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2006 .

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. EGEE
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1. ...........................................................................................................- 4 2. ..............................................................................................- 6 3. ...........................................................................................- 7 3.1. .......................................................................................- 8 3.2. ............................................................................................- 9 3.3. .................................................................................- 10 3.4. ...........................................................................- 11 3.5. ...............................................................................- 12 4. .........................................................- 12 5. ...............................................................- 13 6. (Globus Toolkit) ..................................- 14 6.1. ...........................................................................- 15 6.2. ..........................................................- 16 6.3. .......................................................................- 18 6.4. ............................................................................................- 19 7. ....................................- 20 8. LCG ..................................................................- 25 9. .....................................................................................- 26 9.1. ...................................- 28 9.2. - ............................................................................- 31 10. ...........................................- 32 11. EGEE...............................................................................- 36 12. ..................................................................................................- 38 13. ...................................................................................................- 39 -

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1.
(Grid)
,

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Grid (, ) 90-

(Power Grids).
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. DEISA (www.desia.org)
,
.


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.

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EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE),
(www.eu-egee.org).
90 ,
.
EGEE ,
,
,
,
(CERN, www.cern.ch)
LHC.
EGEE LCG (LHC
Computing Grid), , ,
.
(RDIG, www.egee-rdig.ru).
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EGEE.
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2.
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3.
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(. 1),
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-7-

. 1.

3.1.
(Fabric Layer) ,
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(middleware),
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3.2.
(Connectivity Layer)
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TCP/IP, : IP ICMP,
TCP, UDP, HTTP, FTP, DNS, RSVP.
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( ,
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(SSL, TLS), .

3.3.
(Resource Layer)
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3.4.
(Collective Layer)
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- 11 -

3.5.
(Application Layer)
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,
(Application Programming Interface API),
.


(Software Development Kit SDK).


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4.

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(
).
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- 12 -

.
, -
,

.
,
-. , LCG-2 (
LHC, CERN),
, :
ATLAS, CMS, Alice, LHCb.

5.

,
( ). ,
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- 13 -


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6. (Globus Toolkit)
,

(Globus Project).

Globus Toolkit -.
Globus Toolkit
, .
Globus Toolkit :
GRAM (Globus Resource Allocation Manager),
/ . Globus Toolkit
- (
, ).
GRAM
RSL (Resource Specification Language).
MDS (Monitoring and Discovery Service)
-.
, ,
,
( , ,
, , ).
- 14 -

,
LDAP (Lightweight
Directory Access Protocol).
GSI (Globus Security Infrastructure) ,
, (
, ,
, )
(
,


)
.509.
GASS (Global Access to Secondary Storage)

.
.
globus_io Nexus
Globus Toolkit
.
.
, Globus Toolkit ,
, .

6.1.
(Globus Resource Management
Architecture GRMA) (. 3).
RSL
,
( )
.
( ,
)
,
,
.
,
, ,
, RSL-,
( ),
RSL- (ground RSL)
(co-allocator).
, ,
, .
- 15 -

;
/ ;
;
.
Application
RSL

Resource Broker

Information Service

Ground RSL
Co-allocator
RSL
GRAM

GRAM

GRAM

PBS

LSF

NQE

. 3.

ground RSL RSL-
GRAM. ,
GRAM, . ,
GRAM , ,
.
GRAM API
. GRAM
. ,
, .

6.2.
GRAM Globus Toolkit,

.

:
- 16 -

PBS (Portable Batch System)


.
: Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, Digital Unix, Tru64, HP-UX, AIX,
IRIX, Solaris.
PBS, Torque.
LSF (Load Sharing Facility) , PBS.
Platform Computing.
.
NQE (Network Queuing Environment) Cray
Research,
, Cray,
.
LoadLeveler IBM,
. IBM.
Condor ,
.
.
UNIX Windows NT.
Easy-LL IBM Cornell Theory Center,
IBM
. LoadLeveler EASY
Argonne National Lab.
fork UNIX.
GRAM . 4.

Client

Gatekeeper

Job Manager

Job Manager


(LSF, PBS .)
Job process

. 4. GRAM

- 17 -


,
Gatekeeper. Gatekeeper
:
;
RSL ;

;
,
Job Manager,
.
, Gatekeeper , Job Manager
( )
, . Gatekeeper
Job Manager ,
.
, Job Manager .

6.3.

, (Information
Service) . Globus Toolkit MDS.

, - ,
.
MDS ,
, ,
. MDS . 5.
MDS :
1. IP (Information Provider)
;
2. GRIS (Grid Resource Information Service)
-,
, - . GRIS
IP
;
3. GIIS (Grid Index Information Service)
GRIS GIIS.
- 18 -

GIIS
. GIIS
.
GIIS

GIIS

GIIS

GRIS
IP

IP

GRIS

GRIS
IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

. 5. MDS

6.4.
(Grid Security Infrastructure GSI)

(),

,
-.
,
,
, ,
. GSI
(Public Key Infrastructure
PKI).
GSI
X.509.
X.509 /
:
1. (Certificate Authority CA)
, ()
. CA
. CA
- 19 -

.
2. ,
CA. CA ,
(, .)
.
3. ,
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,
- CA.
Globus Toolkit X.509:
1. (User Certificate)
, -.

, , ,
, .
2. (Host Certificate)
() -.
,
.

7.
Globus Toolkit ,

-.
Globus Toolkit ,

,
().
Global Grid Forum (GGF)
(Open Grid Services
Architecture OGSA). OGSA ,
-, .
OGSA .
, .
OGSA -
,
.
OGSA -
- (Service-Oriented Architecture SOA),

. ,
- 20 -


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OGSA - ,
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OGSA . 6.



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()
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OGSA.
,
. OGSA
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OGSA . OGSA
- (Web-services),
. OGSA

.
- 21 -

OGSA
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OGSA
( ) Globus Toolkit,
.
,
. ,
-,
.

- 24 -

8. LCG
-
,

.
LCG
(LHC Computing Grid),
(CERN). LCG
- Globus Toolkit
.
LCG ,
.
LCG , .
(
),
,
Scientific Linux.
LCG :
CE (Computing Element) ,
.


;
SE (Storage Element) ,
.

() -;
WN (Worker Node) ,
.
LCG ,
;
UI (User Interface) ,
- ( ).

, ;
RB (Resource Broker) ,
( ). (
) LCG,

-;
PX (Proxy) ,
(myproxy);
- 25 -

LFC (Local File Catalog) ,


-.
() , ,
;
BDII (Infornation Index) ,
-.
,
,
;
MON (Monitor)
.
.
VOMS (VO Management Service) ,
.
-
.

LCG, (
). ,
LCG, . ,
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,
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LCG ,
EDG (European DataGrid) . LCG
,
,
gLite.
.
, ,
LCG, .

-
. LCG ,
EGEE.

9.
- .
,
- 26 -

( ).

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CERN INFN), ().

(ca.grid.kiae.ru/RDIG/).

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- 27 -


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9.1.

LCG.
,
-.
LCG
-.
( 12 ) - .

, (, ,
..):
- 28 -

grid-proxy-init

grid-proxy-info -all
- ,
, -,
, .
.
,
, -

(myproxy).
- :
myproxy-init -s <> -t < >
-:
myproxy-get-delegation -s <>
-:
myproxy-info -s <>
:
myproxy-destroy -s <>
-.
LCG JDL (Job
Description Language).
, ,
, ,
, (
, ..).
JDL :
Executable
Arguments
StdOutput
StdError

=
=
=
=

"/bin/echo";
"Hello World";
"hello.out";
"hello.err";
- 29 -

OutputSandbox = {"hello.out", "hello.err"};


-
:
1. (
).
(JobID),
:
edg-job-submit hello.jdl
2. :
edg-job-status <JobID>
3. :
edg-job-get-output <JobID>
.

()
.
LCG:
1.
:
lcg-cr <>
2.
:
lcg-rep <>
3.
:

lcg-del <>
4.
:
lcg-cp <>
- 30 -

LCG ,
;
LCG
.

9.2. -
- - GENIUS,
INFN (grid-demo.ct.infn.it).
- GENIUS :

;
- ;
;
-.

- GENIUS
-,
.
GENIUS
GILDA (Grid Infn Laboratory for Dissemination Activities),

. GILDA :
GILDA Testbed LCG.
Grid Demonatrator - GENIUS,
.
GILDA CA , 14-
GILDA.
GILDA VO ,
GILDA.
Grid Tutor - GENIUS,
.
Monitoring System GILDA Testbed.
- -
,

unix.

.

- 31 -

10.

, EGEE (Enable
Grid E-sciencE).
EGEE ,
- .
, ,
,
.

,
,
.
,
.
, , .
EGEE .
( 1 2004 31 2006 ) .
(EGEE-II) 1 2006 .
:


.
,
.
LHC, (1015 )

, CERN. ,
, ,
,
.

:
, , , , ,
.
.
60 .
EGEE 90 32 .
().
13 , .
- 32 -

20
.
EGEE 70 ,
,
(. 7).

BalticGrid
EUChinaGrid
EUIndiaGrid

SEE-Grid
DESIA + eDESIA
SEE-Grid 2
EUMedGrid
EELA

EGEE
EGEE-II

DELIGENT

ICEAGE
ETICS

ISSeG

BELIEF

eIRGSP

GRIDCC
Health-e-Child
BIOINFOGRID

OMII Europe

. 7. EGEE
EGEE :

;
, ;
;

;

;
;
.
- 33 -

.

(Dissemination and Outreach Activity).

- (. www.euegee.org). ,

.

(Training and Induction Activity).
.
,
.

(Grid Middleware Engineering and Integration Activity)
,
-
. ,
EGEE, , ,
.
, ,
-.
:
(), (CERN),
(),

(),

).

(Quality Assurance and Grid Security).

(Middleware Integration and Testing Center) CERN.
, ,
-. ,
-, ,
, ,
,
. :
,
,

,
, ,
.
(Operations Management Centre ) CERN
(Core Infrastructure Centre CIC),
CERN, , , , ,
(Regional Operation Centre
- 34 -

ROC), , ,
(Resource Cerntre RC).
EGEE . 8.

RC
RC
RC
CIC

CIC

RC

ROC

RC
RC

RC

ROC
RC

CIC

CIC

RC
RC
RC

OMC

CIC

RC

CIC
RC

RC
RC

RC

ROC

RC

ROC

RC

RC

RC

. 8. EGEE
EGEE
LCG (www.cern.ch/lcg).

(
, ,
).
, .

EGEE GEANT
.
- EGEE

(Application Identification and Support Activity),

.
- 35 -

11. EGEE

( Russian Data
Intensive Grid RDIG). ,
EGEE ,
(Russia). :

,
;


;

.
( EGEE):
( , );
( , );
( ,
);
( , );
( , );
( , );
();
(-
, ).
2005 :
();
.
( );
();
- .
EGEE (CIC, ROC)
, .

(. ).

- 36 -

ATLAS
LHC CERN
CMS

Alice

LHC-b

eEarth
eEarth

PHOTON
PHOTON SELEX
-
AMS
AMS

Fusion
ITER
Biomed

RGStest

RDTEAM -
nw_ru
-
nw_ru ,
EGEE - .
nw_ru ,
, , . ,
LHC,
.

rocmon.jinr.ru:8080
EGEE
www.egee-rdig.ru egee.pnpi.nw.ru
,
EGEE ():
. EGEE
.

.
,
.
, EGEE
.
.
EGEE

- 37 -

.

.
,
.
.

12.

,
,
.
GRID ,
, ,
.. ,

,
, .
,
, , ,
.


.
: ,
,
, ,
,
XXI .

- 38 -

13.
1. I. Foster, C. Kesselman. The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing
Infrastructure. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1998.
2. I. Foster, C. Kesselman, S. Tuecke. The Anatomy of the Grid: Enabling
Scalable Virtual Organizations. International J. Supercomputer
Applications, 15(3), 2001, http://www.globus.org/research/papers/anatomy.pdf
3. I. Foster, C. Kesselman, S. Tuecke, J. M. Nick. The Physiology of the Grid:
An Open Grid Services Architecture for Distributed Systems Integration.
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2002.
4. I. Foster, H. Kishimoto, A. Savva, D. Berry et al. The Open Grid Services
Architecture.

Global
Grid
Forum,
2005,
http://www.ggf.org/documents/GFD.30.pdf
5. I. Foster, D. Gannon, H. Kishimoto et al. Open Grid Services Architecture Use
Cases.

Global
Grid
Forum,
2004,
http://www.ggf.org/documents/GFD.29.pdf
6. J. Treadwell, M. Behrens, D. Berry et al. Open Grid Services Architecture
Glossary
of
Terms.

Global
Grid
Forum,
2005,
http://www.ggf.org/documents/GFD.44.pdf
7. I Foster, C. Kesselman. Globus: A Metacomputing Infrastructure Toolkit.
ftp://ftp.globus.org/pub/globus/papers/globus.pdf
8. I. Foster, C. Kesselman. The Globus Project: A Status Report.
ftp://ftp.globus.org/pub/globus/papers/globus hcw98.pdf
9. Overview
of
the
Grid
Security
Infrastructure,
http://www.globus.org/security/overview.html
10. RSL Specification, http://www fp.globus.org/gram/rsl_spec1.html

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