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, 2009

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E-mail: direct@levada.ru
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119571, , . , 82. .: (495) 564 8582

,
77981 10 2003 .
-, , 2008 ISSN 2070-5107

The Russian Public Opinion Herald


Data. Analysis. Discussions
4(102)
Quarterly

Analytic Centre
Yury Levada
(Levada-Centre)
The Interdisciplinary
Academic Centre for
Social Sciences
(InterCentre)

OctoberDecember 2009

CONTENTS
MONITORING OF CHANGES: PRINCIPAL TRENDS

3, 37, 49, 68

PROBLEMS OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY AND OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH


Political Mechanics of the Russian Power (by Nikolai Petrov)

Members of
the Editorial Council
Tatyana Zaslavskaya
(Chair)
Abel Aganbeghian
Anatoly Vishnevsky
Tatyana Vorozheikina
Leokadia Drobizheva
Natalia Rimashevskaya
Teodor Shanin
Vladimir Yadov
Yevgenii Yassin
Editorial Board
Lev Gudkov
(Editor-in-Chief)
Boris Dubin
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Alexei Grazhdankin
Ludmila Khakhulina
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Marina Krasilnikova
Galina Sterlikova
Natalia Zorkaya
(Executive Secretary)

Peculiarities of Inter-Parties Struggle in Russian Regions


(by Alexandre Kynev)

24

Political Regime in Russia of the 2000-s (by Emile Payin)

38

Authoritarian Regimes of the XX-th Century and Russia


(by Tatyana Vorozheikina).

50

Population in Crisis: Put off Lessons (by Marina Krasilnikova)

69

Employers and Employees under the Crisis (by Natalya Bondarenko)

78

Particular Features of Historical Memory in Belarus


(by Alexey Lastovsky)

88

FROM RECENT HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGY


Late Soviet Society in Yury Levadas Sociology of the 1970-s
(by Boris Dubin).

100

SCIENTIFIC LIFE
Levada Center Conference 2009 (by Ludmila Primako)

107

Guide for Intellectual Space (by Irina Trotsuk)

110

Autors of the issue

115

SUMMARY

116

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 2009

118

60

40

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2
Linz J.J. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes. Boulder: Lynne Rienner
Publishers, 2000. P. 54.
3
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4
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5
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1



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51


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.: Linz J. p.cit. P. 5455.
2
.: Ibid. P. 53.
3
Levitsky S., Way L.A. The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism //
Journal of Democracy. 13 (April 2002). P. 51. C.: Collier D., Lewitsky S.
Democracy with Adjectives // World Politics. 49 (April 1997).
4
.: Stepan A. The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil.
Princeton: Princeton UP, 1971; Authoritarian Brazil: Origins, Policies and
Future. New Haven: Yale UP, 1973; Stepan A. State and Society. Peru in
Comparative Perspective. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1978; ODonnell G.
Modernization and Bureaucratic Authoritarianism. Berkeley: Institute of
International Studies, 1972; Ideml. Reflections on the Patterns of Change in
the Bureaucratic-Authoritarian State // Latin American Reserch Review 13.
(1978. 1); Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America. Pittsburgh:
Pittsburg UP, 1977; The New Authoritarianism in Latin America. Princeton:
Princeton UP, 1979.
1

52

'
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deepening
)
, , ,
8.


Cardoso F.H. On the Characterization of Authoritarian Regimes in Latin
America // The New Authoritarianism in Latin America. Princeton: Princeton
UP, 1979. P. 33.
6
O'Donnell G. Reflections on the Patterns of Change in the BureaucraticAuthoritarian State. P. 6.
7

-, . ,
.
,
, , ,

.
8
O'Donnell G. Op.cit. P. 56.
5

4 (102) 2009

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1944), (19571986),
- (19651997).
vs. . (.: Stepan A. State and Society. Peru in Comparative
Perspective. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1978).
2
., : Shamis H. Reconceptualizing Latin American
Authoritarianism in the 1970s: From Bureaucratic Authoritarianism to
Neoconservatism // Comparative Politics 23 (January 1991); ,
. , . '
(.: Linz J. Op.cit. P. 195).
3
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P.153).
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4
. ' Tensions in the
Bureaucratic-Authoritarian State and the Question of Democracy ( .:
The New Authoritarianism in Latin America. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1979.
P. 288289) el
pueblo lo popular, people
. , (. : O'Donnell G. Counerpoints.
Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1999. P. 3637).
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da revoluo brasileira de 1935. So Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1993.
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4 (102) 2009

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4 (102) 2009

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4 (102) 2009

115

SUMMARY

The main body of this issue articles concerns


contemporary political regime of Russia, its correlation to totalitarian and authoritarian regimes in
world political systems.
Political Mechanics of the Russian Power (by
Nikolai Petrov). The author examines specific features of the present establishment under over controlled democracy focusing on the issue of effectiveness and social consequences of decisions made
by the authorities (centralization of administration,
lack of foolproof mechanisms, accumulation of
systemic defects and producing crisis phenomena,
aggravation of conflicts between clans and groupings
within elites, inability of power system to reproduce
itself, in other words, potential instability).
The author considers the main characteristic of
todays political regime to be the increasing primitivization of social and political set-up, weakness
and decay of societys institutional structure, and
development of sub-institutions instead of it controlled from above in the form of pseudo parties
(Yedinaya Rossia), consulting councils, commissions, public consulting rooms, etc. Transformations
of the procedure and functions of Russian elections
of the 2000-s are viewed as an example of such substitution. All specific features of power technology analyzed in the article shape extremely narrow
frameworks for modernization proclaimed by top
authorities and this brings about prerequisites for
systemic crisis in the country.
Peculiarities of Inter-Parties Struggle in Russian Regions (by Alexandre Kynev). A.Kynev analyzes the process of turning the Russian parties into
a peculiar mechanism of administrative control over
political activity of citizens (in the authors terms
institutional counterfeit) during the 2000-s. In
todays Russia there are actually no parties in traditional meaning of this word. The so-called Parties are supported by Federal bureaucracy, since
election and party reforms of the 2000-s deprived
regional political elites of their influence to a maxi-

116

mal degree. This didnt lead to their controllability


but decreased the area of publicity and changed the
form of settling the inner-elite conflicts. The former
inter-Party competition is being replaced by innerParty one as well as by public inner-party scandals,
lobbies intrigues and anonymously waged informational wars. Institutional imitation described in
the article decreases the effectiveness of governing
and leads the authorities to personnel deadlock.
Political Regime in Russia of the 2000-s (by
Emile Payin). The author expressing his solidarity
with Juan J.Linzs approach and using the data of
Levada Center surveys describes todays political
structure of Russia as authoritarian patrimonial regime which has substituted the decayed totalitarian
one and partially inherits its features and partially
demonstrates new ones. According to the authors
opinion, this regime is characterized by traditionalism without traditions (not tradition but inertia),
resources economy, redundant role of government
authority with legitimacy deficit, degeneration of
society, and population apathy. The author comes to
a conclusion that such regimes are not suitable for
carrying out the policy of modernization.
Authoritarian Regimes of the XX-th Century
and Russia (by Tatyana Vorozheikina). The author
scrutinizes Putinism against a wider social and
political background of similar and close regimes in
the countries of the XX-th century. Developing the
ideas of G.O Donnell and J.Linz the author thoroughly analyzes, basing mainly on Latin-American
data, different traditionalistic authoritarian regimes
and various regimes of authoritarian modernization
comparing Putins regime with them. The conclusion is made that Putins regime is authoritarian but
along with this it is incapable of institutionalizing
authoritarianism. This is the regime of non-structured, dispersed authoritarianism which strongly
hampers developing social and political protest
against it in the society.

4 (102) 2009

Two more articles of the issue deal with social


problems engendered by world economic crisis.
Population in Crisis: Put off Lessons (by Marina
Krasilnikova). The article traces the reactions of
Russian population to the economic crisis: expectations of inflation, fear of unemployment, apprehension of rouble devaluation, family incomes, evaluations of their own situations, etc. The author comes
to the conclusion that the Russians are facing the
crisis in domestic economics which, besides common for all countries reasons, has grave own reasons
and therefore is deeper and more durable. For the
present the authorities have managed to cope with
the difficulties of the crisis situation by means of
handle control and put off the tasks of modernization for the future. However, the author stresses,
they will have to be solved anyway.
Employers and Employees under the Crisis (by
Natalya Bondarenko). The author analyses the data
of Levada Center surveys concerning the reactions
to the economical crisis of the employees at the
enterprises of different property types in various
sectors of economy comparing the findings of 1998
and 2009 years. N.Bondarenko concludes that the
situation in 2009 is less dramatic than it was in
1998. Nevertheless in a number of branches that
had been most influenced by the crisis industry,
construction employees chose such means of
solving their problems as protest actions, street rallies
more often than in other branches of economy. At
the same time the reaction of employees in social
sphere was rather that of people dependent on the
government who tend in all cases to adapt passively
to the situation.
Particular Features of Historical Memory in Belarus (by Alexey Lastovsky). The author sums up
and generalizes the data of three National sociological surveys carried out in 2008-2009, analyzing their
variations in different socio-demographical and socio-cultural groups. The data analyzed are grouped
around three indicators: 1) population beliefs about
the origins of Byelorussian statehood; 2)picking out
the key events for various groups in the history of

Belarus (arousing the feelings both of pride and bitterness, shame); 3) evaluations by mass population
of the most important historical figures. These data
allow the author to show quite noticeable replacement of generations. At the same time the memory
of the victory in the Great Patriotic war remains the
central event for all the groups. However, according
to the author, beyond these narrow limits the symbols and figures of the Soviet history cant anymore
serve as a uniting factor for historical memory and
national identity of Byelorussians. In contrast to it
pre-Soviet Byelorussian history with the figures of
Francisc Scorina and Euphrosinia Polotskaya perform this function quite successfully.
Late Soviet Society in Yury Levadas Sociology
of the 1970-s (by Boris Dubin). The paper is dedicated to theoretical articles by Yu.Levada of 19741984 years and some of his later works as patterns of
sociological analysis of the Soviet society and culture of the seventies, one of the most significant
formative periods for the Soviet society as a system.
The author distinguishes the following key issues in
Levadas analysis: social morphology of the Soviet
society (first of all, peculiarities of relationship center periphery, the phenomenon of provincialism);
reproductive system of post-Soviet society and failures in reproduction of the Soviet regime in 1930-s
- 1940-s; game structures of social action and their
borders (the phenomenon of ceremonial behavior);
the phenomena of single and short-time turningpoint (the notion of avalanche) and the forms of
adaptation to them (routinization of emergency);
resources of partial, adaptive, imitative reconstruction of the former system (anthropological construction the Soviet man, the phenomenon of
ersatz elites).
In the concluding Section Scientific Life
Ludmila Primako gives a report on annual Levada
Center Conference on the 2009 results, and Irina
Trotsuk reviews the volume of publications of International Symposium The Ways of Russia - 2009,
dealing with schools, approaches and generations of
social and humanities scholars molding modern intellectual sphere of Russia.

4 (102) 2009

117

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LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 2009




Ashkinazi L., Vekshtein M. Ethnic Preferences in Leasing Apartments in Moscow
1
Ashkinazi L., Gainer M., Kuznetsova A. Studying Society through Internet
3
Berelowitch A. The Lost Chance
2
Bondarenko N. Employers and Employees under the Crisis
4
Borusyak L. Universal National Exam (UNE) as a Mirror
for the Russian Education Problems
3
Dubin B. Vectors and Levels of Collective Identification in Todays Russia
2
Dubin B. Late Soviet Society in Yury Levadas Sociology of the 1970-s
4
Dubin B., Zorkaya N. Russian Education System in Population Evaluations
3
For Readers
2
Gudkov L. Are there Grounds for Theoretical Sociology in Russia?
1
Gudkov L. The Conditions of the Soviet Man Reproduction
2
Gudkov L. The Nature of Putinism
3
Gudkov L. Time and History in the Russians Consciousness (Part I)
3
In Memoriam Victor Zaslavsky
3
Kolossov V., Toal G. The North Caucasus Instability and Contemporary
Russian Geopolitical Culture
2
Kossova L. The Society of Non-accumulation
1
Krasilnikova M. Economic crisis in mass attitudes
1
Krasilnikova M. Population in Crisis: Put off Lessons
4
Kynev A. Peculiarities of Inter-Parties Struggle in Russian Regions
4
Lapina-Kratasyuk E. Politics and Media Reality: Shaping up Public Opinion about
the Last Caucasus War
1
Lastovsky A. Particular Features of Historical Memory in Belarus
4
Levinson A. Towards the Study of Closedness Phenomenon
2
Levintova E., Butterfield J. Shaping History and Attitude to it: School Textbooks
on Modern Russian History
3
Mitzek S. Russia: Entering the Crisis, the Crisis, and the Way out of the Crisis
1
Nikolyuk S. Byelorussian Mirror
2
Payin E. Political Regime in Russia of the 2000-s
4
Petrov N. Political Mechanics of the Russian Power
4
Pravdina M. The Soviet Cinematography as an Object of Modern Cultural Reception
and Audience Attachment
2
Primako L. Levada Center Conference 2009
4
Rimskyi V. The Impact of Internet on Social Activity of, Shaping and Developing Identities 1
Rose R. Reaction to Transformation: Trends in Russian Public Opinion
1
Rose R., Mishler W.Corruption as Perceived and Experienced: Russia as a Test Case
3
Satarov G. The dynamic citizens and entrepreneurs evaluations of judicial system
1
Trotsuk I. Guide for Contemporary Intellectual Space
4
Vantsev Yu. My main ethical principle
2
Vladimir Yadov at eihgty: congratulations
1
Vorozheikina T. Regimes of the XX-th Century and Russia
4
Zorkaya N. The Orthodoxy of the Society without Religion
2
Zvereva G. What are We to be Called Now? Formulas of Collective
Self-identification in Contemporary Russia
1

4 (102) 2009

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3849
523
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8696
628
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4755
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103113
117
5068
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7285

119


2010
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4 (102) 2009