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Project Report on

Pick & place Robotic Arm


At
UVPCE, KHERVA GANPAT UNIVERSITY
Submitted by

Falak k. Dalal (04mc7) Hriday A. Ghoda (D05mc61) Jay D. Shah(D05mc64) Internal Guide: Mr N.J.Thakkar

DEPARTMENT OF MECHATRONICS U.V. PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

GANPAT UNIVERSITY KHERVA MAY-JUNE -2008

CERTIFICATE T his is to certify that the project entitled


Pick & place Robotic Arm
Submitted by Mr. Falak K. Dalal, Mr. Hriday A. Ghoda & Mr. Jay D. Shah towards the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology (Mechatronics) at Ganpat University is a record of a work submitted has in my opinion reached a level required for being accepted for examination. GUIDE:

Mr. Nehul J. Thakkar


Mechatronics Department, U. V. Patel College of Engg. Mehsana. COUNTERSIGNED:

Head of Department, Mechatronics & Mechanical Engg. U. V. Patel College of Engg. Mehsana.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are grateful to the department of Mechatronics Engineering for their kind cooperation and help in accomplishment of this project. We would especially like to thank our special advisor Mr. NEHUL J. THAKKAR of Shri U.V. Patel college of engineering ,Ganpat university ,Kherva ,Mehsana and Mr. M.B. SHAH of E+L(INDIA)Pvt. Ltd. for their perspective guidance which helped us greatly & pointed us in right direction with this project

INDEX
SR.NO.
1.

TOPIC NAME
INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTICS SELECTION OF MOTOR CONTROL OF MOTORS CIRCUIT FOR CONTROLLING D.C MOTORS SELECTION OF MATERIALS DETAILS OF PARTS PRO-E MODEL (DETAILS AND ASSEMBLY).

PAGE NO.
2

2.

3.

4.

10

5.

13

6. 7.

15 16

8.

MODEL IMAGE

21,22

INDEX OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO.
1 2

FIGURE NAME
FORCE IN DC 4 MOTOR MAGNETIC FIELD IN 4 DC MOTORS . TORQUE IN DC MOTOR CURRENT FLOW IN DC MOTOR CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR CONTROLLING DC MOTORS L293D IC 7812 IC 7806 IC PIN DIAGRAM OF L293D IC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR CONTROLLING DC MOTORS BASE PLATE WITH STAND MOTOR WITH PLATE -2 CIRCULAR PLATE WITH BOSS & PLATE -3 5 5 10

PAGE NO.

3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

11 11 11 12 12

12 13 14

16 17 18

15

FLANGE WITH BOSS 19

16

ASSEMBLY DRAWING MODEL IMAGE

20

17

21,22

ABSTRACT
Now days in this fast growing industrial age every company needs speed in manufacturing to cope up with the customers requirements. Every industrialist cannot afford to transform his unit from manual to semi automatic or fully automatic as automation is not that cheap in India. The basic objective of our project is to develop a versatile and low cost robotic arm which can be utilized in any industry to eliminate this problem. Our robotic arm can be used in number of application by changing the program of controller and the structure is designed in such a way that it is capable to lift light loads but can also lift medium loads. Our robotic manipulator would be used mainly in the packaging department and automatic assembly lines.

1) Introduction of Robotics:The word robot was derived from Czech word robota which means a forced laborer then later a well known Russian science fiction writer Isaac Asimov coined the word robotics. From there on various different developments are being successfully done till date in the field of robotics in the form of teleoperated manipulators, humanoids ,micro robots etc. as the trend of the industry is moving from the current state of automation to robotization . Thus the robot technology is advancing rapidly. Now a days the most commonly used robots in industry is a robotic manipulator or a robotic arm .Robotic arm is basically an open closed kinematics chain of rigid links interconnected by movable joints. The end of the arm is connected to the end-effectors. The end-effector may be a tool and its fixture or a gripper or any other device to do the work. The end-effector is similar to the human hand with or without fingers.

1.1) Type of robot:Jointed arm configuration

2) Selection of motor:Many different motors are available in the market like servo motors, stepper motorcar synchronous motors, dc motors with and without gears. These different motors are used according to their applications and requirements for e.g. If we want high torque and precise position we need to use servo motors, if we want to only position and if high torques not required then stepper motors are used .Dc geared motors are used where we need high torque .For only smooth motion dc motors are used .Here we have used stepper motor as though servo are best suited for robotics it wasnt economically viable .Stepper motors are of many types for e.g. Variable reluctance motors, permanent magnet motors and hybrid motors.

2.1) Introduction of D.C motor:Now a days DC motors plays a vital role in most of the industrial areas, it can be seen in most of the electronic devices. They are mainly used for the mechanical movements of physical applications such as rolling the bundle of sheets or CD drives, lifts etc.

Many methods evolved to control the revolution of a motor. DC motors can be controlled either by software or directly by hardware. Software controlling needs computers which are bulky and common man cannot afford for it, so hardware controls are in use. Even in hardware if it is programmable device then it is preferred because it can be modeled according to the requirements of the user. Advantages of using PlC over other controlling devices for controlling the DC motor are given below: 1. SPEED: The execution of an instruction in PIC IC is very fast (in micro seconds) and can be changed by changing the oscillator frequency. One instruction generally takes 0.2 microseconds. 2. COMPACT: The PIC IC will make the hardware circuitry compact. 3. RISC PROCESSOR: The instruction set consists only 35 instructions. 4. EPROM PROGRAM MEMORY: Program can be modified and rewritten very easily. 5. INBUILT HARDWARE SUPPORT: Since PIC IC has inbuilt programmable timers, ports and interrupts, no extra hardware is needed. 6. POWERFUL OUTPUT PIN CONTROL: Output pins can be driven to high state, using a single instruction. The output pin can drive a load up to 25mA. 7. INBUILT I/O PORTS EXPANSIONS: This reduces the extra ICs which are needed for port expansion and port can be expanded very easily. 8. INTEGRATION OF OPERATIONAL FEATURES: Power on reset and brown/out protection ensures that the chip operates only when the supply voltage is within specification. A watchdog timer resets PIC if the chip ever malfunctions and deviates from its normal operation.

2.2) Working Principle:It is based on the principle that when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force whose direction is given by Fleming's Left-hand rule and whose magnitude is given by Force, F = B I l newton

Where B is the magnetic field in weber/m2. I is the current in amperes and l is the length of the coil in meter. The force, current and the magnetic field are all in different directions. If an Electric current flows through two copper wires that are between the poles of a magnet, an upward force will move one wire up and a downward force will move the other wire down.

Figure 1: Force in DC Motor

Figure 2 : Magnetic Field in DC Motor

Figure 3 : Torque in DC Motor

Figure 4 : Current Flow in DC Motor

The loop can be made to spin by fixing a half circle of copper which is known as commutator, to each end of the loop. Current is passed into and out of the loop by brushes that press onto the strips. The brushes do not go round so the wire do not get twisted. This arrangement also makes sure that the current always passes down on the right and back on the left so that the rotation continues. This is how a simple Electric motor is made.

2.3) Calculations for torque :Motor ratings:VOLTAGE =12V CURRENT =0.6A GEAR RATIO =1:20 1) POWER:P =V*I =7.2 W 2) Angular speed:=2N =2*3.14*38 =3.97 rps

3) Torque:T=0.8*P/ (because 0.8=motor efficiency) =1.45 Nm

By using the formula T=F*R the load lifting capacity of our motor is 0.328kg.

3) Control of motor:There are mainly three types of controls which are used:1) Parallel ports of the PC 2) Micro controller IC 3) Plc PLC:-plc is widely used controller in the market because of certain advantages that many other controllers cannot give. Many companies manufacture plcs like AB,SIEMENS,OMRON etc out of which AB and siemens are widely used .We have used Allen Bradley SLC500 PLC. Plc works on our logic.It takes the inputs from input devices like switches etc then according to the given logic gives the output to the actuators. Inputs:- 230 v Ac supply 50hz frequency Outputs:- 24 v Dc supply Programming device :- PC having Rockwell software for programming Modules :- Ac,Dc, Analog etc. Here we have used Allen Bradley Plc to control the manipulator.There are many types of plc used in the market like fixed, modular etc.we have used fixed type.we have used plc as its better then microcontroller in many ways like its easier to program,more i/ps and o/ps and many more. 6

3.1) AB-PLC Program

3.2) Program parameters:Inputs:-

I:0/1 I:0/2

Start push button Stop push button

Outputs:-

O:0/1 O:0/2 O:0/3 O:0/4 O:0/5 O:0/6 O:0/7

Coil relay 1 Link motor forward Gripper motor forward Link motor reverse Base motor forward Gripper motor reverse Base motor reverse

Timers:-

Timer T4:0/1 T4:0/2 T4:0/3 T4:0/4 T4:0/5 T4:0/6 T4:0/7 T4:0/8

Time in seconds 5 40 5 5 5 40 5 5

4) Circuit for controlling four d.c motors:This circuit is mainly used to drive low voltage d.c motors. It takes the input from the controller side and according to the number of pulses given it controls the motor. Plc is used to control the circuit. It contains L293D ic which is the main driver of the motor. When dc power is given to the circuit it gets converted into 12v with the help of ic7812. this 12v are converted into 6v with the help of ic7806. this 6v is used as the input voltage. There are four enables in the icL293D which I used to turn on/off the ic.Vcc1 is the supply voltage and Vcc2 is the output supply voltage for the motor. This circuit can run motor in both the directions.

FIG. 5 CIRCUIT FOR CONTROLLING D.C MOTORS

10

4.1) Circuit components:1. L293D ic:- it is the quadruple hig current half h driver. It is designed to provide bidirectional current ffrom voltages 4.5 to36 volts. It is designed to drive inductive loads such as relays solenoids d.c motors. All inputs are ttl compatible. Each output is complte totem pole with darlington transistor sink and a suedo darlington source. It has two enbles. When enables are high the driver associated to it r high and viceversa.

FIG.6 L293D IC 2. 7812 ic:- it converts 12 to 40 v into 12 v inorder to protect the circuit in situations of over current over voltage conditions. This is used for protection.

FIG.7 7812 IC 3. 7806 ic:- it converts 12 v into 6 v as ic L293D works on this input voltage.

FIG. 8 7806 IC

11

4.2) Pin diagram of L293D IC:-

FIG. 9

4.3) Internal diagram of L293D IC:-

FIG.10 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR CONTROLLING D.C MOTORS As shown in fig. the output from plc goes to pin number 2 of the ic which drives the motor in forward direction. When the motor is to be driven in reverse direction the input from plc is given to pin nmber 7. second motor can be run using pin number 15 and 10 in forward and reverse direction. The internal circuit shows the working similar as a hbridge ciruit.

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5) Selection of material for structure:For making any machine, materials used play very important role because the strength and the rigidity of the structure depends on the type of material used. There are many properties of material which affect the working of the material like strength, rigidity, vibration, damping etc. Basically, there are three materials used for the structure which are m.s, alluminium and c.i.

5.1) Mild (low carbon) steel: Approximately 0.050.29% carbon content (e.g. AISI 1018 steel). Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable; surface hardness can be increased through carburizing. M.S is the most common form of steel as its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. Mild steel has low carbon content (up to 0.3%) and is therefore neither extremely brittle nor ductile. It becomes malleable when heated, and so can be forged. It is also often used where large amounts of steel need to be formed, for example as structural steel. Density of this metal is 7,861.093 kg/m (0.284 lb/in), the tensile strength is a maximum of 500 MPa (72,500 psi) and it has a Young's modulus of 210 GPa.

5.2) Aluminum:Pure aluminum is a silvery-white metal with many desirable characteristics. It is light, nontoxic (as the metal), nonmagnetic and nonsparking.It is decorative. It is easily formed, machined, and cast. Alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements have very useful properties. Strength depends on purity. 99.996 per cent pure aluminium has a tensile strength of about 49 megapascals (MPa), rising to 700 MPa following alloying and suitable heat treatment. Although not found free in nature, Aluminum is an abundant element in the earth's crust. A key property is low density. Aluminum is only one-third the weight of steel. Aluminum and most of its alloys are highly resistant to most forms of corrosion. The metal's natural coating of aluminum oxide provides a highly effective barrier to the ravages of air, temperature, moisture and chemical attack.Aluminium is a superb conductor of electricity. This property

13
allied with other intrinsic qualities has ensured the replacement of copper by aluminum in many situations. Aluminum is non-magnetic and non-combustible, properties invaluable in advanced industries such as electronics or in offshore structures. Aluminum is non-toxic and impervious, qualities that have established its use in the food and packaging industries since the earliest times. Other valuable properties include high reflectivity, heat barrier properties and heat conduction. The metal is malleable and easily worked by the common manufacturing and shaping processes.

5.3) Grey cast iron: Silicon is essential to making of grey cast iron as opposed to white cast iron. When silicon is alloyed with ferrite and carbon in amounts of about 2 percent, the carbide of iron becomes unstable. Silicon causes the carbon to rapidly come out of solution as graphite, leaving a matrix of relatively pure, soft iron. Weak bonding between planes of graphite leads to a high activation energy for growth in that direction, resulting in thin, round flakes. This structure has several useful properties .The metal expands slightly on solidifying as the graphite precipitates, resulting in sharp castings. The graphite content also offers good corrosion resistance .Graphite acts as a lubricant, improving wear resistance. The exceptionally high speed of sound in graphite gives cast iron a much higher thermal conductivity. Since ferrite is so different in this respect (having heavier atoms, bonded much less tightly) phonons tend to scatter at the interface between the two materials. In practical terms, this means that cast iron tends to damp mechanical vibrations (including sound), which can help machinery to run more smoothly .All of the properties listed in the paragraph above ease the machining of grey cast iron. The sharp edges of graphite flakes also tend to concentrate stress, allowing cracks to form much more easily, so that material can be removed much more efficiently .Easier initiation of cracks can be a drawback once an item is finished, however: grey cast iron has less tensile strength and shock resistance than steel. It is also difficult to weld. Grey cast iron's high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are often exploited to make cast iron cookware and disc brake rotors.

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6) DETAILS OF PARTS:-

Part Base plate Angle Plate 2 Circular plate with boss

Dimension 10x10x16mm Length 7 25x25x3 mm 6x6x12mm

Material M.S M.S M.S

Operation Gas cutting Gas cutting ,arc welding Gas cutting Cutting ,Turning, arc welding ,drilling, Tapping Cutting ,arc welding ,drilling, tapping Cutting ,arc welding ,tapping, turning

200x7mm ,boss M.S 40x30mm,10mm hole, drill tap

Plate 3

3.5x7.5x10 mm

M.S

Flange with boss

Boss 25x22mm ,10 mm hole, drill tap ,flange 87x50x5mm

M.S

15

PRO-E MODELS:-

Fig.11 BASE PLATE WITH STAND

16

Fig. 12 MOTOR WITH PLATE -2

17

Fig.13 CIRCULAR PLATE WITH BOSS WITH PLATE-3 18

Fig. 14 FLANGE WITH BOSS

19

Fig.15 ASSEMBLY DRAWING 20

MODEL IMAGE 1

21

MODEL IMAGE 2

22