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E-mail: direct@levada.ru
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77981 10 2003 .
-, , 2008 ISSN 2070-5107

The Russian Public Opinion Herald


Data. Analysis. Discussions
2(100)
Quarterly

Analytic Centre
Yury Levada
(Levada-Centre)
The Interdisciplinary
Academic Centre for
Social Sciences
(InterCentre)

Apriljun 2009

CONTENTS
MONITORING OF CHANGES: PRINCIPAL TRENDS
For Readers

3, 54, 102, 113


6

RUSSIAN AND POST-SOVIET SOCIETIES, THEIR CHANGES


The Conditions of the Soviet Man Reproduction (by Lev Gudkov)

The North Caucasus Instability and Contemporary Russian Geopolitical


Culture (by Vladimir Kolossov and Gerard Toal)
38
Vectors and Levels of Collective Identification in Todays Russia
(by Boris Dubin)
Members of
the Editorial Council
Tatyana Zaslavskaya
(Chair)
Abel Aganbeghian
Anatoly Vishnevsky
Tatyana Vorozheikina
Leokadia Drobizheva
Natalia Rimashevskaya
Teodor Shanin
Vladimir Yadov
Yevgenii Yassin
Editorial Board
Lev Gudkov
(Editor-in-Chief)
Boris Dubin
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Alexei Grazhdankin
Ludmila Khakhulina
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Marina Krasilnikova
Galina Sterlikova
Natalia Zorkaya
(Executive Secretary)

My main ethical principle (by Yuri Vantsev)

55
65
85
95
103

The Soviet Cinematography as an Object of Modern


Cultural Reception and Audience Attachment (by Maria Pravdina)

114

The Orthodoxy of the Society without Religion (by Natalya Zorkaya)


The Lost Chance (by Alexis Berelowitch)
Byelorussian Mirror ( by Sergey Nikolyuk)

SCIENTIFIC LIFE
Towards the Study of Closedness Phenomenon
(by Alexei Levinson)

127

Autors of the issue

129

SUMMARY

130

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Minnesota, 1996; Dalby S., Tuathail G. Rethinking Geopolitics. L.:
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P.601628.
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.: OLoughlin J., Tuathail G., Kolossov V. A Risky Westward Turn?
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P.114.
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New Eurasianism // Transactions, Institute of British Geographers NS. 1999.
Vol. 24. 4, P. 481500; .., ..
. .: -, 2001; Tsygankov A.P.
Rediscovering National Interests after the End of History: Fukuyama,
Russian Intellectuals, and a Post-Cold War Order // International Politics.
2002. Vol. 39. 4; Tsygankov A.P. Mastering Space in Eurasia. Russias
Geopolitical Thinking after the Soviet Break-Up // Communist and PostCommunist Studies. 2003. Vol. 35. 1. P. 101127.
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.601628.
2

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for Separatist Sentiment in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the North Caucasus
of Russia: A Comparative Analysis of Survey Responses. Paper presented
at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association,
Philadelphia, September 1, 2006 [http://www.colorado.edu/ibs/waroutcomes/manuscripts.html]. .: .. , . .
// . 2008. 4. . 2747.

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International UP, 1959; Idem. Identity, Youth, and Crisis. N.Y.: W. W.Norton,
1968 (. . 1996).
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Interkulturelle Literatur in Deutschland / Carmine Chiellino, Hrsg. Stuttgart:
Metzler, 2007.
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McGill-Queens UP, 2001.
4
. : http://nouvellerevuemoderne.free.fr/chvavar.htm.
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Institutions // Armed Forces and Society. 1986. Vol. 13. 1. P. 938.
2
.: . . . 93 ; .
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Rivista italiana di geopolitica. 2009. 2. P. 2526.
.
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SUMMARY

The Conditions of the Soviet Man Reproduction


(by Lev Gudkov). One of the theoretically necessary
tasks of post-Soviet society research which constitute
the problem core of the research project The Soviet
Man (19892009) should be considered the development of conceptual connections between the construction Homo soveticus and the constructions of
its reproduction. The findings of empirical surveys
that have been carried out during 20 years make us
revise and reveal non-worked out points and weaknesses of conceptual apparatus of analysis and interpretation of the data got. One of the most important
problems among them is to clarify the process of the
Soviet man socialization, the ways in which the reproduction of this type of man is carried out in the
situations of particular institutional structures decay.
After a short review of the history of the question
about the nature of the Soviet man and his ideal
typical pattern in the works of Yu.Levada the author
examines the structure of the concept social institution drawing special attention to reproduction functions of an institution and to the differences in institutional trust in Western democratic societies and in
Russia where after the collapse of the Soviet system
authoritarian regime has established. It is necessary
to do for turning again to the problems of the Soviet
man reproduction and peculiarities of socialization
processes under post-Soviet conditions taking into
account the revealed differences of formal and informal relations in post-Soviet Russia.
The North Caucasus Instability in Contemporary
Russian Geopolitical Culture (by Vladimir Kolossov
and Gerard Toal). A Russian and a U.S.-based political geographer explore how geopolitical cultures
and traditions function in imagining and discursively
framing events in specific regions within a particular
state. More specifically, this paper undertakes a focused examination of competing elite storylines in
Russian geopolitical culture about the North Caucasus during an eventful year (October 2005September 2006). The paper first summarizes Kremlin,
left/Communist, national-patriotic, and liberal storylines on the basis of a content analysis of major

130

periodicals representing each of these viewpoints,


followed by a survey of the opinions of ordinary citizens in the North Caucasus (N = 2 000) regarding
the validity of these storylines.
Vectors and Levels of Collective Identification in
Todays Russia (by Boris Dubin). In the article the
author gives sociological interpretation of the notions
identity and identification that had started to enter the lexicon of the Russian political analysts, journalists, and politicians in the middle of the 1990-s.
The author is reconstructing socio-political context
of these notions actualization in Russia in comparison with their development in the USA in the 1950
1960-s (E.Erikson, T.Parsons, E.Goffman). He
distinguishes temporal and spatial aspects of identification, analyzes the role of the past and, in particular, the national classics, the canon in the processes of identity construction as in particular case
of collective self-classification and self-description,
as well as more and more widely spreading in modern globalizing world societies and cultures without
the classics. The data of sociological surveys carried
out by Levada Center in 1990-2000 show that in the
Russians collective notions about themselves the
minimal significance is attached to generalized universalistic meanings, to value stresses on the future
and, on the contrary, retro-orientations and the tasks
of demarcation from others, aliens, the West
(the metaphors of the specific way of Russia) are
maximally expressed.
The Orthodoxy of the Society without Religion
(by Natalya Zorkaya). Resting on the vast body of
data collected by Levada Center surveys during many
years the author observes the changes in the composition of the Orthodox Russians, analyzes understanding by the masses the faith and the entire sphere
of the other world, the level of participation in the
life of the church communities. While in the period
of reconstruction (perestroika) the growth of the
number of Orthodox followers was a part of general processes of countrys democratization and in
Yeltsins period it was connected with search for na-

2 (100) 2009

tional identity, during Putins rule identification with


the Orthodox denomination has become akind of a
token of belonging to the State in which rhetoric the
Great Power components are increasing, isolationism and xenophobia are growing. Anti-Western and
anti-modern dispositions of todays Russian Orthodox Church correspond to attitudes, fears and stereotypes of the masses legitimized by Putins power. The
low share of really true Orthodox believers and their
extremely weak participation in parishes life correlate with similar low indicators of social involvement,
civil participation of a post-Soviet man. During two
recent decades the Church not only didnt acquire a
considerable number of new Orthodox followers but
even lost them. As the author shows parishioners
are not the main concern of bureaucratizing Church
nowadays which is demonstratively becoming closer
to the State authorities and in which conservative and
fundamental tendencies are prevailing.
The Lost Chance (by Alexis Berelowich). The paper dwells on the role of intelligentsia in the processes of Gorbachevs perestroika (reconstruction) and
during the first period of Yeltsin Presidency observing the interaction of social processes and tendencies that are traced back to pre-revolutionary Russia,
Stalins epoch, Khrushchevs thaw, Brezhnevs
stagnation, thus scrutinizing the interrelations of the
Soviet and the socialist during the late stages of the
USSR and after the Union disintegration. The author
scrutinizes ideological positions of different fractions
of the educated community (from conservative to reformative ones), the degree of their proximity to or
distance from the power. The main attention in the
article is paid to intelligentsia withdrawal from the
most important alternative democratic way authoritarian way and on their persistent counterposing the Communist danger to anti-Communist (but
not always in everything democratic) opposition, and
hence unconditional support for Yeltsin in his withstanding the Communists. The intelligentsia who
had entered the power used to explain the failure
of liberalization by the peoples unpreparedness to
democratic regime. The idea of a prolonged modernizational transition to the future democracy through
adopted now in this or that way authoritarianism has
won.
Byelorussian Mirror ( by Sergey Nikolyuk). Relying on the data of Byelorussia public opinion surveys S.Nikolyuk suggests to consider Byelorussia under A.Lukashenko leadership as an heuristic model
of the processes of the Russian society development.
He analyzes from this perspective the reaction of
Byelorussian population to the 2008 Caucasian war
and recent conflicts between Russia and Byelorus

sia, re-orientation of Byelorussian leaders among


other reasons under the influence of world economic
crisis to rapprochement with the West (European
turn), increasing the direct foreign investments in
Byelorussian economy, transition to economic liberalization (Byelorussian NEP[New Economic
Policy]) with the corresponding course to improving
business climate within the country and Byelorussian
image in the world public opinion (re-make of perestroika).
My main ethical principle (by Yuri Vantsev). The results of interview at Moscow, Samara,
Perm are presented in the article. The target of poll
(N=412) was to clear up the question about what action rules addressed by respondents to other people
and what rules they put in place of moral law (general moral regulations). Also respondents was asked
about of the Moral Code of the Builder of Communism matter. As positive result of poll author marks
gradual increasing of number people who recognize
the Golden Rule as their main ethical principle. Also
author formulate the existing moral convention
that determine the moral face of modern society.
The Soviet Cinematography as an Object of Modern Cultural Reception and Audience Attachment (by
Maria Pravdina). The findings of one part of the authors culturological research project carried out in
20082009 are presented and interpreted in the article. Using the data of 25 semi-structured interviews
with the audience of the Soviet films of various ages
and social statuses in Moscow, Samara, Saratov, Rostov-on-the-Don, Archangelsk, and Novosibirsk the
author analyzes the spectators ideas about the Soviet
cinema; their attitude to ideological component of
the Soviet movies; the reasons for the spectators interest to them (in comparison with Hollywood ones);
the meanings of the past and the forms of respondents recollections about the past, the forms of spectators updating the past as its mastering; the role of
the Soviet films in modern everyday communications
of respondents.
In the section Scientific Life Alexei Levinson
reports about the XVII Bannye Readings that were
conducted on April 24, 2009 in Moscow by the
journal Novoye Literaturnoye Obozreniye (New
Literary Review) where the theme Anthropology
of the Closed Society was discussed. At the Conference specialists from Russia, the USA, Portugal,
Spain, Japan and a number of other countries presented 17papers in which they analyzed the experience of the closed societies in the USSR, Portugal,
Spain, Japan; the problems and difficulties of their
transition from the state of closedness.

2 (100) 2009

131


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