Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 43

. .

IV , 7 ,

, 2010 .

1
2
3

, , , .
, /// ,
ilyaraz@gmail.com mvsitov@gmail.com.

1.

3
4
5
6

2.

8
9

10

3.


1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. , . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

2
2
3
5
9


20
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

29

1. 01.09.2010

1.

1.1.

4
5
6

7
8
9
10
11

12
13
14

Z.

. , (b a) b a, b = 0, c , a = bc.
:



1 c b, b a c a,


2 b a b ac, c = 0,



3 b a1 , . . . , b an b a1 . . . an ,


4 b a1 , . . . , b an1 , b - an b - a1 . . . an ,



5 b a, c d bc ad.
b - a, .
1.1 ( ). a, b (b > 0) ,
q, r (0 6 r < b) , a = bq + r.
 : q , bq 6 a.
bq 6 a < b (q + 1),

0 6 a bq < b.

15
16

r := a bq, .
! : a = bq1 + r1 , 0 6 r1 < b. :
0 = b (q q1 ) + r r1 ,

(1)

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26

|r r1 | < b.

(1) , b r r1 , , r r1 = 0. r = r1 , q = q1 . 
. ,
. .
. (a, b).
. ,
. .
. [a, b].
1.2. a, b u, v , au + bv = (a, b).
 . .
.
M := {ax + by > 0, x, y Z}.
, M , M N. , min m =: d, d = au + bv u, v.
mM

27

,
d = (a, b). ,

1 d a:
a = u1 d + v1 ,
v1 = a u1 d = a u1 (au + bv) = ax1 + by1 M,
2

1
2
3
4
5

v1 < d d M ,
2 d b: ,


3 d1 a, d1 b d1 au + bv = d d1 6 d , d .
, d = (a, b) . 


1.1. c ab (c, a) = 1, c b.


2 a c:
au + cv = 1,

b,
abu + bcv = b.
6
7
8

c, , . 



1.2. b a, c a (b, c) = 1, bc a.


1.2.

10
11
12
13
14
15

. 

. , : 1 .

1.3.


1 p ab, p , p a p b.
2 p a1 . . . an , p , i : p ai .
3 p p1 . . . pn ,, p, pi , i : p = pi .
 1 p (a, p) = p (a, p) = 1. .
au + pv = 1,

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

abu + pbv = b,

p, , p b.
2
n.
3 2 p pi , p = pi . 
1.3 ( ). , 1,
,
.
 : , 1, n N.
( n). , , .
, ,
n.
! : .
a = p1 . . . pn = q 1 . . . q m .
3.3
k : p1 = q k .
, k = 1. .
,
1 = qn+1 . . . qm ,

26

n = m, .
.
M := {a N : a }.
3

, M . , M a = p1 . . . pn = q1 . . . qm ,
a i, j pi = qj .
a1 := (p1 q1 ) p2 . . . pn = q1 (q2 . . . qm p2 . . . pn ) < a.
:
p 1 q 1 = u 1 . . . us ,
q2 . . . qm p2 . . . pn = v1 . . . vr .
a1
a1 = u1 . . . us p2 . . . pn = q1 v1 . . . vr


, q1 = pk , k > 2 q1 = uj , q1 p1 =
u1 . . . us + q1 . a1 < a. a. 

2. 08.09.2010

4
5

1.4. a = p1 1 . . .pn n b = p1 1 . . .pn n (pi , i


i Z+ ) b a , 1 6 1 , . . . , n 6 n .

 . b a, c : a = bc, c = p1 1 . . . pn n .

Z+ ,

p1 1 . . . pn n = p1 1 +1 . . . pn n +n .

i = i + i > i , i = 1, . . . , n.
. :
a = b p1 1 1 . . . pn n n .

6
7
8


c := p1 1 1 . . . pn n n b a c. 
1.4. a = p1 1 . . . pn n b = p1 1 . . . pn n :
min (1 , 1 )
min (n , n )
1 (a, b) = p1
. . . pn
,
max (1 , 1 )

9
10

max (n , n )

2 [a, b] = p1
. . . pn
.

 1 (2
).

n
1
c = p1 . . . pn , c a, c b.
i 6 i , i 6 i , i = 1, . . . , n i 6 min (i , i ), i = 1, . . . , n.

11
12
13
14
15
16

, c i = min (i , i ), i =
1, . . . , n. c (a, b). 
1.5 (). .
 . : p1 , . . . , pn . p1 . . . pn + 1. pi ( pi 1), , .
.
. : p1 , . . . , pn .
:
n

1
1 p1k
k=1
, . ,
n
n

1
1
1
1
=
=
=
.
1
l

pk
p1 1 . . . pm m
n
1

+
p
m=0
n=1
k=1
k=1 l=0
k
i Z

17
18
19
20

, n
, ,
, . . 
4

1.3.


(x) := Card {p : p 6 x}.


, 1896
:
x
(x)
,
ln x
. :
1.6 ( ). C () a b ,
x > 2
a

x
x
< (x) < b
.
ln x
ln x

(x) :=
(x) :=

ln p,

p6x

ln p =

[ ln x ]
ln p

p6x

p, nN :
pn 6 x

ln p =

(n),

n6x

{
ln p, n = pk ;
(n) :=
0
.
4
5
6

(x) [1; x], (x)


[1; x] ,
.
.

[1, 2, . . . , x] = (1, 2, . . . , x) =
p p .
p6x

1.4,
,
[
]
ln x
.
p =
ln p
,
[1, 2, . . . , x] =

ln x
ln p

= e(x) .

p6x
7

(x).
1.7. L1 , L2 , L3 , l1 , l2 , l3 .
L1 = lim

x+

(x)
(x)
(x)
, L2 = lim
, L3 = lim
ln x,
x+ x
x+ x
x

l1 , l2 , l3 . :
L1 = L2 = L3 ,
l1 = l2 = l3 .
5

 Lj , lj .
,
0 6 lj 6 Lj 6 +.
1 :
ln x

[ ln x ]
ln p 6
ln p 6
ln p = ln x Card {p : p 6 x},
ln p
ln p
p6x
p6x
p6x

(x) 6 (x) 6 (x) ln x.
x,
L1 6 L2 6 L3 .
2 (0, 1). :

ln p >

p6x

(x) =

ln x = ln x ((x) (x )) >

ln p >

x 6 p 6 x

x 6 p 6 x

> ln x ((x) x ).
x,
(x) ln x
ln x
(x)
>
1 ,
x
x
x
, ,
L1 > L3 ,
, 1:
L1 > L3 .
2
3
4
5
6

1 , 2 . 
. , , , l := lj L := Lj (, ),
.
.
 1 ( )
2

2n

)
2n (

2n
k=0

(
>

2n
n

)
=

(n + 1) . . . 2n
>
n!

p.

n < p 6 2n

2n ln 2 >

ln p = (2n) (n).

n < p 6 2n

(2m ), (x).
(2m )
(2m ) =
m1
)
( )) m1
)
( (
(
k+1
=
2
2k
6
2k+1 ln 2 = ln 2 2 (2m 1) = 2 ln 2 (2m 1) 6
k=0

k=0

6 ln 2 2m+1 .
6

, x n , 2n1 6 x < 2n , :
(x) 6 (2n ) 6 2n+1 ln 2 = 4 ln 2 2n1 6 (4 ln 2) x.
,
L = lim

x+

(x)
6 4 ln 2.
x

2 ( )
1

( )n
1 ( )n
1
1
dx =
.
x (1 x) dx 6
4
4
n

0 < In =

xn (1

x)n

= a0 + a1 x + . . . + a2n x2n , ak Z\{0}

In = a0 +

a1
a2n
+ ... +
,
2
2n + 1

, In [1, 2, . . . , 2n + 1] N, , In [1, 2, . . . , 2n + 1] > 1. ,


( )n
1
(2n+1)
1 6 In [1, 2, . . . , 2n + 1] = In e
6
e(2n+1) .
4
,
(2n + 1) > n ln 4 = 2n ln 2,
(x)
)
( ([ x ]
)
)
([ x ]
)
(x
)
( [x]
1 = 2
1 +1 >2
1 ln 2 > 2
2 ln 2.
(x) > 2
2
2
2
2
,
(x)
> ln 2.
x+ x

l = lim
1 , 2

(x)
(x)
ln x 6 lim
ln x = L 6 4 ln 2,
x+
x
x+ x

ln 2 6 l = lim
2
3
4

, (x)
x ln x +;
, , ,
, . 
1.5. C , n > 2
[1, 2, . . . , n] = e(n) < eCn .
 ,
(x)
(x)
6 lim
6 4 ln 2,
x+
x
x+ x

ln 2 6 lim

, ,
C1 , C2 > 0 : n C1 <
5

(n)
< C2 .
n

. 
1.6. , n > 2
n ln n < pn < n ln n,
7

1
2

pn n- .

a

pn
pn
< (pn ) = n < b
.
ln pn
ln pn

(2)

ln a + ln pn ln ln pn < ln n < ln b + ln pn ln ln pn .

(3)

(2), (3):
)
(
)
(
ln ln pn ln b
ln ln pn ln a
< n ln n < bpn 1
.
apn 1
ln pn
ln pn
, , , , , ,
1
1
pn < n ln n < pn ,

. 
1.7.

1
, P , .
p

pP

.
1
p

1
1
1
1
1 1
> +
= +
pn
2
n ln n
2
n ln n

n=1

n=2

n=2

+

dx
= ln ln x
.
x ln x
2

().
. ,

1
1
1

pk
k=1
, ,

k=1

k=1

)
1
ln 1
,
pk

1
ln 1
pk

1
1
=
.
pk
p
p
k=1


3. 15.09.2010

1.4. ,

1
(s) =
,
ns

(4)

n=1

s C, s = + it, = Re s, t = Im s.
2
3
4
5
6
7

:
1 (4) > 1.
2 (4) { > 1 + }, > 0.
. ?
3 { > 1} (s) .
4 (4) { > 1}.

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16


1
= 1 .
ns n

1 , 2 ,
(, n1s { > 1} n N) ,
{ > 1}, (3 ),
(4 ). 
1.1. = 1 (s) .
, .
.
. f : N R (C), f 0 ,
f (m n) = f (m) f (n).


1.8. f (n), f (n) 6 1.
F (s) :=

f (n)
n=1

17
18

{ > 1}
1 (5) .
2

F (s) = F (s)

ns

f (n)(n)

ns

n=1
19

(5)

3 F (s) 0.
 1


f (n)
1


ns 6 n .
2 . F (s) , ,
F (s) =

f (n) ln n
n=1

ns


F (s)

f (n)(n)

ns

n=1

f (n) f (d)(d)
n=1

ns
=

ds

d=1

m=1

f (nd)
n=1 d=1

(nd)s

(d) =

(6)

f (m)
(d), m = nd.
ms
d|m

, , m = p1 1 . . . pk k d = p1 1 . . . pk k ,

(d) =

j
k

ln pj =

j=1 j =1

d|m

(6) =

j ln pj = ln m,

j=1

f (m)
ln m = F (s).
ms

m=1
2

3 : s0 : F (s0 ) = 0, Re s0 > 1; 1 6 ords0 F (s) = r < .

ords0 F (s) = r 1,
ords0 F (s)

f (n)(n)
n=1

ns

= ords0 F (s) + ords0

f (n)(n)
n=1

ns
{z

> r.

:


f (n)(n) ln n

<
,


ns
n
3
4

1 . 
f 1 ,
1.9. > 1 (s)

(s) (n)
=
.
(s)
ns
n=1

5
6

1.8. 0 { > 1}.


, .
1.10. f (n) , S =

f (n)

n=1

.
S=

n=1

7
8
9
10
11

f (n) =

(1 f (p))1 .
p

. , , .


 , f (n) 6 1. , : n > 1





f (n) > 1. f (nk ) = f (n) k > 1, , 0,
.
// ,
10


SN :=

(1 f (p))1 =

p6N




S SN =

n : p
p|n&p>N

f (p1 k1 . . . pn kn ) =

pj 6N,
ki > 0

p6N k=0

f (pk ) =

f (n).

n : p
p|np6N



N
f (n)
f (n) 6
0
n=N +1

. 
1.9 ( ). > 1
)
(
1 1
1 s
.
(s) =
p
p

2
3
4
5
6

1
.
ns
= 1.
, (s) { > 1} { > 0, s = 1}.
1.11 ( ). g : R C, g(x) C 1 [1; +)
{an }nN , an C. :


f (n) =

an g(n) = A(x)g(x)

Nn6 x
7

A(t)g (t) dt,

A(x) =

an .

A(0) = 0.
N

an g(n) =

n=1

N
1

(A(n) A(n 1))g(n) =

n=1

A(n)g(n)

n=1

N
1

A(m)g(m + 1) =

m=1

A(n)(g(n + 1) g(n)) + A(N )g(N ) = A(N )g(N )

n=1

N
1

n+1

N
1 n+1

n=1 n

A(t)g (t) dt = A(N )g(N )

g (t) dt =

A(n)

n=1

= A(N )g(N )

A(t)g (t) dt.

, N N : N 6 x < N + 1 (7) (8),

x
an g(n) = A(x)g(x) A(N )g(N )

N <n6x

N
x

0 = A(N )(g(x) g(N )) A(N )

A(t)g (t) dt

g (t) dt

0 = A(N )(g(x) g(N )) A(N )(g(x) g(N )) = 0.


8

(7)

n6 x

(8) , , (7). 

.
an g(n) A(t)g (t) dt lim A(x)g(x) = 0,
n=1

n=1

x+

an g(n) =
1

11

A(t)g (t) dt.

(8)

1
2
3

. (s), an 1, g(x) =
x
= xs . g (x) = sxs1 , A(x) = [x]. { > 1} A(x)g(x) = [x] xs 6 x1 0.

(s) = s

[t] t
1

s1

dt = s

dt s

{t} t

s1

1
dt = 1 +
s
s1

{t}
dt.
ts+1

(9)



{t}
{t}
1


dt

>
0

ts+1 6 t+1 . , ,
s+1
t
1
{ > 0} .

{t}
dt
=
ts+1

n+1

n=1 n

tn
dt
ts+1

(10)

> > 0
n+1

In (s) :=

tn
1
dt 6 s+1 .
s+1
t
n

, In (s).
n+1
n+1
t1s
ts
In (s) =
n
.
1 s n
s n
, > 0. , :
n+1
t1s
(n + 1)1s n1s
=
1 s n
1s
, s 0:
(n + 1)1s n1s
(n + 1)t nt
lim
= lim
s1
t0
1s
t
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

(n + 1)t ln(n + 1) nt ln(n)


lim
= ln
t0
1

n+1
n

, s = 1 , ,
In (s) { > 0}, (10) { > > 0}, ,
, { > 0}, , (9)
(s) { > 0} s = 1, , (9),
, 1.
. an 1, g(x) = (x +
+ N )s , N . g (x) = s(x + N )s1 , A(x) = [x].

12

RN (s) :=

n=N +1

1
1
=
=s
s
n
(N + k)s
k=1

[t] (t + N )

s1

[t] (t + N )s1 dt =

dt + s

|0

{z

0,
.. [t]=0 [0; 1]

=s

[t] (t + N )

s1

dt

t+N =x

=s

xs dx sN

= sN 1s

xs1 dx s

1
1
+ sN 1s
s
1s
s
(
= N 1s s

1
s(s 1)

[x N ] x

ds = s (x N {x})xs1 dx =

xs
x1s
s1
sN
{x} x
dx = s
s {x} xs1 dx =
1 s N
s N

{x} xs1 dx = N 1s s

{x} xs1 dx =

1
1
+
s 1 s

N 1s
s
s1

s
N

(11)

N = 1 .
4. 22.09.2010

N

N
N
1
dx
N 1 1
1


.
6
1
+
=
1
+
6



ns
n
x
1
n=1

{x} xs1 dx =

{x} xs1 dx.

1
N 1s
(s) =
s {x} xs1 dx,
+
ns
s1
n=1

s1

> 1

n=1

1


1

(s) 6 1 + 1 N
61+
=
,
1
1
1

1.
2 1 6 , (0; 1)


N

1
N 1 1
N

61+
= C() N = O(N ).

61+
s

n
1

n=1

5
6
7

1.12. D := {1 6 6 2, |t| > 3} (s), (s) O(|t| ).


 (s). > 0 (11).
[ ]
{1 6 6 3, |t| > 2}, , . N := t .
1


N

t
1

=
O(N
)
=
C
N
6
C
|t|
.


1
1

ns
n=1

3
2 |1 s| = |(1 ) it| = (1 )2 + t2 > 0 + 4 = 2,
1
2
1s
1

N

N
|t|
-3


1 s 6 |1 s| 6 2 .
13

3 |t| 1 < N 6 |t|,


{ }




x
dx
1 |t| + 3
x1
N N 1
2
s

dx
6
t
+
9
6
(|t|
+
3)
=
(|t|
+
3)
6
|t| 6 C2 |t| .



s+1
2
x
x

1
1

|t|

1


N
N

1 3 .
(s) :

1
(s) =
2i

|ts|=

1
| (s)| 6
2

(t)
dt,
(t s)2

1 C1 (|t| + )
6 C2 |t| .
2
2

(s)
(s)
.
1.13. 0 < r < 1, R


M := (1 r)3 (1 rei )4 (1 re2i ) 6 1.





(
)
ln M = 3 ln (1 r) + 4 ln 1 rei + ln 1 re2i = Re 3 ln (1 r) + 4 ln (1 rei ) + ln (1 re2i ) =
)
(

rn (
)
rn
in
2in
3 + 4e
+e
=
(3 + 4 cos n + cos 2n) =
= Re
n
n
n=1

n=1

rn
n=1

2(1 + cos n)2 6 0.

, . 

1.14. > 1, t R


A := 3 () 4 ( + it)( + 2it) > 1.


r :=

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

(s).

) (
)4 (
) 1
(
1 3
1
1

A=
1 +it
1 +2it .
1


p
p
p
p
1
p ,

ei := pit , .. := t ln p, . 

1.15. > 1 (s) = 0.


 > 1 : (s) =
.
= 1 .
, (1 + it) = 0. , 1 < < 2.
2

6 1
.
1 0 < () < 1

2 (s) (1; 2) |( + 2it)| 6 C1 .


= lim (+it)
3 (s) = ?2 , , lim (+it)(1+it)
1
1 , ,
|( + it)| 6 C2 | 1|.
1
2

1+0

1+0

?
(s)?

14

0, A = 0 > 1



(+it)
1 6 C2 , ..

(

)3


2
1+0


4
A=
C2 ( 1) C1 = C3 | 1| 0 > 1.
1

. 

1.16. D := {1 6 6 2, |t| > 3}

3
4

(s)
(s)

O(|t| ).

 D1 , D2 = 1 + |t| ,
.
1 s D1 . , |( + 2it)| 6 C1 |t|/5 .

t
D1
3

3/4

1/4

|(s)| = |( + it)| > ()


|( + 2it)|
>
)3/4 (
(
)
1/4
2
/5
f1 3/4 |t|4/5 .
>
C
|t|
=C
1
|t|
5
6

D2
1

-3
D2
D1

2 + it = s D2 . 0 (t) := 1 + |t| , s0 (t) := 0 (t) + it.



0


(x+it) dx = (0 +it)(+it). , (x + it) dx 6

f2 |t| |t|/5 = C
f2 |t|4/5 .
6 (0 )C2 |t|/5 6 C



0



f1 3/4 |t|4/5 C
f2 |t|4/5 =

|(s)| = |( + it)| > |(0 + it)| (x + it) dx > C

(
)
3/4 f
f2 1/4 |t|4/5 .
=
C1 C
0

t
s

s0

3
1

f1 C
f2 1/4 > 0. D
: C
|(s)| > C3 |t|4/5 .


/5
(s)


6 C4 |t|
(s) C |t|4/5 = C|t| .
3


5. 29.09.2010

(s) =

1
, s = + it
ns

n=1

> 1

> 1

(s)
= O( t)
(s)

(s) (n)

=
(s)
ns
n=1

{
ln p, n = pk
(n) =
0,
e
2, 3.

15

(x) =

(n)

n6x

(x)
lim

x+

,
(x)

x
ln x ,

(x) ln x
= 1.
x

x
(x) x, x +,
ln x

x
(x) =

(t)
dt
t

1
1
2

1.17. (x) x, (x) x.


. , .
 u > v > 1
u

(t)
dt = (u) (v) = u v + o(u) + o(v).
t

3
4
5
6
7
8

: (u v) (v)
u 6

dt 6 (u v) (u)
v .

:
(x)
1 v = x, u = (1 + )x, x (1+)x
6 x + o(x), (x) 6 (1 + )x + o(x),
x1 , x > x1 (x) 6 (1 + 2)x.
(x)
2 u = x, v = (1 )x : x + o(x) 6 x (1)x
,

1 , x > x2 (x) > (1 2)x.


, x > max (x1 , x2 )
1 2 6

u (t)

(x)
6 1 + 2,
x

. 
1.18. (x)

x
(x) =
(n) ln .
n
n6x

10

 ( 1.11).
an = (n), g(t) = ln xt = ln x ln t, A(x) = (x),

x
x
(n) ln = (x) ln
n
x
n6x
11

1
(t)
t

x
dt =
1

. 
1.19. a > 0, b > 0
1
I=
2i

a+i

bs
dx =
s2

ai
12

16

{
ln b,
0,

b>1
0<b<1

(t)
dt,
t

1
2
3
4
5

s
b
ba
 , 2 6 2
.
s
a + t2
I a iu a + iu,
, .

1 b > 1. u2 + a2 ,
Re z = a.
:
s
bs
1 + s ln b + . . .
1
b
I0 (u) =
ds
=
res
= res
= ln b.
2
2
s=0 s
s=0
2i
s
s2
u
(u)

a
a+iu

1
bs
1
bs
ds
+
ds,
I0 (u) =
2
2i
s
2i
s2
aiu
1 (u)
|
{z
} |
{z
}
I1 (u)

6
7

8
9

I2 (u)

. 1.
b>1

1 .
u
, I1 (u) I.
, :

2 a2 + u2 ba
u
|I2 (u)| 6
0.
2
a2 + u2
2 0 < b < 1 ,
.
, , ,
s
1
b

I0 (u) =
ds = 0.
2i
s2

u
a

(u)

1 )
(
a+iu

1
I0 (u) =
2i

bs
1
ds +
2
s
2i

aiu
10

bs
ds,
s2

. 2.
0<b<1

1 (u)

I, 0. 
1.20. (x) x > 2
1
(x) =
2i

2+i
(

(s)

(s)

xs
ds.
s2

2i
11
12
13
14

. (x) (x)
s , ,
, , ,
, .
 :
1
I=
2i

2+i
(

2i

n=1

(n)
ns

xs
ds
s2

n=1

1
(n)
2i

2+i

2i

17

( nx )s
ds
s2

II

n6x

(n) ln

x
= (x).
n

2
3
4

I II.
1 I , ,



(s) x2 C tx2


(s) s2 6 t2 + 4 ,
4 .

. t2 + 4,
.
2 II. N > x :

n=1

1
(n)
2i

2+i

2i

( nx )s
ds
=
.
.
.
+
...
s2
n=1
n=N +1
| {z }

1.19

(x) + RN (s).

RN (s)
n

, RN (s) 0.

: RN (s) =

1
|RN (s)| 6
2
6
7
8
9
10
11

ln n
n2

1
2i

n=N +1

2+i

n=N +1

2i

)
(n)
ns

xs
s2

ds,

dt
ln n N
= x
x2
0.
2
t +4
2 2
n2
n=N +1


, (x) x. , (x) < Cx2 (Cx1+ ,
1) (x) < x ln2 x.
, Re s = 1. (, T ), T, T > 0 , 0 < < 1,
.
1.21. (s) = 0,
(x) = x(1 + R(x))

1
R(x) =
2i

(s)

(s)

(, T )
T

xs1
ds.
s2

(,T )
12
13


u 0 (, T, u).
( ) s
( ) s

(s) x
1
(s) x ()

I0 (u) :=
ds = res
x
2
s=1
2i
(s) s
(s) s2

0 (,T,u)

, ( (9)), (s) (s) =


1
= s1
+ f (s), f > 0,
(s)
1/(s 1)2 + f (s)
1 1 (s 1)2 f (s)

=
=
,
(s)
1/(s 1) + f (s)
s 1 1 + (s 1)f (s)
s1

14
15

f (s) 15 , ,
s = 1, ().
4
5

?
, , - .

18

0 (, T, u)

u
T

T
u

, u :


2iu

( ) s
1

x2 u
(s) x
1

1 c u 2 0.

ds 6
2i
2
(s) s
u

2
1iu

, lim I0 (u) = x = (x) xR(x). 

1.22 ( ).
lim

x+

(x) ln(x)
=1
x

I1

R(x) = I1 (x) + I2 (x) + I3 (x) + I4 (x) + I5 (x).

T > 3. I1 (x) =

, lim R(x) = 0.

I2

x+

|xs1 |

|xit |

=
=
+

1
c t
|I1 (x)| 6
1 dt <
2
1 + t2

I3
1
2i

1+i
(
1+iT

1,

(s)
(s)

xs1
s2

ds.

I4

I5

, T > T0 ().
5

T
6
7
8
9

|I5 (x)| < /5.


, f 0.
{ = 1} .
,


(s) 1


(s) s2 6 M.
. I2 (x) =

1
2i


1
|I2 (x)| 6
2

1
M x1 d =

. I3 (x) =
|I3 (x)| 6
11

+iT

(s)
(s)

xs1
s2

ds. . 3.

1 M x
0.
2 ln x

, |I2 (x)| < /5, |I4 (x)| < /5 x > x1 ().

10

1+iT
(

1
2i

+iT
(
iT

(s)
(s)

xs 1
s2

ds,

1
M 2T x1 < /5
2

x > x2 (), 1 < 0.


, x > max(x1 (), x2 ()) T > T0 ()
|R(x)| < .

12
13


1.10. n Pn n ln n.
6. 06.09.2010

14

19

(x) : li(x) =

x
2

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

dt
ln t .

li(x)
x+ x/ ln x

: lim

1. : 1. , (s) = 0 > 1
c1 (ln x)3/5 < (lnxx)c

c
ln t .

(1959): R(x) < xe


. //
1
, (s)
= 1/2
:
1.11. pn n ln n
 (pn ) = n = lnppnn (1 + o(1)). , : ln n = ln pn ln ln pn + ln(1 + o(1).
: n ln n = lnppnn (1 + o(1))(ln pn ln ln pn + ln(1 + o(1))) pn 
ln[1, 2, ..., n] = (n) n
[1, 2, ..., n] = en(1+o(1))
, (x) li(x) , ,
(x) < li(x) (?).
-
, . , , . ,
, .

17

18

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

2.
mx + a, (a, m) = 1 1839
. , p = a(
mod m).

a = b (mod m) m|a b
1) a = b (mod m) b = a (mod m)
2) (1) a + c = b + c (mod m)
3) (1) ac = bc (mod m)
4) a = b (mod m), c = d (mod m) a + c = b + d( mod m), ac = bc = bd (mod m)
5) ac = bc (mod m), (c, m) = 1 a = b (mod m)
m|c(a b) m|a b
a = b (mod m) ac = bc (mod mc)
: an xn + ... + a0 = 0 (mod m),
m x = x0 (mod m).
an xn + ... + a0 = 0 mod p n . m ,
: x2 = 1 (mod 8), 1, 3, 5, 7 (mod 8).
ax = b (mod m), (a, m) = 1
2.1. .
 u, v Z : au + mv = 1 au = 1 mod m, a bu = b mod m, .. x = bu mod m .
, : ax1 = b(m), ax2 = b(m) a(x2 x1 ) = 0(m). (a, m) = 1 (5))x2 =
x1 (m). 
m > 2 . Z/mZ = {a : a + mt, t Z}
a + b = a + b, a b = a b
m , , : m = m1 m2 m1 m2 = 0.
Zm = (Z/mZ) = {a : a + mt, t Z, (a, m) = 1}. , .
2.2. Zm .
 1) (a, m) = 1, b = a(m) (b, m) = 1. p|b, p|m, p|a.
2) (a, m) = 1, (b, m) = 1 (ab, m) = 1. p|ab, p|m, , p|a p|b.
3) 1 : a 1 = a.

20

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

, ax = 1(m) . x0 , x0 = a1 ,
. . 
(m) = |{1 6 x 6 m : (x, m) = 1}.
, |Zm | = (m). a Zm : a(m) = 1.
2.3 (). a Z(a, m) = 1 a(m) = 1 ( mod m)
2.4 ( ). p = a : ap1 = 1 ( mod m)
(p) = p 1.a Zap = a ( mod p)
2.5. p|a2 + b2 , (a, b) = 1 p = 4n + 1
p1

9
10
11
12
13
14

 p = a, p = b, .. (a, b) = 1. a2 = b2 (p). , ap1 = (1) 2 bp1 (p) 1 =


p1
p1
(1) 2 (p). p > 3, (1) 2 = 1, p1
2 = 2n p = 4n + 1 
1) 4n 1, n = 1, 2, ... .
 : p1 , ..., pm . 4p1 ...pm 1 = q1 ...qs . , qj
4k 1, .. 4k + 1, . ,
: , . 

19

. 6n 1 .
2) 4n + 1, n = 1, 2, ... .
 : p1 , ..., pm . (2p1 ...pm )2 + 12 = q1 ...qs . q1 , ..., qs ,
, , q1 = 4n1 + 1 = pk , : ,
. 

20

7. 13.10.2010

15
16
17
18

2.1.

21

22
23
24

25

f : N C, f 0. f , f (nm) =
f (n)f (m) n m. f , f (nm) = f (n)f (m)
n m.

{

0,
p2 n,
(n) =
(1)k , n = p1 p2 . . . pk .
, , .
f F :

F (n) =
f (d).

d n
,
F (n) =

(1 + f (pj ) + . . . + f (pj j )),

j=1
26

n = pk11 . . . pks s .
,

{
1, n = 1,
(d) =

0, .
d n


d n

(d)/d =

(1 1/p).

p n

21

2.6 ( ). f F :

f (n) =
(d) F (n/d).


d n



d n

1
2
3
4
5

(d) F (n/d) =

(d)

11
12
13

(1 1/p)

p n

(n) =
(d)n/d = n
(1 1/p).


d n
p n


, , ((4) = (2)(2)).
, ((1) + . . . + (n))/n 3n/ 2 .

2.2.

10

(d) f (d1 ) =

: (n) = #{k | k 6 n, (k, n) = 1}. , (p) = p 1, (8) = 4.


(n). .
#{k |
k 6 n, (k, n) = d}? , (n/d). , n =
(n/d) =
d n

(d).
d n

(n) = n

f (d1 ) =




d n
d1 n/d
dd1 n

=
f (d1 )
(d) = f (n)




d1 n
d n/d1

2.7.

G ( (sic!)), |G| = h.
. G (C, ).
: 1 .
:

14

1. (e) = 1 ;

15

2. (g)ord(g) = 1 ; , ;

16

3. , (g)h = 1;

17

4. (g 1 ) = 1/(g).
:
G = G1 G2 . . . Gn ,

18
19
20
21
22

Gi . , Gi gi hi . , g g = g1r1 . . . gnrn , 0 6 ri < hi .


1 , . . . , n h1 , . . . , hn . (g) = 1r1 . . . nrn .
2.8. , . ,
.
22

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11


2.9. g = g1k1 . . . gnkn , ki Z, (g) = 1k1 . . . nkn .
 , gihi = e, ihi = 1. 
, .
h
? , , gj j = e, ,
j := (gj ) hj .
, , . 
, h1 . . . hn = h, ,
.
2.10. G g = e. , (g) = 1 (
, , ).
 g :
g = g1r1 . . . gnrn .

12
13
14
15
16

, , 0 < r1 < h1 . 1 = e2i/h1 , j = 1 j > 1.


(g) = e2ir1 /h1 = 1. 
, ,
. .
.
2.11.
{

|G|, ,
S :=
(g) =
0,
.
gG
2.12.
:=

{
|G|,
(g) =
0,

g = e,
.

24

 .

. , g1 ,
(g1 ) = 1. (g1 )S = gG (gg1 ) = gG (g) = S. , S = 0.
. g = e, , (g) =
1. , , , , (g) = ,
, = 0. 
2.8 :
2.1. G .

25

8. 20.10.2010

17
18
19
20
21
22
23

26

27
28
29

Z C. Zm , Zm .
.
. : Z C ,

30

1. x y (mod m), (x) = (y),

31

2. (xy) = (x)(y),

32

3. (x) = 0 , (x, m) = 1.

23


0 (x) = I{(x, m) = 1},
1
2

.
, , .
2.13.
{
m

(m), = 0 ,
(x) =
0,
= 0 .
x=1
2.14.

{
(m),
(a) =
0,

a1
a 1

(mod m),
(mod m).

m = 6. Z6 = {1, 5}, 52 1 (mod 6), Z6 Z2 . , (1) = 1,


(5) {1, 1}. : m = 8. Z8 = {1, 3, 5, 7}, 1. ,
Z8 Z2 Z2 ( 3 5). , 4 ((3), (5)
{1, 1}).

L-

3
4
5

m N, m > 1, m.
L(s, ) =

(n)
n=1

ns

11

:= Re s, t := Im s.
- L-.
2.15.

12

L(s, ) = 0 > 1,

9
10

L (s, ) (n)(n)
=
,
L(s, )
ns
n=1

{
ln p,
(n) =
0,

13
14
15
16

, L(s, ) > 1, > 1 + .


:
2.16. L(s, )
> 1.
2.17.
(k)

(s, ) =

(1)k (ln n)k (n)

ns

n=1

2.18.
L(s, ) =

(
p

17
18

n = pk ,
.

(p)
1 s
p

> 1.
L- = 0 .
24

)1

2.19.
L(s, 0 ) =

(

p m

1
1 s
p

3
4

= (s)

p m

1
1 s
p

> 1.
L( , 0 ) > 0:
L(s, 0 ) =

)1

am
+ fm (s),
s1

)
(
(m)
1
1

p = m , fm ( ) > 0.
p m
= 0 , L( , ) > 0, .
:

am =

an
n=1

ns

(1)





2.20. N
a
n=1 n 6 C.
D(, ) = {Re s = > > 0, | arg s| < < /2}.
5

1. D(, ) (1) .

2. > 0 .
 .
:

an+k
RN (s) =
.
(n + k)s
k=1

an+k 2C, limx A(x)ns = 0, A(x) =

k6x an+k . , . :
+

RN (s) = s
A(t)(t + N )s1 dt.
1

. D(, ).

+
+



|s|
1
s1
s
2C(t + N )1 dt 2C (N + 1) 6 2C
A(t)(t + N )
dt |s|
(N + 1) = o(1)

cos

7
8
9
10

11
12

13
14

s.
, > 0 . s > 0
D(, ) s. , . 
2.21.
1. (1) s = s0 , {Re s > Re s0 },
.
2. 0 [, ] , Re s > 0 (1) , Re s < 0 .
25

an
n=1

1
2

ns

an /ns0

n=1

nss0

s0 , , .
N
n=1 an /n
. 
, an .
:

(n)
,
ns
n=1

3
4
5

= 0 .
2.22. > 0 , .
 .
N





(n)

6 m,


n=1

nZm (n) = 0. 

(n)
n=1

ns

> 1. , 1/(s).
,

(n)
1
(s)
=

(d) = 1.
s
n
ms
n=1
m=1
d m
9. 27.10.2010

9
10
11

s
2.23. f (s) =
n an /n > 2 , f > 1 ,
1 < 2 R, an . f > 1 .
 1 < < 2 < 0 R. 0 ,
0 1 :

f (k) (0 )
f () =
( 0 )k .
k!
k=0

0 f , :
f

(k)

(0 ) =

an ( ln n)k
n=1

n 0

:
f () =

(0 )k

k!

k=0 n=1

an (ln n)k
.
n0

an 0, , :
f () =

an
.
n

n=1

26

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

, f . , f
{Re z > }. 
L- .
.
2.24. = 0 L(1, ) = 0.
 . , ((n) {1, 0, 1}),
( 2 = 0 ).
2.25. = 0 , f (s) = (s)L(s, ).
1. > 1 f (s) .

10

2. an .

11

3. an2 1.

12

4. s = 1/2.


1 (d) an
f (s) =

=
,
ks
ds
ns
k=1

an =

13
14
15
16
17


d n

(d) =

d=1

n=1

(1 + (pj ) + . . . + (pj )kj ),

j=1

n = pk11 . . . pkr r . , . ,
.
pj 1, kj + 1, (pj ) = 0, 1, 1 0
kj .
.
.

an2
1
= +.

21/2
n
n
n=1
n=1

18


. , L(1, ) =
1
0. L(s, ) = (s 1)g(s), g > 0. , (s) = s1
+ h(s), f > 0. , ,
f (s) = (s)L(s, ) = g(s) + (s 1)h(s)g(s)

19
20
21
22

> 0. > 1,
?? > 0,
1/2. .
: 2 = 0 (, 2 ).
2.26. > 1. :
A := |L3 (, 0 )L4 (, )L(, 2 )| 1.



|(1 r)3 (1 rei )4 (1 re2i )| 1

23

0 < r < 1, R.
27

> 1
L(s, ) =

(
p

,
A=

p-n

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

(p)
1 s
p

)1
.

(p)
2 (p)
1
|(1 )3 (1 )4 (1 )|1
p
p
p

A 1, r := 1/p . 
. , L(1, ) = 0. 0 < L(, 0 ) < () <

2
1 . 1 < 2, 0 < L(, 0 ) < 1 .
L(s, 2 ) > 0 (2 = 0 ), |L(, 2 )| 1 < 2.
L (1, ) = lim1+0 L(,)
1 . , |L(1, )/( 1)| 1 < 2.
, , 1 A C( 1) C. (
1 + 0). 
2.27 (). m, l N, (m, l) = 1, m > 1.
mx + l, x N.
 m. lu 1 (mod m)
.
(
)
(
)
(
)

L (s, )
L (s, 0 )
L (s, )
g(s) =
(u)
= 0 (u)
+
(u)
L(s, )
L(s, 0 )
L(s, )

=0

0 (u) = 1, > 0 L(s, 0 ) =

am
s1

+ fm (s), fm . :

10
11
12

13
14
15
16

1
L (s, 0 )
=
+ f (s),
L(s, 0 )
s1

f s = 1.
s = 1, L(s, ) = 0
= 0 .
:
1
g(s) =
+ h(s),
s1
h s = 1.
, g(s) s (1, 2].
mx + l . , , g
s (1, 2].
g(s) =

(u)

(n)(n)
n=1

ns

(n)
n=1

ns

(nu) = (m)

(n)
n=1

ns

I{n l

(mod m)}.

: n .

g(s) = (m)
pl

Rm (s).
0 < Rm (s) = (m)

(mod m)

p pk l
17
18

ln p
+ Rm (s)
ps

(mod m),k2

ln p
= O(1).
pks

, , g(s) s (1, 2]. !



28

2
3

2.29.
x).

ln p
pl (mod m) p = +.
x
(m, l, x) (m)ln
x ((m, l, x)

2.28.

10. 03.11.2010

3.

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

. C ,
, .
. , .
: , .
, , ,
, . , (, 1872).
1844 . 1873 ,
e . 1882 .
. xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 Q[x], , n , .
3.1. .
 , .
, . . 
.

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

.
: (x 1 ) . . . (x n ).
. 1 , . . . , n .


3.2. , A , B() = 0. A B.
 B A : B = AQ + R. , , R() = 0,
R A. , R . 
3.3. 0 = A Q[x], A() = 0, xn . , A , A Q.
 . A , -.
. A0 . A A0 , A ,
, A = A0 . 
3.4. 1 , . . . , n , i .
3.5. .
 , , . 
.
. A = an xn + . . . + a0 , A () = 0, ak Z, an > 0, ak .
.
. ,
.
. A Z[x]. A , .
3.6 (). .
 A B . C = AB = cm+n xm+n + . . . + c1 x + c0 . , C
. , ? , ,
29

1
2
3
4
5
6

7
8

, . p.
s ,
p - as , ,
t , p - bt . , p - cs+t .
, cs+t = k+l=s+t ak bl = as bt + k+l=s+t,(k,l)=(s,t) ak bl . p,
. . 
3.7. - C (
cn = 1), ( ZA ).
 A Q[x] . C = AB, B Q[x]. A
B :
u
C = A B ,
v

A B , u, v N. , u = v = 1, ,
A = A . , ZA . 

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

3.8. A, = /, , ZA .
 A = an xn + . . . . 0 = an1
n A() = B(an ). , an ZA .

3.9. A , ZA .
 , A = 0, 1/ A. ,
.
A Q[x], B Q[x], deg A = n, deg B = m. ,
Q[x]. Q,
k l , k, l > 0, k, l Z. mn, n
m . 1, , . . . , ()mn . mn + 1, ,
: cmn ()mn + . . . + c0 = 0. , .
, + .
, .
, A .
. K . P (x1 , . . . , xn ) K[x1 , . . . , xn ]. P (x1 , . . . , xn ) = S(1 , . . . , n ), i
, S K[. . .].
, . :
.
3.10. 1 , . . . , m n1 , . . . , nm . j
j .

32

1. P (x, 1 , . . . , m ) Q[. . .],


. P R(x) Q[x].

33

2. i ZA , P Z[. . .], R Z[x].

31

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

 A Q[x] i . j (1 , . . . , n ) ,
A Z[x], j (1 , . . . , n ) Z.
1. m. m = 1, P
.
. P (x, 1 , . . . , m ) = S(m ), S x, . . . , m1 .
S(m ) = T (m1 , . . . , mnm ) = V (x, 1 , . . . , m1 ) Q[x].
2 . 
, , A, + ,
A. 1 , . . . , n ,

1 , . . . , m . ni=1 m
j=1 (x (i + j )). +
, i j . ,
. .
30

1
2
3
4

. 
A = xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 , ai A. A() = 0. ,
A.
3.11. A .


(1)

(mj )

aj , . . . , aj

aj .

B(x) =

m0

j0 =1

mn1

...

(j

(j )

n1
xn + an1
xn1 + . . . + a0 0

jn1 =1

B() = 0 . , . 
, A Q.

11. 10.11.2010

5
6

R. , . f (q) 0,





p < f (q),

q
9
10
11

12

13

q, p Z, q N.
3.12 (). R. x N





1
1. pq < xq

p
q

2. 1 6 q 6 x
 {t}, t {0, . . . , x}. [0, 1) x .
x + 1, , .
|{t2 } {t1 }| < 1/x
|(t2 t1 ) ([t2 ] [t1 ])| < 1/x

14

15

16
17
18
19

t2 t1 =: q, [t2 ] [t1 ] =: p. , . 
3.13. R \ Q, pq ,
:




p
< 1 .

q q2




1
 . pq < xq
6 q12 . ,




1
6 x1 ,
. . pq < xq
, ,
/ Q, , ,
. 
: ?
3.14 ( ). R \ Q, pq , :



20


p
1
< .
q q2 5

3.15. .
31

- . , , :
3.16. f (q) > 0 R ,



p

0 < < f (q)
q

2
3
4

(p, q).

nk . n = 1. n , . . . , n

0
0
m , |
k=0 10
n
pk /qk | < f (qk ), qk = 10 k , k 6 m.
nm ,
0 < pm /qm 6

10nk 6

k=m+1
5
6
7
8

2
10nm+1

< f (10nm ).


, . , ,
f

.


3.17. 2 pq > 4q12 .
3.18 (). RA n > 2 ().
C = C() > 0 , p/q




p
> C .

q qn

9
10
11

 : A(x) = an xn + . . . + a0 Z[x]. A(p/q).


, , , A . q n A(p/q) Z, |q n A(p/q)| > 1.
, | p/q| 6 1 ( , C < 1).
1/q n 6 |A(p/q)| = |A() A(p/q)| = |A ()| | p/q|,

12
13
14

15
16
17
18
19
20
21

p/q. , [ 1, + 1].
. , . 
.
. R , m N



1
p

0 < < m
q
q
.
3.19. .
 . 
3.20. .
 , ,
.
f voil`a.

: = n 10n! . 
3.21 ( ). > 0
C = C(, ) > 0 ,




p > C .

q q 2+
3.22 (). m > 2 . R ,





p
< 1

q qm
32

, .

3.23 (). f (q) , . q f


(q) < , | p/q| < f (q)/q
. q f (q) = , | p/q| < f (q)/q
.

12. 17.11.2010

2
3
4

3.24 (). > 0.




{
}


1
M = R | pq < q2+
.
7
8
9
10

11
12
13

M .
 , M [0, 1] (,
). M := M [0, {
1].



p
1
Q. MQ := R | q < q2+
q > Q
(
)
1
1
, M MQ Q. MQ , pq q2+
, pq + q2+
=: I(p, q). ,
q
MQ q=Q p=0 I(p, q).
MQ .
q

2
4
(MQ ) 6
6
,
2+
1+
q
q
q=Q p=0

14
15
16
17

q=Q

Q . , (M ) 6 limQ (MQ ) = 0. 
. , , , .
3.25. e .


1
e=
k!
k=0

, e = m/n. n!e N.
n

1
n!e = n!
+ Rn .
k!
k=0

0 < Rn =
18
19

1
1
1
1
1
+
+ ... <
+
+ ... = 6 1
n + 1 (n + 1)(n + 2)
n + 1 (n + 1)2
n

. 
3.26. e .
 f (x) Q[x].

M=

f (x)ex dx.

(n) =

xn1 ex dx = (n 1)!.

k.
+

M=
f (x)ex dx +
k

f (x)ex dx =: Ik +

33

f (x)ex dx.

Ik = e

f (y + k)ey dy

Mk :=

f (x + k)ex dx,

,
M0 ek Mk = k ,

k = e

f (x)ex dx.

, e .
an em + . . . + a0 = 0,
1

ak Z, am , a0 = 0.
M0

ak e
k

k=0
2

ak Mk =

k=0

ak Mk =

k=0

5
6

ak k

k=0

f ( ).
f (x) =

ak k

k=0

.
m

1
xn1 ((x 1) . . . (x m))n ,
(n 1)!

n .
m

: , m
k=0 ak k
k=0 ak Mk ,
.
f (x) =

1
((1)mn (m!)n xn1 + Bn xn + . . . + BN xN )
(n 1)!

M0 =

f (x)ex dx = (1)mn (m!)n + A0 n.

f (x + k)(n 1)! xn
,
Mk n(= Ak n).
,

ak Mk

k=0
7
8
9
10
11

k 0 n , m

k=0 ak k 0, , n ,

a
M
. n a0 m!. m
k=0 k k = 0. 
.
3.27. .


In =

f (x) sin xdx,


0

34

1
2
3
4

f Q[x]. F (x) = f (x) f (x) + f (4) (x) . . .. f (x) sin x


F (x) sin x F (x) cos x. I = F (0) + F (). f (x) = f ( x), F (0) = F () I = 2F (0).
1 n
1
= a/b, a, b N. fn (x) = n!
x ( x)n bn = n!
gn (x), gn Z[x].
1 n
n
n
In = n! 0 x ( x) b sin xdx. :

1. In > 0,

2. In 0 n ,

3. In Z.

, . In = 2

k=0 (1)

k f (2k) (0)

= 2

2k>n (1)

k f (2k) (0).

(l)
gn (x)/n!

12

,
Z[x] l > n. In Z. , . . 
. , A e .

13

13. 24.11.2010

9
10
11

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

22

3.28. ( )
1 , ..., m A, j = degj
A(x1 , ..., xm ) Z[x1 , ..., xm ]:
1) A(1 , ..., m ) = 0
2) C = C(1 , ..., m ):
|A(1 , ..., m )| > C d L11 ...m )
?

A(x1 , ..., xm ) =
Ak1 ,...,km xk11 ...xkmm ,
k1 ,...,km ,k1 +...+km 6d

d = degA, L : L =
|Ak1 ,...,km |
k1 ,...,km

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

. ? :
A(x) = qx p, |q p| > C 1 (q + |p|)1n (>)
, |q p| 6 q ( )
|p| 6 q(|| + 1)
(>)C 1 (|| + 1)1n q 1n , C 1 (|| + 1)1n := C

3.29. 1 , ..., m A a N : a(1 ...m ) ZA
 , ,
, . 
3.30. ad A(1 , ..., m ) ZA
 .
1 , ...m A a N : aj ZA
j aj N : aj j ZA
km =
(a1 ...am )j = (aj j ) a1 ...abj ...am ad Ak1 ,...,km 1k1 ...m
= Ak1 ,...,km (a1 )k1 ...(am )km adk1 ...km 
(ej )

38

39

3.31. |ad A(1 1 ...mm )| 6 C1d L

40

41
42

j .
(e )

(e )

(e )

(ej )

(e )

|ad Ak1 ,...,km ((1 1 )k1 ...(mm )km )| 6 |Ak1 ,...,km | ad ( max (1, j
j=1,...m;
ej =1,...,j

3.32. :
1

(e )
(e )
P (x) =
...
(x ad A(1 1 , ..., mm )) Q[x]
e1 =1

em =1

35

))d = C1d |Ak1 ,...,km | 

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

 . . 
:
= ad A(1 , ..., m ) ZA
1 = , 2 , ..., m .
B(x)|P (x) : B(x) = (x 1 ) ... (x n ) =
= xn + bn1 xn1 + ... + b0 Z[x]
|b0 | = |1 ... n | = 0 1
1 6 |b0 | = |1 | |2 ...n | 6 ad |A(1 , ..., m )| (C1d L)n1 , n 6 1 ...m .
)d L1(1 ...m ) . 
|A(1 , ..., m )| > (acn1
1
.
.
(1921)
: aij Z,
max |aij | = A N, p < q.

a11 x1 + ... + a1q xq = 0


...

ap1 x1 + ... + apq xq = 0

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

( , )
x1 , ..., xq , xj Z :
p
0 < max |xj | < 1 + (qA) qp
 :
q
Z Zp
x = (x1 , ..., xq ) L(x) = {L1 (x), ..., Lp (x)}
Lj (x) = aj1 x1 + ... + ajq xq
, |xj | 6 X N.
(x1 , ..., xq ) (2X + 1)q , |Lj (x)| 6 qXA
(x1 , ..., x1 ) (L1 , ..., Lp ) (2qAX + 1)p
, (2X + 1)q > (2qAX + 1)p ,
:
x(1) = x(2) : L(x(1) ) = L(x(2) ), L(x(1) x(2) ) = 0, |x(1) x(1) | 6 2x.
x:
(2qAX + 1)p 6 (qA)p (2X + 1)p , : < (2X + 1)q
p
p
2X > (qA) qp 1. , 2X 6 1+(qA) qp ,
. 
3.33. , 1882
A, = 0 e .
. : 1 , ..., m e1 , ..., em
A
, .
3.1. e .
3.2. .
 . i , .. x2 + 1 = 0, i
, 1 = ei . . 

38

3.3. a = 0, a = 1, a A : ln a .
 ln a , eln a = a . 

39

3.4. A, = 0 sin , cos , tg .

37

36

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

 A b = e e
, e2i 2ibei 1 = 0,
2i
, ei A, e ei . . 
i

3.5. ?
tg x = x, 0, .

. , .
3.34. .
 , , .
. , .
,
ax + by + c = 0; a, b, c A
,
(x a)2 + (y b)2 = R2 ; a, b, R A
?
1) .
2) .
3) .
4) .
5) .

22
23
24
25

(..
). , .

26
27

6) .

28

30

? ,
1)-5). 

31

14. 01.12.2010

29

32
33
34

35

36

3.35 (). A, = 0, e .
 .

n1
k lz
3.36. f (z) = n1
k=0
l=0 akl z e . akl Z ,
0 < maxk,l |akl | < n1 n (1 n).
[
]
n3/2 .


.
f

(t)

(z) =

k,l

akl

Cts k(k 1) . . . (k s + 1)z ks lts elz

s=0

f (t) (0) =

)
(
Ctk k! ltk akl
k,l

37
38
39

akl . : p/(q p) n1/2 ,



k
Ct k! ltk 6 2n3/2 nn nn3/2 6 n2n3/2 ( n). . 
[
]
3.37. n3/2 6 ordz=0 f (z) 6 n2 .
37

ykl = z k elz

(D l)k+1 ykl = 0, D . y = f

Dn (D 1)n . . . (D (n 1))n y = 0.
f (0) = f (0) = . . . = f (n 1) (0) = 0. , , f 0.
, limz+,zR f (z) = . 
. X N n.
2

1
2

T = min ordz=x f (x),


3
4

x [0, X], x Z. , T 6 n2 . x0 [0, X], x0 Z , f (T ) (x0 ) = 0.


r = X|| + 1.
3.38. |z| 6 r n 6 |f (z)| 6 n1/3n

f (z)
g(z) =
.
3/2 ] X
[n
T
z
x=1 (z x)

3/2 1/2XT

, g ( ). u =
n). |z| 6 r
|g(z)| 6 max
|g(u)|.
|u|= n

, |z| 6 r


X
z [n3/2 ]
z x



|f (z)| 6 max

|f (u)|
u x .
u
u= n
x=1

.
n
3/2
|f (u)| 6 n2 n1 n n en n < e2n


z x
0.4


u x < n
( n). ,
3/2

|f (x)| 6 e2n
6

n0.4[n

3/2 ]

n0.4XT .


3.39. 0 6 x 6 X
|f (T ) (x)| 6 n1/3n

3/2 1/3(X6)T


f

(T )

T!
(x) =
2i

f (z)dz
(z x)T +1

|zx|=1

|f (T ) (x)| 6 n2T n1/3n

3/2 1/3XT


6

3/2

, |f (z)| 6 n1/3n

38

1/3XT

n > r (

. 0 6 x0 6 X , f (T ) (x0 ) = 0.
0 = f

(T )

(x0 ) =

k,l

akl

CTs k(k 1) . . . (k s + 1)(x0 )ks lT s elx0

s=0

P e . .

, e A, = 0. 1 = deg , 2 = deg e .
.
T
2

n
n
s
T s < n2 n+T . , :
1
deg P 6 n + nX. l(P ) 6 n n n!X
s=0 CT (n 1)
|f (T ) (x0 )| > C nnX (n2 n+T )11 2 > n3 n1 2 T .
1
2
3
4

, . X = 31 2 + 6. ,
, . . 
3.40 (-, ).
a, A, a = 0, a = 1, Q. a .

3.6. e , 2

.
15. 08.12.2010

7
8
9

3.41 (-, ).
a, A, a = 0, a = 1, Q. a .
 .
3.42. ZA .
m = bm1 m1 + . . . + b0 ,
bi Z, |bi | 6 B. t :
t = bt,m1 m1 + . . . + bt,0 ,

10
11

12

bt,j Z, |bt,j | 6 (B + 1)t .


 t. t 6 m .
.
t+1 = t = (bt,m1 m1 + . . . + bt,0 ).
m , . 
3.43. ZA , 0 6 k 6 n, 0 6 l 6 n. ,
(k + l)t = bt,k,l,m1 m1 + . . . + bt,k,l,0 ,

13

bt,k,l,j Z, |bt,k,l,j | 6 nt (B + 2)t (B ).



t
t
m1

t
s ts s s
s ts s
(k + l) =
Ct k l =
Ct k l
bs,j j
s=0

s=0

j=0

. .
|Bt,k,l,j | 6

Cts k ts ls (B + 1)s = (k + l(B + 1))t 6 nt (B + 2)t

s=0
14
15


.
3.44. n , ZA , deg = m > 1. c ak,l
,
n1

f (z) =
ak,l e(k+l)z
k,l=0

16

:
39

1. 0 < |ak,l | < n1 n (1 n),


[
]
2. ordz=0 f > n3/2 .

n1

f (t) (z) =

ak,l (k + l)t e(k+l)z

k,l=0

f (t) (0) =

n1

n1

ak,l (k + l)t =

k,l=0

ak,l

m1

Bt,k,l,j j =

j=0

k,l=0

m1

j=0

n1

Bt,k,l,j ak,l j

k,l=0

:
n1

Bt,k,l,j ak,l = 0,

k,l=0

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

[
]
0 6 t < n3/2 , 0 6 j < m. , . 
[
]
3.45. n3/2 6 ordz=0 f 6 n2 .
 . , f (t) (0) = 0 t =
0, . . . , n2 1, . ,
, Q. 
X N, n. T := minz=x ln a,06x6X ordz f ,
r := X| ln a| + 1. -, T 6 n2 , -, x0 , 0 6 x0 6 X, f (T ) (x0 ln a) = 0.
3.46. |z| 6 r n
|f (z)| 6 n1/3n

3/2 XT /3

g(z) =

z[

n3/2

f (z)
.

] X (z x ln a)T
x=1

, g . , . n > r2 .
|g(z)| 6 max
|g(u)|,
|u|= n


X
z [n3/2 ]
z x ln a T



|f (z)| 6 max
|f (u)|
u x ln a
u
|u|= n
x=1

|f (u)| :
|f (u)| 6 n2 n1 n en(1+||)

3/2

6 e2 n

z x ln a
< n0.4 ,
u x ln a
10

, u, .
,
3/2

|f (z)| 6 e2 n
11

n0.4[n

3/2

]0.4XT


3.47. 0 6 x 6 X
|f (T ) (x ln a)| 6 n1/3n

3/2 1/3(X6)T

40

 . 
.
0 < |f (T ) (x0 ln a)| =

n1

( )lx0
ak,l (k + l)t akx0 a
.

k,l=0
2

, a, a .
. a, , a . deg = m, deg a = m1 , deg a = m2 .
. T + 2nX,
n2 n1 n (2n)T . , ,
|f (T ) (x0 ln a)| > C T 2nX (n2 n1 n (2n)T )1mm1 m2 > n3 n2mm1 m2 T .

3
4

, , , , , X = 6mm1 m2 + 6. 

41