Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 93

PLC applications-

CNC MACHINES
S.C. PATRA
Chief Instructor(Mech)
Conventional Machine and CNC Machine
Greater Automation..
Productivity....
Improved quaIity & accuracy of manufactured
parts.....
RepeatabiIity..
FIexibiIity to manufacture compIex jobs....
Reduced scrap rate ...
Cost Effective ....
Why CNC ?
Reduced manpower ..
Shorter cycle time ...
Increased Operational Safety ...
Types of CNC Machines
CNC Turning Centre
CNC Milling Machine
CNC Horizontal Machining Centre (HMC)
CNC Grinder
CNC Drilling Machine
CNC Gear Cutting Machine
CNC Turret Punch Press
CNC MACHINING CENTRE:
1. Vertical Machining Centre (VMC):
Vertical spindle conIiguration comprising oI three basic servo axes
(X - axis, Y-axis & Z - axis ): Two Ior the table movement and one Ior
the spindle head.
. Turret Machining Centre (TMC):
Same conIiguration as VMC but vertical spindle head replaced by
an indexable tool turret.
Automatic selection oI tool by indexing turret.
Facilitates machining on sides oI cubical components.
Note :
TMC eliminated manual tool change.
It also introduced a large tool magazine and Auto Tool Changer
(ATC) Ior automatic transIer oI tools Irom the magazine to the
spindle and vice-versa.
ATC & Tool Magazine ATC & Tool Magazine
ATC is a device which can automatically change the
tool from the tool magazine to the machine spindle
as per the CNC programme.
Tool Magazine is a device which holds number of
tools and can automatically index to enable ATC to
pick the right tool and to replace the used tool.
Turret Machining Centre
Horizontal Machining Centre (HMC):
It can perIorm machining on diIIerent Iaces oI a cubical or prismatic
component.
Both VMC and HMC introduces a Automatic Pallet Changer (APC) to
set the iob on the machine table.
Next piece oI work could be loaded or set on the additional APC while the
machine is busy in cutting the previous work piece.
AIter the machining , the pallet with the Iinished work piece and the pallet
on APC having a raw component could be exchanged automatically.
.
Automatic Pallet Automatic Pallet
Changer Changer
Automatic Pallet Changer
(APC) is a device which can
automatically change the
pallet to/from machine to
pallet stand.
Pallet is a transferable work
table having `T' slots or
tapped holes for
component/fixture clamping.
Used to avoid the machine
waiting time during loading
& unloading of component.
Automatic Pallet Changer Automatic Pallet Changer
Pallet is held on the machine
table by locating pins and
clamping mechanism to
ensure repeatability and
accuracy.
Pallet stand with 4 x 900
manual indexing facility to
approach on all sides of
pallet/fixture.
Provision of air cleaning
system for locating pins and
reference surfaces during
pallet change.
Horizontal Machining Centre with Auto Pallet Changer
Value wise contents of mechanical and electronic software and
hardware in different manufacturing facilities
CNC SYSTEMS
Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is computer based system to store and
process data Ior control oI slide motions and auxiliary motions oI machine tools.
W CNC Systems are constructed with NC Unit integrated with ProgrammabIe
Logic ControIIer (PLC) with a 'Feed Back Device'.
PLC controls the ON/OFF Iunctions oI the machine tool. It sets the output based
on the input conditions & corresponding logic.
PLC Functions:
Coolant ON/OFF.
Spindle ON/OFF.
Selection oI a tool.
Change oI workpiece (Pallet Changing).
Workpiece clamping etc.
lectrical/ Control Features:
CNC System (ControIIer)
Drives.
Servo Motors
Actuators
Sensors/ Feedback devices.
CNC MACHINE : CNC MACHINE : The Heart... The Heart...
CNC
SYSTEM
DRIVES &
ELECTRICALS
MACHINE
TOOL
MACHN
PART
HOW A CNC SYSTEM HOW A CNC SYSTEMWORKS
RS 232 INTERFACE
DISPLAY
&NIT
SYSTEM
KEYBOARD
TAPE
READER/
PUNCH
PERIPHERAL
INTERFACE
(MMI OR HMI)
CNC SYSTEM
DRIVES & ELECTRICALS
COMMANDS
POS. F/Bs
FROM M/C
TOOL
AXES OR
SERVO
CONTROLLER
COMMAND
F/B FROM
M/C TOOL
SPINDLE
CONTROLLER
MACHINE TOOL
OUTPUTS
INPUTS
OUTPUTS
INPUTS
I/O
CONTROLLER
(PLC)
AXES
DRIVES
SPINDLE
DRIVE
SWITCH-
ING
ELEMENTS
AXES MOTORS
WITH
POSITION
& VELOCITY
FEEDBACK
SPINDLE MOTOR
WITH POSITION
& VELOCITY
FFEDBACK
ACT&ATORS,
MISCELLANEO&S
MOTORS
SENSORS / FEEDBACK
DEVICE
CLA55IC 5ERVO LOOP CLA55IC 5ERVO LOOP
InterpoIator issues
position commands
Accumulator holds
following error
Position feedback is
subtracted from
position command
to provide
following error
D/A Converter
changes following
error to analog
voltage
POSITION LOOP
VELOCITY LOOP
Tacho
Speed feedback is
subtracted from
speed command
Amplifier
Servo Motor
Slide
Position Transducer
Monitors Position
Analog Servo Loop in CNC System
DAC
M

- -
Velocity
AmpliIier
Tacho
generator
Lead screw
Accumulated
Command
VELOCITY FEEDBACK
POSITION FEEDBACK
Encoder
Slide
Following
error signal
Counter
Velocity Error
Signal
Current
AmpliIier
Accumulated
Ieedback
CNC SYSTEM DRIVES
peciat eatvre. ot C^C Mc
Mechanical Features:
Ball Lead Screws.
Linear Bearings.
mproved Guide ways.
Timing Belts.
Curvic Coupling.
BaII Lead Screws
W Smooth Linear Motion.
W Low starting friction.
W Wear resistant.
W Very Low BackIash.
W Smooth Linear Motion.
W Low starting friction.
W Wear resistant.
W Very Low BackIash.
Linear Bearings on guide-ways
W Toothed BeIt, SteeI-wires.
W SIip-Proof Drive.
Timing BeIt
Curvic CoupIing
W &sed in Turret Indexing of CNC m/c.

Fanuc Serial Servo


bus (FSSB)
Fanuc I/o Link
I/O devices
Drive ampliIier
Servo motor
Spindle
motor
Fanuc Series 0i System
Connection Panel
I/O Modules
Spindle InterIace (Serial)
NOP
CNC Controller
CentraIized Lubrication System
Diagnostic Features
Turret/ PaIIet Changers
Auto TooI Changer
peciat eatvre. ot C^C Mc
CentraIised Lubrication System
OnIine Machine Diagnosis System
TechnicaIIy defining a CNC System: TechnicaIIy defining a CNC System:
AXIS F&NCTIONS
O ON / OFF CONTROL
O POSITION CONTROL
O VELOCITY CONTROL
SPINDLE F&NCTIONS
O ON / OFF CONTROL
O DIRECTION CONTROL
O SPEED CONTROL
TOOL SELECTION / T&RRET INDEXING
WORKPIECE CLAMPING / PALLET CHANGING
COOLANT ON / OFF
L&BRICATION ON / OFF
MACHINE TOOL SAFETY INTERLOCK
(I) (I) MACHINE FUNCTION5 MACHINE FUNCTION5
CONTROLLED BY CNC 5Y5TEM CONTROLLED BY CNC 5Y5TEM
CNC SYSTEMS FOR
o LATHES
o MACHINING CENTER
o MILLING CENTER
o GRINDING
o P&NCH PRESS
SYSTEM TYPES
o T - T&RNING
o M - MILLING, MACHINING CENTER
o G - GRINDING
(II) CNC 5Y5TEM TYPE5 (II) CNC 5Y5TEM TYPE5
TechnicaIIy defining a CNC System: TechnicaIIy defining a CNC System:
CNC SYSTEMS CNC SYSTEMS
MANUFACTURR MANUFACTURR COUNTRY COUNTRY MOL MOL
ROCKWLL AUTOMATON U. S. A ALLN BRALY
8610, 8650, 9/PC
CNCNNAT MLACRON U. S. A ACRAMATC 950, 2100
FAGOR SPAN FAGOR 800, 8025, 8050
FANUC JAPAN FANUC 15i/150i, 16i/160i, 18i/180i, 21i/210i
FANUC NA NA FANUC 0 , 0i
HNHAN GRMANY TNC 155, 426, 430
NUM FRANC NUM 1040, 1050, 1060
SMNS GRMANY SNUMRK 810, 820, 840, 880
MTSUBSH LCTRC AUTOMATON NC. JAPAN M64 CNC, FUSON 640, MPLUS, TPLUS AN 600
SRS.
MANUFACTURR MANUFACTURR COUNTRY COUNTRY MOL MOL
ROCKWLL AUTOMATON U. S. A ALLN BRALY
8610, 8650, 9/PC
CNCNNAT MLACRON U. S. A ACRAMATC 950, 2100
FAGOR SPAN FAGOR 800, 8025, 8050
FANUC JAPAN FANUC 18i/180i, 21i/210i, 30i/31i/32i,
300i/310i/320i
FANUC NA NA FANUC 0 , 0i
HNHAN GRMANY TNC 155, 426, 430
GSK CNC "UPMNT CHNA GSK980Ta., GSK983M
SMNS GRMANY SNUMRK 802, 840, 880
MTSUBSH LCTRC AUTOMATON NC. JAPAN 70/700 SRS, C6/C64 SRS, 60S/60/68
SRS
CNC 5Y5TEM FEATURE5 CNC 5Y5TEM FEATURE5
Axis, SpindIe and I/O controI features Axis, SpindIe and I/O controI features
Operating features Operating features
Programming features Programming features
Keyboard and dispIay features Keyboard and dispIay features
Communication features Communication features
Compensation features Compensation features
Safety and diagnostic features Safety and diagnostic features
AxIs, 5Ind!c And I/O Cnntrn! Fcaturcs AxIs, 5Ind!c And I/O Cnntrn! Fcaturcs
AXIS CONTROL
Number OI Axis Controllable.
Feed rates.
SPINDLE CONTROL
Maximum Spindle Speed.
Auto Gear Selection.
Spindle Speed Direction
Oeratlng |eatures Oeratlng |eatures
Basic Operating Modes:
OG Mode
MDI MODE
A&TO MODE
OG MODE
Manual movement of axes
Manually select the tool.
Manually move the axes
Find the tool offset
MDI MODE
Program phase
Manually feed the program
A&TO MODE
Create a Program
Store the Program
xecute the program
!art !rogrammlng |eatures !art !rogrammlng |eatures
nch / Metric Programming
Absolute / ncremental Programming
Linear / Circular / Helical / Spiral nterpolation
Full Circle Programming
Canned Cycles
eboard And Dls|a |eatures eboard And Dls|a |eatures
KEYBOARD F&NCTIONS
System Keyboard - Feed & Edit a Programme.
Machine ControI PaneI - For controIIing the
machine parameters.
DISPLAY FEAT&RES
DispIay of various screens Iike:
Position
Part Program
Offsets
AIarms And Messages
Communlcatlon |eatures Communlcatlon |eatures
Upload / ownload Of Programs
Machine Status Monitoring
Comensatlon |eatures Comensatlon |eatures

TooI Offset
TooI Length Compensation
Diameter Compensation
Safet And Dlagnostlc |eatures Safet And Dlagnostlc |eatures
W Emergency Stop
W Axis OvertraveI
W Power &p Diagnostics
Configuration of CNC System:
A CNC system basically consists of the following:
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Servo-control Unit (NC)
Operator Control Panel
Machine Control Panel
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
Spectrum of production alternatives
CNC PROGRAMMING
Basic steps in CNC machining:
i) First. prepare the program from part drawing
(ii) Read the part program to the CNC system
(iii) Mount the workpiece & tool on the machine
(iv) Execute the program
PROGRAMMING CODES:
G Preparatory code (Tool movement related Iunction.)
F Feed Iunction
T Tool No.
D Tool oIIset.
M Misc. code (Ior ON/OFF Function)
S Spindle rpm (Ior spindle rotation)
G - CODES
G-codes are used to move the tool or axes by Program.
G 00 Rapid travel.
G 01 Linear interpolation.
G 02 Circular interpolation clock-wise.
G 03 - Circular interpolation anti-clockwise.
G 04 Dwell time.
G 20 Inch data input
G 21 Metric data input.
G 22 Stored stroke check on.
G 23 - Stored stroke check off.
G 27 Reference point return check.
G 28 ReIerence position return.
G 29 Return from reference point
G 30 Return to second reIerence point.
G 31 Skip Iunction.
G 32 Thread Iunction.
G 36 Automatic tool compensation X
G 37 - Automatic tool compensation Z
G 40 Tool nose radius compensation cancel
G 90 Absolute dimensioning.
G 91 Incremental dimensioning.
G 98 Feed rate in mm/min.
G 99 - Feed rate in mm/rev.
M- CODES ( Miscellaneous Codes )
ON/OFF Codes.
Controlled by PLC
.
M 00 Optional stop.
M 01 Programmable stop.
M 02 Main program end.
M 03 Spindle clock-wise.
M 04 Spindle counter clock-wise.
M 05 Spindle stop.
M 06 Tool change.
M 07 Coolant b on.
M 08 - Coolant a on.
M 10 Chuck open.
M 11 Chuck close.
M 13 Spindle forward & coolant on.
M 14 - Spindle reverse & coolant on.
M 16 Special tool call.
M 17 Sub-program end.
M 19 Spindle orientation.
M 30 Main program end & rewind.
Tool movement along a straight Line
TooI movement aIong a tapper Line
TooI movement aIong an Arc
Thread Cutting(straight)
Tapper thread cutting
Feed Function
Reference position (Machine specific position)
Coordinate system
Co-ordinate system specified by CNC
Setting of coordinate system :-
When coordinate zero point is set at chuck face
Setting of coordinate system :-
When coordinate zero point is set at work end face
AbsoIute Command
IncrementaI Command
Diameter Programming
Cordinate vaIues of points A and B = A(30,80), B(40,60)
Radius Programming
Cutting speed & spindle speed function
FEED: FEED-FUNCTION The function of deciding the feed rate is
called feed function.
Selection of tool and tool function
Miscellaneous function
Program configuration
Block configuration
Program configuration
Tool Length compensation(Tool offset)
PROGRAMMING CODES:
G Preparatory code (Tool movement related Iunction.)
F Feed Iunction
T Tool No.
D Tool oIIset.
M Misc. code (Ior ON/OFF Function)
S Spindle rpm (Ior spindle rotation)
G - CODES
G-codes are used to move the tool or axes by Program.
G 00 Rapid travel.
G 01 Linear interpolation.
G 02 Circular interpolation clock-wise.
G 03 - Circular interpolation anti-clockwise.
G 04 Dwell time.
G 20 Inch data input
G 21 Metric data input.
G 22 Stored stroke check on.
G 23 - Stored stroke check off.
G 27 Reference point return check.
.G 28 ReIerence position return.
G 29 Return from reference point
G 30 Return to second reIerence point.
G 31 Skip Iunction.
G 32 Thread Iunction.
G 36 Automatic tool compensation X
G 37 - Automatic tool compensation Z
G 40 Tool nose radius compensation cancel
G 90 Absolute dimensioning.
G 91 Incremental dimensioning.
G 98 Feed rate in mm/min.
G 99 - Feed rate in mm/rev.
M- CODES ( Miscellaneous Codes )
ON/OFF Codes.
Controlled by PLC
.
M 00 Optional stop.
M 01 Programmable stop.
M 02 Main program end.
M 03 Spindle clock-wise.
M 04 Spindle counter clock-wise.
M 05 Spindle stop.
M 06 Tool change.
M 07 Coolant b on.
M 08 - Coolant a on.
M 10 Chuck open.
M 11 Chuck close.
M 13 Spindle forward & coolant on.
M 14 - Spindle reverse & coolant on.
M 16 Special tool call.
M 17 Sub-program end.
M 19 Spindle orientation.
M 30 Main program end & rewind
M98 Subprogram call
M99 Subprogram end
. A raw materiaI of size: 40 and
60 mm. Iength is suppIied to you .
Make a CNC part program for step
turning of the given job as shown
in the diagram.
10 20
38
36
Step Turning:
O 0001;
N10 G21 G99 ;
N20 G28 X0.0 Z0.0 ;
N30 T01 01 M06 ;
N40 S1000 M03 ;
N50 G00 X41.0 ;
N60 G00 Z0.0 ;
N70 G01 X0.0 F1.0 ;
N80 G00 Z5.0 ;
N90 G00 X41.0 ;
N100 G00 Z0.0 ;
N110 G01 X38.0 F1.0 ;
N120 G01 Z-30.0 ;
G130 G01 X41.0 F1.0 ;
G140 G00 Z0.0 ;
G150 G01 X36.0 F1.0 ;
N160 G01 Z-10.0 F1.0 ;
N170 G01 X41.0 F1.0 ;
N180 G00 Z0.0 ;
N190 G28 U
0
W
0
;
N200 M05 ;
N219 M30 .
THANK YOU