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Stress Analysis

Muhammad Sardar

Degree in Mechanical Engineering

Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences,

Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan.

October, 2008.

ii

iii

Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS)

Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan

Declaration of Originality

I hereby declare that the work contained in this thesis and the intellectual content of

this thesis are the product of my own work. This thesis has not been previously

published in any form nor does it contain any verbatim of the published resources

which could be treated as infringement of the international copyright law.

I also declare that I do understand the terms copyright and plagiarism and

that in case of any copyright violation or plagiarism found in this work, I will be held

fully responsible of the consequences of any such violation.

Signature:

Name: Muhammad Sardar

Date:____________________

Place: PIEAS, Nilore Islamabad

iv

Certificate of Approval

This is to certify that the work contained in this thesis entitled

was carried out by

Muhammad Sardar

Under my supervision and that in my opinion, it is fully adequate, in

scope and quality, for the degree of M.S. Mechanical Engineering from

Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS).

Approved By:

Signature: ________________________

Supervisor: Mr. Basil Mehmood Shams, P.E. (DTD, Islamabad)

Signature: _______________________

Co-Supervisor: Muhammad Younas, S.E. (DTD, Islamabad)

Signature: ________________________

Co-Supervisor: Hafiz Laiq-ur-Rehman, J.E. (PIEAS, Islamabad)

Verified By:

Signature: ________________________

Stamp:

Dedication

who always supported me and whose

prayers enabled me to

do my best in every

matter of my life

vi

Acknowledgement

First of all I am humbly thankful to Allah Almighty, giving me the power to think and

enabling me to strengthen my ideas. I glorify ALMIGHTY ALLAH for HIS

unlimited blessings and capabilities that HE has bestowed upon me, without HIS

blessings, I would not be able to complete my work. I offer my thanks to Holy

Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), The mercy for all the worlds and whose name has

given me special honor and identity in life.

I am very grateful to my project supervisor Mr. Basil Mehmood Sham, P.E. for his

guidance for the completion of this work. I am also grateful to my co-supervisors

Mr. Muhammad Younas, S.E. and Mr. Hafiz Laiq-ur-Rehman, J.E. for their

inspiring guidance, constant encouragement and fruitful suggestions. At the end I am

also thankful to Engr. Dr. Mohammad Javed Hyder for his keen interest in the

project and constructive criticism, which enabled me to complete my report.

Muhammad Sardar

vii

Table of Contents

1

INTRODUCTION................................................................................................1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

2.1

2.2

Piping Terminologies.....................................................................................6

2.2.1

Pipe.......................................................................................................................6

2.2.2

2.2.3

Pipe Size...............................................................................................................6

2.2.4

2.2.5

Piping ...................................................................................................................6

2.2.6

2.2.7

2.2.8

2.3

2.3.1

Valves...................................................................................................................7

2.3.2

Expansion Fittings................................................................................................8

2.4

3

Supports .........................................................................................................9

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.3.1

3.3.2

3.3.3

3.4

3.4.1

3.4.2

3.4.3

viii

4

4.1

4.2

4.2.1

4.2.2

4.2.3

4.2.4

4.2.5

4.2.6

4.2.7

4.3

4.3.1

4.3.2

SUPPORT DESIGN...........................................................................................25

5.1

Beam Design................................................................................................25

5.1.1

Bending Stress....................................................................................................26

5.1.2

5.1.3

Deflection...........................................................................................................27

5.2

Column.........................................................................................................27

5.3

Base Plate.....................................................................................................29

5.4

6.1

6.2

Physical Properties.......................................................................................32

6.3

6.3.1

6.3.2

6.3.3

6.3.4

6.3.5

6.3.6

6.3.7

6.3.8

6.3.9

ix

6.3.10 Normal Impact Load on elbow ..........................................................................54

THERMAL CALCULATIONS........................................................................56

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.3.1

Manual Calculations...........................................................................................68

7.3.2

7.4

7.4.1

7.5

Comparison of Analysis.....................................................................................74

7.5.1

7.5.2

7.5.3

8.1

8.2

Beam Design................................................................................................77

8.3

8.3.1

Manual Analysis.................................................................................................79

8.3.2

ANSYS Analysis................................................................................................80

8.4

8.4.1

8.4.2

8.4.3

Manual Analysis.................................................................................................85

8.4.4

ANSYS Analysis................................................................................................87

8.4.5

8.5

8.5.1

8.5.2

8.5.3

8.5.4

8.5.5

Bolt specifications..............................................................................................93

9.1

Pro-E Modeling............................................................................................94

x

9.2

9.2.1

Results and Discussion.......................................................................................98

10

CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................99

11

REFERENCES.........................................................................................................101

APPENDIXE ............................................................................................................101

VITA..........................................................................................................................113

xi

List of Figures

Figure 1-1 PFD of the complete piping net work ........................................................4

Figure 2-1 Full loop ....................................................................................................8

Figure 2-2 Z, L and U shaped loop .............................................................................9

Figure 2-3 Anchor support ........................................................................................10

Figure 2-4 Hanger support ........................................................................................10

Figure 2-5 Sliding support ........................................................................................10

Figure 2-6 Spring support .........................................................................................11

Figure 2-7 Snubber support .......................................................................................11

Figure 2-8 Roller support ..........................................................................................11

Figure 5-1 Effective length constants table ..............................................................28

Figure 6-1 Forces on the bend by the fluid ................................................................53

Figure 7-1 Header Pipe including an expansion loop................................................56

Figure 7-2 Header Pipe Sections................................................................................57

Figure 7-3 Symmetry of header pipe considering as a beam.....................................68

Figure 7-4 Segment A-B............................................................................................69

Figure 7-5 Segment A-B-C........................................................................................69

Figure 7-6 Shear Force Diagram................................................................................70

Figure 7-7 Bending Moment Diagram.......................................................................71

Figure 7-8 Loaded view of the meshed beam............................................................72

Figure 7-9 Deflection in Pipe....................................................................................73

Figure 7-10 Bending stress in Pipe .............................................................................73

Figure 8-1 Uniformly load distributed Cantilever Beam...........................................77

Figure 8-2 Double Cantilever beam...........................................................................79

Figure 8-3 Deformed Shape of the beam ..................................................................80

Figure 8-4 Bending Moment diagram of the beam ...................................................81

Figure 8-5 Max. Stress distribution Diagram ...........................................................81

Figure 8-6 Loads on column of the support...............................................................82

Figure 8-7 Meshed and loaded column......................................................................88

Figure 8-8 Deformation of the column .....................................................................88

Figure 8-9 Stress distribution in column ...................................................................89

Figure 8-10 Base Plate Dimensions.............................................................................90

Figure 8-11 Pressure diagram ......................................................................................91

xii

Figure 8-12 Bolt dimensions........................................................................................93

Figure 9-1 Anchor support along with a pipe ............................................................94

Figure 9-2 Convergence line b/w no. of elements and Von Mises Stresses ..............95

Figure 9-3 Meshed diagram of the support model.....................................................96

Figure 9-4 Deformed shape of the support model .....................................................96

Figure 9-5 First Principle Stress distribution in support...........................................97

Figure 9-6 Von Mises stress distribution in support..................................................97

xiii

List of Tables

Table 3-1 Primary stresses of pipes ...........................................................................17

Table 3-2 Secondary stresses of pipes .......................................................................18

Table 5-1 Limitation of column slenderness ratio .....................................................28

Table 6-1 Characteristics of Fluid at inlet and out let of pipes and its sizing............30

Table 6-2 Material Properties ....................................................................................32

Table 6-3 Input Parameters used in pipe thickness calculation .................................33

Table 6-4 All pipes thickness along with standard thickness ....................................34

Table 6-5 Input data ...................................................................................................36

Table 6-6 Design and working Pressure ....................................................................36

Table 6-7 Wind loads for each pipe...........................................................................38

Table 6-8 Pipe, Fluid and insulation weights.............................................................40

Table 6-9 Pipe Span based on limitation of stress .....................................................43

Table 6-10 Spacing based on standard spacing ...........................................................45

Table 6-11 Thermal deflection for pipes complete segments......................................47

Table 6-12 Sizing of expansion loops..........................................................................50

Table 6-13 Input Data ..................................................................................................53

Table 6-14 Input data ...................................................................................................54

Table 7-1 Input Data ..................................................................................................56

Table 7-2 For main line magnitude of expansion and directions...............................58

Table 7-3 Vertical section magnitude of expansion and direction ............................58

Table 7-4 Summary of all Loads due to Thermal expansion.....................................66

Table 7-5 Input data ...................................................................................................67

Table 7-6 Input data ...................................................................................................71

Table 7-7 Comparison of analysis for beam ..............................................................74

Table 7-8 Input data ...................................................................................................76

Table 8-1 Available loads for analysis of anchor support .........................................77

Table 8-2 Properties of the channel beam..................................................................78

Table 8-3 Comparison of analysis for beam ..............................................................82

Table 8-4 Specifications of column ...........................................................................83

Table 8-5 Input data ...................................................................................................86

Table 8-6 Input data ...................................................................................................87

xiv

Table 8-7 Comparison of analysis of column .............................................................89

Table 8-8 Base plate specifications.............................................................................93

Table 8-9 Bolts standard dimensions..........................................................................93

xv

Abstract

This report is about the design of steam piping and its stress analysis of a

given process flow diagram. The prime objective of this project is to design

the piping system and then to analyze its main components. Wall thicknesses

are calculated for all pipes which were found very safe for the operating

pressure. For header pipe the calculated wall thickness is 0.114 inch and the

standard minimum wall thickness is 0.282 inch which is greater than the

calculated one by more than 2.4 times. Different loads such as static loads,

occasional loads and thermal loads of all pipes were also calculated. After

load calculations, spacing of supports and designing of expansion loops were

carried out. Thermal, static and seismic analysis of main system pipe has

been done and results were compared with ASME Power Piping Code B31.1.

After calculation of all applied loads, anchor support components including

half channel beam C5 x 9 and standard circular column of 4 inch nominal size

were designed and analyzed both manually and on ANSYS software. Base

plate of size 15x15x1/4 inch and bolts of inch diameter and of length 20

inch were also designed. The results obtained from both methods were

compared and found safe under available applied loads.

1 Introduction

1.1 Thesis Introduction

Piping System design and analysis is a very important field in any process and power

industry. Piping system is analogous to blood circulating system in human body and is

necessary for the life of the plant. The steam piping system, mentioned in the thesis

will be used for supplying steam to different locations at designed temperature and

pressure. This piping system is one of the major requirements of the plant to be

installed.

This thesis includes the following tasks:

a) Process design of the complete piping system

b) Structural design of the pipes manually

c) Stress analysis of the pipes using ANSYS

d) Structural and thermal analysis of the expansion Loops

e) Structural design of supports manually

f) Modeling and stress analysis of support

The aim of the thesis was to design and analyze piping system according to standard

piping Codes. The design should prevent failure of piping system against over stresses

due to:

I. Sustained loadings which act on the piping system during its operating time

e.g. static loads including dead loads, thermal expansion loads, effects of

supports and internal and external pressure loading.

II. Occasional loads which act percentages of the systems total operating time

e.g. impact forces, wind loads, seismic loads and discharge loads etc.

While piping stress analysis is used to ensure:

1) Safety of piping and piping components

2) Safety of the supporting structures

3) Safe stress relieving of the expansion loops

Basically the sizing of this steam piping has already done and contained nearly on

750x300m2 area, including 48 pipes and 52 junctions. The detail of the piping system

e.g. length of each pipe, Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) with pipe no. starting from 208 and

ending on pipe no. 256 are shown from the following Figure 1-1. The rest of the data

e.g. inlet and out let velocities of each pipe, inlet and out let pressure of each pipe and

inlet and out let temperature of each and every pipe are arranged in Table 6-1, which

will be used in further calculations.

Chapter 1

In this chapter introduction to the project, basic aim of the project and process flow

diagram of the complete piping system with information about sizing has been

discussed.

Chapter 2

Literature survey has been done in this chapter. Detail study about the pipes and

piping system along with the code development has been included. This chapter also

consists on some of the basic terminologies relating to pipes, explanation of the piping

components and supports.

Chapter 3

Explanation about piping codes and standards and stress analysis of the piping system

has been included in this chapter.

Chapter 4

In this chapter piping design procedure, pipe span and expansion loop calculations

and support design methodology has been discussed.

Chapter 5

This chapter included all the detail about Anchor support and its components.

Chapter 6

This chapter related to all calculations of pipe design. All loads applied on the pipes

during operation have been calculated.

Chapter 7

This chapter included on thermal, static and seismic loads on pipes and their analysis

along with verification from the code has been done.

3

Chapter 8

This chapter consists on the piping support design calculations, in which selection and

analysis of beam, column, base plate and bolts has been done.

Chapter 9

This chapter contained full modeling of anchor support in Pro-E and ANSYS and its

analysis in ANSYS.

System

A piping system is generally considered to include the complete interconnection of

pipes, including in line components such as pipe fittings, valves, tanks and flanges

etc. The contributions of the piping systems are essential in industrialized society.

They provide drinking water to cities, irrigation water to farms, cooling water to

buildings and machinery. Piping system are the arteries of our industrial processes;

they transmit the steam to turn the turbines which drive generators, thus providing

electricity that illuminates the world and power machines [1].

Initially there were no basic concepts of the piping system engineering when wind,

water and muscle were the prime movers. The advent of the industrial revolution,

especially the practical use of steam in the seventeenth century required the design

and manufacturing of piping to withstand the rejoins of conveying pressurized and

heating fluids. The combination of very high pressures, thermal stresses and thermal

deformations required that fundamental design requirements and analytical technique

be developed. However, piping system design progressed with little or no design

standards or code limitations during the early years of industrial revolution [3].

In the 1920s, the introduction to meet the electrical demand of turbine plants

with super heated steam at temperature up to 600oF and gauge pressure of 300 psi

posed to the next major piping system design challenge. These design conditions

exceeded safe cast iron values, thus requiring the introduction of cast steel for critical

components. By 1924, the steam gauge pressure had increased to 600 psi, doubling in

just a few years. One year later, steam pressure and temperature of 1200 psi and

700oF were achieved, demonstrating the advances made in the development of steam

generator and attached piping. By 1957, some 900oF designs were in service with

1200oF designs projected, using austenitic stainless steel materials in the high

temperature zones, currently, the top gauge pressure is 2400 psi for most fossil fuel

plants. With new materials available, the boiler, turbine and piping have equal

strength capabilities [3].

Detail of some of the basic terminologies like pipe, pipe sizes and pipe system are

given below.

2.2.1 Pipe

A pipe is a closed conduit of circular cross section which is used for the

transportation of fluids. If pipe is running full, then the flow is under pressure and if

the pipe is not running full, then the flow is under gravity.

Standard Pipe: Mechanical service pipes, low pressure service e.g. refrigeration pipes

Pressure Pipe: It is used for liquid, gas or vapor for high pressure and temperature

application.

Line Pipe: Threaded or Plain ends used for gas, steam and as an oil pipe.

Water Well: Pump pipe, turbine pipe and driven well pipe etc [1].

Initially a system known as iron pipe size (IPS) was established to designate the pipe

size. The size represented the approximate inside diameter of the pipe in inches e.g.

an IPS 6 pipe is one whose inside diameter is approximately 6 inches (in). With the

development of stronger and corrosion-resistant piping materials, the need for thinner

wall pipe resulted in a new method of specifying pipe size and wall thickness. The

designation known as nominal pipe size (NPS) replaced IPS, and the term schedule

(SCH) was invented to specify the nominal wall thickness of pipe.

NPS is a dimensionless designator of pipe size. It indicates standard pipe size when

followed by the specific size designation number without an inch symbol.

For example, NPS 2 indicates a pipe whose outside diameter is 2.375 in [2].

2.2.5 Piping

Pipe sections when joined with fittings, valves, and other mechanical equipment and

properly supported by hangers and supports, are called piping.

The piping system means a complete network of pipes, valves, and other parts to do a

specific job in plant. There are two types of piping systems.

It is used to transport fluids b/w storage tanks and processing unites.

It is used to convey steam, air, water etc. for processing.

Fittings permit a change in direction of piping, a change in diameter of pipe or a

branch to be made from the main run of pipe. Some of the fittings are elbows, long

radius and short radius elbow reducing elbow, reducer, bends and mitered bends etc.

2.3.1 Valves

A valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of fluid and pressure within a

system. There are different types of valves some of them are discussed below [3].

a) ON/OFF Valves

These are the kind of valves which are used to stop of start the fluid flow e.g. Gate

valve, Globe valve, rotary ball valve, Plug valve and diaphragm valve etc.

b) Regulating Valve

These are the kind of valves which are used to start, stop and also to regulate the fluid

flow e.g. Needle valve, butterfly valve, Diaphragm and Gate valve etc.

c) Safety Valve

This valve reacts to excessive pressure in piping system. They provide a rapid means

of getting rid of that pressure before a serious accident occur. Safety valve is used

normally for gasses and steams. In safety valve the steam is discharge to the air

through a large pipe.

8

d) Pressure Regulating Valve

These valves regulate pressure in a fluid line keeping it very close to a pre-set level.

The valve is set to monitor the line, and make needed adjustments on signal from a

sensitive device.

Expansion loops are used to release the stresses which produced due to thermal

gradients. All pipes will be installed at ambient temperature. Pipes carrying hot fluids

such as water or steam operate at higher temperatures. It follows that they expand,

especially in length, with an increase from ambient to working temperatures. This will

create stress upon certain areas within the distribution system, such as pipe joints,

which, in the extreme, could fracture. Therefore the piping system must be

sufficiently flexible to accommodate the movements of the components as they

expand [1].

The expansion fitting is one of method of accommodating expansion. These

fittings are placed with in a line, and are designed to accommodate the expansion,

with out the total length of the line changing. They are commonly called expansion

bellows, due to the bellows construction of the expansion sleeve. Different kinds of

expansion loops are used, some of which are given below.

2.3.2.1

Full loop

This is simply one complete turn of the pipe and, on steam pipe work, should

preferably be fitted in a horizontal rather than a vertical position to prevent

condensate accumulating on the upstream side as shown in Figure 2-1 below. When

space is available, it is best fitted horizontally so that the loop and the main are on the

same plane.

9

2.3.2.2

In majority of these loops guided cantilever method is used to find the deflection in

the loop. These loops are shown in the Figure 2-2 below.

2.4 Supports

Pipe support specifications for individual projects must be written in such a way as to

ensure proper support under all operating and environmental conditions and to

provide for slope, expansion, anchorage, and insulation protection. Familiarity with

standard practices, customs of the trade, and types and functions of commercial

component standard supports and an understanding of their individual advantages and

limitations, together with knowledge of existing standards, can be of great help in

achieving the desired results [1]. Good pipe support design begins with good piping

design and layout. For example, other considerations being equal, piping should be

routed to use the surrounding structure to provide logical and convenient points of

support, anchorage, guidance, or restraint, with space available at such points for use

of the proper component. Parallel lines, both vertical and horizontal, should be spaced

sufficiently apart to allow room for independent pipe attachments for each line. There

are different types of supports used in the piping system; some of them are discussed

below [2].

a) Anchor support

A rigid support providing substantially full fixity for three translations and

rotations about three reference axes. Figure 2-3 shows the model along with

10

the pipe and welding positions. Detail of this support will be discussed in

chapter 8.

b) Hanger support

A support for which piping is suspended from a structure, and so on, and

which functions by carrying the piping load in tension as shown below in

figure.

c) Sliding support

A device that providing support from beneath the piping but offering no

resisting other than frictional to horizontal motion as shown in Figure 2-5

below..

11

d) Spring support

Spring support is used when there is an appreciable difference b/w operating

and non operating conditions of the pipes. Constant load support is used when

loading condition change up to 6%.

e) Snubber support

These supports are used to restrain the dynamic load such as seismic loads,

water hammer and steam hammer etc. These supports are not capable of

supporting gravity loads. A simplified snubber support view is shown in

Figure 2-7 below.

f)

Roller support

A means of allowing a pipe to move along its length but not side ways. Roller

support is shown in Figure 2-8 below.

12

Before the selection of codes for the steam piping, a little detail about codes,

standards and its historical background is given below.

The increase in operating temperatures and pressures led to the development of the

ASA (now ANSI) B31 Code for pressure piping. During the 1950s, the code was

segmented to meet the individual requirements of the various developing piping

industries, with codes being published for the power, petrochemical and gas

transmission industries among others. The 1960s and 1970s encompassed a period of

development

of

standard

concepts,

requirements

and

methodologies.

The

development and use of the computerized mathematical models of piping system have

brought analysis, design and drafting to new levels of sophistication. Codes and

standards were established to provide methods of manufacturing, listing and reporting

design data [3].

A standard is a set of specifications for parts, materials or processes intended

to achieve uniformity, efficiency and a specified quality. Basic purpose of the

standards is to place a limit on the number of items in the specifications, so as to

provide a reasonable inventory of tooling, sizes and shapes and verities [4]. Some of

the important document related to piping are:

I. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

II. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

III. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM)

IV. Pipe Fabrication Institute (PFI)

V. American Welding Institute (AWS)

VI. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

On the other side A code is a set of specifications for analysis, design,

manufacture and construction of something. The basic purpose of code is to provide

design criterion such as permissible material of construction, allowable working

stresses and loads sets [4]. ASME Boiler and Pressure vessel codeB31, Sectiion-1 is

13

used for the design of commercial power and industrial piping system. This section

has the following sub section [1].

B31.1: For Power Piping.

B31.3: For Chemical plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping.

B31.4: Liquid transportation system for Hydrocarbons, liquid petroleum gas, and

Alcohols.

B31.5: Refrigeration Piping.

B31.8: Gas transportation and distribution piping system.

B31.1 Power piping code concerns mononuclear piping such as that found in

the turbine building of a nuclear plant or in a fossil-fueled power plant. Detail of this

code is given below in section 3.2. B31.3 code governs all piping within limits of

facilities engaged in the processing or handling of chemical, petroleum, or related

products. Examples are a chemical plant compounding plant, bulk plant, and tank

farm. B31.4 governs piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural

gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, liquid alcohol, and liquid

anhydrous ammonia. These are auxiliary piping with an internal gauge pressure at or

below 15 psi regardless of temperature. B31.5 covers refrigerants and secondary

o

coolant piping for temperatures as low as 320 F. B31.8 governs most of the pipe lines

in gas transmission and distribution system up to the outlet of the customers meter set

o

assembly. Excluded from this code with metal temperature above 450 F or below o

20 F. As for as the steam piping is concerned, B31.1 Power piping is used because of

its temperature and pressure limitations which is discussed below in detail.

This code covers the minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication,

erection, testing, and inspection of power and auxiliary service piping systems for

electric generation stations, industrial institutional plants, and central and district

heating plants. The code also covers external piping for power boilers and high

temperature, high-pressure water boilers in which steam or vapor is generated at a

pressure of more than 15psig and high-temperature water is generated at pressures

o

exceeding 160psig or temperatures exceeding 250 F. This code is typically used for

the transportation of steam or water under elevated temperatures and pressure as

14

mentioned above, so this is the reason that why this code is selected for the steam

piping system which is external to the boiler [5].

As it already mentioned in the previous section 3.2, Boiler outlet section of the steam

system comes under the category of ASME Code B31.1 Power. In order to ensure the

safety of the piping system, code requirements should be fully satisfied. For different

loads this code incorporates different relationships for stress level as given below.

The effects of the pressure, weight, and other sustained loads must meet the

requirements of the following equation [1].

SL =

PDo 0.75i M A

+

1.0 S h

Z

4t

(3.1)

Where

P = Internal Pressure, psi

Do = Out Side diameter of Pipe, in

t = nominal wall thickness, in

Z = Section modulus of pipe, in3

MA = Resultant moment due to loading on cross section due to weight and other

sustained loads, in-lb

Sh = Basic material allowable stress at design pressure, psi

The effects of pressure, weight, and occasional loads (earthquake) must meet the

requirements of the following equation [1].

PDo 0.75i ( M A + M B )

+

KS h

Z

4t

Where

MB = Resultant moment loading on cross section due to occasional loads, psi

K= Constant factor depend on plant operation time

The rest of the terms are same to above equation.

(3.2)

15

The effects of thermal expansion must meet the following equation [1].

iM C

S A + f ( Sh S L )

Z

(3.3)

where

f = Stress range reduction factor

Mc =Range of resultant moment due to thermal expansion, in-lb

SA = Allowable stress range for expansion

The rest of the terms are same to above equation.

Piping stress analysis is a discipline which is highly interreralated with piping layout

and support design. The layout of the piping should be performed with requirements

of piping stress and pipe support in mind. If necessary, layout solutions should be

iterated until a satisfactory balance b/w stress and layout efficiency is achieved [1].

Stress is defined as the reactive force per unit area which is developed when an

external force is being applied on the body. The stress is responsible for the

deformation and deterioration of the material.

There are two types of stresses, normal stress and shear stress. The normal

stresses are perpendicular stress on a body and they are directed normal of the surface

of the body. The tensile stresses are those stress which produces tension in the

material whereas compressive stresses are those stresses which produce the

compression in the material.

On the other side shear stress is the force per unit area of shearing plane. The

shear stresses are those stresses which tend parallel plates of the material to slip past

each other. The strain is the deformation in the dimension a material when it is under

stress. The strain is of two types shear strain and normal strain [3].

The failure theories most commonly used in describing the strength of the piping

system are the:

16

1) Maximum principle stress theory

2) Maximum shear stress theory (Tresca theory)

3.4.3.1

This theory states that failure will always occurs, whenever the greatest tensile stress

tends to exceed the uni-axial tensile strength or whenever the largest compressive

stress tends to exceed the uni-axial compressive strength. This theory has been found

to correlate reasonably well with test data for brittle fracture [3]. The maximum

principle stress theory form the basis for piping system governed by ANSI/ASME

B31 and subsection (class2 and class3) of section III of the ASME boiler and pressure

vessel codes [1].

3.4.3.2

Where on the other side the maximum shear stress theory states that failure of a

piping component occurs when the maximum shear stress exceed the shear stress at

the yield point in a tension test. In tensile test, at yield, 1= Sy, where 2 = 3 = 0. So

yielding in the component occurs when

max =

( 1 3 ) S y

=

2

2

(3.4)

This theory correlates reasonably well with the yielding of ductile materials [3]. This

maximum shear stress theory forms the basis for piping of subsection NB (calss1) of

ASME section III [1].

There are various failure modes which could affect a piping system. The piping

engineer can provide protection against some of these failure modes by performing

stress analysis according to the piping codes. Protection against other failure modes is

provided by methods other than stress analysis. For example, protection against brittle

fracture is provided by material selection. The piping codes address the following

failure modes, excessive plastic deformation, plastic instability or incremental

collapse, and high-strainlow-cycle fatigue. Each of these modes of failure is caused

by a different kind of stress and loading. It is necessary to place these stresses into

different categories and set limits to them. The major stress categories are primary,

17

secondary, and peak. The limits of these stresses are related to the various failure

modes as follows [3].

3.4.3.3

Primary Stress

The primary stress limits are intended to prevent plastic deformation and bursting.

Primary stresses which are developed by the imposed loading are necessary to satisfy

the equilibrium between external and internal forces and moments of the piping

system. Primary stresses are not self-limiting. Therefore, if a primary stress exceeds

the yield strength of the material through the entire cross section of the piping, then

failure can be prevented only by strain hardening in the material. Thermal stresses are

never classified as primary stresses. They are placed in both the secondary and peak

stress categories [1].

Primary stresses are the membrane, shear or bending stress resulting from imposed

loadings which satisfy the simple laws of equilibrium of internal and external forces

and moments as arranged in table below;

Table 3-1 Primary stresses of pipes

Circumferential membrane stress

Longitudinal membrane stress

Primary bending stress

Pressure

Pressure, Dead weight

Pressure, Dead weight, wind

Primary stresses which considerably exceed the yield strength of the piping material

will result in gross distortion or failure [5].

3.4.3.4

Secondary Stresses

The primary plus secondary stress limits are intended to prevent excessive plastic

deformation leading to incremental collapse. Secondary stresses are developed by the

constraint of displacements of a structure. These displacements can be caused either

by thermal expansion or by outwardly imposed restraint and anchor point movements.

Under this loading condition, the piping system must satisfy an imposed strain pattern

rather than be in equilibrium with imposed forces. Local yielding and minor

18

distortions of the piping system tend to relieve these stresses. Therefore, secondary

stresses are self-limiting [1].

Secondary stresses are self equilibrium stresses which are necessary to satisfy

the continuity of forces within a structure. As contrasted with stresses from sustained

loads, secondary stresses are not a source of direct failure in ductile with only a single

application of load. If the stresses exceed the material yield strength, they cause local

deformation which result in a redistribution of the loading and upper limit of the stress

in the operating condition. If the applied load is cyclic, however these stresses

constitute a potential source of fatigue failure e.g. the secondary stresses due to

different type of loads are given below in Table 3-2, [5].

Table 3-2 Secondary stresses of pipes

Bending and Torsional

Bending and Torsional

Thermal loading (expansion or contraction)

Non-uniform distribution of temperature

with in a body

19

The following are the steps which need to be completed in mechanical design of any

piping system.

Piping System

Design

Process

Design

9 Lay outing

9

9

9

Structural Design

Loads

Calculations

Analysis

of Pipes

And

Expansion

Loops

Support

Design

and

Analysis

This process is based on the requirement of the process variables. It defines the

required length & cross sectional area of pipe, the properties of fluid inside the pipe,

nature & rate of flow in it. These variables affect the positioning and placements of

equipments during lay outing and routing. The operating and design working

conditions are clearly defined. The end of Process Plan Design is the creation of a

Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and Process & Instrumental diagram (PID), which are

used in the designing & lay outing of the Pipe. The process design step in this project

is already been done and the data obtained from this step is arranged in Table 6-1.

In piping structural design, according to pressure in pipelines, the design and

minimum allowable thicknesses are calculated; according to the required codes and

standards. ASME codes for various standards are available, for process fluid flow,

ASME B31.1 is used.

20

In the structural design of pipes, when all the loads are calculated then the required

span is also calculated for supporting the pipes.

Piping codes ASME B31.1 Paragraph 104.1.2 require that the minimum thickness tm

including the allowance for mechanical strength, shall not be less than the thickness

calculated using Equation [2].

tm =

P Do

+A

2 ( S Eq + P Y )

(4.1)

Or

tm = t + A

(4.2)

where

tm = minimum required wall thickness, inches

t = pressure design thickness, inches

P = internal pressure, psig

Do = outside diameter of pipe, inches

S = allowable stress at design temperature (known as hot stress), psi

A = allowance, additional thickness to provide for material removed in threading,

corrosion, or erosion allowance; manufacturing tolerance (MT) should also

be considered.

Y = coefficient that takes material properties and design temperature into account.

For temperature below 900F, 0.4 may be assumed.

E q = quality factor.

The allowable working pressure of a pipe can be determined by Equation [2].

P=

2( S Eq ) t

( Do 2Yt )

(4.3)

where

t = specified wall thickness or actual wall thickness in inches.

For bends the minimum wall thickness after bending should not be less than the

minimum required for straight pipe.

21

Sustained loads are those loads which are caused by mechanical forces and these

loads are present through out the normal operation of the piping system. These loads

include both weight and pressure loadings. The support must be capable of holding

the entire weight of the system, including that of that of the pipe, insulation, fluid

components, and the support themselves [2].

Pipe Weight =

Fluid Weight =

steel ( Do 2 Di 2 )

fluid ( Di ) 2

g

gc

g

gc

(4.4)

(4.5)

(4.6)

Where

D0 = Out side diameter of pipe, in

Di = Inside diameter of pipe, in

t = Insulation Thickness depend on the NPS, in

g = Acceleration due to gravity, ft/sec2

gc = Gravitational constants, lbm-ft/ft-sec2

Steel = Density of steel, lb/in3

fluid = Density of water, lb/in3

insul = Density of Insulation, lb/in3

Insulation factor depends on the thickness of the insulation of the pipe.

Wind load like dead weight, is a uniformly distributed load which act along the entire

length or portion of the piping system which is exposed to air.

For standard air, the expression for the wind dynamic pressure is given below [1]:

P = 0.00256 V 2 CD

(4.7)

And to calculate the wind dynamic load (lb/ft), the following expression is used [1]:

F = 0.000213 V 2 CD D

Where

P = Dynamic pressure, lb/ft 2

V = basic wind speed, miles/hr

(4.8)

22

CD = Drag co-efficient, dimensionless

CD can be calculated using table and the following equation;

R = 780xVxD

R = Reynolds number

F = Linear dynamic pressure loading (lb/ft)

D = Pipe Diameter (in)

All pipes will be installed at ambient temperature. If pipes carrying hot fluids such

steam,

then they expand, especially in length, with an increase from ambient to working

temperatures. This will create stress upon certain areas within the distribution system,

such as pipe joints, which, in the extreme, could fracture. The amount of the

expansion is readily calculated using the following expression [6].

Expansion(mm) = L T

(4.9)

Where

L = Length of pipe (m)

T = Temperature difference between ambient and operating Temperatures (C)

= Expansion coefficient (mm/m C) x 10-3

Occasional load will subject a piping system to horizontal loads as well as vertical

loads, Where as sustained loads are normally only vertical (weight). There are

different types of occasional loads that act over a piping system but for our analysis

we will use wind loads and seismic loads.

Earthquake loads are of two major types

9 Operation Based Earthquake Load

9 Safe Shutdown Earthquake Load

Piping systems and components are designed to withstand two levels of site

dependent hypothetical earthquakes, the safe shut down earthquake and the

operational basis earthquake. Their magnitudes are expressed in terms of the

23

gravitational g. There motions are assumed to occur in three orthogonal directions,

one vertical and two horizontal directions.

Earthquake loads can either be calculated by dynamic Analysis or static

Analysis. In Dynamic analysis frequency response of the system is used to calculate

the Earthquake load whereas in Static Analysis, these loads are taken to be some

factor of the Pipe Dead load [3].

The maximum allowable spans for horizontal piping systems are limited by three

main factors that are bending stress, vertical deflection and natural frequency. By

relating natural frequency and deflection limitation, the allowable span can be

determined as the lower of the calculated support spacing based on bending stress and

deflection [2].

The formulation and equation obtained depend upon the end conditions assumed.

Assumptions

9 The pipe is considering to be a straight beam

9 Simply supported at both ends

0.33ZS h

w

(4.10)

EI

22.5w

(4.11)

Ls =

Ls =

Where

Ls = Allowable pipe span, ft

Z = Modulus of pipe section, in3

Sh = Allowable tensile stress at design temperature, psi

w = Total weight of pipe, lb/ft

= Allowable deflection/sag, in

I = Area moment of inertia of pipe, in4

24

E = Modulus of elasticity of pipe material at design temperature, psi.

Thermal expansion are calculated for all the pipes by using equation

Expansion (mm) = L T

Based on thermal expansion calculated above, size of expansion loops can be

calculated from equation below as [2]

L=

3EDo

144 S A

Where

L = Length of expansion Loops, ft

E, Do, SA, same as in above calculations

Size of Expansion Loops assuming to be symmetrical U shaped.

L = 2H + W

Where

H = 2W for U shaped loop.

(4.12)

25

5 Support Design

Pipe support specifications for individual projects must be written in such a way as to

ensure proper support under all operating and environmental conditions and to

provide for slope, expansion, anchorage, and insulation protection. Familiarity with

standard practices, customs of the trade, types and functions of commercial

component standard supports and an understanding of their individual advantages and

limitations, together with knowledge of existing standards, can be of great help in

achieving the desired results [3].

Good pipe support design begins with good piping design and layout. For

example, other considerations being equal, piping should be routed to use the

surrounding structure to provide logical and convenient points of support, anchorage,

guidance, or restraint, with space available at such points for use of the proper

component. Parallel lines, both vertical and horizontal, should be spaced sufficiently

apart to allow room for independent pipe attachments for each line. There are

different types of supports used in the piping system e.g. Anchor support, Guide,

hanger, sliding, snubber support etc. The type of support which we will design in this

project is anchor support. It is a rigid support providing substantially full fixity for

three translations and rotations about three reference axes.

This support mainly includes the beam, column, base plate and anchor bolts. So the

design of all these components will be discussed in this chapter [1].

Beams are the structural members resisting forces acting laterally to its axis. Either

forces or couples that lie in a plane containing the longitudinal axis of the beam may

act upon the member. The forces are understood to act perpendicular to the

longitudinal axis, and the plane containing the forces is assumed to be a plane of

symmetry of the beam. There are some limits states that must be considered when

designing a beam that are bending, shear and deflection [3].

26

Bending stresses which caused by bending moments are internal member moments

which resist externally applied

equilibrium. Bending stresses are usually far more significant than normal stresses

due to axial forces, therefore the flexural formula in its many form is one of the most

commonly used equations in structural analysis.

The flexural formula states that the value of the bending stress at any point on the

cross section of a member is [3].

b =

Mc

I

(5.1)

where

M = Bending moment on the cross section, in-lb

c = Distance from neutral axis to point of interest, in

I = Moment of inertia of cross section, in4

The failure mode for bending is material yielding. For this reason the allowable stress

for bending is usually limited to the material stress reduced by a safety factor.

Theses stresses resist the relative slippage of adjacent cross-sectional planes in the

members and can cause by shear forces. Shearing stress can be find out by using the

following formula [3]:

VAy

Ib

(5.2)

where

V = shear force on cross section, lb

A = Cross sectional area, in2

y = Distance from the neutral axis to the centriod of the area, in

I = Moment of inertia of the beam cross section, in4

b = width of the beam, in

The horizontal shear stress is a maximum at the neutral axis of the beam.

This is opposite of the behavior of the bending stress which is maximum at the outer

edge of the beam and zero at the neutral axis.

27

5.1.3 Deflection

The lateral load acting on beam causes the beam to bend, deforming the axis of the

beam into a curve called the deflection of the beam. This deformation of a beam is

most easily expressed in terms of the deflection of the beam from its original

unloaded position. This deflection is measured from the original neutral surface to the

neutral surface of the deformed beam. The deflection in uniformly distributed

cantilever beam can be calculated by using the following equation [3]

ymax =

wl 4

8 EI

(5.3)

Where

y = deflection at point l, in

w = uniformly distributed load, lb/in

l = length at which deflection is to be calculated

E = Modulus of elasticity of the material being used in beam, Mpsi

I = Moment of inertia, in4

5.2 Column

A long slender bar subject to axial compression is called a column. The term column

is frequently used to describe a vertical member. Column may be divided into three

general types: Short columns, Intermediate columns and Long Column. The

compressive capacity of a column is dependent on its slenderness ratio, which is

defined as [3]

Slenderness ratio =

Kl

r

(5.4)

Where

K = a constant dependent on boundary conditions

r = least radius of gyration of the member = I

, in

A = area of cross section, in2

Theoretical and recommended values of K for some typical column end conditions are

shown in Figure 5-1 below.

28

Combination of K and L is also called effective length, leff = Kl. A generally accepted

relationship between the slenderness ratio and type of column is as follows.

Table 5-1 Limitation of column slenderness ratio [7]

Type of Column

Short column

60

Intermediate column

leff

r

leff

120

Long column

r

leff

r

60

120

300

Critical load and critical stress can be find out from the following equations [7]

Pcr =

cr =

2 EI

(5.5)

Leff 2

2E

Leff

(5.6)

For column subjected to both axial and bending stress, AISC subsection H1

specification requires that the following equations must be satisfied [7].

29

f

fa

f

+ bx + by 1

0.6 Fy Fbx Fby

(5.7)

f a fbx f by

+

+

1

Fa Fbx Fby

(5.8)

Where

fa = axial stress in column = P/A

Fa = allowable axial stress

Fb, x/y = Bending stress in x or y direction = Mc/I

Fb, x/y = allowable bending stresses in x or y direction

Base plate is used to provide ground support to the column concentric and bending

load. Base plate may either be of the anchor bolted type or embedded type. Base

plates with anchor bolts are normally used in cases where the building concrete has

already been poured, while embedded plates are used when they can be specified prior

to pouring the concrete [3].

The strength of the bolts is a function of the embedment depth, the bolt or stud head

diameter, the concrete strength and the spacing between adjacent bolts. Anchor bolts

are installed by drilling a hole through the concrete into which the bolts are inserted.

Depending on the type of bolt the bolt expands to grip the concrete either by

hammering the bolt or by torquing the nut against the base plate [7].

30

In this chapter piping thickness as well as all the basic loads are calculated and the

characteristics are also given below.

As already sizing of this piping system has been done and the available

information are;

Number of pipes = 48

Number of junctions = 49

Wind Velocity = 100 miles/hr

Pipe Nominal Size, Inlet-Out let velocities, Temperatures and Pressure of steam for

every pipe are given below in the following Table 6-1.

Table 6-1 Characteristics of Fluid at inlet and out let of pipes and its sizing

S. No

Pipe

Line

NPS

No.

D o,

(in)

TIn, C

TOut,

VIn,

Vout

Pin

m/sec

m/sec

(static)bar

POut

(static)

bar

P-208

8.00

8.63

169.59

168.70

35.37

36.21

7.98

7.78

P-209

2.00

6.63

168.20

167.04

13.98

14.03

7.77

7.73

P-210

8.00

8.63

168.70

167.04

35.27

36.43

7.78

7.52

P-211

8.00

8.63

167.04

166.20

36.46

37.58

7.51

7.27

P-212

8.00

8.63

165.92

165.04

28.15

28.65

7.29

7.14

P-213

4.00

4.50

164.81

158.09

27.77

31.10

7.14

6.30

P-214

8.00

8.63

165.04

164.92

21.61

21.62

7.14

7.13

P-215

6.00

6.63

166.20

166.09

16.27

16.29

7.27

7.26

P-216

2.00

2.38

165.87

162.92

20.79

21.03

7.26

7.13

10

P-217

4.00

4.50

166.04

164.70

31.60

32.27

7.23

7.07

11

P-218

3.00

3.50

164.65

164.31

17.70

17.81

7.08

7.03

12

P-219

4.00

4.50

157.37

157.20

18.15

18.14

4.00

3.99

13

P-220

4.00

4.50

164.59

161.42

22.01

22.29

7.06

6.92

14

P-221

2.00

2.38

161.26

153.81

17.99

18.21

6.92

6.72

31

Table 6-1 Characteristics of Fluid at inlet and out let of pipes and its sizing (continued)

Pipe

S. No

Line

NPS

No.

D o,

(in)

TIn, C

TOut, C

VIn,

Vout

m/sec

m/sec

Pin

POut

(static)

(static),

bar

bar

15

P-224

4.00

4.50

161.31

157.81

17.56

17.62

6.92

6.83

16

P-225

2.00

2.38

157.76

151.53

18.07

18.28

6.83

6.65

17

P-226

3.00

3.50

157.92

156.42

22.18

22.38

6.82

6.74

18

P-227

2.00

2.38

155.87

132.75

10.95

10.55

6.74

6.59

19

P-228

3.00

3.50

156.37

155.09

17.43

17.46

6.73

6.70

20

P-229

2.00

2.38

154.65

147.09

10.26

10.15

6.70

6.64

21

P-230

2.00

2.38

134.14

123.87

23.95

25.66

2.00

1.89

22

P-231

1.00

1.32

133.92

119.20

37.41

43.79

1.98

1.63

23

P-232

3.00

3.50

154.92

149.98

12.81

12.76

6.69

6.64

24

P-233

2.00

2.38

149.20

140.09

6.93

6.79

6.64

6.61

25

P-236

1.50

1.90

126.81

117.36

23.32

23.84

1.99

1.90

26

P-237

1.00

1.32

126.81

118.70

32.02

34.36

1.99

1.82

27

P-238

2.00

2.38

150.09

145.42

21.20

21.65

6.63

6.42

28

P-239

1.00

1.32

145.09

130.70

21.74

22.91

6.42

5.88

29

p-240

2.00

2.38

145.31

140.48

16.06

16.12

6.42

6.31

30

P-241

1.00

1.32

140.37

125.70

29.15

35.66

6.30

4.99

31

P-242

2.00

2.38

140.03

130.87

8.63

8.45

6.31

6.28

32

P-243

2.00

2.38

130.31

112.98

5.52

5.27

6.28

6.24

33

P-244

1.00

1.32

130.64

95.31

11.43

10.80

6.28

6.00

34

P-250

3.00

3.50

159.15

158.87

12.28

12.32

4.00

3.98

35

P-251

1.00

1.32

158.53

121.48

29.53

36.80

3.97

2.97

36

P-252

2.00

2.38

158.87

152.87

19.58

19.77

3.98

3.89

37

P-253

1.50

1.90

152.48

146.31

16.82

16.84

3.89

3.83

38

P-254

1.00

1.32

152.59

132.53

37.37

48.68

3.86

2.83

39

P-256

2.00

2.38

155.87

150.03

37.39

41.14

4.00

3.59

40

P-257

6.00

6.63

152.70

152.37

21.55

21.59

4.00

3.99

41

P-259

3.00

3.50

142.09

137.09

27.65

28.75

2.00

1.90

42

P-260

3.00

3.50

139.81

138.42

27.50

28.06

2.00

1.95

43

P-261

3.00

3.50

118.25

116.42

20.90

21.16

1.50

1.47

44

P-262

3.00

3.50

134.81

133.98

15.23

15.21

2.00

2.00

32

Table 6-1 Characteristics of Fluid at inlet and out let of pipes and its sizing (continued)

S. No

Pipe

Line

D o,

NPS

(in)

No.

TIn, C

VIn,

Vout

m/sec

m/sec

TOut, C

Pin

POut

(static)

(static),

bar

bar

45

P-263

2.00

2.38

127.87

126.70

22.37

22.36

2.00

1.99

46

P-264

2.00

2.38

119.20

115.70

17.26

17.35

2.00

1.97

47

P-270

3.00

3.50

157.31

152.37

28.44

29.92

3.99

3.75

48

P-271

1.00

1.32

156.48

151.48

24.31

24.67

4.00

3.89

Physical properties of pipe material, insulation and water are arranged in Table 6-2

below;

Table 6-2 Material Properties [Appendix Table A14]

Material

Carbon Steel

Insulation

Parameter

Value

Modulus of Elasticity E

27.5 Mpsi

14.4 ksi

Density, steel

0.283 lb/in3

0.00343lb/in3

Density, water

0.0361 lb/in3

Water

Piping design calculation means to find out the pipe thickness for the available

size and operating pressure of the fluid. This thickness is then compared to the

allowable minimum standard thickness defined by the code. After thickness

calculations all loads applied on this pipe can be calculated, which will form the

basis for spacing of supports and sizing of expansion loops.

Piping codes require that the minimum thickness tm including the allowance for

mechanical strength, shall not be less than the thickness calculated using Equation

(4.1) as follows.

33

Design thickness tm =

P Do

+A

2 ( S Eq + P Y )

(4.1)

or

=t+A

Let take Pipe no. 208 and calculate its minimum thickness by using equation.

Where all the parameters are arranged in Table 6-3 below;

Table 6-3 Input Parameters used in pipe thickness calculation

Parameter

Value

Reference/Reason

Do

8.625 in

Appendix Table A2

Pg

193.3 Psi

Table 6.1

0.4

14400 Psi

Appendix Table A1

12.5%

3 mm = 0.03937 in

data provided

Tolerance limit

A

tm =

193.3 8.625

+ 0.03937

2 (144000 1 + 193.3 0.4)

tm = 0.09984 In

0.0998

0.85

tm = 0.12in

tm =

tm = 2.9mm

Standard tm = 0.282 in

For all 48 pipes the thickness were calculated and arranged in the Table 6-4 below

along with the standard minimum wall thickness. From the table it is cleared that

nearly 2 to 3 times, so our calculated thickness is safe.

34

Pipe Nominal Size,

D (in)

Design Pressure

(stat.), P (lb/In2)

Velocity, Inlet

(m/sec)

Total Head,(m)

H=(P/W+V^2/2*g)

Pabs(Psi)= *g*H

DesignPressure

(gage.), P(lb/In2)=

Psat-14.7

Allowable Stresss,

S(psi)

Min. Wall

thickness,t(in)=P*D

/2*(S+.4*P)

Corrosion

allowance, A (in)

thickt(t), (in)

t= (t/1-T)

T=12.5% (in)

t(mm)

Min.Allowable

thickness (in)

Pipe Line

8.625

117.23

35.37

146.274

208.01

193.31

14400

0.4

0.0605

0.0394

0.0999

0.114

2.903

0.282

P-209

6.625

114.22

13.98

90.283

128.39

113.69

14400

0.4

0.0274

0.0394

0.0668

0.076

1.940

0.135

P-210

8.625

114.37

35.27

143.894

204.63

189.93

14400

0.4

0.0595

0.0394

0.0988

0.113

2.872

0.282

P-211

8.625

110.44

36.46

145.470

206.87

192.17

14400

0.4

0.0602

0.0394

0.0995

0.114

2.892

0.282

P-212

8.625

107.15

28.15

115.774

164.64

149.94

14400

0.4

0.0470

0.0394

0.0864

0.099

2.510

0.282

P-213

4.5

105.00

27.78

113.203

160.98

146.28

14400

0.4

0.0239

0.0394

0.0633

0.072

1.839

0.207

P-214

8.625

104.90

21.61

97.598

138.79

124.09

14400

0.4

0.0389

0.0394

0.0783

0.090

2.275

0.282

P-215

6.625

106.88

16.28

88.676

126.10

111.40

14400

0.4

0.0268

0.0394

0.0662

0.076

1.924

0.245

P-216

2.375

106.69

20.79

97.079

138.05

123.35

14400

0.4

0.0107

0.0394

0.0500

0.057

1.454

0.178

10

P-217

4.5

106.34

31.60

125.735

178.80

164.10

14400

0.4

0.0268

0.0394

0.0662

0.076

1.924

0.207

11

P-218

3.5

104.05

17.70

89.148

126.77

112.07

14400

0.4

0.0143

0.0394

0.0536

0.061

1.559

0.189

12

P-219

4.5

58.80

18.15

58.155

82.70

68.00

14400

0.4

0.0111

0.0394

0.0505

0.058

1.468

0.207

13

P-220

4.5

103.78

22.01

97.703

138.94

124.24

14400

0.4

0.0203

0.0394

0.0597

0.068

1.735

0.207

14

P-221

2.375

101.77

17.99

88.072

125.24

110.54

14400

0.4

0.0096

0.0394

0.0489

0.056

1.422

0.178

15

P-224

4.5

101.67

17.56

87.227

124.04

109.34

14400

0.4

0.0179

0.0394

0.0573

0.066

1.664

0.207

16

P-225

2.375

100.45

18.07

87.298

124.14

109.44

14400

0.4

0.0095

0.0394

0.0488

0.056

1.419

0.178

17

P-226

3.5

100.28

22.18

95.626

135.99

121.29

14400

0.4

0.0154

0.0394

0.0548

0.063

1.593

0.189

18

P-227

2.375

99.12

10.95

75.822

107.82

93.12

14400

0.4

0.0081

0.0394

0.0474

0.054

1.378

0.178

19

P-228

3.5

98.96

17.43

85.080

120.99

106.29

14400

0.4

0.0135

0.0394

0.0529

0.061

1.538

0.189

20

P-229

2.375

98.43

10.26

74.589

106.07

91.37

14400

0.4

0.0079

0.0394

0.0473

0.054

1.374

0.178

21

P-230

2.375

29.34

23.95

49.908

70.97

56.27

14400

0.4

0.0049

0.0394

0.0442

0.051

1.286

0.178

22

P-231

1.315

29.16

37.41

91.916

130.71

116.01

14400

0.4

0.0055

0.0394

0.0449

0.051

1.305

0.116

23

P-232

3.5

98.39

12.81

77.563

110.30

95.60

14400

0.4

0.0122

0.0394

0.0515

0.059

1.498

0.189

24

P-233

2.375

97.59

6.94

71.081

101.08

86.38

14400

0.4

0.0075

0.0394

0.0468

0.054

1.361

0.178

25

P-236

1.5

1.9

29.27

23.32

48.327

68.72

54.02

14400

0.4

0.0037

0.0394

0.0431

0.049

1.253

0.127

S.No

P-208

No.

35

Table 6-4 All pipes thickness along with standard thickness (Continued)

Pipe Nominal

Size,

Out side

Diameter, D (in)

Design Pressure

(stat.), P (lb/In2)

Velocity, Inlet

(m/sec)

Total Head,(m)

H=(P/W+V^2/2*

g)

Pabs(Psi)=

*g*H

DesignPressure

(gage.),

P(lb/In2)=

Psat-14.7

Allowable

Stresss, S(psi)

Min. Wall

thickness,t(in)=P

*D/2*(S+.4*P)

Corrosion

allowance (in)

thickt(t) (in)

t= (t/1-T)

T=12.5% (in)

t(mm)

No.

1.315

29.27

32.02

72.901

103.67

88.97

14400

0.4

0.0043

0.0394

0.0436

0.050

1.268

0.116

27

P-238

2.375

97.40

21.21

91.441

130.04

115.34

14400

0.4

0.0100

0.0394

0.0493

0.056

1.434

0.178

28

P-239

1.315

94.34

21.74

90.466

128.65

113.95

14400

0.4

0.0055

0.0394

0.0448

0.051

1.303

0.116

29

p-240

2.375

94.30

16.06

79.478

113.02

98.32

14400

0.4

0.0085

0.0394

0.0479

0.055

1.391

0.178

30

P-241

1.315

92.67

29.15

108.524

154.33

139.63

14400

0.4

0.0067

0.0394

0.0460

0.053

1.338

0.116

31

P-242

2.375

92.80

8.63

69.054

98.20

83.50

14400

0.4

0.0072

0.0394

0.0466

0.053

1.354

0.178

32

P-243

2.375

100.25

5.52

72.050

102.46

87.76

14400

0.4

0.0076

0.0394

0.0470

0.054

1.365

0.178

33

P-244

1.315

92.27

11.43

71.549

101.75

87.05

14400

0.4

0.0042

0.0394

0.0435

0.050

1.265

0.116

34

P-250

3.5

58.80

12.28

49.046

69.75

55.05

14400

0.4

0.0070

0.0394

0.0464

0.053

1.348

0.189

35

P-251

1.315

58.33

29.53

85.499

121.59

106.89

14400

0.4

0.0051

0.0394

0.0445

0.051

1.293

0.116

36

P-252

2.375

58.54

19.58

60.724

86.35

71.65

14400

0.4

0.0062

0.0394

0.0456

0.052

1.324

0.178

37

P-253

1.5

1.9

57.15

16.82

54.626

77.68

62.98

14400

0.4

0.0044

0.0394

0.0437

0.050

1.271

0.127

38

P-254

1.315

56.77

37.37

111.180

158.11

143.41

14400

0.4

0.0069

0.0394

0.0462

0.053

1.343

0.116

39

P-256

2.375

58.80

37.39

112.691

160.25

145.55

14400

0.4

0.0126

0.0394

0.0519

0.059

1.509

0.178

40

P-257

6.625

58.80

21.55

65.042

92.49

77.79

14400

0.4

0.0188

0.0394

0.0581

0.067

1.690

0.245

41

P-259

3.5

29.40

27.66

59.703

84.90

70.20

14400

0.4

0.0089

0.0394

0.0483

0.055

1.404

0.189

42

P-260

3.5

29.40

27.50

59.258

84.27

69.57

14400

0.4

0.0089

0.0394

0.0482

0.055

1.402

0.189

43

P-261

3.5

22.05

20.90

37.781

53.73

39.03

14400

0.4

0.0050

0.0394

0.0443

0.051

1.289

0.189

44

P-262

3.5

29.40

15.23

32.510

46.23

31.53

14400

0.4

0.0040

0.0394

0.0434

0.050

1.261

0.189

45

P-263

2.375

29.40

22.37

46.194

65.69

50.99

14400

0.4

0.0044

0.0394

0.0438

0.050

1.272

0.178

46

P-264

2.375

29.40

17.26

35.877

51.02

36.32

14400

0.4

0.0031

0.0394

0.0425

0.049

1.236

0.178

47

P-270

3.5

44.10

28.44

72.267

102.77

88.07

14400

0.4

0.0112

0.0394

0.0506

0.058

1.470

0.189

48

P-271

1.315

14.70

24.31

40.496

57.59

42.89

14400

0.4

0.0021

0.0394

0.0414

0.047

1.204

0.116

Min.Allowab

Pipe Line

P-237

le thickness (in)

S.No

26

36

After calculating the design thickness, now checking the working pressure by using

the standard thickness to find the maximum pressure that the pipe material can

withstand. The allowable working pressure of a pipe can be determined by Equation

(4.3) given below.

P=

2( S Eq ) t

( Do 2Yt )

(4.3)

Let take Pipe no. 208 and calculate its minimum thickness by using Table 6-5.

Table 6-5 Input data

Parameter

Value

Reference/Reason

8.625 in

Appendix Table A2

0.4

14400 Psi

Appendix Table A1

0.322 in

Appendix Table A2

Do

So the allowable working pressure comes out to be P = 993.87 psi

Where as the designed working pressure =117.23 psi (From Table 6-1). For all the 48

pipes the working pressures are calculated and arranged in the following table.

Table 6-6 Design and working Pressure

S.No

Pipe Line No.

NPS,

in

Do (in)

Pressure (gage)

psi

1

2

P-208

P-209

8

2

8.625

6.625

193.31

113.69

993.877

1955.074

P-210

P-211

P-212

P-213

P-214

P-215

8

8

8

4

8

6

8.625

8.625

8.625

4.5

8.625

6.625

189.93

192.17

149.94

146.28

124.09

111.40

993.877

993.877

993.877

1479.188

993.877

1156.616

4

5

6

7

8

37

S.No

9

P-216

10

P-217

11

P-218

12

P-219

13

P-220

14

P-221

15

P-224

16

P-225

17

P-226

18

P-227

19

P-228

20

P-229

21

P-230

22

P-231

23

P-232

24

P-233

25

P-236

26

P-237

27

P-238

28

P-239

29

p-240

30

P-241

31

P-242

32

P-243

33

P-244

34

P-250

35

P-251

36

P-252

37

P-253

38

P-254

39

P-256

40

P-257

41

P-259

42

P-260

43

P-261

44

P-262

45

P-263

46

P-264

47

P-270

48

P-271

NPS = Nominal Pipe Size

NPS,

in

2

4

3

4

4

2

4

2

3

2

3

2

2

1

3

2

1.5

1

2

1

2

1

2

2

1

3

1

2

1.5

1

2

6

3

3

3

3

2

2

3

1

Do (in)

2.375

4.5

3.5

4.5

4.5

2.375

4.5

2.375

3.5

2.375

3.5

2.375

2.375

1.315

3.5

2.375

1.9

1.315

2.375

1.315

2.375

1.315

2.375

2.375

1.315

3.5

1.315

2.375

1.9

1.315

2.375

6.625

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

2.375

2.375

3.5

1.315

Pressure (gage.)

psi

123.35

164.10

112.07

68.00

124.24

110.54

109.34

109.44

121.29

93.12

106.29

91.37

56.27

116.01

95.60

86.38

54.02

88.97

115.34

113.95

98.32

139.63

83.50

87.76

87.05

55.05

106.89

71.65

62.98

143.41

145.55

77.79

70.20

69.57

39.03

31.53

50.99

36.32

88.07

42.89

2625.538

1479.188

1817.818

1479.188

1479.188

2625.538

1479.188

2625.538

1817.818

2625.538

1817.818

2625.538

2625.538

3503.527

1817.818

2625.538

2488.415

3503.527

2625.538

3503.527

2625.538

3503.527

2625.538

2625.538

3503.527

1817.818

3503.527

2625.538

2488.415

3503.527

2625.538

1156.616

1817.818

1817.818

1817.818

1817.818

2625.538

2625.538

1817.818

3503.527

Discussion: From results obtained from Table 6-6, it is cleared that all the allowable

pressures are greater than the operating pressure by more than 4 times. So that it is

concluded from above table that all the pipes are safe under applied pressure.

38

For standard air, the expression for the wind dynamic pressure is calculated by using

equation as given below [1].

P = 0.00256 V 2 CD

Or

To calculate the wind dynamic load (lb/ft), equation is used [1].

(4.7)

(4.8)

F = 0.000213 V 2 CD D

To find out the drag co-efficient CD, using (Appendix Figure A1) and Reynolds

number.

Re = 780 x V x D

Where

V = Wind velocity, 100 miles/hr

D = Out side diameter of insulated pipe, in

So, considering pipe no. 208

Re = 780 x100 x 11.77 = 9.18 x 105

F = 0.000213 1002 0.6 11.77 = 15.05lb / ft

So for all 48 pipes wind loads are calculated by using wind velocity 100 miles/hr and

pipe out side diameter including insulation thickness. These values are arranged in

Table 6-7 below.

Table 6-7 Wind loads for each pipe

S.

No

Pipe

Line

No.

Pipe

length

(ft)

NPS

Do (in)

tinsul ,

mm

Total

D o,

(in)

Reynold's No.

(Re)= 780*V*D

CD

Wind

Load

(lbs)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

P-208

P-209

P-210

P-211

P-212

P-213

P-214

P-215

P-216

P-217

P-218

P-219

P-220

P-221

P-224

P-225

P-226

P-227

262

16

394

341

361

787

16

16

98

164

16

9.8

279

230

262

197

115

525

8

2

8

8

8

4

8

6

2

4

3

4

4

2

4

2

3

2

8.625

6.625

8.625

8.625

8.625

4.5

8.625

6.625

2.375

4.5

3.5

4.5

4.5

2.375

4.5

2.375

3.5

2.375

80

50

80

80

80

65

80

80

50

65

50

65

65

50

65

50

50

50

11.77

8.59

11.77

11.77

11.77

7.06

11.77

9.77

4.34

7.06

5.47

7.06

7.06

4.34

7.06

4.34

5.47

4.34

9.18E+05

6.70E+05

9.18E+05

9.18E+05

9.18E+05

5.51E+05

9.18E+05

7.62E+05

3.39E+05

5.51E+05

4.27E+05

5.51E+05

5.51E+05

3.39E+05

5.51E+05

3.39E+05

4.27E+05

3.39E+05

0.6

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.9

0.6

0.67

1.2

1

1.1

1

1

1.2

1

1.2

1.1

1.2

3942.56

234.29

5928.89

5131.35

5432.31

10649.85

240.77

223.19

1088.00

2465.87

205.00

147.35

4194.98

2553.46

3939.38

2187.09

1473.46

5828.55

39

Pipe

Pipe

Line length NPS

No.

(ft)

19

P-228

82

3

20

P-229

164

2

21

P-230

164

2

22

P-231

115

1

23

P-232

246

3

24

P-233

131

2

25

P-236

98

1.5

26

P-237

66

1

27

P-238

213

2

28

P-239

197

1

29

p-240

180

2

30

P-241

262

1

31

P-242

197

2

32

P-243

262

2

33

P-244

394

1

34

P-250

6.6

3

35

P-251

328

1

36

P-252

115

2

37

P-253

66

1.5

38

P-254

197

1

39

P-256

230

2

40

P-257

33

6

41

P-259

164

3

42

P-260

39

3

43

P-261

49

3

44

P-262

16

3

45

P-263

16

2

46

P-264

49

2

47

P-270

262

3

48

P-271

33

1

NPS = Nominal Pipe Size

Do = Out side Diameter of Pipe

tinsul = Insulation Thickness

Cd = Drag Coefficient

S.

No

Do (in)

tinsul ,

mm

3.5

2.375

2.375

1.315

3.5

2.375

1.9

1.315

2.375

1.315

2.375

1.315

2.375

2.375

1.315

3.5

1.315

2.375

1.9

1.315

2.375

6.625

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

2.375

2.375

3.5

1.315

50

50

50

40

50

50

50

40

50

40

50

40

50

50

40

50

40

40

50

40

50

80

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

40

Total

D o,

(in)

5.47

4.34

4.34

2.89

5.47

4.34

3.87

2.89

4.34

2.89

4.34

2.89

4.34

4.34

2.89

5.47

2.89

3.95

3.87

2.89

4.34

9.77

5.47

5.47

5.47

5.47

4.34

4.34

5.47

2.89

(Re)=

780*V*Do

Cd

4.27E+05

3.39E+05

3.39E+05

2.25E+05

4.27E+05

3.39E+05

3.02E+05

2.25E+05

3.39E+05

2.25E+05

3.39E+05

2.25E+05

3.39E+05

3.39E+05

2.25E+05

4.27E+05

2.25E+05

3.08E+05

3.02E+05

2.25E+05

3.39E+05

7.62E+05

4.27E+05

4.27E+05

4.27E+05

4.27E+05

3.39E+05

3.39E+05

4.27E+05

2.25E+05

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

0.8

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.2

Wind

Load

(lbs)

1050.64

1820.73

1820.73

849.43

3151.93

1454.36

969.01

487.50

2364.73

1455.11

1998.36

1935.22

2187.09

2908.72

2910.22

92.25

2422.72

1161.01

652.60

1455.11

2553.46

549.65

2101.28

499.70

627.82

205.00

177.63

544.00

3356.93

243.75

40

For all pipes pipe thickness loads, fluid loads and insulation loads are calculated and

added together by using the equation (4.4) for pipe weight, Equation (4.5) for fluid

weight and Equation (4.6) for insulation weight [3].

Pipe weight =

Fluid weight =

steel ( Do 2 Di 2 )

fluid ( Di ) 2

g

gc

(4.4)

g

gc

(4.5)

(4.6)

Using Table 6-1 for properties of pipes and Appendix Table A14 for calculating

weights

Where

Do = Out side diameter of pipe

Di = Inside diameter of pipe

g = 32.17 ft/sec2 (acceleration due to gravity)

gc = 32.17 lbm-ft/lbf-sec2 (gravitational constant)

Steel = 0.283lb/in3

fluid = 0.0361 lb/in3

insul = 0.00343lb/in3

Table 6-8 Pipe, Fluid and insulation weights

S.

No

Pipe

Line

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

P-208

P-209

P-210

P-211

P-212

P-213

P-214

P-215

P-216

P-217

P-218

P-219

P-220

L, (ft)

N

P

S

Insul.

Thick

(In)

262

16

394

341

361

787

16

16

98

164

16

9.8

279

8

2

8

8

8

4

8

6

2

4

3

4

4

3.15

1.97

3.15

3.15

3.15

2.56

3.15

3.15

1.97

2.56

1.97

2.56

2.56

XInsul

Insul.

wt.

(lb)

Pipe wt.,

(lbs)

Fluid

wt.(lbs)

Total

static

Loads

(lbs)

0.97

0.21

0.97

0.97

0.97

0.39

0.97

0.83

0.21

0.39

0.25

0.39

0.39

10.369

0.137

15.593

13.495

14.287

12.523

0.633

0.542

0.840

2.610

0.163

0.156

4.439

7450.18

58.21

11203.71

9696.61

10265.33

8456.94

454.97

302.33

356.51

1762.31

120.71

105.31

2998.08

5680.53

23.27

8542.47

7393.36

7826.99

4342.05

346.90

200.33

142.52

904.82

51.26

54.07

1539.30

13141.08

81.61

19761.78

17103.47

18106.60

12811.51

802.51

503.21

499.87

2669.74

172.14

159.53

4541.82

41

Table 6-8 Pipe, Fluid and insulation weights (Continued)

S.

No

Pipe

Line

No.

L, (ft)

N

P

S

Insul.

Thick

. (In)

XInsul

14

P-221

230

2

1.97

0.21

15

P-224

262

4

2.56

0.39

16

P-225

197

2

1.97

0.21

17

P-226

115

3

1.97

0.25

18

P-227

525

2

1.97

0.21

19

P-228

82

3

1.97

0.25

20

P-229

164

2

1.97

0.21

21

P-230

164

2

1.97

0.21

22

P-231

115

1

1.57

0.1

23

P-232

246

3

1.97

0.25

24

P-233

131

2

1.97

0.21

25

P-236

98

1.5

1.97

0.21

26

P-237

66

1

1.57

0.1

27

P-238

213

2

1.97

0.21

28

P-239

197

1

1.57

0.1

29

p-240

180

2

1.97

0.21

30

P-241

262

1

1.57

0.1

31

P-242

197

2

1.97

0.21

32

P-243

262

2

1.97

0.21

33

P-244

394

1

1.57

0.1

34

P-250

6.6

3

1.97

0.25

35

P-251

328

1

1.57

0.1

36

P-252

115

2

1.57

0.21

37

P-253

66

1.5

1.97

0.21

38

P-254

197

1

1.57

0.1

39

P-256

230

2

1.97

0.21

40

P-257

33

6

3.15

0.83

41

P-259

164

3

1.97

0.25

42

P-260

39

3

1.97

0.25

43

P-261

49

3

1.97

0.25

44

P-262

16

3

1.97

0.25

45

P-263

16

2

1.97

0.21

46

P-264

49

2

1.97

0.21

47

P-270

262

3

1.97

0.25

48

P-271

33

1

1.57

0.1

NPS = Nominal Pipe Size

XInsul = Insulation Factor [Appendix table A15]

Insul.

wt. (lb)

Pipe wt.,

(lbs)

Fluid

wt(lbs)

Total

static

Loads

(lbs)

1.971

4.169

1.688

1.173

4.498

0.836

1.405

1.405

0.469

2.509

1.122

0.840

0.269

1.825

0.804

1.542

1.069

1.688

2.245

1.608

0.067

1.338

0.985

0.565

0.804

1.971

1.118

1.673

0.398

0.500

0.163

0.137

0.420

2.672

0.135

836.70

2815.40

716.66

867.62

1909.87

618.65

596.61

596.61

192.28

1855.95

476.56

265.24

110.35

774.86

329.39

619.04

438.07

716.66

953.12

658.78

49.79

548.43

418.35

178.63

329.39

836.70

623.56

1237.30

294.24

369.68

120.71

58.21

178.25

1976.66

55.18

334.49

1445.51

286.50

368.45

763.51

262.72

238.51

238.51

43.07

788.17

190.51

86.47

24.72

309.77

73.79

266.35

98.14

286.50

381.03

147.58

21.15

122.86

167.24

58.23

73.79

334.49

413.19

525.45

124.95

156.99

51.26

23.27

71.26

839.43

12.36

1173.16

4265.08

1004.84

1237.25

2677.87

882.21

836.52

836.52

235.83

2646.63

668.19

352.55

135.34

1086.45

403.98

886.94

537.28

1004.84

1336.39

807.96

71.01

672.62

586.58

237.43

403.98

1173.16

1037.87

1764.42

419.59

527.17

172.14

81.61

249.93

2818.77

67.67

42

The pipe span means that how much distance should be provided in between the two

adjacent piping supports for straight pipe. Using Equation (4.10), to calculate the pipe

span [2].

Ls =

0.33Z S h

w

(4.10)

Where,

Ls= Allowable Pipe Span, ft

L = Length of pipe, ft

Z = section Modulus, In3

Sh= Allowable tensile stress for the pipe at high temp, psi

w = Weight of the pipe (metal weight of pipe + fluid wt. + Insulation

wt.), lb/ft

Now to find the number of supports for every pipe, using the following equation [2],

Number of supports = (L/Ls) +1

(6.1)

Let take Pipe no. 208 and calculate span limitation for it by using the data from Table

6-1 and 6-8.

L = 262 ft (From Table 6-1)

Z = 16.8 in3 (Appendix Table A2)

Sh = 14400 ksi (Appendix Table A1)

w = 50.15 lb/ft (From Table 6.8)

0.33 16.8 14400

50.15

Ls = 40.72 ft

Ls =

= 7.43 8

Revised Ls = 37.43 ft

But the max. Span limit according to Code B31.1 for NPS = 8 inch

Ls = 24 ft (Appendix Table A8)

Safety margin Span = 37.43 -24

= 13.43 ft

43

Table 6-9 Pipe Span based on limitation of stress

S.

No

Pipe

Line

No.

L,

Z,

w,

(ft)

In3

lb/ft

Rounded

Ls, ft

N.O.S

No. of

Support

Revised

max.

Ls, ft

Span

Safety

Margin

(ft)

P-208

262

16.8

50.15

40.72

7.43

37.43

24

13.43

P-209

16

0.561

5.07

23.41

1.68

16.00

13

3.00

P-210

394

16.8

50.15

40.72

9.68

11

39.40

24

15.40

P-211

341

16.8

50.15

40.72

9.37

10

37.89

24

13.89

P-212

361

16.8

50.15

40.72

9.87

10

40.11

24

16.11

P-213

787

3.21

16.28

31.24

26.19

27

30.27

17

13.27

P-214

16

16.8

50.15

40.72

1.39

16.00

24

-8.00

P-215

16

8.5

31.44

36.58

1.44

16.00

21

-5.00

P-216

98

0.561

5.10

23.34

5.20

19.60

13

6.60

10

P-217

164

3.21

16.28

31.24

6.25

27.33

17

10.33

11

P-218

16

2.23

10.76

32.03

1.50

16.00

15

1.00

12

P-219

9.8

3.21

16.28

31.24

1.31

9.80

17

-7.20

13

P-220

279

3.21

16.28

31.24

9.93

10

31.00

17

14.00

14

P-221

230

0.561

5.10

23.34

10.86

11

23.00

13

10.00

15

P-224

262

3.21

16.28

31.24

9.39

10

29.11

17

12.11

16

P-225

197

0.561

5.10

23.34

9.44

10

21.89

13

8.89

17

P-226

115

2.23

10.76

32.03

4.59

28.75

15

13.75

18

P-227

525

0.561

5.10

23.34

23.50

24

22.83

13

9.83

19

P-228

82

2.23

10.76

32.03

3.56

27.33

15

12.33

20

P-229

164

0.561

5.10

23.34

8.03

20.50

13

7.50

21

P-230

164

0.561

5.10

23.34

8.03

20.50

13

7.50

22

P-231

115

0.133

2.05

17.92

7.42

16.43

7.43

23

P-232

246

2.23

10.76

32.03

8.68

30.75

15

15.75

24

P-233

131

0.561

5.10

23.34

6.61

21.83

13

8.83

25

P-236

98

0.326

3.60

21.18

5.63

19.60

11

8.60

26

P-237

66

0.133

2.05

17.92

4.68

16.50

7.50

27

P-238

213

0.561

5.10

23.34

10.13

11

21.30

18.30

28

P-239

197

0.133

2.05

17.92

11.99

12

17.91

8.91

44

Table 6-9 Pipe Span based on limitation of stress (Continued)

S.

No

Pipe

Line

No.

L,

Z,

w,

(ft)

In3

lb/ft

Ls, ft

N.O.S

Rounded

No.

Revised

max.

Ls, ft

Span

Safety

Margin

(ft)

29

P-240

180

0.561

4.93

23.74

8.58

22.50

13

9.50

30

P-241

262

0.133

2.05

17.92

15.62

16

17.47

8.47

31

P-242

197

0.561

5.10

23.34

9.44

10

21.89

13

8.89

32

P-243

262

0.561

5.10

23.34

12.23

13

21.83

13

8.83

33

P-244

394

0.133

2.05

17.92

22.99

23

17.91

8.91

34

P-250

6.6

2.23

10.76

32.03

1.21

6.60

15

-8.40

35

P-251

328

0.133

2.05

17.92

19.31

20

17.26

8.26

36

P-252

115

0.561

5.10

23.34

5.93

23.00

13

10.00

37

P-253

66

0.326

3.60

21.18

4.12

16.50

11

5.50

38

P-254

197

0.133

2.05

17.92

11.99

12

17.91

8.91

39

P-256

230

0.561

5.10

23.34

10.86

11

23.00

13

10.00

40

P-257

33

8.5

31.44

36.58

1.90

33.00

21

12.00

41

P-259

164

2.23

10.76

32.03

6.12

27.33

15

12.33

42

P-260

39

2.23

10.76

32.03

2.22

19.50

15

4.50

43

P-261

49

2.23

10.76

32.03

2.53

24.50

15

9.50

44

P-262

16

2.23

10.76

32.03

1.50

16.00

15

1.00

45

P-263

16

0.561

5.10

23.34

1.69

16.00

13

3.00

46

P-264

49

0.561

5.10

23.34

3.10

16.33

13

3.33

47

P-270

262

2.23

10.76

32.03

9.18

10

29.11

15

14.11

48

P-271

33

0.133

2.05

17.92

2.84

16.50

7.50

L = Length of pipe, ft

Ls = Span length, ft

Z = Section modulus, in3

In Table 6-9 last column, negative sign shows that the pipe length is less than that of

the standard spacing. So that in this case pipe length will be used as a span limit.

45

Now to calculate number of supports required based on the standard spacing using

Equation (6.1). Considering the case for pipe no. 208 [2],

No. of Supports = (L/Ls) +1

(6.1)

Where,

Ls (standard) = 24 ft (Appendix Table A8)

Pipe length, L = 262 ft (Table 6-1)

No. of supports = 11.9 12

The numbers of supports for all 48 pipes are arranged in Table 6-10 below.

Table 6-10 Spacing based on standard spacing

Pipe Line

No.

Pipe

length

Section

NPS Modulus

(ft)

w,

3)

lb/ft

Z,( In

Stand.

Ls, ft

max.

Span

No.of

Support

Complete

No. of

Support

P-208

262

16.8

50.15

40.72

24.00

11.9

12

P-209

16

0.561

5.07

23.41

13.00

2.2

P-210

394

16.8

50.15

40.72

24.00

17.4

18

P-211

341

16.8

50.15

40.72

24.00

15.2

16

P-212

361

16.8

50.15

40.72

24.00

16.0

16

P-213

787

3.21

16.28

31.24

17.00

47.3

48

P-214

16

16.8

50.15

40.72

24.00

1.7

P-215

16

8.5

31.44

36.58

21.00

1.8

P-216

98

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

8.5

P-217

164

3.21

16.28

31.24

17.00

10.6

11

P-218

16

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

2.1

P-219

9.8

3.21

16.28

31.24

17.00

1.6

P-220

279

3.21

16.28

31.24

17.00

17.4

18

P-221

230

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

18.7

19

P-224

262

3.21

16.28

31.24

17.00

16.4

17

P-225

197

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

16.2

17

P-226

115

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

8.7

P-227

525

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

41.4

42

P-228

82

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

6.5

P-229

164

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

13.6

14

46

Table 6-10 Spacing based on standard spacing (Continued)

Pipe

Pipe

Line

length

Section

NPS

modulus

Z( In

3)

w,

lb/ft

Stand.

Ls, ft

max.

Span

No.of

Supports

Complete

No. of

No.

(ft)

Support

P-230

164

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

13.6

14

P-231

115

0.133

2.05

17.92

9.00

13.8

14

P-232

246

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

17.4

18

P-233

131

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

11.1

12

P-236

98

1.5

0.326

3.60

21.18

11.00

9.9

10

P-237

66

0.133

2.05

17.92

9.00

8.3

P-238

213

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

17.4

18

P-239

197

0.133

2.05

17.92

9.00

22.9

23

p-240

180

0.561

4.93

23.74

13.00

14.8

15

P-241

262

0.133

2.05

17.92

9.00

30.1

31

P-242

197

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

16.2

17

P-243

262

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

21.2

22

P-244

394

0.133

2.05

17.92

9.00

44.8

45

P-250

6.6

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

1.4

P-251

328

0.133

2.05

17.92

9.00

37.4

38

P-252

115

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

9.8

10

P-253

66

1.5

0.326

3.60

21.18

11.00

7.0

P-254

197

0.133

2.05

17.92

9.00

22.9

23

P-256

230

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

18.7

19

P-257

33

8.5

31.44

36.58

21.00

2.6

P-259

164

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

11.9

12

P-260

39

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

3.6

P-261

49

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

4.3

P-262

16

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

2.1

P-263

16

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

2.2

P-264

49

0.561

5.10

23.34

13.00

4.8

P-270

262

2.23

10.76

32.03

15.00

18.5

19

P-271

33

0.133

2.05

17.92

9.00

4.7

47

Thermal deflections are calculated for all the pipes by using Equation (4.9) as given

below [6],

Expansion (mm) = L T

(4.9)

L = 262 ft (From Table 6-1)

o

o

o

In actual case the temperature difference is 0.9 C, but for the verse condition the

temperature difference is to be taken b/w operating and non-operating conditions and

o

divided into segments of 200 ft, b/c the pipe length for an expansion loop is consider

to be 200 ft.

Expansion(mm)=14.910-3

262 12

169.7=204.16mm

39.37

These calculations are arranged for all 48 pipes in the Table 6-11 below.

Table 6-11 Thermal deflection for pipes complete segments

S.

No

Pipe

Line No.

L, ft

TIn,

o

C

P-208

P-208-1

P-208-2

P-209

P-210

P-210-1

P-210-2

P-211

P-211-1

P-211-2

P-212

P-212-1

P-212-2

P-213

P-213-1

P-213-2

P-213-3

262

200

65

16

394

200

194

341

200

141

361

200

161

787

200

200

200

169.70

169.70

169.00

169.00

168.80

168.80

168.10

167.50

167.50

166.90

166.40

166.40

165.80

165.20

165.20

165.00

164.00

2

3

Tout , C

T

o

( C)

() =

(mm*10

o

-3

/m C)

Deflection

(mm)

Deflection

(m)

168.80

169.20

168.80

168.30

167.50

168.10

168.00

166.30

166.90

166.50

165.20

165.80

165.50

158.30

165.00

164.00

163.00

169.70

169.70

169.00

169.00

168.80

168.80

168.10

167.50

167.50

166.90

166.40

166.40

165.80

165.20

165.20

165.00

164.00

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

204.16

154.18

49.90

12.28

302.12

153.36

148.14

259.47

152.18

106.90

272.88

151.18

121.26

590.61

150.09

149.91

149.00

0.20

0.15

0.05

0.01

0.30

0.15

0.15

0.26

0.15

0.11

0.27

0.15

0.12

0.59

0.15

0.15

0.15

48

Table 6-11 Thermal deflection for pipes complete segments (Continued)

S.

No

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

Pipe

Line No.

L, ft

TIn,

o

C

Tout , C

T

o

( C)

() =

(mm*10

o

-3

/m C)

Deflection

(mm)

Deflection

(m)

P-213-4

P-214

P-215

P-216

P-217

P-218

P-219

P-220

P-220-1

P-220-2

P-221

P-221-1

P-221-2

P-224

P-224-1

P-224-2

P-225

P-226

P-227

P-227-1

P-227-2

P-227-3

P-228

P-229

P-230

P-230-1

P-230-2

P-231

P-232

P-232-1

P-233

P-236

P-237

P-238

P-238-1

P-238-2

P-239

p-240

P-240-1

P-240-2

P-241

P-240-1

187

16

16

98

164

16

9.8

279

200

79

230

200

30

262

200

62

197

115

525

200

200

125

82

164

164

100

64

115

246

200

131

98

66

213

200

13

197

180

100

80

262

200

163.00

165.30

166.50

166.40

166.20

165.10

158.00

165.00

165.00

162.00

161.80

161.80

160.00

161.80

161.30

160.00

158.30

158.20

156.80

156.80

150.00

135.00

156.70

155.50

135.20

135.20

129.20

135.00

155.50

154.30

150.50

127.90

127.70

150.40

148.00

147.30

145.70

145.80

145.80

143.30

140.70

140.70

162.00

165.20

166.40

163.40

164.90

164.70

157.90

161.80

163.40

161.80

154.40

160.00

154.40

158.30

160.00

159.00

152.10

156.70

133.50

156.50

147.80

133.50

155.50

147.90

124.80

129.20

124.80

120.10

150.50

153.00

141.30

118.50

119.50

145.70

147.30

145.70

131.30

140.90

143.30

140.90

126.00

136.00

163.00

165.30

166.50

166.40

166.20

165.10

158.00

165.00

165.00

162.00

161.80

161.80

160.00

161.80

161.30

160.00

158.30

158.20

156.80

156.80

150.00

135.00

156.70

155.50

135.20

135.20

129.20

135.00

155.50

154.30

150.50

127.90

127.70

150.40

148.00

147.30

145.70

145.80

145.80

143.30

140.70

140.70

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

138.47

12.01

12.10

74.08

123.82

12.00

7.03

209.12

149.91

58.14

169.05

147.00

21.80

192.57

146.55

45.06

141.66

82.65

373.95

142.46

136.28

76.66

58.37

115.85

100.72

61.42

37.56

70.53

173.77

140.19

89.56

56.94

38.29

145.53

134.46

8.70

130.39

119.22

66.23

52.08

167.46

127.83

0.14

0.01

0.01

0.07

0.12

0.01

0.01

0.21

0.15

0.06

0.17

0.15

0.02

0.19

0.15

0.05

0.14

0.08

0.37

0.14

0.14

0.08

0.06

0.12

0.10

0.06

0.04

0.07

0.17

0.14

0.09

0.06

0.04

0.15

0.13

0.01

0.13

0.12

0.07

0.05

0.17

0.13

49

Table 6-11 Thermal deflection for pipes complete segments (Continued)

S.

No

Pipe

Line No.

L, ft

TIn,

o

C

Tout ,

o

( C)

T

o

( C)

() =

(mm*10

o

-3

/m C)

Deflection

(mm)

Deflection

(m)

31

32

P-242

P-243

P-243-1

P-243-2

P-244

P-244-1

P-244-2

P-250

P-251

P-251-1

P-251-2

P-252

P-253

P-254

P-256

P-256-1

P-256-2

P-257

P-259

P-260

P-261

P-262

P-263

P-264

P-270

P-270-1

P-270-2

P-271

197

262

200

62

394

200

94

6.6

328

200

128

115

66

197

230

200

30

33

164

39

49

16

16

49

262

200

62

33

140.90

131.70

131.70

117.50

131.62

131.62

100.30

160.20

159.70

159.70

139.40

159.90

153.80

153.50

156.20

156.20

153.30

153.10

142.80

140.50

119.20

136.10

129.10

120.40

157.70

157.70

153.40

157.80

131.60

114.10

122.40

114.10

95.90

120.62

95.90

159.90

122.20

145.70

122.20

153.80

147.60

133.30

150.40

153.30

150.40

152.80

137.80

139.10

117.30

135.30

127.90

116.80

152.70

155.20

152.20

152.70

140.90

131.70

131.70

117.50

131.62

131.62

100.30

160.20

159.70

159.70

139.40

159.90

153.80

153.50

156.20

156.20

153.30

153.10

142.80

140.50

119.20

136.10

129.10

120.40

157.70

157.70

153.40

157.80

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

14.9

126.09

156.75

119.65

33.09

235.58

119.58

42.83

4.80

237.95

145.09

81.06

83.53

46.11

137.37

163.20

141.91

20.89

22.95

106.39

24.89

26.53

9.89

9.38

26.80

187.69

143.28

43.20

23.66

0.13

0.16

0.12

0.03

0.24

0.12

0.04

0.00

0.24

0.15

0.08

0.08

0.05

0.14

0.16

0.14

0.02

0.02

0.11

0.02

0.03

0.01

0.01

0.03

0.19

0.14

0.04

0.02

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

Based on thermal expansion calculated above, size of expansion loops was calculated

below as [2].

L=

3EDo

144 S A

(6.2)

Take Pipe no. 208 and calculating thermal expansion in it by using Equation (4.9).

L = 200 ft = 60.98 m (section of length 262 ft)

T = 169C (operating temp - non operating temp)

= 14.9 x 10-3 (mm/m C) (Appendix Table A6)

50

Expansion (mm) = 14.9 103 60.98 169

= 153.55mm

= 6.04in

Where

E = 27.5 Mpsi (Appendix Table A3)

Do = 8.625 in (Appendix Table A2)

For allowable stress using Equation (6.3) below [2]:

SA = f x (1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh)

(6.3)

Where

f = stress reduction factor = 1 (Appendix Table A7)

Sc = Cold allowable stress = 14.4 psi (Appendix Table A1)

Sh = Hot allowable stress = 14.4 psi (Appendix Table A1)

SA = 21.4 ksi (Using Equation 6.3)

Equation (6.2) becomes:

144 21400

L = 39.47 ft

L=

L = 39.47 ft

L = 2H + W

Where

H = 2W

L = 5W = 39.47 ft

W = 8 ft

H = 16 ft

Similarly the expansion loops sizes for all 48 pipes by considering full length, 200

feet length and the remaining length of each pipe are arranged in the following table.

Table 6-12 Sizing of expansion loops

Pipe

Line

No.

NPS,

D in

P-208

P-208-1

P-208-2

P-209

8

8

8

2

Do,(in)

L,

ft

Deflection

(in)

Size of

expansion

loop, ft

Width of

expansion

Loop (ft)

Height of

expansion

loop(ft)

8.625

8.625

8.625

2

265

200

65

16

8.04

6.07

1.96

0.48

45.44

39.47

22.46

5.85

9

8

4

1

18

16

9

2

51

Table 6-12 Sizing of expansion loops (Continued)

Pipe

Line

No.

NPS,

D in

P-210

P-210-1

P-210-2

P-211

P-211-1

P-211-2

P-212

P-212-1

P-212-2

P-213

P-213-1

P-213-2

P-213-3

P-213-4

P-214

P-215

P-216

P-217

P-218

P-219

P-220

P-220-1

P-220-2

P-221

P-221-1

P-221-2

P-224

P-224-1

P-224-2

P-225

P-226

P-227

P-227-1

P-227-2

P-227-3

P-228

P-229

P-230

P-230-1

P-230-2

P-231

P-232

P-232-1

P-233

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

4

4

4

4

4

8

6

2

4

3

4

4

4

4

2

2

2

4

4

4

2

3

2

2

2

2

3

2

2

2

2

1

3

3

2

Do,(in)

L,

ft

Deflection

(in)

Size of

expansion

loop, ft

Width of

expansion

Loop (ft)

Height of

expansion

loop(ft)

8.625

8.625

8.625

8.625

8.625

8.625

8.625

8.625

8.625

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

8.625

6.63

2.38

4.5

3.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

2.375

2.375

2.375

4.5

4.5

4.5

2.375

3.5

2.375

2.375

2.375

2.375

3.5

2.375

2.375

2.375

2.375

1.32

3.5

3.5

2.375

394

200

194

341

200

141

361

200

161

787

200

200

200

187

16

16

98

164

16

9.8

279

200

79

230

200

30

262

200

62

197

115

525

200

200

125

82

164

164

100

64

115

246

200

131

11.89

6.04

5.83

10.22

5.99

4.21

10.74

5.95

4.77

23.25

5.91

5.90

5.87

5.45

0.47

0.48

2.92

4.87

0.47

0.28

8.23

5.90

2.29

6.66

5.79

0.86

7.58

5.77

1.77

5.58

3.25

14.72

5.61

5.37

3.02

2.30

4.56

3.97

2.42

1.48

2.78

6.84

5.52

3.53

55.26

39.37

38.69

51.21

39.22

32.87

52.51

39.09

35.01

55.80

28.13

28.11

28.03

27.02

11.02

9.70

14.37

25.55

7.02

6.09

33.21

28.11

17.51

21.69

20.23

7.79

31.87

27.80

15.41

19.86

18.41

32.26

19.91

19.47

14.61

15.47

17.96

16.74

13.07

10.22

10.44

26.70

23.98

15.79

11

8

8

10

8

7

11

8

7

11

6

6

6

5

2

2

3

5

1

1

7

6

4

4

4

2

6

6

3

4

4

6

4

4

3

3

4

3

3

2

2

5

5

3

22

16

15

20

16

13

21

16

14

22

11

11

11

11

4

4

6

10

3

2

13

11

7

9

8

3

13

11

6

8

7

13

8

8

6

6

7

7

5

4

4

11

10

6

52

Pipe

Line

No.

NPS,

D in

Do,(in)

L,

ft

Deflection

(in)

Size of

expansion

loop, ft

Width of

expansion

Loop (ft)

Height of

expansion

loop(ft)

53

Impact loads on the first elbow of an expansion loop of pipe no.208 due to hammering

of steam can be calculated by using the following equations.

o

Taking = 90 (b/c at lower and upper ends of expansion loops the bends are at 90 )

For the first time considering the fluid is flowing at its highest speed V1 and highest

pressure P1, so that for shock loading assuming V2 = 0. To find the force in horizontal

direction, using the impulse momentum equation given below [8].

= P1 A1 P2 A2 cos ( FB ) x = m (V2 V1 )

F

All the in put data are arranged for above equation in Table 6-13.

Table 6-13 Input Data

Parameter

Value

Reference/Reason

Pressure at inlet, P1

193.3 psi

Table 6-1

Velocity at inlet, V1

116 ft/sec

Table 6-1

Pressure at outlet, P2

14.7 psi

Assuming Atmospheric

900

9.33 lbf/sec

Provided

7.981 in

Table 6-1

0.0361 lb/in3

Diameter of pipie, D1 = D2

Density of Water, water

(6.4)

54

A1 = A2 = /4 x 7.9812 = 50 in2

mV2 = 0, as V2 = 0 and P2A2cos = 0 as = 900, above Equation (6.4) becomes:

( FB ) x = P1 A1 + m V1

F

F

( FB ) x = 12.994kips

F

Similarly finding the force in x- direction, using impulse momentum equation below

[8],

F

(6.5)

( FB ) y = P2 A2

F

( FB ) y = 14.7 50.03

F

( FB ) y = 735.44lb

F

( FB ) = ( FB ) x 2 + ( FB ) y 2

F

Resultant force

( FB ) = (12994) 2 + (735.44) 2

F

( FB ) = 13.014kips

F

For normal impact load the rest of parameters are same, except one condition that

To find P2 using Bernoullis equation as given below [8], and using Table 6-14 for its

different parameters;

P2 = P1 ( Z1 Z 2 )

g

gc

(6.6)

Parameter

Value

V1 = V2 = V

116 ft/sec

g

32.17 ft/sec2

gc

32.17 lbm-ft/lbf-sec2

Z1 Z2

P1

Reference/ Reason

From Table 6-1

Acceleration due to gravity

Gravitational constant

12 ft

193.3 psi

55

Using Equation (6.6) and obtaining the value of pressure at outlet of the expansion

loop.

P2 = 193.3 12 0.0361

32.17

32.17

P2 = 192.868 psi

= P1 A1 P2 A2 cos ( FB ) x = m (V2 V1 )

F

(6.4)

( FB ) x = P1 A1

F

( FB ) x = 9.67lb

F

F

(6.5)

( FB ) y = P2 A2

F

( FB ) y = 9.643lb

F

( FB ) = ( FB ) x 2 + ( FB ) y 2

F

( FB ) = (9.67) 2 + (9.643) 2

F

( FB ) = 13.65lb

F

= 450

For shock loading the value of load is greater than that of the value of the load at

normal operation, therefore for the verse condition shock load will be consider to

analyze the support.

56

7 Thermal Calculations

Based on spacing calculated above considering header pipe P-208 of length segment

200ft. At both side of this expansion loop there are anchor supports and eight guided

supports equally spaced at length 22.22 ft. This expansion loop will be further

analyzed for thermal and static loads.

For thermal analysis, using the data from Table 6-1, 6-11, Appendix A-2 and A-3,

and arranging it in Table 7-1 given below.

Table 7-1 Input Data

Type of Input

Value

Modulus of Elasticity(E)

Expansion rate (co-efficient)( )

0.0226 in/ft

Moment of Inertia(I)

72.5 in4

Section modulus(Z)

16.8 in3

Methodology

For thermal analysis in pipes we will use method of guided cantilever method, in

which thermal load and moments will be calculated as given below [3];

Thermal Load

F =

12 E I

L3

(7.1)

57

M =

Moment:

6 E I

L2

(7.2)

Where

= Thermal Expansion, in

L = Length of segment under observation, in

E = Modulus of Elasticity, psi

I = Section modulus, in3

Total Displacement absorbed by a section of pipe [3]:

n =

Ln 3 T

L i 3

(7.3)

Where

n = Displacement absorbed by leg n, in

Ln = length of leg n, ft

Li = length of each leg resisting specified displacement, ft

T = Total displacement to be absorbed, in

Analysis

Considering 200 feet segment of pipe no. 208 and then taking its half symmetry for

analysis by assuming the pipe segments to be straight and acts just a cantilever beam.

As shown in figure the header pipe no. 208 has been divided into different sections.

As this pipe has two main sections, one is the main line and the other is vertical leg

which is perpendicular to the main line, so the nomenclature of the piping section as

given below:

Main line including the segments A-B, B-C, C-D, D-E = 22.22 ft, E-F= 7.1 ft

F-G = 16 ft

58

For Main Line

Magnitude of expansion of each section = Expansion rate (0.0226in/ft) x Section

length, these magnitudes and resisting segments are arranged in Table 7-2 and 7-3

below.

Table 7-2 For main line magnitude of expansion and directions

Length of

Direction of

Magnitude of

Resisting

section (ft)

expansion

expansion

segments

A-F

22.22

2.17 in

F-G

A-B

22.22

0.50 in

F-G

B-C

22.22

0.50 in

F-G

C-D

22.22

0.50 in

F-G

D-E

22.22

0.50 in

F-G

E-F

7.11

0.16 in

F-G

Segment

Table 7-3 Vertical section magnitude of expansion and direction

Segment

F-G

Length of

Direction of

Magnitude of

Resisting

section (ft)

expansion

expansion

segments

16

0.361in

A-F

t = E T

(7. 4)

Where

T = Temperature variation = 169-0 = 1690 C (From Table 6-1)

= Thermal expansion co-efficient = 14.4 x 10-6mm/mm.0C (Appendix Table A6)

t = Thermal stress, psi

T = 69.25Ksi

x absorbed by leg F-G, using Equation (7.3)

n = Ln3T/Li3

Ln = LFG = 16 ft (From Table 7.2)

(7.3)

59

Li = 16 ft, T = 2.17 in (From Table 7-2)

163 2.17

163

x = 2.17in

x =

Fx=

12EI

L3

(7.1)

Moment of Inertia (I) = 72.5 in4 (Appendix Table A2)

Length of pipe segment F-G, L = 16 ft (From Table 7-2)

= 2.17 in

1227.5106 72.52.17

(1612)3

Fx=7335lb

Fx=

Ln = LAF = 96 ft

Li = 96 ft,

T = 0.3616 in

963 0.3616

963

y = 0.3616in

y =

Fy across A-F

Modulus of Elasticity (E) = 27.5 x 106 psi

Moment of Inertia (I) = 72.5 in4

Length of pipe segment F-G, L = 96 ft,

y = 0.3616 in

For force in Y-direction across A-F, using Equation (7.1)

60

F =

12 E I

L3

(7.1)

1227.5106 72.5.3616

(9612)3

Fy=5.65lb

Fy=

Mz=

6EI

L2

(7.2)

627.5106 72.50.3616

(9612) 2

Mz=3259.5lb-in

Mz=

Thermal expansion produced in section AB using Equation (7.3)

y, (A-B) = (y,total x LAB )/LAF

(7.3)

(y,total ) = 0.3616 in

LAB = 22.22 ft = 266.64 in

LAF = 96 ft

0.3616 22.22

96

y, A B = 0.0837in

y, A B =

Force and thermal moment in section AB using Equation (7.1) and (7.2)

1227.5106 72.50.0837

266.643

Fy,A-B =105.633lb

Fy,A-B =

Similarly for the rest of sections, B-C, C-D, D-E and E-F by using Equations (7.1),

(7.2) and (7.3) in the same way as above,

For section B-C

Thermal expansion produced in section B-C using Equation (7.3)

y, (B-C) = (y,totalxLAC )/LAF

(y,total ) = 0.3616 in

LAC = 44.44 ft

(7.3)

61

LAF = 96 ft

0.36166 44.44

96

= 0.167in

y, B C =

y, B C

F =

12 E I

L3

(7.1)

Moment of Inertia (I) = 72.5 in4

L = 22.22 ft = 266.64 in

1227.5106 72.50.167

266.643

Fy,B-C =210.76lb

Fy,B-C =

M =

6 E I

L2

(7.2)

For section C-D

Thermal expansion produced in section C-D using Equation (7.3)

y, (C-D) = (y,total x LAD )/LAF

(y,total ) = 0.3616 in

LAD = 66.66 ft

LAF = 96 ft

0.36166 66.66

96

y,C D = 0.251in

y,C D =

F =

12 E I

L3

Moment of Inertia (I) = 72.5 in4

(7.1)

62

L = 22.22 ft = 266.64 in

1227.5106 72.50.251

266.643

Fy,C-D =316.78lb

Fy,C-D =

M =

6 E I

L2

(7.2)

For section D-E

Thermal expansion produced in section D-E using Equation (7.3)

y, (D-E) = (y,total x LAE )/LAF

(7.3)

(y,total ) = 0.3616 in

LAE = 88.88ft

LAF = 96 ft

0.361688.88

96

y,D-E =0.3348in

y,D-E =

F =

12 E I

L3

Moment of Inertia (I) = 72.5 in4

L = 22.22 ft = 266.64 in

1227.5106 72.50.3348

Fy,D-E =

266.643

Fy,D-E =421.71lb

For thermal moment in section C-D using Equation (7.2)

M =

6 E I

L2

For section E-F

(7.2)

63

Thermal expansion produced in section E-F using Equation (7.3)

y, (E-F) = (y,total x LA-F )/LA-F

(7.3)

(y,total ) = 0.3616 in

LAE = 96ft

LAF = 96 ft

0.3616 96

96

= 0.3616in

y, E F =

y, E F

And similarly using Equation (7.1) for force in section E-F and Equation (7.2) for

thermal moment

1227.5106 72.50.3616

266.643

Fy,E-F =455.6lb

Fy,E-F =

Fy,A =105.633lb

Fy,B =Fy,A +

Mz AB Mz BC

+

L AB

L BC

Fy,B =105.633+

(7.5)

14082 28098

+

266.64 266.64

Fy,B =264.62lb

Similarly using Equation (7.5) for supports C, D, and E in the same way as above,

Fy,C =210.76+

28098 42232

+

266.64 266.64

Fy,C =474.52lb

Fy,D =421.52+

42232 56200

+

266.64 266.64

Fy,D =792.26lb

56200 60740

+

266.64 266.64

Fy,E =895.78lb

Fy,E =455.6+

64

Loads on Supports in x-direction

x, (A-F) = (x,total x LFG )/LFG

(7.3)

LAE = 16ft

LAF = 16 ft

16 3 2.17 in

16 3

= 2.17 in

x across AF =

Thermal expansion produced in section A-B using Equation (7.3)

x, (A-B) = (y,total x LAB )/LAF

(y,total ) = 0.3616 in

LAB = 22.22 ft

LAF = 96 ft

2.17 22.22

96

x, A B = 0.50in

x, A B =

F =

12 E I

L3

(7.1)

Moment of Inertia (I) = 72.5 in4

L = 22.22 ft = 266.64 in

1227.5106 72.52.17

.

266.643

Fx,A-B =631lb

Fx,A-B =

x, (B-C) = (y,total x LAC )/LAF

(y,total ) = 0.3616 in

LAC = 44.44 ft

(7.3)

65

LAF = 96 ft

For Section B-C

2.17 44.44

96

= 1.004in

x, B C =

x, B C

F =

12 E I

L3

(7.1)

Moment of Inertia (I) = 72.5 in4

L = 22.22 ft = 266.64 in

1227.510 6 72.51.004

266.64 3

Fx, B-C =1267lb

Fx, B-C =

x, (C-D) = (y,total x LAD )/LAF

(7.3)

(y,total ) = 0.3616 in

LAD = 66.66 ft

LAF = 96 ft

For section C-D

2.17 66.66

96

x,C D = 1.5in

x,C D =

F =

12 E I

L3

(7.1)

Moment of Inertia (I) = 72.5 in4

L = 22.22 ft = 266.64 in

1227.5106 72.51.5

266.643

Fx,C-D =1893lb

Fx,C-D =

And similarly for section D-E and E-F using Equation (7.1) for force and Equation

(7.3) for thermal expansion

66

2.1788.88

96

x,D-E =2.00in

x,D-E =

For section D-E

1227.5106 72.52

266.643

Fx,D-E =2524.1lb

Fx,D-E =

2.1796

96

x,E-F =2.17in

x,E-F =

1227.5106 72.52.17

266.643

Fx,E-F =2738.645lb

Fx,E-F =

For every support in the middle of other support following equation is used [3].

Fx,B =

( FA-B +FB-C )

(7.6)

Fx,B =(631+1267)/2=949lb

And similarly for support C, D and E using Equation (7.6)

Fx,C =(1267+1893)/2=1580lb

Fx,D =(1893+2524.1)/2=2208.5lb

Fx,E =(2524.1+2738.643)/2=2631.4lb

All the resultants loads are arranged in Table 7-4 below,

Table 7-4 Summary of all Loads due to Thermal expansion

Support

Fx, lb

Fy, lb

Mz, lb-in

Anchor A

631

105.63

14.08x103

Support B

949

264.62

28.08x103

Support C

1580

474.96

42.23x103

Support D

2208.1

792.26

56.20x103

Support E

2631.l4

895.78

60.74x103

67

The effects of thermal expansion must meet the following equation [1].

iM C

S A + f (Sh SL )

Z

(7.7)

Where

f = Stress range reduction factor

Mc =Range of resultant moment due to thermal expansion, in-lb

SA = Allowable stress range for expansion, psi

Z = Section modulus of pipe, in3

Sh =Basic material allowable stress at design pressure, psi

i = stress intensification factor

These all values are arranged in Table 7-5 below,

Table 7-5 Input data

Parameter

Value

Reference

Appendix Table A7

Mc

60740in.lb

Table 7-4

SA

21400psi

16.8in3

Appendix Table A2

Sh

14.4psi

Appendix Table A1

Equation (7.7), after putting values from above table gives the following comparison;

1 60740

21400 + 1 (14400 1297.098)

16.8

4.032 103 34.502 103

The value obtained from the above equation show that that the maximum moment due

to thermal expansion will produce no disturbance, if an expansion loop is used for 200

ft length of pipe.

68

For Static loads calculation, considering again pipe no. 208 and taking its section up

to first vertical leg of the expansion loop. This pipe is to be considering as a straight

beam with uniformly distributed load.

Considering again pipe no. 208 by assuming it to be a straight uniformly distributed

beam and taking its specification from Appendix Table (A-2).

Design Specifications

Pipe outer Diameter = 8.625 in

Pipe thickness = 0.322 in

Total (metal +Insulation +Fluid) distributed weight of pipe = 50lb/ft = 4.167 lb/in

Section Modulus, Z= 16.8 in3

Moment of Inertia, I = 72.5 in4

Modulus of Elasticity, E = 27.5 Mpsi (Appendix Table A1)

As it is already mention that a straight main pipe section has been selected for

analysis, which is divided into the following sections A-B, B-C, C-D, D-E, and E-F.

As this pipe section is considered as straight beam with one anchor support and four

vertical restraints, so there are five unknowns in this problem. For this purpose to

solve this problem singularity method has been followed.

69

Solving Segment A-B

For segment A-B as shown in Figure 7-4 below, taking the weight, shear force and

moment equation and then solving for length L1 = 22.22 ft.

w( x) = M 0 x 2 + R0 x 1 w x 0 R1 x a 1 M 1 x L 2

V ( x) = M 0 x 1 + R0 x 0 w x1 R1 x a 0 M 1 x L 1

(7.8)

M ( x) = M 0 x 0 + R0 x1 w x 2 R1 x a1 M 1 x L 0

Integrating the moment equation twice and putting boundary conditions we get

EIy ( x) =

M 0 x 2 R0 x 3 w x 4

+

=0

2

6

24

(7.9)

M 0 l1 2 R0 l1 3 wl1 4

=0

2

6

24

35548.44M 0 + 3159545.774 R0 877634043.8 = 0

(7.10)

EIy (l2 ) = M 0 l2 2 +

R0 l2 3 R1 l2 l1 3 wl2 4

+

=0

6

6

24

70

Similarly for segment C-D

EIy (l3 ) = M 0 l3 2 +

R0 l3 3 R1 l3 l1 3 R2 l3 l2 3 wl3 4

+

=0

6

6

6

24

(7.12)

EIy (l4 ) = M 0 l4 2 +

R0 l4 3 R1 l4 l1 3 R2 l4 l2 3 R3 L4 l3 3 wl4 4

+

+

=0

6

6

6

6

24

(7.13)

3156702.75 R3 2.246e11 = 0

M 0 + R0 l4 + R1 (l4 l1 ) + R2 (l4 l2 ) + R3 (l4 l3 ) wl1 (l4 a ) w(l2 l1 )(l4 b)

w(l3 l2 )(l4 c) w(l4 l3 )(l4 d ) w

x2

P x = 0

2

(7.14)

Mo = -24401 lb.in, Ro = 552 lb, R1 = 1123 lb R2 = 1067 lb, R3 = 1266 lb

For R4, taking

R0 + R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 = wL + 800

(7.15)

R4 = 1591 lb

Plotting shear force and bending moment diagram for the beam solved above

267

507

747

987

Pipe Length

1118

800

600

400

200

0

-200

-400

-600

-800

Shear Force

71

10000

0

0

267

507

747

987

1118

-10000

-20000

-30000

Bending Moment

20000

-40000

Pipe length

The effects of the pressure, weight, and other sustained loads must meet the

requirements of the following equation [1].

SL =

PDo 0.75i M A

+

1.0S h

4t

Z

(7.16)

These all inputs are arranged in Table 7-6 below, where the different parameters are,

P = Internal Pressure, psi

Do = Out Side diameter of Pipe, in

t = nominal wall thickness, in

Z = Section modulus of pipe, in3

MA = Resultant moment due to weight and other sustained loads, lb-in

Sh = Allowable stress at design hot pressure, psi

i = stress intensification factor

Table 7-6 Input data

Parameter

Value

Reference

193.7psi

Appendix Table A2

Do

8.625 in

Appendix Table A2

0.322in

Appendix Table A2

16.8in3

Appendix Table A2

MA

Sh

i

14400ps

Appendix Table A1

72

+

1.0 14400

4 0.322

16.8

2756.92 14400

2.75 103 14.4 103

Analysis was performed for the pipe in ANSYS for using the following data.

Element type = Beam 3

Material properties

Modulus of Elasticity = 27.5 Mpsi

Poisons Ratio = 0.283

Density = 0.283 lb/in3

Type of Loads

Four Vertical constraints in the middle and one all degree of Freedom

constrained at the start.

Gravity = 9.81(386.22 in/sec2)

Final Meshing = 96 elements for total length of the beam (22 elements for first

four each sections and 8 elements for the last section. Refining the mesh from

24 elements up to 96 elements but there is no change found in

deformation values

73

74

The maximum deflections and bending moment values obtained from both methods

are arranged in Table 7-7 below,

Table 7-7 Comparison of analysis for beam

Method

Manual

0.064

32741.445

ANSYS Results

0.0596

32921.00

From the results obtained both manually and on ANSYS, the difference in

maximum deflection is 6.4% where on the other hand the difference in the max.

Bending moment is 1.35%. Deformation is less than 0.1 inch and also the

maximum bending stress is 1947.55 psi which is quite less than the allowable

stress of the pipe.

For a system seismic supports designed in the rigid range, the designed load for a

system decreases. For such a system the seismic stress and load are given below;

A simplified seismic analysis can be done by assuming the simple beam formulas and

the load is to be most often considering in the lateral directions of the pipe. Seismic

stress based on seismic acceleration is calculated as follows [3].

S = 0.75 i 12 (

WL2

(1.5G )

8 Z

(7.17)

Where

Z = Section modulus of pipe, in3 = 16.8 in3 (Appendix Table A2)

G = seismic acceleration in gs = 0.15 (Data provided)

I = stress Intensification factor for straight pipe = 1.00 (Appendix Table A15)

For seismic lateral load based on static analysis is to be used to evaluate power piping.

It is performed by analyzing a piping system for the statically applied uniform load

75

equivalent to the site dependent earth-quake acceleration in each of the three

orthogonal directions .For seismic lateral load considering only in horizontal direction

using equation below [1]:

V = Z I K C S W

(7.18)

Z = constant depend upon earth quake zone 0.5 up to 1.0 = 1( Assuming

maximum)

K = Occupancy factor b/w 1.00 and 1.5 = 1 (Low occupancy region)

C=

1

=0.12

15 T

S = soil factor b/w 1 and 1.5 = 1.5 (Data provided)

W = Total dead weight of the structure = 10,000lb (For 200 feet of pipe length)

V = 111.5 0.12 1.5 10000

V = 2700lb

To verify that the applied seismic loads are with in the limits as defined by the code,

following equation is used [1].

PDo 0.75i ( M A + M B )

+

KSh

4t

Z

(7.19)

Where

P = Internal Pressure, psi

Do = Out Side diameter of Pipe, in

t = nominal wall thickness, in

MA = Resultant moment due to loading on cross section due to weight and other

sustained loads = in-lb

MB = Resultant moment loading on cross section due to occasional loads, psi

MB = x Z = 108.482 x 16.8 = 1822.5 psi

K= Constant factor depend on plant operation time

76

Using the values given in Table 7-8, below for obtaining the comparative results

of seismic load,

Table 7-8 input data

Parameter

value

Reference/Reason

193.7psi

Appendix Table A2

Do

8.625 in

Appendix Table A2

0.322in

Appendix Table A2

16.8in3

Appendix Table A2

MA

Sh

14400ps

Appendix Table A1

1.2

193.7 8.625 0.75 1 (32700 + 108.482 16.8)

+

1.2 14400

4 0.322

16.8

2.838 103 17.280 103

It means that the pipe is safe by more 7 times than allowable limits under the seismic

loads.

77

Anchor support will be loaded by the pipe load, wind load, seismic load. As already

loads were obtained from calculation already done. The major load on the support will

be that of the impact load on the first bend of expansion loop and most of our

calculation will be perform based on this load. The support beam will be chosen from

half channel beam and then it will be used in the Y- direction, just to provide an extra

support to the pipe and the support column will be of standard steel pipe.

All the loads obtained from previous calculations are arranged in Table 8-1 below;

Table 8-1 Available loads for analysis of anchor support [From previous calculations]

Type of load

Value, lb

552

10.52

Wind load

334.14

Seismic load

300

631

5.65

12.994x103

In beam design considering only the load in vertical direction along with the load of

the plate. Assuming that the beam is supported only in the middle, thus this beam

acting as double cantilever beam. Neglecting weight of the beam and finding moment

for one side of the beam in order to calculate the section modulus of the beam [4].

78

Finding the reaction in the middle of the beam, maximum moment and section

modulus of this beam using the following equations [4].

R=wxL

(8.1)

Where

w = 73 lb/in

L = 8 in

= 568.14 lb

Mmax = w/2 x L2

(8.2)

= 2.28in-kips

Z = M/allowable

(8.3)

Using the value of M from Equation (8.2) and for allowable stress = 27 ksi

= 2.28/27

= 0.10 in3

Looking values from Appendix Table A9:

For Z=>0.1

Required section comes out to be C5 x 9

Section modulus = Zy = 0.45 in3

Zx = 3.5 in4

The other properties of this beam are arranged in Table 8-2 below;

Table 8-2 Properties of the channel beam [7]

Beam parameters

Values

Beam weight

9 lb/ft

Depth, d

5.0 in

Area A

2.64 in2

Width, bf

1.885in

Thickness, tf

0.320 in

Inertia, Iy

0.632 in4

79

Now the beam will be analyzed for maximum stress and deflection, to check whether

it is in the desired limit or not. The analysis will be done through manual calculations

as well as through ANSYS.

First of all finding the reaction at the middle using Equation (8.2),

Mmax = w x L2/2

(8.2)

= 73 x 8= 585.44 lb

The maximum moment at the center of the beam at L/2 distance of the beam is,

Mmax = w x L x (L/2) = 585.44 x 8/2

= 2.342 in-kips

For maximum bending stress using the following equation [4].

= M/Z

( 8.4)

= 2.342/0.45

= 5.204Kips

5.20 < 27 = all Now to find the maximum deflection, equation (8.5) is used [4].

y max = wL4/(8EI)

Where

I = 0.632 in4

w = 73 lb/in

L = 8 in

E = 29 x 106psi

From Equation (8.5) the deflection comes out to be: y max = 0.00204 in

(8.5)

80

As the working stress and the deflection are well with in the limits so the beam used is

quite safe with working conditions.

Analyses were performed for beam in ANSYS for the following data.

Element type = Beam 3

Material properties

Modulus of Elasticity = 29.0 Mpsi

Poisons Ratio = 0.283

Density = 0.286 lb/in3

Type of Loads

One Vertical constraint in middle

Gravity = 9.81(386.22 in/sec2)

Final Meshing = 100 divisions for each section of beam. The two sections of

the beam is meshed by refining it from 10 divisions up to 100 divisions at

increment of 10 divisions but there is no change found either in maximum

deflection or maximum stress.

81

82

Method Max. Deflection, in Max. B. Moment, in- Kips Max. Stress, kips

Manual

0.00204

2.342

5.20

ANSYS

0.00222

2.560

5.063

From table 8-3 above it is cleared that the difference in deformation b/w the two

methods is 8%, for bending moment the difference is 8.5% while in maximum

stress the difference is 2.8 %. Comparing these values to the allowable limits for

deflection and stress, the beam is found to be safe for the available loads.

Column is necessary to maintain a required height for the supported pipe. Parameters

used in column design are given below.

Height of column l = 3.28 ft = 39.37 in

Constraints = Fixed for all movements at the ground,

Free from top

Effective length constant = k = 2

Effective length leff = Kl = 6.56 ft

83

Column effective design load by using the following equation [7]:

= P + MH x m

(8.6)

Where

P = Compressive load on column, lb

MH = Horizontal equivalent moment, lb-in

m = Design factor for column

Equivalent Horizontal Load FH= (wind load + earth quick load + Impact load thermal load)/3.5

= 3714 lb

MH = FH x leff

= 24.36 ft-kips

Taking value of m = 2 (Appendix Table A10)

Column effective Design load = 585.47 + 24360 x 2

= 49.29 kips

Starting trial iteration from NPS 3 in, 3.5 in up to 4 in

Selecting NPS = 4 in with design load of 82 kips

From column design using Appendix Table A-12 for circular standard pipe, and

taking the parameters are arranged in Table 8-4 below;

Table 8-4 Specifications of column [7]

Column Parameters

Diameter(D), in

Value

Area(A), in2

3.17

7.23

Radius of gyration(r), in

1.51

Thickness(t), in

0.237

0.85

36

To check that column is safe under the applied loads critical load factor Equation

(8.7) is used, if this factor is less than 1.15, and then Equation (8.8) will be used for

load verification.

84

To find the critical load factor, using the following equation [7].

c =

Fy

kl

r

E

(8.7)

Where

c = critical load factor

(kl)/r = slenderness ratio

Fy = yield strength of the column material, ksi

E = modulus of elasticity, Mpsi

Using Table 8-4, and putting the values in above equation,

c =

2 3.28

36 103

1.51

29 106

c = 0.487 1.15

If the critical load factor is less than 1.15, then Equation (8.8) can be used to calculate

the critical force [7].

Fcr = 0.658c Fy

(8.8)

Fcr = 35.598kips

Pallowable = Pn = Fcr A

(8.9)

Where

= Design factor of safety (Using Table 8-4)

Fcr = Critical force, kips (From above calculation)

A = Cross sectional area of column (Using Table 8-4)

Pallowable = 0.85 32.598 3.17

Pallowable = 87.835kips

87.835 > 49.29

Pallowable > Column effective design load

As the allowable load is greater than the design load by factor of 1.8. So that it is safe.

For axial and bending stress ratio verification using equation [7].

(Axial Stress ratio) + (Bending Stress ratio) < 1.0

85

fa

Fa

fb

+ 1.0

Fb

(8.10)

fa = P/A (Using Table 8-4)

= 585.74/3.17

= 0.185 ksi

At slenderness ratio = kl/r = 52.3132, looking value of Fa from Appendix Table A11,

Fa = 26.39 ksi

fa/Fa = 0.00701

For Bending Stress

MC

I

fb =

(8.11)

Where

M = Bending moment = 24.36 kips-in (From above calculations)

C = D/2 = 4.5/2 = 2.25 in

I = 7.32 in4 (From Table 8.4)

24.36 2.25

7.32

fb = 7.48ksi

fb =

Fb = 0.85 x Fy

Fb = 30.6 ksi

fb/Fb = 0.238

Putting these values in above equation

0.24591.0

The result shows that the selected column for the calculated loads is quite safe.

To find the reaction at the bottom, taking summation of forces along y-direction,

=0

(8.12)

86

Ry = Fy

Ry = 585.74

For deflection of the column, considering it is a cantilever beam and solving it for the

equivalent effective load by using the following equation [4].

y=

Fl 3

3EI

(8.13)

Where

F = equivalent horizontal force, lb

L = Length of the column, ft

I = Moment of inertia, in4

E = Modulus of Elasticity, Mpsi

These all values are arranged in Table 8-5 below;

Table 8-5 Input data

Parameter

Value

Reference

3714 lb

Calculated above

3.28 ft

Length required

7.32 in4

3714 (3.28 12)3

3 29 106 7.23

y = 0.306in

y=

max =

P LC

+

( Feq )

A

I

Where

P = Compressive axial load, lb

A = Cross sectional area of column, in2

L = Length of the column, ft

I = Moment of inertia, in4

F = equivalent horizontal force, lb

C = D/2 = 4.5/2 = 2.25 in

(8.14)

87

All the input data are arranged in Table 8-6 below for combined stress.

Table 8-6 Input data

Parameter

Value

Reference

3714 lb

Calculated above

3.28 ft

Length required

7.32 in4

585.7 lb

3.17 in2

Equation (8.14), gives the maximum stress due combined axial and bending load.

max = 11.677kips

Analyses were performed for column in ANSYS for the following data.

Element type = Beam 3

Material properties

Modulus of Elasticity = 29.0 Mpsi

Poisons Ratio = 0.283

Density = 0.286 lb/in3

Type of Loads

Vertical compressive and horizontal load at top end

All degree of freedom constrained at lower end

Gravity = 9.81(386.22 in/sec2)

Final Meshing = 100 divisions for the whole length of column

Figure 8-8 given below showing deflection in the column model. From this figure it

is clear that the maximum deflection is at the top of the end of the column. Where on

the other hand Figure 8-9 show that the maximum bending stress is at the bottom of

the column.

88

89

Table 8-7 Comparison of analysis of column

Manual

0.306

11.67

ANSYS

0.291

12.140

Difference b/w both methods for deformation 4.9%, while for maximum stress, the

difference is 3.8%. The deformation value comes out to be slightly greater than

the normal value, this is because at the same time shock load of more than 12 kips,

high seismic load, high thermal load were present and also if the wind has speed of

100 mile/hour, then under such conditions above deflection value is possible.

Base plate design means to find the feasible sides dimension for column support

and safe value of thickness both for concentric load and for bending moment.

Compressive strength of foundation concrete = 3000 psi

Type of material used = A-36 steel

90

Design factor of safety for concrete is, = 0.35

Allowable bearing pressure of support on base plate, Fp = 0.35 x 3000 = 1050 psi

Selecting base plate dimension based on iteration starting from 10 inch side to 15 in

square side. For 15 in square base plate calculations are given below;

Bearing pressure due to concentric load, fp = Concentric load/Area(column)

= 622.8/225 = 2.768 psi

Bearing pressure =

M

BN 2

(8.15)

Where

M = Bending moment = 24.36 kips-in (From above calculations)

B = N = Sided of the plate = 15 inch

M

BN 2

24.38 12

= 0.519kips

15 152

6

) (

Concentric load}

2.768

due to moment}

+

519.0

519.0

pressure of concrete}

<

1050

1050

<

-517.07

{Allowable bearing

<

522.3

2.768

<

<

1050

1050

91

Thickness of the plate can be calculated by using the following equation [7].

tp = 2l

fp

(8.16)

Fy

where

l = max (m, n), in

fp = Bearing pressure due to concentric load = 2.61 psi (Calculated above)

Fy = Yield strength of base plate, 36 ksi (Appendix Table A-10)

Distances from the column to edge of the plate are:

N Do 15 4.5

=

= 5.25in

2

2

B Do 15 4.5

n=

=

= 5.25in

2

2

m=

Therefore l = 5.25 in and putting all the values in the above Equation (8.16):

t p = 2 5.25 2.61

36000

t p = 0.09in

The bearing pressure at a distance m = 5.25 in

5.25 522.3

15

= 182.8 psi

f p) m =

f p) m

Now the pressure from the edge to the pipe edge is fp)m1= 522.3 182.8 = 339.5 Psi

And moment in this area between column edge and plate edge can be calculated as;

92

M=xZ

(8.17)

Taking the section modulus and bearing pressure of the two sections, Equation (8.17)

becomes,

fp

f p)

M = B m 2 m1 +

3

6

339.5 522.3

+

M = 15 5.252

3

6

M = 39.37in kips

The thickness required to resist this moment [7]:

tp =

6 M

B all

(8.18)

where

M = 39.37in-kips

all = 27 kips (using design factor of 0.85 from Appendix Table A-11)

Side of the base plate, B = 15 in

6 39.37

15 27

t p = 1.18in

tp =

Selecting the thickness to resist the bending moment b/c of its greater value, using

standard thickness for plate 1.25 in, base plate dimensions come out to be

1

15 15 1 in

4

The total force on base plate and then force per bolt;

24.36

M

=

= 29.98kips

d 9.75

12

Force

= 29.98 = 7.5kips

4

Bolt

F=

Nominal area of bolt = 7.5/21 = 0.357 in2

Diameter of bolt

D =

4 0.357

= 0.68 in

D 0.75 in

L=

bolt

D

(8.19)

93

7.5 103

bolt

0.75 160

L = 19.89in

L=

Bolt length = 20 in

Bolt length comes out to be 19.89 in which rounded up to 20 inch. The bolt length for

such base plate and column is quite reasonable. The calculated load in tension from

the load conditions 7.5 kips for each bolt which is less than the allowable tension by

factor of 3.7 as bolt minimum allowable tension is 28 kips.

Specifications of base plate are arranged in Table 8-8.

Table 8-8 Base plate specifications [7] & [based on Calculation]

Parameter

Value/Size

15 15 1

Distances of column from edges, m = n

Bolt diameter of anchor rod, D

1

in

4

5.25 in

0.75 in = 3/4 in

Hole diameter

5

= 1 .6 2 5 in

8

1.25 in

1.8125 in

Table 8-9 shows the standard dimensions for 0.75 inch diameter and of length 20

inch.

Table 8-9 Bolts standard dimensions [7]

Height, in

Thread length,

(D)

(F)

(H)

in

3/4

15/32

1.375

94

9.1 Pro-E Modeling

The designed Anchor support is modeled in Pro-E Wildfire and the figure of

the complete system including supporting plate, beam, column, base plate along with

concrete base is shown below. The main header pipe passing on this support is of

nominal pipe size of 8 inch and out side diameter of 8.625 inch.

95

The designed Anchor support is modeled in ANSYS and analyzed for

deformation and stress distribution. This model is analyzed by taking element Solid45

with vertical compressive and axial horizontal load at the top constrained fully at the

bottom and holes of the base plate.

Element type = Solid 45

Material properties

Modulus of Elasticity = 29.0 Mpsi

Poisons Ratio = 0.283

Density = 0.286 lb/in3

Type of Loads

Vertical compressive and horizontal load at top end

All degree of freedom constrained at the bottom of the base plate &

holes.

Final Meshing

Following diagrams were obtained after refining the free mesh up to 7

iterations, starting from elements 5152 with stress value of 8023

psi

up to 36049 elements with stress value 9090 psi. In last three trials

there is no significant change in value of stress.

9200

Von Mises Stresses

9000

8800

8600

8400

8200

8000

7800

0

10000

20000

30000

40000

Figure 9-2 Convergence line b/w no. of elements and Von Mises Stresses (psi)

96

97

98

Figure 9-4 shows the meshed model of the complete anchor support, while Figure 9-5

shows the deformed shape of the model. This diagram shows that the maximum

deformation is in the beam due to uniformly distributed pressure on the beam and in

the upper end of the column due to axial load and also the maximum deflection is

0.075 inch which is reasonable. Figures 9-5 and Figure 9-6 show the stress

distribution and the maximum stress occurred at the lower end of the column which is

less than the material strength by a factor more than 2.5. Looking all the above value

of principal stress, the maximum value of maximum principle stress is 9.78 ksi and

Von Mises at the bottom of the column is 9.09 ksi which is less than that of the

material allowable stress 15 ksi, so as a whole this anchor support is quite safe for the

available loads.

99

10 Conclusions

Following conclusions are made from the analysis of the designed system.

1) The designed pipe verified all the conditions defined by the ASME Boiler and

Pressure Vessel code B31.1. Thickness and working pressure calculated are in

the safe limit. Thermal, Seismic and Sustained analysis results obtained are in

the safe limits defined by the Code.

2) Supporting Assembly confirms to the safety requirements of AISC standards.

3) The analysis shows that the complete system is safe and the results are verified

by manual calculations and ANSYS software.

4) On the positive side of the manual calculations lays the fact that it gives fully

basic concept of the piping system. While the assumptions made during

manual calculations make the results slightly differ from the software results.

5) As for thermal analysis is concerned, guided cantilever method was used and

this proved to be a useful tool for thermal stress loads calculations.

6) To do seismic analysis by manual calculations is really a tough job but static

analysis method was a handy tool to deal it.

100

11 Future Recommendations

After completing the design of main header pipe and anchor support of the steam

piping system, following suggestions are recommended.

1) For future work more stress should be given on the proper use of the piping

software so that complex piping networks can be analyzed with it.

2) Although manual calculations method is a valuable tool for the understanding

and analysis of the simple piping network but for complex piping systems it

can lead no where. So therefore the best option we have is more and more

using of piping software.

3) Further optimization of Anchor support column is suggested.

4) To complete the analysis of Anchor support, analysis of base plate and bolts

are also suggested.

101

References

[1].

Singapore, 2000.

[2].

Sam Kannappan, Introduction To Pipe Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons,

USA, 1986.

[3].

Paul R. Smith, P.E, Piping and Piping Supports Systems, McGraw-Hill Book

Co., 1979.

[4].

McGraw-Hill Book Co. ,1989.

[5].

piping, Revised edition 1998 ASME, USA.

[6].

Site for Spirax Sarco.2008.

URL: http://www.spiraxsarco.com/resources/steam-engineering-tutorials/

[7].

Design, 2nd edition, USA, 1994.

[8].

edition.

[9].

Inc.,

Singapore, 1982.

[10]. TPC Training System, Piping System, A Dun & Brad Street Comp, 1974.

[11].

David R. Sherwood, The Piping Guide, 2nd Edition, Syentek books.Inc., 1991.

[12].

A. Keith Escoe, Pipe Line Assessment Guide, Elseveir Book Aid Int. 2006.

102

APPENDIXE

103

Table A-1 Allowable stresses and yield stress for seamless Piping, KSI [2].

104

105

106

Table A-4 Values of y Coefficient used in Pipe thickness calculations [5]

Table A-5 Value of casting quality factor used in pipe thickness calculations[2]

107

Table A-7 Table Stress reduction factor used in allowable stresses [5]

108

Table A-9 Properties of half channel beam [7]

109

Table A-10 Value of m as a design factor of column [7]

110

Table A-12 Column Design axial Strength [7]

111

Table A-13 Stress Intensification factor and flexibility factors for various sections of pipe [5]

112

Table A-15 Material Properties [7]

Type of

material

A36

A325

Rock Wool

Carbon Steel

Water

Parameters

Value

Modulus of Elasticity

Yield strength

Allowable Stress

Density

Yield strength

Bearing Strength

Design Factor

Tensile Strength

Density

Density

Density

29 Mpsi

36 ksi

21 ksi

0.284 lb/in3

92 ksi

160 psi

0.75

120 ksi

0.003434 lb/in3

0.284 lb/in3

0.0361 lb/in3

Thickness(in)

1

2

3

1-1/2

0.057

0.16

0.23

0.066

0.21

0.29

0.08

0.21

0.37

0.1

0.25

0.44

0.21

0.3

0.51

0.15

0.34

0.58

0.3

0.38

0.64

--0.8

Figure A-1 Drag co-efficient v/s Reynolds no. used in wind loadings [1]

113

Vita

Muhammad Sardar was born on April 02, 1982 in a small village Kotigram of

Distt. Dir. He did his matriculation from Government High School Kotigram

Distt. Dir (lower). After matriculation, he got admission in Islamia College

Peshawar and passed his F.Sc (Pre-Engineering) in 2001 and did B.Sc.

Mechanical Engineering from N-W.F.P. UET Peshawar in 2006. After serving

Ghandhara Industires Limited (ISUZU), Karachi for six months, he joined

Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad as MS

Mechanical Engineering fellow on 13th of November, 2006.

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