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7
1

17
70
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0
1

48
48
3
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5.

12
59
22
5
3

10. ?

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20
54
21
5
1

5
23
47
23
2

11. , ?

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3.
4.
5.
6.

14
45
27
5
8
11

4
28
43
16
9
19

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44
35
5
10
11

17
48
24
4
7
9

27
50
15
3
6
10

15
51
22
2
10
14

4
39
30
10
17
26

11
47
28
1
12
14

14
58
19
0
8
14

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49
15
1
7
8

32
49
19

51
17
31

59
11
30

65
20
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33
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17
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32
54
10
2
2

26
58
10
2
6

29
58
10
1
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12. ?

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55
19
26

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27
53
11
4
5

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11
44
17
9
19

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27
55

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48

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6
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41
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28

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104

1006

120

297

385

190

25
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11
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29
8

36
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24
48

49
13
37

54
21
25

1
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32
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21

5
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2
25

9
53
26
1
12

18
54
14
6
7

31
43
26

46
30
25

51
29
19

7.56

7.52

7.69

5.84

5.66

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3
36
27
8
26

4
42
24
5
25

14
41
19
6
20

2
42
12
2
43

6
45
13
1
34

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51
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22

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14. , ?

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39
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40

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9
47
25
4
16

22. , ?

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39
37
24

20
59
22

26. . ?

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5.87

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5.62

4.55

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3.
4.
5.

6
37
25
8
24

4
19
32
19
27

28. , ?

1.
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3.
4.
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5
44
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2
37

2
30
15
9
44

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4.
5.

7
41
15
5
32

2
24
27
11
37

29aa. , , ?

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4.

71
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9

45
23
18
13

73
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3
7

75
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9

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13
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50
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14

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33

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16

6
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39

16
32
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38
19
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33
20
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28
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8
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30
13
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40
14
10

29ab. , , ?

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4.

23
44
17
15

8
33
41
18

29ao. , , ?

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4.

20
37
13
30

9
28
25
38

29ac. , , ?

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4.

30
39
13
17

18
28
32
22

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4.

28
34
25
13

26
26
39
9

27
31
27
15

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4.

24
33
30
13

14
23
47
16

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4.

10
37
33
20

29ap. , , ?

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4.

17
33
21
28

29af. , , ?

105

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4.

37
33
12
18

106

1006

120

297

385

190

18
21
26
36

34
26
10
31

32
32
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27

40
32
11
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6
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26
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37
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7
9
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47

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43
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52
19
6
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32
43
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42
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23
11

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29ag. , , ?

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4.

32
29
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27

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4.

15
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15

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15
35
25
25

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12
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33

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25

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31
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32. , / , ?

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21
58
21

31
39
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15
65
20

22
58
19

21
60
19

33. , ?

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22
62
16

39
43
18

17
68
15

23
60
17

18
70
12

33. , , / (, , ) ?

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16
68
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16
63
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11
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18
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66
15

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4.
,
5.
,

12

100

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28

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13
69
17
2

24
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11
3

45
46
8
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6
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35
5
15

L15. ?

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23
57
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5
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54
5

L16. , -, ?

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22
43
11
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7
27
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30

L88. , , 12 ?

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5.
6.

6
24
34
7
4
25

1
5
40
12
16
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3
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31
32
7
2
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13
36
29
2
1
19

22
34
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42

30
35
4
30

L88a. , ?

1.
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3.
4.

18
32
6
44

0
27
19
53

11
28
6
55

107

108

1006

120

297

,

,
385

190

42. (, , , , ), , ,
, ?

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30
36
22
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17
18
52
13

17
39
30
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30
43
15
12

57
28
7
8

17
30
37
16

21
33
33
14

43. , , , , ?

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2. ,
3.
4.

13
26
44
16

6
16
66
12

6
20
55
19

( .)
o15b_all/5.

6451.6

3225.7

4658.8

7157.1

9637.6

12012.9

4231.5

8799.8

11678.7

15288.5

4414.0

797.0

2971.2

4466.3

6000.4

17529.0

12852.6

14319.7

18867.3

21874.7

6770.9

6337.9

6724.8

6860.9

6913.9

68477.4

58242.6

65603.6

74671.8

66605.2

4725.2

3970.7

4357.1

4722.2

5548.9

o6+o10. ( )

O10. , , ?

35. , , , ?

116 , , , ? ( ) (.37 10%)


LL10. , ?
LL11. , ?

. , , ( 2008 .)
( % )

, ,
,

"", ,

, ,

1006

288

543

116

59

78

213

265

128

259

63

401

367

238

9. ?

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5.

12
59
22
5
3

23
66
9
1
2

9
59
25
5
2

2
43
34
18
2

5
56
27
1
11

10
27
42
19
3

5
51
33
8
3

9
63
22
3
2

29
62
6
1
3

11
68
14
5
2

14
58
17
4
7

17
62
18
2
2

7
54
28
8
3

10
60
18
9
3

4
44
22
28
1
2

7
51
37
5
1
1

9
57
27
5
2
2

49
48
3
--1

31
58
10
1
0
3

22
55
18
1
3
4

26
60
10
4
0
2

16
50
28
5
2
1

14
49
30
6
1
3

10. ?

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3.
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5.
6.

20
54
21
5
1
2

32
61
4
3
0
2

15
54
28
3
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2

11
35
33
20
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1

24
55
13
1
7
7

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2.
3.
4.
5.

14
45
27
5
8

25
55
14
2
4

12. ?

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4.
5.
6.

15
51
22
2
10
14

22
62
11
0
4
11

12
42
33
5
9

3
30
41
18
8

13
55
10
1
20

6
40
29
21
5

5
43
38
4
10

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47
32
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7

31
52
12
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20
41
24
4
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23
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1
14

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3
6

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9
38
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7
16

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49
24
1
12
16

2
36
42
12
8
13

15
42
16
1
26
24

4
46
30
17
3
18

5
50
31
1
13
15

16
53
22
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16

26
54
14
1
5
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18
49
18
1
14
12

24
52
11
1
12
20

23
60
11
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6
10

9
45
35
3
8
12

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44
19
4
22
22

55
16
28

71
10
19

59
18
23

45
11
43

74
4
21

42
34
24

42
22
37

S1. , ?

1.
2.
3.

55
19
26

78
6
16

52
17
31

26
58
16

34
22
44

39
34
27

47
28
25

109

110

, ,
,

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2003

654

995

225

129

162

421

528

233

466

193

681

718

604

S2. .. ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

27
53
11
4
5

34
59
4
0
2

27
56
9
3
5

14
33
27
18
9

21
46
20
0
12

17
46
11
19
8

25
58
13
1
3

27
54
9
5
6

29
64
3
2
2

33
49
14
1
3

24
41
13
1
20

42
53
2
2
1

16
55
18
4
6

19
51
15
5
10

5
18
27
37
13

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( .)
o15b_all/5.

7908.2

6135.7

4134.0

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4445.0

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11141.3

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List of Questions for the General Population

(Page numbers in brackets indicate where opinions and characteristics of various groups of population are presented!)
9. What could you say about your mood in the recent days? 1) Excellent mood; 2) Normal, calm condition;
3) I experience strain, irritation; 4) I feel fear, distress; 5) Difficult to answer. (73, 76, 82, 89, 95, 102)
9a. Speaking in general to what extent are you satisfied with the life you are leading now? 1) Quite satisfied; 2) Mainly satisfied; 3) Partly satisfied, partly not; 4) Mainly not satisfied; 5) Not satisfied at all; 6) Difficult to answer. (73, 76, 82, 89, 95,
102)
10. How would you evaluate the financial position of your family at present? 1) Very good; 2) Good; 3) Average; 4) Bad; 5) Very
bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (73, 76, 82, 89, 95, 102)
01f. What stratum of the society would you rather ascribe yourself to? 1) To the lowest one; 2) To the workers; 3) To the lowest
part of the middle stratum; 4) To the middle part of the middle stratum; 5) To the higher stratum; 6) Difficult to answer.
(77, 83, 90, 96, 103)
11. How would you evaluate the economic situation in your town, rural district? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad; 4) Very bad;
5) Difficult to answer. (73, 76, 82, 89, 95, 102)
12. How would you evaluate the economic situation in Russia? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad; 4) Very bad; 5) Difficult to answer.
(73, 76, 82, 89, 95, 102)
S1 Do you think things in Russia are going today in the right or in the wrong direction? 1) In the right direction; 2) In the wrong
direction; 3) Difficult to answer. (77, 84, 91, 97, 104)
S2 Do you approve of V. Putinsactivity of the President of Russia? 1) Undoubtedly yes; 2) Rather yes; 3) Rather no; 4) Undoubtedly no; 5) Difficult to answer. (77, 84, 91, 97, 104)
S3 Do you approve of the activity of the present Russias Government? 1) Undoubtedly yes; 2) Rather yes; 3) Rather no;
4)Undoubtedly no; 5) Difficult to answer. (77, 84, 91, 97, 104)
13. What do you think, which of the statements given below describes better the situation having been developed? 1) Everything is not so bad and its possible to live; 2) Life is difficult but its possible to bear it; 3) Its impossible to bear our
disastrous situation any longer; 4) Difficult to answer. (74, 78, 84, 91, 97)
13A. What do you think, will you (your family) live better or worse then now in a year? 1) Better to a great extent; 2) Somewhat
better; 3) The same matter as now; 4) Somewhat worse; 5) Worse to a great extent; 6) Difficult to answer. (75, 78, 84, 91,
97,105)
13B. Which of the following statements most exactly describes your attitude to the present life? 1) I simply cant adapt to the
present life; 2) Ive got accustomed to the fact that I had to refuse from customary way of life, to live, limiting myself in
great and small; 3) I have to spin, seize upon any opportunity to earn only to provide a tolerable life for my family and
me; 4) I succeeded in using new opportunities to achieve more in life; 5) I live in the same way as before: nothing has
particularly changed for me in the recent years; 6) Difficult to answer. (79, 85, 98, 96,105)
14. What do you think, market reforms should be continued now or ceased? 1) Market reforms should be continued; 2)Market
reforms should be ceased; 3) I dont know, its difficult to answer. (79, 85, 98, 105)
19. How would you evaluate the political situation in Russia in general? 1) Safe, good; 2) Calm; 3) Strained; 4) Critical, explosive; 5) Difficult to answer. (79, 85, 98,105)
22. What do you think, will our life improve more or less during the coming year or there will be no improvement? 1) Will
improve; 2) There will be no improvement; 3) Difficult to answer. (79, 85, 98, 105)
26. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of V.Putin as the President of Russia? (79, 85, 88, 92, 98, 101, 105)
28. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the political life? 1) Considerable improvement of the situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse; 4) Considerable change of the
situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (75, 79, 92, 97, 106)
29. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the economic life? 1) Considerable improvement of the
situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse; 4) Considerable change of
the situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (75, 79, 92, 97, 106)
31a. What of the following problems of our society worry you most of all and which you believe to be the most urgent ones?
1) Poverty, impoverishing of the majority of population; 2) Prices growth; 3) Unemployment increase; 4) Economic crisis,
poor condition of industry and agriculture; 5) Increase of criminal offences rate; 6) Morals and cultural crisis; 7) Environment deteriorating; 8) Threat of explosions and other terrorist actions in your neighborhood; 9) Nationalism increase,
national relationships worsening: 10) Inaccessibility of many kinds of medical services; 11) Increase of drug addiction

116

2 (94) - 2008

rate; 12) Dramatic stratification into the poor and the rich, unfair income distribution; 13) Increase of education costs and
its inaccessibility; 14) Limitation of civil rights, democratic freedom (of speech, of the press, etc); 15) Corruption, bribery;
16) Dominance, arbitrariness of officials; 17) Impossibility of getting fair treatment in court; 18) Rudeness, cruelty of
militia servicemen; 19) Weakness of government authority; 20) Conflicts between various branches of power at different
levels; 21) Withholding wages, pensions, benefits, etc.; 22) Warfare in Chechnya; 23) AIDS sick rate growth; 24) Influx of
newcomers, migrants; 25) Something else (what particular); 26) Difficult to answer. (79, 85, 88, 93, 99, 106)
32. What do you think, to what extent mass violence of the population against the decrease of the living standard and for the
defense of their rights is possible now in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible; 2) Hardly possible; 3) I dont know,
difficult to answer. (98, 102, 106, 110, 114)
33. If such rallies and protest demonstrations happen, will you personally take part in them? 1) Most probably yes; 2) Most
probably no; 3) Dont know. (98, 102, 106, 110, 114)
33c. Is the protest movement with political demands possible in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible; 2) Hardly possible;
3) I dont know, difficult to answer. (81, 87, 93, 98, 104, 111) 35. How much money does your family need now per capita
month to lead a normal, to your idea, life? (98, 102, 106, 110, 114) 37. The income that would provide in respondents
opinion the the minimum living standard? (98, 102, 106, 110, 114)
L33. Which of the following population groups would you rather ascribe yourself to? 1) We hardly make both ends meet, there
is not enough money even for food; 2) There is enough money for food but clothes buying causes serious difficulties;
3)There is enough money for food and clothes but buying the durable goods (TV-set, refrigerator, etc.) is difficultfor us;
4) We can easily buy durable goods. To buy really expensive things is difficult for us; 5) We can afford rather expensive
purchases apartments, dacha and many others. (80, 86, 93, 99, 107)
L15. How has the financial situation of your family changed during the last year? 1) Rather improved; 2) Remained the same;
3) Rather got worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
L16. How do you think the financial situation of your family will change in the nearest year? 1) Rather will improve; 2) Will
remain the same; 3) Rather will get worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
L88. To speak of the economical situation of the country on the whole, do you think the following 12 months will be a good or
a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good; 2) Good, but not in everything; 3) Neither good, nor bad; 4) Bad, but not in
everything; 5) Bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
L88a. To speak of the following five years, will they be a good or a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good;
2) Neither good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
42. To speak of the major purchases for the family (such as furniture, refrigerator, household electronics, TV set) do you think
this is on the whole a good or a bad time now for such purchases? 1) Good; 2) Neither good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult
to answer. (99, 103, 107, 111, 115)
43. To speak in general, do you think this is a bad or a good time now to save up money? 1) Good; 2) Neither good nor bad;
3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (99, 103, 107)
L17. Will you please tell us what makes the life of your family most difficult at present? 1) Low incomes, lack of money;
2) Fear of losing a job; 3) Poor health, problems with medical treatment; 4) Bad dwelling; 5) Every-day life difficulties;
6) Impossibility of giving good education to children; 7) Bad relations within the family; 8) Drinking or drug addiction of
a family member; 9) Fatigue and exhaustion; 10) Hopelessness and absence of prospects in life; 11) Lack of free time;
12) Something else;13) Difficult to answer. (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
026. Please, point out in the list given below the items youve got in your family: 1) Colored TV set; 2) Photo camera; 3)Radio
clock; 4) Mixer; 5) Electric drill; 6) Stereo radio system; 7) Separate freezing camera; 8) Microwave; 9) Video tape-recorder; 10) Video camera; 11) Vacuum cleaner; 12) Home computer; 13) Piano; 14) Motor car bought new; 15) Motor car
bought second-hand; 16) Country-house (dacha), a house at garden plot; 17) House in a village; 18) Plot where you grow
vegetables, fruit; 19) CD player; 20) Home cinema; 21) Have got nothing of the listed. (81, 88, 94,101,109)
06+010. General respondents earnings during the last month. (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
010. How much money did you personally earn for extra work during the last month? (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
015b:5. Average income per capita during the last month: (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
025:5. Average per capita income: (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
LL10. What do you think, since what average monthly money income per capita a family may be considered a rich one? (100,
104, 108, 112, 116)
LL11. What do you think, with what average monthly money income at the rate for one person a family may be considered poor
one? (100, 104, 108, 112, 116)
1. Do you believe things are going in the right direction today on the whole in our country or does the country seem to go the
wrong way? 1) Things are going in the right direction; 2) The country goes the wrong way;9) Difficult to answer
2. Have you personally, your family benefited by or lost due to changes that have been taking place in the country since 1992?
1) Have benefited; 2) Have lost; 9) Difficult to answer

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117

3A Do you approve or disapprove on the whole the activity of Vladimir Putin the as the President of Russia? 1) Approve;
2)Disapprove
3B Do you approve or disapprove on the whole the activity of Dmitryi Medvedev as the First Vice-Prime Minister of the Government of Russia? - 1) Approve; 2) Disapprove
4A To what extent are you contented with whats going on in the country on the whole now? 1) Quite contented; 2) Mainly
contented; 3) Not quite contented; 4) Completely discontented; 9) Difficult to answer.
4B To what extent are you contented with the present economical course of the countrys leadership? 1) Quite contented;
2)Mainly contented; 3) Not quite contented; 4) Completely discontented; 9) Difficult to answer.
6. Are we going through the most difficult time now or is it already behind or yet ahead? 1) We are going through it now;
2) It is already behind; 3) It is still ahead; 9) Dont know, difficult to answer
6A Are you worried by the threat of the coming world financial and economical crisis? 1) Certainly yes; 2) Rather yes;
3)Rather no; 4) Certainly not; 9) Difficult to answer
10. What course do you think Russia should follow in the current conditions? - 1) Return to what there was in the Soviet
Union; 2) To change the trend of the reforms enhancing the role of the State in the economy and providing public welfare;
3) Continue the reforms gradually decreasing the role of the State in the economy and promoting more opportunities for
private enterprising; 4) To carry out social and economic reforms undertaken swiftly, resolutely and completely; 9) Difficult
to answer
21A. Who should real power in the country belong to after Dmitryi Medvedevs election President of Russia? 1) To Medvedev; 2) to Putin; 3) To both in equal degree; 9) Difficult to answer.
21B. Who will real power in the country belong to after Dmitryi Medvedevs election the President of Russia? 1) To Medvedev;
2) to Putin; 3) To both in equal degree; 9) Difficult to answer
22A. Will Dmitryi Medvedev act independently after his election the President of Russia or under the control of Vladimir Putin
and his environment? 1) Will act independently; 2) Will act under the control of Vladimir Putin and his environment;
9)Difficult to answer
22B. Will Dmitryi Medvedev continue Putins policy or will he pursue a completely new policy? 1) Will continue Putins policy
exactly; 2) Will continue Putins policy in general; 3) Will gradually change political course; 4) Will pursue a completely
new policy; 9) Difficult to answer

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SUMMARY
Russias Becoming World Economic Power:
Achievements and Problems (by Sergey Mitsek).
Using the data of domestic and world statistics the
author considers the tempos, directions and contradictions of Russias economical growth during
recent years. The author sees the main problem in
exclusively adaptive character of socio-economical
life of our country and in weakness of the process
of intensive development: insufficient innovations in
production sphere, lack of attention in enterprises
and companies to research and developments and
in contrast, extremely great emphasis on purchasing
equipment and technologies. Such one-sided character of economics leads to grave problems in society: growing inflation, deterioration of population
health, low level of retirement welfare, grave condition of agriculture and agricultural population. The
author suggests the system of measures for changing
the present situation.
Belarus, Ukraine and Russia: East or West?
(by Stephen White, Ian McAllister). Belarus and
Ukraine are lands in between, pulled by their language, religion and history towards the West but also
towards the other former
Soviet republics with which they were for so
long associated. The evidence of national representative surveys between 2000 and 2007 suggests that
feelings of Europeanness have been declining,
as also in Russia (which is included for comparative purposes); so has the wish to join the European Union (although it remains a popular option),
or NATO. Soviet nostalgia has been declining in
parallel, more so in Belarus and Ukraine than in
Russia; but there is a strong wish in all three countries to associate more closely within the Commonwealth of Independent States. Crosstabulating, the
evidence suggests that Ukraine is the most sharply
polarised between these two foreign policy orientations, and the one in which popular attitudes are
most likely to constrain the actions of its governing
authorities.
High-income and Educated Youth in Large Cities
on Russia and the West (by Lev Gudkov, Boris Dubin and Natalya Zorkaya). The paper scrutinizes the
findings of the survey of 1000 Russian citizens with
high (above $1000) per capita incomes and higher

education who live in Moscow, St.Petersburg and


other 12 large cities of the country. The survey was
carried out by Levada- Center in April-May 2008 to
the order of EU-Russia Centre (Brussels). The authors analyze respondents evaluations of the general situation in Russia, the level of its stability; the
respondents ideas about the urgent issues the country faces; the level of their involvement into political life and their ability to influence the situation in
the country; evaluations of comparative opportunities for representatives of this social layer in Russia
and the West, reaction of the West to contemporary
Russia and its economical growth; respondents attitudes to legal and informal ways of solving their own
problems; their dispositions to their own and their
childrens leaving the country for abroad. The conclusions are drawn that in many important respects
young, educated and successful Russians are close to
the majority of the Russian population and that they
are characterized by a considerable divergence between the way of life, rather similar to modern world
standards and the way of thinking which preserves
alot of peculiarities of mass consciousness including
those specific for the Soviet man.
Telephone justice in Russia (by Alena Ledeneva, Natalia Shushanian). The paper investigates
the predicament of the Russian legal system associated with the phenomenon of telefonnoe pravo or
telephone justiceinformal influence or pressure exerted on the judiciary. It offers a conceptual
framework for the analysis of informal influence and
empirical findings about forms of telephone justice.
Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, I
assess the spread of the practice and discover that
it does not have to be pervasive to be fully effective.
The quantitative data were obtained from the allRussia national survey conducted in 2007 and are
complemented by subsequent in-depth interviews
with experts.
Football as a Catalyst of Patriotism (by Lubov
Borusyak). The author analyzes the phenomenon of
mass Russian audiences interest in football during
European championship (June 2008). The author
views this phenomenon as a game ritual of mobilization with the help of mass media, observes rapid rise
and as rapid fall of collective euphoria, the behav-

2 (94) - 2008

119

ior of well-known politicians, leadership of Russian


Orthodox Church, of mass culture stars in the process of such cohesion of all as one person (joining
the majority). The attention is paid to the behavior
of the Russians in which the elements of spectators game (a term by Yuri Levada) and Carnival
play are combined when the borders between the
stage and the audience are erased and hundreds of
thousands of people with the symbols of the Russian
state on their faces, clothes and cars fill the streets
of the capital and large cities of the country. The paper analyzes mass mythology of victory and defeat,
symbolism of a chance, fortune and misfortune, the
figure of the Russian national team coach as a kind
of the savior of the Nation.

Triangulation in content analysis: a case of indepth interviews with members of the Russian elite
(by Anton Oleinik). The article offers a new approach toward triangulating results of qualitative
and quantitative content analysis, instrumental and
representational interpretation of the data. The proposed model for triangulation incorporates three
types of questionnaires: correlational, based on substitution and codes for qualitative content analysis.
A quantitative measure for assessing the degree of
convergence consists in Pearsons correlation coefficient between the values of Cosine coefficients in
all the three cases. The model is tested on the basis of
a sample of transcripts of interviews conducted with
members of Russian power elite in 2005-2006 by researchers of the Levada-Center.


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120

2 (94) - 2008