Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20







( I S O 9001-2000 CERTIFIED )


1. Requirements of Double Line Block Instrument. 3

2. Types of Block Instrument on Double Line. 3
3. Constructional features and Parts of Block Instrument. 4
4. Power Supply arrangement for Block Instrument. 9
5. Electrical particulars of various coils and overhauling periodicity 9
6. Circuitry explanation of lock and block 10
7. Electrical particulars of various coils and overhauling periodicity 11
8. Modification required in Block Instrument for the use in RE area. 11
9. AutoTOL feature in Block Instrument, its requirements and modification 11
10. Block working through axle counter. 12
11. DO’s and Dont’s of Block Instrument. 13
12. Maintenance schedule. 14
13. Trouble shooting 15

Special Requirements of Double Line block Instruments

1. Indicators for up and down lines: The instruments shall be provided with
visual indicators separately for Up and Down lines to show the following
three conditions.

a. Line closed.
b. Line clear
c. Train on Line

2. Operation before granting or receiving line clear: The instrument shall be

such that the S.M. has to go through one or more definite moving
operations on the instrument beside working bell or plunger before he can
grant line clear.
3. Audible Indicator: Where required the instruments may be provided with
audible indicators.
a) To warn the receiving station when the train has passed the home
. signal and
b) To warn the sending station when the train has passed the LSS.
4. Non co-operative type instruments shall work on a system of coded
current and following additional requirement shall be provided.
(a) Automatic “train on line” indication on both block instruments as
soon as train enters the block section.
(b) An audible indicator to warn the receiving station when the train
enter the block section at sending station.
(c) Two shunting keys one for each line suitably interlocked with block
instrument to be used while shunting in the block section.

1. Siemens General Electrical – SGE Block Instrument.

2. Daido D/L Block Instrument.
3. Kyosan D/L Block Instrument.


This is known as 3 wire, 3 position block instrument since it shows three

positions of block section and requires 3 wires minimum for its working. In
addition to three wires, the block instrument requires earth or metallic return.
In non-RE and DC traction area, Block Instrument can be connected with 3
wires and earth return OR with 3 wires and metallic return.
In A.C. RE area Block Instrument can be connected with
1. PET Quad cable
2. Optical Fiber Cable.
Constructional features and parts of block instrument:
The SGE Block Instrument mainly consist of two parts
1. Indicator and commutator assembly
2. Bell relay, bell coil, telephone and their terminations assembly known as
bell unit.

I. Indicator and Commutator Assembly Unit

This unit is divided into two parts viz. top and bottom. The top portion consists
of two indicators one each for controlling Up and Down trains. The bottom
portion is made of cast iron and consists of commutator, bell plunger and SM’s
key. A cover is provided for the Block Instrument having locking and sealing
I a. Top Indicator: It is provided to indicate three positions of block section i.e.
1. Line Closed
2. Line clear
3. Train on line
The indicator is polarized type as shown in fig.(1). It consist of a permanent
magnet having adjustable pole pieces and an electro-magnet coil. The coil is
wound to a resistance of 140 ohms or 150 ohms (Galvo type) and requires
minimum current of 17mA for its operation. A needle is pivoted at the center
of soft iron drum. The drum is placed in the permanent magnetic poles. The
needle deflects to right or left depending on the direction of current in electro

magnetic coil. The indicator is connected by line wire to the bottom indicator of
the adjacent Block Instrument. The distant station controls the needle

I b. Bottom Indicator: This indicator is identical with the top indicator. This
being the indicator nearest to the commutator is operated whenever the
commutator is turned. This indicator is connected electrically to the top
indicator of the rear station Block Instrument. The resistance of coil and its
working current is same as the top indicator.
I c. Bell plunger: This is threaded through the middle of the commutator. The
metallic ring of this plunger rod normally bridges two springs. Top spring X is
connected to the bell relay coil and the other spring XL to bell line. When the
plunger is pressed ‘X’ gets disconnected and connects the line spring XL to
bell battery positive. Thus, whenever the plunger is pressed the battery +ve is
applied on the bell line completing the circuit through bell relay of the distant
station and earth. Thus registering a bell beat at the distant station. In AC RE,
‘X’ terminals is removed or made dummy and whenever the plunger is
pressed ‘XL” gets connected with the positive polarity of bell battery and
energizes a relay namely SO4.
I d. Commutator Assembly :

1. Commutator : This is mounted below the bottom indicator in the middle of

the Block Instrument. It has three positions LB, LC and TOL. An arrow
indicates the position of the comutator.
It is free to turn from
LB to LC Position
LC to LB position
LB to TOL position
TOL to LB position

The commutator is turned through 20 degrees from normal position to

either LC or TOL position. The commutator gets locked in TOL position
when turned directly from L.C to TOL.
2. Collar with Holes and Plunger Pin
A metal disc or collar is provided in the Block Instrument on the
front body. Three holes are made on this collar for plunger pin to
enter in it in all three fixed positions through the commutator disc
or locking drum, which prevents the commutator from being
turned. When plunger is pressed, the pin moves out of the collar
holes and releases the mechanical locking on the commutator.
This arrangement is provided to ensure that the indication
(needle deflection) cannot be changed without the knowledge of
the distant station (i.e. bell beat is sent first, then commutator is
turned for deflection of the needle).
3.Locking Drum or Commutator Disc:
A round metallic disc also known as locking drum or commutator
disc is attached to the commutator inside the B/Inst. This moves
along with the commutator when it is turned. A notch is provided
as shown in Fig.(2). When commutator is turned from LC to TOL
position, the notch comes in front of the armature. Armature
drops in it, locking the commutator in that position. A guide is
fixed on the commutator disc. A slot is provided in the guide for
movement of the armature without touching the releasing lever
except in TOL position when lever remains in top of TOL notch.
4. Spring Loaded Ball cup assembly: The commutator disc moves
over a spring loaded ball at its bottom. This gives easy
movement and helps the commutator to remain firm in fixed
position. A screw provided at the bottom of B/Instt body can
adjust the tension of the spring.

5. S.M.’s Key: To prevent unauthorized operation of the Block

Instrument, a lock known as SM’s lock is provided. The commutator
can be locked in any position that is in LB, LC or TOL. When the key is
out only the bell beat can be sent to and received from the other

6. Butterfly Assembly or Fan shaped Ebonite with Contact Spring

A fan shaped ebonite plate (insulated) is attached to the commutator
disc. Four brass segments are fitted on the front side of the fan. Fifth
segment is fitted on the backside of the fan. Six springs are mounted in
front of the commutator segments. These springs make or break the
two terminals according to the commutator position for electrical circuit
as follows.
LB Position: No springs make the circuit through and hence no
polarity is sent on line.
LC Position: B+ and T3
B- and T5
Hence +ve is sent to earth and –ve is sent to line.
T.O.L. Position: B+ and T4
B- and T6
Hence +ve is sent on line and –ve is sent to earth. In this position two
back side contact segment on the left puts through the two springs T1 &
T2, the contact of which is included in block clearance circuit.

1e. DOOR LOCK ASSEMBLY: This is an electromagnet mounted

centrally just above the commutator disc.
i) As shown in Fig.(3) the armature of the electromagnet is normally
(when not energized) prevented from falling on the commutator disc
since resting on a mechanical catch or holding pawl.

ii) When the commutator is turned from LB to LC the pin attached to the
back of the commutator disc pushes the holding pawl aside and
armature drops on the commutator disc.
At the top end, the releasing lever drops as it is pivoted at one end and
has a releasing bracket attached to its middle. This released lever on
falling down comes to rest on a resting pin and presses against the
holding pin. This prevents the holding pawl to come to its original
position as shown in fig.(3)
iii) When the commutator is tuned from LC to TOL position, the locking
notch of the commutator disc comes opposite to the armature and
armature drops in the notch as shown in fig.(3) thus locking the
commutator in TOL position.
iv) When the conditions of lock and block are fulfilled, the door lock coil
is energized and its armature is attracted out of the notch as shown in
The attracted armature lifts up the releasing bracket, which in turn
pushes the releasing lever upward. This removes the obstruction at the
holding pin as a result of which the holding pawl swings back to its
normal position, below the armature and is now ready to catch the latter
when it drops down.
The commutator is now free to be turned from TOL to LB for clearing
the block section.
provided on the guide bracket is made sloping at the top, opposite to
the TOL notch, so that if armature, once electrically attracted out of the
notch, is held up due to residual magnetism or mechanical defect, it
shall be forced down on its holding pawl when the commutator is turned
from TOL to LB position. This avoids the failure on the unsafe side i.e.
commutator will not lock when it is turned from “Line Clear” to TOL

Provision of Half Lock Notch: The half lock notch is provided on the
commutator disc to ensure the locking of the commutator positively,
when turned from line clear to TOL position before the indication
(needle indication) contacts are made.
BELL UNIT: The bell unit is made of cast iron body. It consists of bell
relay, bell coil and termination blocks. A bell gong is fixed on the top of
the bell unit. A telephone is placed on a slot provided on the bell unit.
a. Bell Relay: A single stroke bell is worked by a relay called a bell
relay. The resistance of this relay coil is 500 ohms and it requires
minimum current of 7.5mA for its operation. A separate line wire works
the bell relay.
b. Bell Coil: The bell coil is energized through the front contact of bell
relay. The resistance of bell coil is 60 ohms and it requires a minimum
current of 150mA for its operation. The energisation of bell coil enables
to register one bell beat. With 28 ohms coil 350mA
Polarized Relay: This relay should be a polarized relay of specification
No. S31/80. The relay coil resistance to 77 ohms (two coils of 38.5
ohms each connected in series) and requires a minimum current of
17mA for its operation. The working current is however is 25mA.This
relay is taken in series with the top indicator to fulfill the requirements of
absolute block system.
Power Supply Arrangement: SGE D/L Block Instrument requires
following supply for it’s working in non RE area.
1. Block Battery – 15v + line drop.
2. Bell battery – 9v + line drop
3. Telephone Battery (3v to 4.5v).
For RE area suitable modifications in supply voltage to be made to
cater for loses introduced by filter units and other circuit.
Block battery & bell battery shall be separate. No circuit other than
block instrument shall be fed from block battery.

SN. Name of unit Resistance Rated Working Rated Working

in Ohms Current Voltage
1. Indicator Coil 140 ohms 17mA 2.38v
2. Lock Coil 50 ohms 200 mA 10v
3. Bell Coil 30+30=60 ohms 150 mA 9v
4. Bell Relay Coil 500 ohms 10mA 5v
5. Polarized Relay 77 ohms 17mA 2.16v

Periodicity of Overhauling: A thorough periodical overhauling in

workshop is necessary once in seven years.
Essentials of the Lock and Block System :
a. It shall not be possible to take off last stop signal to permit a train to
leave a block station until “Line Clear” has been received from the
block station in advance.
b. The entry of a train into the block section shall cause the last stop
signal to be automatically replaced at ‘ON’.
c. Line clear shall not be given by the block station in advance until the
preceding train has passed over the section clearing track circuit or its
equivalent and until stop signal/ signals in rear of the train has/ have
been replaced to ‘ON’ position.
LSS Control Circuit : Fig.(4) By this circuit essentials (a) and (b) of
lock and block is achieved.
SR (stick relay) normally remains pick up, it drops when train enters
block section since TPR drops. Dropping of TPR, SR causes LCPR
and DR to drop and LSS is automatically replaced to “ON”. An audible
warning is given to SM of sending station.
For picking up SR, train-receiving station has to turn his commutator to
TOL position. In this position, commutator gets locked. Now SR picks
up but LCPR is still dropped since PR tongue contact is not available.
Hence LSS cannot be taken OFF again on the same “Line Clear”

Block Clearance Circuit: Fig.(5) N By this circuit essential © of lock

and block is achieved. Normally ZSR1, ZSR2 and ZSR3 of block
clearing circuit are in dropped condition. As soon as train passes the
home signal the two closed track circuits are sequentially dropped and
picked by ZSR1 and ZSR2 relays, energized through back contact of
ZSR3. When commutator is turned to TOL from L.C through T1 – T2
contact ZSR3 picks up causing ZSR1 and ZSR2 to drop. Through
ZSR3 pick up contact and ZSR1 and ZSR2 back contact along with
other selection, armature lock coil gets feed and commutator is turned
from TOL to LB.



1. In AC RE area SGE Block Instrument is usually connected with two

pairs of PET Quad cable. One pair is used for telecommunication
purpose and second pair is used for bell circuit.
2. A filter unit of approved design shall be connected in the indication
3. A Train Wire Block Bell unit of approved design shall be connected
in bell circuit
4. Two separate earthing shall be provided for each Block Instrument
5. Each indication coil shall be of 140 ohms resistance.
6. BPR should be as per SP S-31/80 i.e. coil résistance of 77 ohms.
7. Indication circuit works on the phantom circuit of both the pairs.


Auto TOL circuit has been introduced in SGE Block Instrument with the
introduction of this circuit, as soon as the train passes the LSS and
enters the block section, both the Block Instruments are automatically
set to “Train on Line” indication, while commutator is in “Line Clear”

position. Buzzer sounds at the receiving station as well as at the

sending station. Sending station buzzer is stopped by normalizing the
LSS lever and receiving station buzzer is stopped by pressing the
acknowledge push button and operating the commutator from Line
Clear to TOL when train clears the block section clearance track-
circuits, once again buzzer sounds at receiving station which is
stopped by pressing the arrival acknowledge push button and this
establishes the path for energizing commutator lock and Block
Instrument is normalized by operating the commutator from TOL to”
Line Closed”.
For introduction of auto TOL circuit in SGE Block Instrument,
following relays are required in addition to present relays.
1. TCKR – Transmission Checking Relay.
2. TCKPR – Transmission Checking Repeater Relay.
3. LCR – Line Clear Relay.
4. BSR – Block Stick Relay.
5. TOLR – Train On Line Relay.
NOTE: ZSR3 relay in block clearance circuit is not required.
Following Modification is required to be made in SGE Block Instrument
Internal wiring for the introduction of auto “TOL” circuit.
1. Line Battery is not provided in the instrument it is provided outside.
2. Top indicator coil is connected between terminals T 7 and BL2.
3. Bottom indicator coil is connected between terminals T 8 and BL1.
4. Loops between T3 and T6 and T4 and T5 are eliminated.
5. Terminals T5 andT4 are made spare.


In the conventional double line Block Instrument, the receiving
station does all the operation and this results in detention to trains at
the sending end in case of non-availability of S.M. at the receiving
station. More over complete arrival of train at the receiving station is to
be done manually by checking L.V. Board by day or tail lamp by night.

Introduction of axle counter Block Instrument has overcome the

dependence of human agency to verify complete arrival of train and
also reduced the time taken in granting line clear by the receiving

Axle Counter Block Instrument consists of a block-operating panel

with relays and an axle counter at stations on either end of the
B/Section on double line. Operating panel is used to obtain “Line
Clear” cancellation etc. and axle counter is used to verify that the
section from LSS up to block overlap beyond first stop signal at
receiving station is clear of trains. This is a non co-operative type
Block Instrument. The line clear can be obtained by the sending
station without the co-operation of receiving station, but if receiving
station does not want to give “Line Clear” he has to remove the “Line
Clear blocking key” from the operating panel. The Block Instrument
has auto TOL feature as well as auto normal feature.

Axle Counter Block Instrument can be worked in two ways. One

system is by using two PET Quads with mltiplexer and other system is
by using three PET quads without multiplexer.

i. Do ensure proper locking and sealing of block instrument.
ii. Do ensure that forced drop arrangement is effective.

1 Do not use common earth for more than one block instrument
the same station.
2 Do not use common power supply batteries for more than one
instrument at the same station.
3 Do not open block instrument in any position other than LINE
CLOSED for repair.
4 Do not open the cover of the block instrument without
disconnection memo having been accepted.

1. Cleaning of TOL & LINE CLEAR contacts and its adjustments
2. Check power supply “no earth fault”
3. Door lock coil mechanism is working properly
4. During testing, commutator to be locked in TOL position when operated
from LINE CLEAR to TOL position. Ensure that the commutator must be
locked in TOL (check lock position), before TOL indication appears.
5. Door lock coil armature energizes only:
a) After complete arrival of train
b) All reception signals/controls replaced to their normal position

1. Check that tension of the contacts are good and contacts are clean and
free from pitting - Fortnightly
2. Check and ensure that door lock coil armature drops on the periphery of
the commutator disc before line clear contact is made when handle is
turned to line clear slowly – Fortnightly
3. Check and ensure that when commutator is turned to TOL, the TOL
contact does not make and TOL indication does not appear before half
notch position and half lock is effective – Weekly
4. Ensure door lock is not effective when turning the commutator directly from
LINE CLOSED position to TOL position - Weekly
5. Check and ensure that door lock is fully effective and block gets locked
when commutator is taken to TOL via LINE CLEAR position – Weekly
6. Check and ensure that polarized relay is of approved type, seal is intact,
the gap between arm and normal/reverse contacts are equal, and contacts
cannot be made by tapping from outside – Fortnightly
7. Measure the incoming and outgoing needle current – Fortnightly

8. Carryout the following checks and ensure that :

a) Last stop signal can be cleared obtaining line clear
b) Last stop signal returned to ON as soon as advance track circuit is
occupied by first vehicle.
c) Last stop signal cannot be taken OFF second time after train has
entered the block section.
d) Block instrument can only be turned to LINE CLOSED position from
TOL position after complete arrival of train within home signal and
after putting back of home signal lever/switch to normal.
9. Ensure lightening dischargers are intact and earth connections are proper-