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2011 .

181, 3


..
,
, .
,
, ,
, .
.

, , . , ,
.
PACS numbers: 02.50.Cw, 02.90.+p, 05.20. y, 05.40. a, 61.41.+e

1.

(269).
1.1. . 1.2. . 1.3. . 1.4. .
1.5. .
2. (276).
3. (277).
4. (279).
A. (280).
.1. . .2. .
. (282).
.1. . .2. . .3. . .4. .
. (289).
. (290).
(291).

1.

. ,
, ,
( ) .. . LPTMC, Universite Paris VI, 75252 Paris, France,
. .. ,
. 2, 119334 ,
E-mail: victor-dotsenko@yandex.ru
16 2010 .

DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0181.201103b.0269

.

. ,
,
(
),

,

( )
[1]
, , (Gaussian Unitary Ensemble, GUE) N  N
N ! 1. ,

,
. , , [2,
3], [4],
[5],
[6], [7],
KPZ
[8] ( , ) [9, 10], , # .. 2011

270

..

,

[11 14]. ,

(., , [15]). ,
,
,
[16], [17],
[18],
[19] ..
, ,
: ,
( 1.1),
( 1.2) ( 1.3). 1.4
,

, , 1.5

.
2 3
.
2
, 3
.
, "",
.

1.1.
""
, , ,
,
.
N
f1; 2; :::; Ng [20].
.
lN .

N 11:
f3; 5; 10; 1; 9; 6; 8; 4; 7; 11; 2g :

1:1


(,
f3; 5; 10; 11g, f1; 9; 11g ..),
: f3; 5; 6; 7; 11g f3; 5; 6; 8; 11g.
lN 5. . 1. 11
12  12 , (1.1): x
y ( x 1 y 3,

[ 2011

11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1

10

11

. 1. ,
(1).
f3; 5; 6; 7; 11g.

x 2 y 5 ..).

, 0; 0
12; 12 . ""
,
. ,
6; 6 . 1
7; 8, 9; 7 10; 11. ,
0; 0 12; 12 x y
.

,
. ,
. ,
: f3; 5; 6; 7; 11g
f3; 5; 6; 8; 11g.
N
, , lN . ,
, :
lN ?
, N

p
lN , N, , lN '
,
p
' 2 N [21]. , N ! 1

, ,
p
limN!1 lN = N 2. , ,
Np!
1
lN = N d-.
,
N
p lN
N. , N
f1; 2; . . . ; Ng -

. 181, 3]

271

, . 1,
N N  N.

1=N, , ,


p
N. , ,
0; 0
N 1;pN
( N)
1
p
N= N N.
lN ,
lN
p
2 N.
,
,
N1=6
N lN p
( 2 N).
, N
lN [2, 22]:
p
1:2
lN ' 2 N N 1=6 s ;
s  1
N ! 1
N ,

( 1.5):
p


lN 2 N

s
PTW s :
1:3
lim Prob
N!1
N 1=6

1.2.
""
.
PNG (polynuclear growth) 2 1, .
. 1, N
.
"" (
) .
""
,
.
"",
(. 2).
, ()
hN lN
, 1.1.

N  N,
hN ,
N ! 1,
,
(1.3) [5]. ,
PNG, -

h5

11
10
h4

9
8
7

h3

h2

5
h1

4
3
2
1

h0

10

11

. 2. , ,
, . 1.

(., , [23]). ,
PNG [24].

1.3.
,
,
"" . , ,
( 1.1),
N ,
(. 3). "",
( )
. ,

"", ..

. ""
, a
.
,

, "" .
,
, 1.1. ,
t N
[22].

t. N,
r
, t ! 1
.

272

..

r


Y
1
1
PV
exp V 2 f; t :
2pu
2u
f; t

[ 2011

1:5

u
Vf; t. (1.5), Vf; t 0,
Vf; t Vf 0 ; t 0 u df;f 0 dt;t 0 :

. 3. , .

(.. ) lt
(
) t. , r 2N=t 2 .

r  1,
p
, t / N.

lt p
t ( N, ),

t 1=3 ( N 1=6 ). (1.3)

p


lt 2r t

s
PTW s :
1:4
lim Prob
t!1
t 1=3
, , t ! 1,
, , ,
, . 1 3.

. ,
, t 1; 2; . . . ; L,
f 0; 1; 2; . . . ; M (. 4).
f; t Vf; t,
f

L
fL

. 4. .

1:6


ft, t 0; f 0

, t L. t ! t 1
ft
, : ft 1
ft st 1, s 1; 0. ,
,

 ()
2
/ ft 1 ft . , ft
:

1 


2

 LX
1
ft 1 ft V ft; t : 1:7
H ft
2
t1
Vf; t
:

, ()
"" ,
Vf; t. f t (1.7):
( 
)
L
1
X


2
1
:
EL min
ft 1 ft V ft; t
2
ft
t1
1:8

Vf; t, . EL
, . 3.
, , -,
, ()
V0 , (
Vf; t , -,
. 4 (
)
, . 3

. ,
,
EL, (1.8), lt . 3, ,
.
, -
t  L ! 1 , (1.8)
: EL ' f0 L L1=3 s,
f0 ()

. 181, 3]

273

, s  1
L PTW s.
, (1.7),
, . ,
EL
, . ,
(1.7),

. ,
,
, ,
Vf; t (, ,
,
).
p
(1.7)
p

u L ( uL, ,
ft ).
() (1.7) L,
,
EL ' const L, ,
, ,

(
), . , ,
L1=3 , L1=2 , ,
,
" " .
, (1.7), (1.8)
- ,

, . , ,

. , ,
,
(.., , ) .
T,
, , , "" , . , EL,
(1.8), :
"

#
X

1 
exp H ft
FL; T T ln
;
1:9
T
ft

,
(
). ,
(
), ,
(1.8), - : EL
limT!0 FL; T .

, (1.7)
(1.9),
(., , [25]), , , ,
 L1=3 . , ,
, . , , L ! 1,
, (
) .
(1.7)
. , ,
,

2
L  




1 dft
dt
V ft; t ;
1:10
H ft
2
dt
0
, , Vf; t .
(1.6),

Vf; t Vf 0 ; t 0 u df f 0 dt t 0 :

1:11



:
fL fL
1




dfL
D ft exp bHf ;
1:12
Z
1

f0 0

b 1=T ,
, , ft 0 0, t L. ,
, . 4,
, . 5.

.
, , (1.10), .
, ,
t L fL fL ,

(

 )
fL fL



1 L
dft 2
D ft exp
dt
Z0 fL
:
2T 0
dt
f0 0
1:13
f

L
fL

. 5. (1.10).

274

..

[ 2011

( ,
(1.13) (1.12) )


1
f2L
p

:
1:14
exp
Z0 fL
2TL
2pTL

F V
.
(1.17) N
:


Z N V  ZN; L exp bNF V :
1:18

, "" 2 1=2

phf
L i
T L1=2 ( - ).
. ,
,
, . fL ,
, , , f2L =L. ,
,
L1=3 (
(., ,
[26 29])), ,

fL  L2=3 ,
, L1=2 ,
.
(1.10), (1.11) ,
. ,

, 1.1 1.3, L ! 1

L, . ,
[11 14], , L ! 1

ZN; L (1.18)
.
(1.15) F f0 L c L1=3 f :

F f0 L c L1=3 f ;

1:15

f0 ,
c 1=2b 5 u 2 1=3 . , f  1
( )
, s
(1.2) (1.4), (. 1.5).

1.4.
, (.,
, [30, 31]).
,
(1.10),
: f0 fL 0.

fL 0




D ft exp bHf; V :
1:16
ZV
f0 0


ZV exp bFV :
1:17

~ L exp bN f0 L :
ZN; L ZN;

1:19

(1.18)
~ L exp lNf ;
ZN;

1:20

l bcL1=3 .
(1.20),
f,
PL f (,
, L).
, ~ L
ZN;
PL f :
1
~ L
df PL f exp lN f :
1:21
ZN;
1

,

P f limL!1 PL f , , , , . , (1.21)
PL f , , ,
PL f
.
~ L
ZN;
N, (
)
. ,
[32, 33].
,
ZN ZN ,
N .
[34],
ZN N exp N 2 ,
, ,
ZN,

. ,
(1.10), , ,
,
N exp N 3 , ,
, N
( , -

. 181, 3]

275

ZN N , ,
N ! 1 ZN ,
). ,
N.
P f
:
1
df P f :
1:22
Wx
x

Wx ,
f x.
:
1
X
1N
exp lNx Z~ N
l!1
N!
N0

Wx lim

1
X
1N
exp lNx lNf
l!1
N!
N0

l!1

Pl1 ; l2 ; . . . ; lN CN

N
Y
i 6 j

 X

N
2
jli lj j exp
li ; 1:26
2

i1

CN .
,
.

P rl; N
1=N iN 1 hdl li i, h. . .i (1.26). , rl; N
:

Y
N 1
dli Pl; l2 ; . . . ; lN :
1:27
rl; N
i 2 1

lim


lim exp exp lx f y f x :

[35]:

1:23

,
Wx
~ L
ZN;
N:
1
X
1N
~ L :
exp lNx ZN;
1:24
Wx lim
l!1
N!
N0
, , N
~ L exp N 3 ,
ZN;
,
. ,
,
. 3 , ( , P

1
k k
1


k 0 1 a 1 a
jaj > 1
jaj < 1). ,
Wx (1.24)

, .

1.5.


(Gaussian Unitary Ensemble, GUE) [1]. Gi j
N  N,
,


1
PG BN exp Tr G2 ;
1:25
2
BN . ,
N fl1 ; l2 ; . . . ; lN g

[35], N ! 1
rl; N :
s


2
l2
:
1:28
1
rl; N
2N
Np2
, N,

p

 p
2N < l < 2N .
. ,
,

p lmax
2N.
,
,
lmax ?

(1.26).
F2 s 
 Prob lmax < s, ,
lmax
s (
F1 s, F2 s F4 s
(Gaussian Orthogonal
Ensemble, GOE),
(Gaussian Unitary Ensemble, GUE) (Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble, GSE)
[36]). ,
Y

s
N s
dli Pl1 ; l2 ; . . . ; lN 
dl PTW l :
F2 s
i 1 1

1:29

1994 . [1]. , N

p
lmax 2N
N 1=6 , ,
p
1
s;
1:30
lmax 2N p
2 N 1=6
s  1 , N PTW s
dF2 s=ds. F2 x

276

..

[ 2011

. . . :
 L X

N


exp b dt
V fa t; t

0,5
0,4

"

a1

b
exp
2

0,3
0,2

L
0

ZN; L
"

. 6. PTW x (. (1.32)).


 1

F2 s exp
dt t s q 2 t ;
s

1:31

qt
e 1 ,
q 00 tq 2q 3 ;

1:33

qt ! 1  Ai t. PTW s . 6. ,
,
.
PTW s
 
, PTW s ! 1  exp 4=3s 3=2 ,

 , PTW s ! 1 
 exp 1=12jsj3 .

(1.18)
, (1.10),
:
N fa L 0
Y
Dfa t 
ZN; L
 exp b

L
0

#
N  
X
2


1
dt
:
qt fa t V fa t; t
2
a1
2:1

Vf; t
,
e,
[37] (., ,
[38]). ,
,
- ,
. e
,
, ,
.

#

 

0
0
V fa t; t V fb t ; t : 2:2

a 1 fa 0 0

N
X

L
0

dt

Dfa t 

X
N

a1

2
qt fa t

#


d fa t fb t
:

2:3

, (2.3)
, d0 ( a b). , ,
(1.10), (1.11),
, . ,
(1.6), (1.7) ,
a b
1=2Lb 2 uNd0 (
d- , ).
,
.
,
!

N 
N
X
X
2


1 L
f
dt
d fa t fb t ;
HN f
qt fa t bu
2 0
a1
a 6 b
2:4

2.

"

N fa L 0
Y

a; b 1

 1
1
d
dt t s q 2 t
dt q 2 t ;
F2 s exp
ds
s
s
1:32

a 1 fa 0 0

a; b 1

1
 exp b
2
bu

, ,
PTW s

N
X

(1.11), :

0,1

dt dt

N f t 
 ff1 t; . . . ; fN tg.
(2.3) :
ZN; L

N fa L 0
Y
a 1 fa 0 0


Dfa t exp bHN f
f :

2:5

, ZN; L N fa t
.

,
(2.5)

Cx; t

N fa t xa
Y
a 1 fa 0 0


Dfa t exp bHN f
f ;

2:6

N fa t, , fa 0 0, t t : fx1 ; . . . ; xN g.
, Cx; t ( (2.6)),

. 181, 3]



qt Cx; t

N
N
X
1 X
1
q2xa Cx; t b 2 u
dxa xb Cx; t
2b a 1
2
a 6 b

2:7

Cx; 0

N
Y

dxa :

2:8

na , ,
, qa ,
. P na aM 1 na N.

Cq;M
n x1 ; . . . ; xN M q q1 ; . . . ; qM M
n n1 ; . . . ; nM (. .2, (.27)).

a1

, (2.7)
:
^
t ;
qt Cx; t HCx;

2:9


N
N
X
X
1
^ 1
q2xa b 2 u
dxa xb :
H
2b a 1
2
a 6 b

2:10

N b,
b 2 udx.
(2.5)
Cx; t
t L x1 x2 . . . xN 0:
ZN; L C0; L :

2:11

,
(
(2.10) u < 0).
,
N N ! 1 ""
, F / N.
N- (2.10)

1963 . [39] (
A; . [40, 41]).
u > 0 . ,
"" , F / N 3 , ..
N ! 1 "".
, ,
N , .
[42] [43] (. [44, 45]). ,

.
N
M (1 4 M 4 N) "" fOa g a 1; . . . ; M .

277

EM q; n

M
M
1 X
k2 X
na qa2
n 3 na ;
24b a 1 a
2b a 1

2:12

k b 3u :

2:13

, Cx; t
(2.7)
(2.8), Cq;M
n x (.
.4, (.50)):
N X 0
X


0
M
Dq Cq;M
Cx; t
n xCq; n 0 exp EM q; n t ;
M1

2:14

na
qa (. (.42) (.45) (.51)),

Cq;M
n x q1 ; . . . ; qM n1 ; . . . ; nM . ,
(2.11), (.
.4, (.59)):

 M 1
N
1  X
M
X
1 Y
dqa X
na ; N 
d
ZN; L
M! a 1 1 2p n 1
M1
a1
a

2


exp EM q; n L ;
 Cq;M
2:15
n 0
2
f q; n jCq;M
n 0j 
 exp EM q; n L M qa ; na ,
M qa RM ,
P
na aM 1 na N.
,


P
d a na ; N , na .

3.

Cq;M
n x
(.27),
(2.15) (.
.4, (.61), (.62)):
~
l ;
ZN; L exp bNL f0 ZN;

3:1

278

..

f0 1=24b 4 u 2 1=bL ln b 3 u
()
(. (1.19)),


1
dq
L
k 2L 3
2
~
ZN; L N!
exp
Nq
N
2b
24b
1 2pkN

 M X
N
1 1
X
1 Y
dqa
N!

M! a 1 n 1 1 2pkna
M2
a

2
Y
X
M
M
qa qb ik=2na nb
na ; N
d

2 


a1
a<b qa qb ik=2na nb


M
M
LX
k 2L X
na qa2
n3 :
3:2
 exp
2b a 1
24b a 1 a

M 1,
M 5 2 .
na (3.2)
(. ):
 1

1 3 3
dy Aiy exp ln :
3:3

l n
exp
3
1
qa bk=L1=3 pa

1=3

1 L 2
1
b 5 u 2 L1=3 ;
3:4
lL
k
2 b
2

aa pa ilna ba pa ilna , (3.6)


:

2
M
Y
lna nb i pa pb

2


a<b lna nb i pa pb
#
"


M
Y
1
2lna det
: 3:8

lna ipa lnb ipb a; b1;...;M


a1
, ~
ZN;
l (1.24), N, ,

P ,
N aM 1 na .
(
"
1
M
1
X
1M Y
dya dpa
Ai ya pa2 
Wx lim 1
l!1
M!
2p
1
M1
a1
#
1
X


na 1
1
exp lna ya x 

na 1

1
 det
lna ipa lnb ipb


2  M

M
X
Y
lna nb i pa pb
d
n
;
N
: 3:5


2
a


a1
a<b lna nb i pa pb
: ya ! ya pa2 ,
:
1
dy dp
~
ZN;
l N!
Aiy p 2 exp lNy
1 4plN
"
N
M X
1 1
X
1 Y
dya dpa

N!
M!
1 4plna
M2
a 1 na 1
#
 Aiya pa2 exp lna ya 

2  M

M
X
Y
lna nb i pa pb
na ; N : 3:6


2 d


a1
a<b lna nb i pa pb
, (
Cauchy double alternant identity)
QM
a<b aa ab ba bb

QM
a; b1 aa bb


1
1MM1=2 det
;
3:7
aa bb a; b1;...;M

)
:

3:9

,
det 1 K^ (. , [46])


K^  K n; p; n 0 ; p 0

 1


dy Ai y p 2 1n1 exp lny x 



dy dp
~
ZN;
l N!
Aiy exp lNy p 2
4plN
1
Y
N
M X
1 1
X
1
dya dpa
Ai ya 
N!
M! a 1 n 1 1 4plna
M2
a



 exp lna ya pa2 

[ 2011

1
:
ln ip ln 0 ip 0

3:10

,
 X

1
1
3:11
Tr K^ M ;
Wx lim exp
l!1
M
M1

"
Tr K^M

M 1
Y
dya dpa
a1

1
X

1
na 1

2p

Ai ya pa2 

#

exp lna ya x 

na 1

h
 ln1 ip1 ln2 ip2 ln2 ip2 ln3 ip3 . . .
i1
. . . lnM ipM ln1 ip1
:
3:12

1

lna ipa lna1 ipa1


1


doa exp lna ipa lna1 ipa1 oa ;

3:13


na . ,

. 181, 3]
1
X

lim

l!1

exp lz
yz ; 3:14
l!1 1 exp lz

1n1 exp lnz lim

n1


lim Tr K^ M

l!1

M 1
Y
dya dpa 1
a1

2p

doa Ai ya pa2 



 yya x oa oa1 exp ipa oa oa1 ; 3:15
, o0  oM .
, ya ! ya x oa oa1
oa ! oa x=2,
lim Tr K^ M

l!1

1
x=2

M 1
Y
a1 0

dya

1
1

dpa

2p



doa Ai ya pa2 oa oa1 exp ipa oa oa1 :
3:16


, , Ai 00 t t Ait, (. ):
1 1


dp
dy
Ai y p 2 o o 0 exp ipo o 0
0
1 2p
1
21=3
dy Ai 21=3 o y Ai 21=3 o 0 y
0

Ai 21=3 o Ai 0 21=3 o 0 Ai 0 21=3 o Ai 21=3 o 0

: 3:17
oo0
oa ! oa 21=3 ,

1
...
do1 do2 . . . doM 
lim Tr K^ M
l!1

x=22=3

 KA o1 ; o2 KA o2 ; o3 . . . KA oM ; o1 ;

3:18

KA o; o 0

Ai o Ai 0 o 0 Ai 0 o Ai o 0
o o0

3:19

. ,
, Wx (. (1.22))



x
Wx det 1 K^A  F2 2=3 ;
3:20
2
K^A ,
x=22=3 ; 1
(3.19). , F2 s,
. (.
), :
 1

2
F2 s exp
dt t s q t ;
3:21
s

qt e q 00

279

tq 2q 3 qt ! 1  Ai t.
, (1.22), (1.32) (3.20) P x
2 2=3 PTW 22=3 x.

4.

[29],
N- .
,
,
,
.
,
N > 1, , L
,
. ,
, L ! 1
L1=3 ,
L2=3 , , , .
, , .
,

,
2
, F 2 F , ,
: F
( , , L1=3 ?),
F
, -
. ,
" ":
, , N ( ) , , , , L ! 1, N,
, N ! 0. , , N
N ! 0. ,
(., , [33, 34]),
(
N ) ,
N ! 0.

, ,
, L
N > 1, N ! 0,

P f limL!1 PL f .
, ,
L ! 1 N ! 0
[47, 48].
, N-

280

..

,
P f (.. f ! 1).
, L1=3 P f ,
,
: P f ! 1  exp 2=3j f j3=2 [49].

, P f ! 1  exp const f 3 , [50],
.
, ,
P f [1],
,

[2 7].

KPZ [8 10], ,
,
. , ,
, N-
[11 14].


,
. ( (3.21), . 6)
, ,

N  N N ! 1 [1].
, ,
, ,
.
- ,
( ) , , -,
""
.
,
. ,
,
,

" ", - , "
" " " " ". , ,
: , ,
.
, , , , ...

[ 2011

5. A

.1.
N-
d-
N
N
1X
1 X
q2xa Cx k
dxa xb Cx bE Cx A:1
2 a1
2 a 6 b

( k b 3 u).


x1 < x2 < . . . < xN

A:2

.
Cx
N
1X
q2 Cx bE Cx ;
2 a 1 xa

A:3

N .
N
, N
fq1 ; q2 ; . . . ; qN g  q. (A.1) xi1 xi ,
jxi1 xi j < E ! 0, ,
fxj g ( j 6 i; i 1) (A.2), , Cx
:


0:
A:4
qxi1 qxi k Cx
xi1 xi 0

,
(A.3), (A.4)

Cq1 ...qN x1 ; . . . ; xN  CqN x

Y
N 



C
qxa qxb k det exp iqc xd c; d 1;...;N ; A:5
a<b

C , . , ,
(A.3).
, (A.4),
i 1. (A.5),
CqN x
~ N x ;
CqN x qx2 qx1 k C
q

~ N x C
C
q


 Y
N 
3 4 a<b

Y
N

A:6




qx1 qxa k qx2 qxa k 

a3

qxa qxb k






det exp iqc xd c; d1;...;N : A:7

,
x1 x2 . (A.6)

. 181, 3]

(A.4) ( i 1)

 N

~ x
qx2 qx1 2 k 2 C
q

x2 x1

0:

A:8

(A.8)
x1 x2

x1 x2 .
CqN x, (A.1), ,
(A.5) (A.2)
fx1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xN g 2 RN :
Y

N 


N
i qxa qxb ik sgn xa xb 
Cq x C

. CqN x Cq 0 x,
,
q1 < q2 < . . . < qN ;



 det exp iqc xd c; d 1;...;N ;

(A.11),

1
N
N
Cq 0 x CqN x 
dN x Cq 0 x CqN x
1

jC j



i qxa qxb ik sgn xa xb

a<b




 X

N
exp i
qpa xa :
a1

A:11
,

Y
N 
X

1P
CqN x C
qpa qpb ik sgn xa xb 
P

A:12

a1

, CqN x
q1 ; . . . ; qN . , (A.5) ( (A.2))
(A.3), :
N
1 X
q2 :
2b a 1 a

4 , . 181, 3

d x

(
N
Y



i qxa qxb

a<b

N
X

exp i

a1

qp0 a0 xa

)






i qxa qxb ik sgn xa xb 
A:15

a1

,
N

Cq0

x CqN x
X

jC j2

1PP

Y
N 

i qxa qxb

1
1

P; P 0

 X

N
dN x exp i
qp0 a0 xa 
a1


ik sgn xa xb 

a<b


 X

N



qpa xa
 i qxa qxb ik sgn xa xb exp i
a1

A:16

N

Cq 0 x CqN x
X

jC j2

1PP

1
1

P; P 0

Y
N 

qxa qxb 2 k

 X

N
dN x exp i
qp0 a0 xa 



2

a1


 X
N
qpa xa : A:17
exp i
a1

a<b

,
N

Cq 0 x CqN x
X

jC j2


A:13

.2.
,




)
 X
N
qpa xa :
 exp i

a<b


 X
N
q pa x a :
 exp i

Eq

(
N 
Y

a<b

A:10

PP 0

ik sgn xa xb

a1


N fq1 ; q2 ; . . . ; qN g N fx1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xN g, P . , (A.9)
X
1P 
CqN x C

P; P 0

A:9

, , qxa
sgn x . : i NN1=2 C ! C.
(A.9)

 X

N
X


P
1 exp i
qpa xa ;
det exp iqc xd c; d 1;...;N

A:14

q10 < q20 < . . . < qN0 :

a<b

Y
N

281

1
1

jC j


Y
N 

P; P 0

qpa qpb 2 k 2





a<b

 X

N
N
0
d x exp i
qpa qpa0 xa
a1

X
2

Y
N

1PP

PP 0

Y
N 

P; P 0

a1

2p dqpa

qpa qpb k




a<b

qp0 a0

A:18

282

..

, (A.14), ,
, P P 0 , . , N!,
, :
N
Cq 0 x CqN x

jC j2 N!

Y
N
a<b


 N

 Y
2p dqa qa0 :
qa qb 2 k 2
a1

A:19
,
,
:


Cq 2

1
:
QN 
N! a<b qa qb 2 k 2

A:20


[41]. ,
(A.1)

k, ..
, k < 0, ,
k > 0. , , . ,
, k > 0,
(A.11), ,
,
,
.
.



.1.

(A.1) ( k > 0) ,
N "":
 X

N
N
1 X
xa k
jxa xb j : B:1
Cq1 x C exp iq
4 a; b 1
a1
C ,
, q ,
N
. (A.1),
,
,

2
N 
N
1 X
1 X
sgn xa xb :
B:2
iq k
E
2b a 1
2 b1
E (.2)
,
, (A.2). ,

[ 2011

N
X
sgn xa xb N 1 2a ;

B:3

b1
N
X

a1
N
X

1
NN 1 ;
2

a2

a1

B:4

N
N 12N 1
6

B:5

(.2),
E

N 2
k2
N 3 N  E1 q; N :
q
24b
2b

B:6

1
1
1
1
Cq 0 x Cq x 
dx1 . . . dxN Cq 0 x Cq1 x
1

2p dq q 0 :

B:7

(.1),
1
1
Cq 0 x Cq1 x jC j2
dx1 . . . dxN 
1


N
1 X
xa k
jxa xb j
 exp iq q
2 a; b 1
a1
1
1
dx1
dx2 . . .
jC j2 N!


...

1
xN1

N
X

x1

dxN exp iq q 0

N
X
a1

xa k

N
X


N 1 2axa ;

a1

B:8
, (A.2),

N
N
X
1 X
jxa xb j
N 1 2axa :
2 a; b 1
a1

B:9

xN , xN1 x1 ,

 NY

1
1
1

 
Cq 0 x Cq1 x jC j2 N!
r N rk iq q 0
r1
1


dx1 exp iNq q 0 x1

1

jC j2 N!

 NY
1
r1

1
rN rk

2p d Nq q 0

Nk
2p dq q 0 :
jC j2
N!k N

B:10

(.7)
:
r
k N N!
B:11
 C 1 q :
C
kN
,
(.1)
, k > 0. ,
k < 0,
, , .

. 181, 3]

. (.1)

(A.12), , qa
. ,
(A.2)
:
qa q

i
kN 1 2a :
2

B:12

qa (A.12),

Cq1 x1 < x2 < . . . < xN /

N 
X
Y
i
1P
q kN 1 2Pa
/
2
P
a<b

!

i
q kN 1 2Pb ik 
2

 X
N
N
kX
xa
N 1 2Pa xa /
 exp iq
2 a1
a1
!
N 
Y
X

P
1
P b Pa 1 
/
P

M
X

na N :

B:17

a1

,
:
M 1 4 M 4 N ,
"" ; M
fn1 ; n2 ; . . . ; nM g  n,
; ,
, M
fq1 ; q2 ; . . . ; qM g  q.

(A.9) (A.12). N  N exp iqa xb ,
, N qa ,
(.16), :
fq11 ; q21 ; . . . ; qn11 ; q12 ; q22 ; . . . ; qn22 ; . . . ; q1M ; q2M ; . . . ; qnMM g :
B:18

B:13

,
Q
N
a<b Pb Pa 1

"" Pa a (

1; 2; . . . ; N,
a < b, Pb Pa 1). ,
Cq1 x1 < x2 < . . . < xN /
 X

N
N
kX
xa
N 1 2axa :
/ exp iq
2 a1
a1

"" r 1; 2; . . . ; na .
na

fqa g  fqra g

a<b

 X

N
N
kX
xa
N 1 2Pa xa :
 exp iq
2 a1
a1

B:14

(.9),
(.1), N ,
(A.2). , (.12)
(A.13),
2
N 
1 X
i
B:15
q kN 1 2a :
E
2b a 1
2
(
(.4) (.5)) (.6).

.2.
N
N fqa g a
1; 2; . . . ; N , .
,
M 1 4 M 4 N "" ,
i
B:16
qra qa k na 1 2r ;
2
qa a 1; 2; . . . ; M
,
4*

283

 X

N
X


1P exp i
qpa xa ;
det exp iqa xc c; d 1;...;N
P

a1

B:19

N fqa g, (.18), N
fx1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xN g, P .
P a
aa
qra . , ,

a (..
qa ), Oa . , P , , , "" r 1; . . . ; na . , (A.11),
Cq;M
n x

Cq;M
n


Y
N 
X

P
1
iqxa qxb ik sgn xa xb 
P

a<b


 X
N
ac
qrc xc ;
 exp i

B:20

c1

Cq; n ,
.
(.16) , :
Cq;M
n x


N 
X
Y

ik 
1P
qaa
naa 1 2ra
2
P
a<b




ik 
qab
nab 1 2rb ik sgn xa xb 
2

 X
N
N

kX
qac xc
nac 1 2rc xc : B:21
 exp i
2 c1
c1
Cq;M
n

284

..


: a; b,
aa 6 ab,
,
aa ab. Pa
, Oa ,

Y 

Pa /
B:22
rb ra sgn xa xb :
a<b 2 Oa

,
( (.13) (.14)), ,
"" ra
Oa Pa
.
, ,
Cq;M
n x N fxa g, , :
x1 < x2 < . . . < xN . fxak g
k 1; 2; . . . ; na , Oa ,
: xa1 < xa2 < . . . < xana ( a1 < a2 <
< . . . < ana ).
Pa /

na
Y


rl rk 1 :

B:23

k<l

,
rk k. , 1; 2; . . . ; na ,
k < l, rl rk 1.

Pa /

na
Y


lk1 :

[ 2011

RN .
na
X
X

na 1 2kxak
na 1 2ra xa
a 2 Oa

k1

na

1 X
xa xa

l
k
2 k; l 1

( xa1 < xa2 < . . . < xana ),


Cq;M
n x, :
Cq;M
n x
Cq;M
n

X0

a<b
aa 6 ab


 X
na
na
M
M
X
X
kX
0
qa
xc
jxc xc j :
 exp i
4 a 1 c; c 0 2 O
a1
c2O
a






ik
qab nab ik ra rb 1 
2
 X

N
N

kX
qac xc
 exp i
nac 1 2rc xc ; B:25
2 c1
c1

P ,
, P 0 , P, , "" ra .
Cq;M
n x , (.25)
x1 < x2 < . . . < xN

B:27

,
, ,
, . ,
"", , .
, , (.16)
(A.13). ( (.4) (.5))

EM q; n

k<l

aa 6 ab

N
Y


iqxa qxb ik sgn xa xb 

1P

B:24

""

M
Cq; n , (.21):


N
X0
Y
ik
P
M
x

C
1

n
Cq;M
aa
aa
n
q; n
2
P
a<b

B:26

na
M X
1 X
q a 2
2b a 1 r 1 k
M
M
1 X
k2 X
na qa2
n 3 na :
24b a 1 a
2b a 1

B:28

.3.

, M; n; q M 0 ; n 0 ; q 0 ,
:
1
M;M 0
M 0 
dN x Cq 0 ;n 0 x Cq;M
B:29
Qn; n 0 q; q 0 
n x :
1

(.27),
X 0X 0
0
M;M 0
M 0 
Qn; n 0 q; q 0 Cq;M
1PP 
n Cq 0 ;n 0


1
1

d x

P0

!

iqxa qxb ik sgn xa xb

a<b


 exp i

a 0 a 6 a 0 b

M0
X
a1


N
Y


N
Y


na
M0
X
kX
xc
jxc xc 0 j 
4 a 1 c; c 0 2 O 0
c 2 Oa0
a
!
0

qa0

na
X

iqxa qxb ik sgn xa xb

a<b
aa 6 ab


 X
na
na
M
M
X
X
kX
qa
xc
jxc xc 0 j ; B:30
 exp i
4 a 1 c; c 0 2 O
a1
c2O
a

. 181, 3]

fOa g fOa0 g ,
P P 0 .
X 0X 0
0
M; M 0
M 0 
Qn; n 0 q; q 0 Cq;M
1PP 
n Cq 0 ;n 0


1
1

P0


na
M0
X
kX
dN x exp i
qa0
xc
jxc xc 0 j 
4 a 1 c; c 0 2 O 0
a1
c 2 Oa0
a
!


N
Y
iqxa qxb ik sgn xa xb 
M0
X

na
X

a<b
a 0 a 6 a 0 b

285

!

N
Y
iqxa qxb ik sgn xa xb 

a<b
aa 6 ab


 X
na
na
M
M
X
X
kX
qa
xc
jxc xc 0 j :
 exp i
4 a 1 c; c 0 2 O
a1
c2O
a

B:31

,
, .. M M 0 ,
n n 0 , , , M
fna g , ..
1 4 n 1 < n 2 < . . . < nM .
P P 0
(.31) :
) "" ,
, P P 0 ;
) "" , , P 6 P 0 .
"" :
1
 X0
M; MA
0
M M
q; q Cq; n Cq 0 ;n
dN x
Qn; n
P

 X

na
na
M
M
X
X
kX
 exp i
qa0
xc
jxc xc 0 j 
4 a 1 c; c 0 2 O
a1
c 2 Oa
a
!


N
Y
qxa qxb 2 k 2 

a<b
aa6ab


 X
na
na
M
M
X
X
kX
qa
xc
jxc xc 0 j :
 exp i
4 a 1 c; c 0 2 O
a1
c2O
a

B:32

N!

n1 !n2 ! . . . nM !
"
#
1
1
1
M 
Y
a
a
a

dx1
dx2 . . .
dxna 
na !
M

M
Qn;M;
q; q 0 Cq;M
n Cq 0 ; n
n

x1a

a1

xnaa 1


 X
na
na
M
M X
X
kX
qa0
xra
na 1 2rxra 
exp i
2 a1 r1
a1
r1

!
n
na Y
b
M Y
Y
2
2

qxra qx b k

r0

a<b r 1 r 0 1


 X
na
na
M
M X
X
kX
qa
xra
na 1 2rxra ; B:33
exp i
2 a1 r1
a1
r1
N!=n1 ! . . . nM ! M , n1 ; n2 ; . . . ; nM ,
N . ,
:

nb 
na Y
M Y
Y


ik
MA
0
M M

q
q;
q

C
C
N!

Qn;M;
n
q; n
n
q 0; n
a 2 a
a<b r 1 r 0 1
2 !



ik
0
qb nb ik r r 1 
2
(
1
1
M
1
Y
dx1a
dx2a . . .
dxnaa 

x1a

a1


 exp iqa

qa0

na
X
r1

xnaa 1

xra

na
X

na 1

r1

2rxra

)
: B:34

xra
( , (.8) (.10))

nb 
na Y
M Y
Y

M 2
ik
M; MA
0



q; q Cq; n N!
Qn; n
qa 2 n a
a<b r 1 r 0 1
2 !



ik
0
qb nb ik r r 1 
2


M
Y
na k
0
2p
dq

:
B:35

a
a
2 na
a 1 na ! k

, , "" ,
(.18). ,
, a0 a.
, ,
"" a 1; 2; . . . ; N, a; r: fxa g ! fxar g
a 1; . . . ; M; r 1; . . . ; na . ,
a
" " r .

(.32)
, xa1 < xa2 < . . . < xnaa . ,
(.26),

, "" (.31),
P P 0 , .
, P, "", (.18), , ,
a0 a.

x1 < x2 < . . . < xN . (.31),

X0
0
M; MB
q; q 0 /
1P
dN x
Qn;n

 exp i

x1 <...<xN

P0

M
X
a1

qa0

na
X
a 2 Oa0

xa


na
M
X
kX
jxa xb j 
4 a 1 a; b 2 O 0
a

286

..

N
Y
a<b
a0 a6a0 b

N
Y

!


iqxa qxb ik sgn xa xb


!


iqxa qxb ik sgn xa xb

a<b

a 0 a6a 0 b


 X
na
na
M
M X
X


kX
qa
xa
na 1 2ra xa :
 exp i
2 a 1 a 2 Oo
a1
a 2 Oo
a

B:36
fOao g
. P 0 6 P, Oa0 P 0
Oao .
N 10 M 3.
n1 5,
" ";
n2 2, ""; ,
n3 3, "4":
a

10

a0 a

a a

a 0 a a 4
a 3 ( a 1
a0 a, , a 8
a 1 ( a 3,
a0 a. (.36).
, "" O1o ,
.


qxa qxb
"" ()
.
"" ""
,
(.36) . ,


0
P4; 5  iqx4 qx5 ik 
 X

na
na
3
3
X
X


kX
 exp i
qa
xa
na 1 2ra xa
2 a 1 a 2 Oo
a1
a 2 Oo
a

B:37
Oao

(,
, , , x4 < x5 ). ,
 

k
P4;0 5 / iq1 n1 1 2r4 iq1
2





k
n1 1 2r5 k / r4 r5 1 0 ; B:38
2
ra a.

[ 2011

,
.
, na
, a 0 a,
Oao , ,
a a 0 a, (
Oao ) a 0 a .



Pk;0 k1 iqxk qxk1 ik 

 X
na
na
M
M X
X


kX
qa
xa
na 1 2ra xa ;
 exp i
2 a 1 a 2 Oo
a1
a 2 Oo
a

B:39
0

a a k
a, k 1
- . , ,


Pk;0 k1 / rk rk 1 1 0 ;
B:40
ra ""
Oao , rk 1 rk 1.
,
M
(.29) Cq 0 ; n x
M
Cq; n x ( M
1 4 n1 < n2 < . . . < nM ) "" (.35):

M 
2 Y

na k
M
N!
q; q 0 Cq;M

Qn;M;
n
n
2 na
a 1 na ! k

nb 
na Y
M Y
Y

ik


qa 2 n a
a<b r 1 r 0 1
2 ! M


Y

ik
0
2p dqa qa0 :
qb nb ik r r 1
2
a1
B:41
, ,
.
M
Cq 0 ; n x Cq;M
n x (, ,
M n) ,
M n1 ; n2 ; . . . ; nM
, , na1 na2 ( a1 6 a2 ).
q 0 ; n
qa0 1 qa0 2 ,
q; n qa1 qa2 .
,
aa a 0 a (.31)
fOa g aa
fOa0 g a 0 a. ,
na ,
, aa a 0 a. ,
na1 na2 , . , ,
"" , aa a 0 a,
dqa1 qa0 1 dqa2 qa0 2 . -

. 181, 3]

a 0 a, Oa0 1 (
a 0 a) Oa2 ( aa),
Oa0 2 a 0 a
Oa1 aa. :
Oa0 Oa a 6 a1 ; a2 . ,
dqa1 qa0 2 dqa2 qa0 1 1na1 .
,
Cq;M
n x. (A.9),
qa1 qa2 ,
, na1 na2 , na1 exp iqa xb ,
1na1 . , , , , .

,
qa1 < qa2 ; qa0 1 < qa0 2 .
dqa1 qa0 2 dqa2 qa0 1
, (.41).
, , q; n, M ,
, ,
. , M
s1 , m1 ,
s2 , m2 , ..

k 1 4 k 4 M
.
mi ""
si , ,
mi . :

q; n q1 ; m1 ; . . . ; qs1 ; m1 ; qs1 1 ; m2 ; . . . ; qs1 s2 ; m2 ; . . . ;
|{z} |{z}
s1

B:42

sk

s1 s2 . . . sk M, k fmi g :
1 4 m1 < m2 < . . . < mk :

a1

na




Y
M

 Y
M 

2pd qa qa0 N!

a1
na
M Y
Y

nb
Y

a1

na k




2 na
a 1 na ! k
2

 



qa ik na qb ik nb ik r r 0 1 ;


2
2

a<b r 1 r 0 1

B:46

fna0 g

fna g
, (.42) (.44),
fqa g fqa0 g, ,
, (.45).
, :

Y
M
M 2
na !2 k na
C 1

q; n
N! a 1 na k
2
 

nb 
na Y
M Y
Y


ik
ik
0



qa 2 na qb 2 nb ik r r 1 :
a<b r 1 r 0 1
B:47

si mi N :

b qt Cx; t

N
N
1X
1 X
q2xa Cx; t k
dxa xb Cx; t
2 a1
2 a 6 b

B:48

B:44

i1

,
, ,
. , :

Cx; 0

N
Y

dxa

B:49

a1


Cq;M
n x (.27):

N X
0
X


0
M
Dq Cq;M
Cx; t
n x Cq; n 0 exp EM q; nt ;
M1

B:50

q1 < q2 < . . . < qs1 ;


qs1 1 < qs1 2 < . . . < qs1 s2 ;
.........
qs1 ...sk1 1 < qs1 ...sk1 2 < . . . < qs1 ...sk1 sk :

.4.

B:43

k,
k
X

(.41).
, ,

: n 0 6 n. . ,
,
,
P P 0 (.31)
,
fOa g fOa0 g .
, ,
(.31) . ,
M 0 6 M , n 0 6 n.
, ,
Y

M
M 2
M; M 0
0
0
0


Qn; n 0 q; q Cq; n dM; M
dna ; na 

s2


. . . ; qs1 ...sk1 1 ; mk ; . . . ; qs1 :::sk ; mk ;
|{z}

M
X

287

B:45

(.28).
na fsi ; mi g, (.42) (.44):

288
X0
n

..

M
X

1
X

1
X

k 1 s1 ...sk 1 1 4 m1 ...<mk

X
 X

k
k
d
si ; M d
si mi ; N ;
i1

i1

B:51
dn; l () . ,

, mi si
0
. Dq (.50) M qa ,
(.45).
ZN; L
Cx; t
:
ZN; L C0; L
N X 0
X

2


0

Dq Cq;M
n 0 exp EM q; nL : B:52
M1

(.27), M 5 2,
X0
M
1P 
Cq;M
n 0 Cq; n
P



N
Y

ik 
qaa
naa 1 2ra
2
a<b

aa6ab



ik 

nab 1 2rb
2

nb 
na Y
M Y
Y
N!
ik

q
n
Cq;M
a
a
n
n1 !n2 ! . . . nM ! a<b r1 r 0 1
2



ik
0
B:53
qb nb ik r r :
2

qab


(.47),
N
M 2
C 0 QN!k

q; n
M
a 1 kna



Q na Q nb
M
0 2
Y
r1
r 0 1 qa ik=2na qb ik=2nb ikr r

2 :


Q na Q nb
qa ik=2na qb ik=2nb ikr r 0 1
0
a<b
r1

r 1

B:54

.
r 0 , :
N
M 2
C 0 QN!k

q; n
M
a 1 kna
2


Q na
M

Y
r1 qa ik=2na qb ik=2nb ik r 1

2 :


Q na

a<b
r1 qa ik=2na qb ik=2nb ik r nb 1
B:55
r ,
r ! na 1 r, , :
N
M 2
C 0 QN!k

q; n
M
a 1 kna

2


M Q na

Y
r1 qa ik=2na qb ik=2nb ik r 1
:

2


Q na
qa ik=2na qb ik=2nb ik r
a<b
r1

B:56

[ 2011

, r
, :

2
M
N
Y
M 2
qa qb ik=2na nb
C 0 QN!k


2 :
q; n
M


a 1 kna a<b qa qb ik=2na nb
B:57
M 1, (.1) (.11),
1 2 k N N!
C 0
:
q
kN

B:58

2
f q; n jCq;M
n 0j exp EM q; nL
(.52) M qa ; na ,
qa , (.45),
RM . na ,
(.17). , ,

C0; t, (.52),
Cx; t, (.50), N
x1 ; . . . ; xN . , (.52)


 M 1
N
1  X
M
X
1 Y
dqa X
na ; N 
d
ZN; L
M! a 1 1 2p n 1
M1
a1
a

2



 Cq;M
B:59
n 0 exp EM q; nL :

(.28), (.57) (.58),


:
ZN; L



dq
L
k 2L 3
2
N! k
exp
Nq
N N
2b
24b
1 2pkN

 X
 M X
N
1 1
M
X
1 Y
dqa
na ; N 

d
M! a 1 n 1 1 2pkna
M2
a1
a

2
M
Y
qa qb ik=2na nb


2 


a<b qa qb ik=2na nb
)

M
M
LX
k 2L X
2
3
na qa
n na :
B:60
 exp
2b a 1
24b a 1 a
N


M 1, M 5 2 .


:
~
l ;
ZN; L exp bNLf0 ZN;

f0

1 4 2
1
b u
ln b 3 u ;
24
bL

B:61

. 181, 3]

dq
L
k 2L 3
exp
Nq 2
N
2b
24b
1 2pkN

 X
 M X
N
1 1
M
X
1 Y
dqa
na ; N 
d

M! a 1 n 1 1 2pkna
M2
a1
a

2
M
Y
qa qb ik=2na nb


2 


a<b qa qb ik=2na nb
)

M
M
LX
k 2L X
2
3
na qa
n
:
B:62
 exp
2b a 1
24b a 1 a

~
ZN;
L N!



Ai x
y 00 x x yx


(B.4). , F
: F ! iF,
C
z iy.

 x
(B.6) d F y .
y exp iF 3 =3. ,
F
F ! iF, (B.6).
:
1


dp Ai p 2 o1 o2 exp ipo1 o2
I1 
1



22=3 p Ai 21=3 o1 Ai 21=3 o2 ;
1



I2 
dy Ai y o1 Ai y o2

x ! 1

y :


1
2 3=2 1
Ai x ! 1 ' p 1=4 sin
jxj p :
B:3
3
4
p jxj
:



dz
1 3
B:4
exp
z zx ;
Ai x
3
C 2pi
C

p=2 < y < p=3
p=3 < y < p=2.
y p=2 E y p=2 E,
E ! 0 ,
, (B.4)
z iy.
,
,
 1



1 2
dx
1
p exp x 2 exp Fx ; B:5

F
exp
2
2
2p
1
:
 1

1 3
dx Ai x exp Fx ;
B:6

exp
F
3
1
(B.6) , F
. , -

B:7

B:1

yx ! 1 0. x ! 1
,


1
2
Ai x ! 1 ' p 1=4 exp x 3=2 ;
B:2
3
2 px

289



 
Ai o1 Ai 0 o2 Ai 0 o1 Ai o2
:
o1 o2

B:8


(B.4),
1
dp 
I1



dz
1 3
exp
z p 2 z o1 z o2 z ipo1 ipo2 :
2pi
3
B:9

z  z1 ip  z2 ,
:

dz1 dz2

I1 2p
2
C 2pi


1 3
z1 z1 z22 o1 z1 z2 o2 z1 z2 ; B:10
 exp
3
C
. z1 z2
:
z1 z2 x ;

B:11

z1 z2 Z ;




dx
dZ
1 3 1 3
I1 p
exp
x Z o1 x o2 Z : B:12
6
6
C 2pi C 2pi
x ! 21=3 x Z ! 21=3 Z,



dx
1 3
I1 22=3 p
exp
x 21=3 o1 x 
3
C 2pi



dZ
1 3
exp
Z 21=3 o2 Z

3
C 2pi
1=3  1=3 
2=3
2 p Ai 2 o1 Ai 2 o2 ;
B:13
(B.7).
(B.8),
, -

290

..

(B.1).


1
Ai 00 y o
Ai y o
yo

B:14

(B.8),
1


1
Ai 00 y o1 Ai 00 y o2
I2
dy
y o1 y o2
0

1 
1
1
1

dy


o1 o2 0
y o2 y o1


 Ai 00 y o1 Ai 00 y o2
1  00
1
Ai y o2

dy
Ai 00 y o1
o1 o2 0
y o2

Ai 00 y o1

Ai 00 y o2 :
B:15
y o1
Ai 00 y o2 y o2 Ai y o2
Ai 00 y o1
y o1 Aiy o1 ,
1
1
I2
dy Ai 00 y o1 Ai y o2
o1 o2
0

1
dy Ai 00 y o2 Ai y o1 :
B:16




1
I2
Ai 0 o1 Ai o2 Ai 0 o2 Ai o1 ; B:17
o1 o2
(B.8).





det 1 K^ ( ,
, [46]):
det 1 K^
1

1
X
1n

n1

n!

...

b
a



dt1 dt2 . . . dtn det Kti ; tj i; j1;...;n ;
G:1

K^  Kt; t 0 ,

a 4 t; t 0 4 b. ,
:
 X

1
1
det 1 K^ exp
G:2
Tr K^ n ;
n
n1

Tr K^ n 

...

b
a

dt1 dt2 . . . dtn Kt1 ; t2 Kt2 ; t3 . . . Ktn ; t1 :


G:3

[ 2011

[1], , ,
F2 s,
e , ,
 1

F2 s  det 1 K^A exp
dt t s q 2 t ; G:4
s

K^A , s; 1:
KA t1 ; t2

Ai t1 Ai 0 t2 Ai 0 t1 Ai t2
;
t 1 t2

G:5

qt e

q 00 tq 2q 3

G:6

, qt ! 1  Ai t.
Rt, ,
 1

dt Rt
F2 s exp
s

, (.4),


d
ln det 1 K^A :
Rs
ds

G:7

G:8


:
1
X


1
ln det 1 K^A
Tr K^An 
n
n1
1

1
X
1 1
dt1
dt2 . . .

n s
s
n1
1
dtn KA t1 ; t2 KA t2 ; t3 . . . KA tn ; t1 :
...
s

G:9

s,
1
dt 1 K^A 1 s; t KA t; s 
Rs
s

 KA s; s
...

1
s

1 1
X
n2 s

dt1

1
s

dt2 . . .

dtn1 KA s; t1 KA t1 ; t2 . . . KA tn1 ; s : G:10


(.5),
1
dz Ait1 z Ait2 z ;
G:11
KA t1 ; t2
0

:
1
1

1
Rs
dt1
dt2 Ait1 1 K^A t1 ; t2 Ait2 : G:12
s

. 181, 3]

s , ,
d
Rs q 2 s ;
ds

qs

1
s

G:13

1
dt 1 K^A s; t Ai t :

(.13) ,
1
Rs
dt q 2 t :
s

G:14

G:15

:
1
1

1
dt1
dt2 Ai t1 1 K^A t1 ; t2 Ai 0 t2 ;
vs
s

ps

291

1
s

dt 1 K^A

1

G:16
s; t Ai 0 t :

G:17

qs, vs ps, (.14), (.16)


(.17), ,
, ,

:
0

G:18

p sq pR 2qv ;

G:19

v 0 pq :

G:20

q p Rq ;

R 2 2v (.13) (.20), ,
d
R 2 2v 2q p Rq :
ds

G:21

, (.18)
2q,
d 2
q 2q p Rq :
ds

G:22

(.21) (.22) ,
s ! 1
,
R 2 2v q 2 :

G:23

, (.18)
(.13), (.18), (.19) (.23),
, qs
q 00 2q 3 sq ;

G:24

e
[37, 38, 53]. , (.15)
(.7), (.4), qs
(.24).
s ! 1, (.14) qs
. (.24)
q 00 sq

. ,


2
qs ! 1 ' Ai s  exp s 3=2 :
3

G:25

, [54], , s ! 1, e (.24) (
(.25))

r
1
G:26
qs ! 1 ' s :
2
PTW t F2 s
. , F2 s , t,
PTW t,
, s:
s
dt PTW t :
G:27
F2 s
1


(.4),
 1
1
PTW s exp
dt t s q 2 t
dt q 2 t ; G:28
s

qs (.24).
(.28)
qs s ! 1 s ! 1 ( (.25) (.26)),

PTW s:


4 3=2
PTW s ! 1  exp s
;
G:29
3


1
PTW s ! 1  exp jsj3 :
G:30
12


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
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11.
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Universal randomness
V.S. Dotsenko
LPTMC, Universite Paris VI, 75252 Paris, France,
L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics,
ul. Kosygina 2, 119334 Moscow, Russian Federation
E-mail: victor-dotsenko@yandex.ru
In the last two decades it has been established that in many cases a single universal probability distribution function, known as the
Tracy Widom (TW) distribution, provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different
systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones,
such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. The rst part of this review uses a number of models to
examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then considers the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a
random environment, showing that free energy uctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second
part provides detailed appendix material containing mathematical background necessary for the rst part.
PACS numbers: 02.50.Cw, 02.90.+p, 05.20. y, 05.40. a, 61.41.+e
Bibliography 54 references
Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk 181 (3) 269 292 (2011)

DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0181.201103b.0269
Received 16 July 2010
Physics Uspekhi 54 (3) (2011)