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6TH SEM Information Theory & Coding skap COLLECTION OF NOTES uses Suu se : INO, OF MOUrS: 52 Chapter title/ polo eeomeaee class | Reference literature Ref | cumulative chapter 1 Zi a = Problems on introduction to probability rer theory a ee Measure of information fea ‘Average information content of symbols Tn 42 _| CHAPL | long independent sequences iz ‘Average information content of symbols in| | [13 intormation’ [long dependent sequences __* i 15 __| Theory and Mark-off statistical model for information ‘Channel sources 481 Capacity Entropy and information rate of Mark-off ee ee Zz sources 79,20 TEXT 1 Encoding of the source output ‘CHAP 4 Shannon‘s encoding algorithm: 4.170 4.6 Communic in Channel. Discrete communication channels Rate of information transmission over a 1 21,22 discrete channel | Capacity of a discrete memory less channel Discrete channels with memory continuous . ° | channels 1 ‘Shannon-Hartley Law and its implications, 23,24 | CHAP 2 Some properties of Entropy 25 z Extension of a DMS. 26 Fundamental Prefix coding . 27 Limits on ‘Source coding theorem - [28,25 | Performance ° - {Huffman coding _ 20% |- 60% | 30__| TEXT 2 Mutual information 34, 32 CHAP 2. Differential Entropy & mutual information for 32 | 2.1 70 2.9 continuous ensembles. 33 [cuap 3 Rationale for coding and types of codes. ae 34 Discrete memory less channels. [35,36] Error Control [Example of error control coding, method of a 37,38 | Coding controlling errors. “Types of errors, types of codes. TEXT 1 Linear block codes. Matrix description of ‘CHAP 9 linear block codes. : aoe aon 9.1709.4 [Error detection and error correction capabilities of linear block codes. 43,44 | TEXT 2 Single error correcting Hamming codes Chap 8 Look-up table (oF syndrome) decoding using 8.5T08.6 | standard array. Also ava bbfe Jrter ret a backed ju -e- sly, Aedjrars < fn — Chapter titie/ ‘of Portigos tbe Class| Reference Portion to be covered or aa literature... chapter | Cumulative 45,46 Binary cyclic codes, algebraic structure of | ~ 47 [cyatic codes. 7 46 Encoding using en (nek) bit shift register. 49 ‘Syndrome calcutation, error detection and 50. error correction. 51 ‘BCH codes, RS codes, Golay codes 2 ‘Shortened cyclic codes, burst error correcting codes, convolution codes : Time domain approach, transfer domain . eS approach Staté;tree and trellis diagrams. Encoders and decoders for (n, k, 1) convolution codes. =— Literature: . Book type | Code Title and author | Edition | Publisher | Vear Digital and Analog |= 5 Communication 11 | Systems - K. Sam John Wiley | 1996 Text book Shanmugam Digital 72 | communications - John Wiley | 2003 Simon Haykin Digital . Commiinication Fundamentals and Pearson Rt | applications ~ Education ae Bernard Sklar : Reference | ci ‘Concepts of Information Theory R2~ | Arid Coding- 20 1° Dynaram 2004. P.S.Sathyanarayana INFORMATION THEORY & CODING QUESTION BANK Subject Code: EC63 Faculty: Dr. RM Information Theory and Channel Capacity: . 1. Explain the terms (i) Self information (ji) Average information (iii) Mutual Information. 2. Discuss the reason for using logarithmic measure for measuring the amount. of information. 3. Explain the concept of amount of information associated with message. 4.:-A binary source emitting an independent sequence of 0's and 1's with probabilities p-, and (1-p) respectively. Plot the entropy of the source. 5. Explain the concept of information, average information, information rate and redundancy as referred to information transmission. 6. Let X represents the outcome of a single roll of a fair dice. What is the entropy of X? 7. A code is.composed of dots and dashes. Assume that the dash is 3 times as long as. the dot and has one-third the probability of occurrence, (i) Calculate the information in dot and that in a dash; (ii) Calculate the average information in dot-dash code; and (fif) Assume that a dot lasts for 10 ms and this same time interval is allowed between symbols. Calculate the average rate of information transmission. 8. What do you understand by the term extension of a discrete memory less source? Show that the entropy of the nth extension of a DMS is.n times the entropy of the original source. > 9. What do you mean by source encoding? Name the functional requirements to be satisfied in the development of an efficient source encoder. ~ 10. A card is drawn from a deck of playing cards. A) You are informed that the card you draw is spade. How much information did you receive in bits? B) How" much information did you receive if you are told that the card you drew is an ace? C) How ‘much information did you recetve if you are told that the-card you drew is an ace of spades? Is the information content of the message “ace of spades” the sum of the information contents of the messages “spade” and "ace"? 11. a block and white TV picture consists of 525'lines of picture information. Assume that each consists of 525 picture elements and that each element can have 256 brightness levels. Pictures are repeated the rate of 30/sec. Calculate the average rate of information conveyed by a TV set to a viewer. 12. A zero memory source has a source alphabet S={Si, S2, $3} with P={1/2, 1/4, 41/4}. Find.the entropy of the source. Also determine the entropy-of its second extension and verify that H(S?), = 2H(S). *-43 Show. that ‘the entropy is maximum. when source. transmits symbols with equal probability. Plot the entropy of this source versus p (0H(S). FUNDAMENTAL LIMITS ON PERFORMANCE: 22. Calculate the capacity of a standard 4KHz telephone channél working in the range of 200 to 3300 KHz with aS/N ratio of 30dB. 23. What Is the meaning of the term™communication channel. Briefly explain data ‘communication channel, coding channel and modulation’channel. 24. Obtain the communication capacity of-a noiseless channel transmitting n discrete message system/sec. 25. Explain external property_and additivity property. 26. Suppose that 1, S2 are two memory sources with probabilities p1,p2,p3,.....pn for source si and qi,q2,.....4n for source s2 . Show that the entropy of the source si a H(s1)s Pk log (1/qk) Kan 27. Explain the concept of B/W and S/N. trade-off, with reference to the communication channel, * 28. What are important properties of the codes? 29. What are the disadvantages of variable length coding? 30. Explain with examples: . Uniquely decodable codes, Instantaneous codes 31, the Shannon-Fano coding procedure for the construction of an optimum 32. Explain clearly the procedure for the construction of compact Huffman code. 33.A discrete source transmits six messages symbols with probabilities of 0.3, 0.2, 0.2, 0.15, 0.1, and 0.05. Device suitable Fano and Huffman codes for the messages and determine the average length and efficiency of each code. 34. Consider the messages given by the probabilities 1/16, 1/16, 1/8, %, Ye. Calculate H. Use the Shannon-Fano algorithm to develop a efficient code and for that code, calculate the average number of bits/message compared with H. 35. Consider a source with 8 alphabets and respective probabilities as shown: eB Ce Dee ecrn 0.20 0.18 0.15 0.10 0.08 0.05 0.02 0.01 Construct the binary Huffman code for this. Construct the quaternary Huffman and code and show that the efficiency of this code is worse than that of binary code 36. Define Noiseless channel and deterministic channel. 37.A source produces symbols X, Y,Z with equal probabilities at a rate of 100/sec. Owing to noise on the channel, the probabilities of correct reception of the various symbols are as shown: P (fi) 1X ¥ Zz x % %e 0 y Ye % Ye 2 0 Ye Me Determine the rate at which information is being received. 38.Determine the rate of transmission I(x,y) through a channel whose noise -characteristics is, shown in fig. P(AL)=0.6,- - P(A2)=0.3, i. a P(A3)=0.1 T ad os ensemee as os BS 39. For a discrete memory less source of entropy H(S), show that, the average code- word length for any distortionless source encoding scheme is bounded as L > H(S). 40. Briefly discuss the classification of codes. 41. Show that HOY) = H(X/Y)+H(Y). 42. State the properties of mutual information. 43. Show that I(X,Y) = I(Y,X) for a discrete channel. 44, Show that for a discrete channel 1(%,Y) 2 0 36, Determine the capacity of the channel shown in fig. . we va 45. For a binary erasure channels show in figure below Find the following: The average mutual information in bits The channel capacity The values of p(x:) and p(x) for maximum mutual information Lp 46.A DMS. has an alphabet of seven symbols whose probabilities of occurrences are described here: Symbo SoS: Sz Sa Se Ss Ss Prob 0.25 0.125 0.125 0.125 0.125. 0.0625" 0.0625 ‘Compute the Huffman code for this source, moving a combined symbol as high as possible, Explain why the computed source code has ani efficiency of 100%. 47. Consider a binary block code with 2" code words of same length n. Show that the “Kraft inequality is satisfied for such a code: 48. Write short notes on the following: Binary Symmetric Channels (BSC), Binary Erasure Channels (BEC) Uniform Channel, Cascaded channels 49. Show that for a AWGN channel C. density in watts/Hz. 50. Consider an AWGN channel with 4 KHz bandwidth with foise power.spectral density a 2 the capacity of the channel. - 51. IF 10x, y) = 106)-1Gv/ys). Prove that I(x,y)=I(v)-yyx) 52. Consider a continuous random variable having a distribution as given below 4-448. wtierén/2°= noise power spectral 10-!2 watts/Hz. The signal power required at the réceiver is 0.1mW. Calculate 1 zg ipl: baa . 0 obentise : : Find the differential entropy H() = - ERROR CONTROL CODING: 53. Design a'single error correcting code with a message block size of 11 and show that by an example that it can correct single error. 54.1 Gand C, an two code vectors in a (n,k) linear block code, show that their sum is also a code vector. 55, Show CH'=0 for a linear block code. 56, Prove that the minimum distance of a linear block tode is the smallest weight of the non-zero code vector in the code. 57.What is error control coding? Which ‘are the functional. blocks.of a. communication system that accomplish: this? Indicaté the function of-each block. What is the error detection and correction on the performance of communication system? 58. Explain bref the following: (a). Gotay code (b). BCH Code 59. Explain the methods of controlling errors 60. List out the properties of linear codes. 64. Explain the importance of hamming codes & how these can be used for error detection and correction. 62. Write a standard array for (7.4) code 63. Explain the properties of binary cyclic cods. 64. With a neat diagrams explain Une bittary cyclic encoding and decoding 65. Explain how meggit decoder can be used for decoding the cyclic codes. 66. Write short notes on the following - (i) BCH codes (it) Majority Logic decodable codes (iii) Maximum length codes, R-S codes ; (iv) Golay codes (v) Burst errors & its correction 67. Draw the generalized encoder diagram for convolutional codes. 68. Explain the following : (a) Veterbi algorithm (b) Stack algorithm (©) Fano algorithm 69. Differentiate the systematic and nonsymmetric codes 70. Find F1(x) £2(x) if FL(x)=x-F1; F260 71, Prove with an example that [f(x)]2=f(x2) 72. Draw the circuit to get an output c(x)=ai (x). b1(x)-+a2(x).b2(x) . 73. Draw one divider circuit which gives A(x)/B(x). a 74, Draw encoder and decoder circuit for a (6,3) group code. 75. Write a standard array for (6,2) code 76. Draw and explain the matched filter decoder circuit for (6,3) group code. : 77. Explain the following terms. , Hamming distance code rate Free distance weight of code ss (pa nels doh. 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HO) = a347 bils /expenbol_ 8a = 315, Jop_s_44 ’ tga haw aa Mie pach tie a ~, Ouebibiwnce glen Vg Ls X% L 4 2 pe bog Np. ——— (0g, 2 ee} An yo < U-} puts Vapi Bat dea ounce exibtng oypnlanla a ain Coe er ee Tawa xt, H——-ohen all tae Symbols ase eau probable, | nadtiptie metind tn apie Aa tpeicbn gi =F pt to9, AALS = Prat) Plog. Bi ACP AP Ss > P= ae ere gg co ENOL F-Pt P= ei eee cae 4G HM), are a : = Yang 2 4 Pt * ads bog Pi xt { +r>xt =o { | => dx bog Pr-= d hog 2 i a tet! — | 2s Pi ia, Oa) 20 res Hex) 20 o_o $ ROD. A ey and: A souct huadtuct ng. Hi), _dlun tte enfin A mi —caatin deel a [Source Fagin by Ha) = nm h@ [tobe ae lotr) Dh A Source. Pundicen tos sym tg Pablge — i ee ee l gtun PCs) 3/y Resad = Vy. bat te i 0 9 gs 43) + Se ee ar ra ar |-.Syonbols patty py qo extension 7 184 WS) Pls) = Se He?) = "2 95 C'¥4) SiSo. PLS Pla) = He + 1 + AK 106 i SP C603 Pts) = He = ea CVy So$o.- PCS PLS = Yr ee) wo = 7 $2) tt To aa ae : ~ YN 2 TEAR Dileymbd re HG => 2 Hs) ard ~ Tie ny ace — SS aye (8%). ese a sss 2581 VY + 3°x3 do 1 8 S38) * Yeu 4 ey SiS) $2 $1 a $2 $285 { $2328, { epersereee ae: : ee LB Gouice pvoduced obphateti hs aan ey Mowing Sia ual ie Yall Yu, Vo Ye Sr M2 RNG) TT atwin POD. lag) = Yu, PO): Play) = Y, a bs aby ote —Souset = HUBD--4 tog 2 + 1 tag 4 + “Rx Dwg 8 | a : H(s):2 MTG BIS /sumbol. IP ee tt fad tts enti nd ion_op tee. al ay Mie xt Log 6y i son 64 a we _! Vai = : ay You Hs?) = 3:5 bile /sif cabal, tid aw Yeu : . My ek Ue DO) yl 2D. . Yar: - tad a You mt yay Voy Ca ae astot = 4 —- a —blempt}—diswal tungth odes A fined fang in code to. a tnd. | phone tack nerd 1 cin ———_L fn. Chmpaii” Vasiabte longi Caden - A vasiatle dungla sods torre _ hinge Lode. tund lng its te not ffxedk, Ab cota wo en ea Glnjed} Disk osen — A madi dink. 5 beroid alete a i lnfeclana tity Kit déeonnt chow us how te obtain, ned Pasir f 7 7 |Pabe i LSE cyntnl lode toda Gad ST. So o OW 0. 2 lo. ; o} = S 0. 0) OL | sa no aole io 1 8y yuy OO ty) — ks las Pl ee “ode fs oe ae rosa a pe Kix tras 2} Min no: oak a + 1 aaad Bsn sg cocetwerd_lengtl an — itn tam —ending pebame, 22 bp ~ ——— ZF tog Fs) = 4 THOS: =" PG) tog Jptna,) +9 Coad 109, VPs) ls ec O52. do Che 2) + out bogs ¢ Yous PCa = ree eT ST PCa EY = PCA PAD = OX OT, PCayb) = ha “Plaid = O1BXOT = “ovary "20-44 FO multe fatyalag dhe at aad and ww bij PCa). Hoe, —1 ain, TPH gles — me Ey tay nie ha aed | Peas? +) ha. Sumnin “elemointa = of tine 19" coliymn fn TPN givds. “/PLbi) shoal puna elataands of thee 84. olan. = _fiven_PCb2). ; . the Ast an =5 gachaat 3 mraliie. eam ba eblsinad jam dal5?H ae so ERD Ma ann ‘ p> A Ee Pai 5). tog. PHD i See : TH (Gn) =~ oa tag 07 Fo-a) bog 0.3 V0 sae | + Ora tog 0.9 d. 1 fe 2D | oye 7576 “bill (aapenbal. a Z cet _gorl ucaie ~£ EP lais bj) tog Peatioei) er fs Sy aS. Bigg Ligron4 9 hoi “Bog, O81 +0. olay wt 0:27 Log” G21} 4 HOAs tes i bi (axpaboal i aoe = Or ouos bis Syst | =e i o Px) =: R= o7/ pcx . *ETk | Gist toga hones ia given : i = P(%,) = 013 oe toa ved —. : a, LE as Pens pCa PLY2,) +P orr) POV») = = OKO» ee = 0169 PCH2) = PCD PVA, d+ Bla PCY) = _ONADI + 08X08 = Oral +2 Ply d+ Pan? =A bd PCy) = + PCy i -) PCa), PCH) =) POM yD a Play) fs ae PCayg) 2) Pap o Pye) PH PCxYy,)-= PCYY 21) M9? «= org x01 Ut “0164 0-913 PC%%/y)) 2 PCY a2) 9.027 ES - _ PluD . po pC fynd. 2 PC Yn) Ps) Plya) PC, Gn) = PCI2/4)). PO). = ONK0'1 - ors PO, Gd = PCH a2) PC&r) 2 OAxXos. = 0106 PCr) = PCIx2)-PCt2) 5 09x03 = 0- ay Pca) tog Yoru) + Pre? oq Pot) yan PC) = Pers =0-5. ett Pon POY d+ Pd PCA 1S 40-4 + 0-SK012 = 0:65 1- Pld =O145, Oo» Val biG 2ample, PLUD logy Cptyd) + PS? bog (Yoys) = de gad MoE) E | | Plads TPC = POn)- TOTES + ~Feay FORE EX OIE fOSt-4 “e FHS OSIT = 0142S = ez OD Taira VED a7 : 04237 bi sf eample * Po Day OISKOT OF QTEDIS. ae te Oy xDIS 2” Or OK OS.» ae = 3 1 A 2 os1S ODT I ae ag | OR. OS Se POY? 5, se TRY: vey JST = =F osisieg ose hops Tag 008 Faaigge] 7 = , a A & 018 tog, 04. AY ! ; ioZ ROS T ear ~ biG] nami ample = = == a $04, 0:75 4 Ou 127-13 3 __ 0.2 fog 0:46 f ~ =O. 8a hi /eamptes > i OK = HOW t HOK bso 2 14 0-F4) 2 neg il __Bayind HL Y2),t- © —_ Hite, 22-6 S41 (%) + Ce) s _ SHU e) = H0%)9) — Ce) = 8911 - 0 9837 a> Hen> = PCa) fog oe 4PCh2 Log CYA iid Dab Caz) te = Hons Jeasae bils /atpmbel, War Play 2 PLO PC 1) Wee HD, + Pag) rad Fe pt Vet gp xO + Sarda = Yt | + hole » “Pb EPC) FAB STRORTA = PCB Bog Open + Pha) tog, op) “| 7 Beli 8 2 a Ye Pb, > (09, Ytthad) =e eee ir eee os 7 YoxPla2) Plo? 0 xPCar) | [%A-Plts) BAPCa? _Y6*PC03)| yr 1e 7 | a Fay = i Lie Yas iia = i pa Ee = ee ee : = 9 (Win * Y-g, Vis) + Bar og, ar) pS fa ty, trons eo is | [+ 36 Tag CED ¢ THe) = 25979, BG Jeymbot - -z Za Patch) 2 PCa) oF Ge 159, USF Tis toga OD + Hh layne) + 3 Yer toga C23 #0 Yan BRC Ya) SoH ~ *Vigs {og CY) ' I take "HCA BD. “= Ht CHa t uc8) i => H(A) = HCArB) - HEB) .- a7 9 M4 (He) = 81828 - We Asag ¢ a Pet: Dna Bfoaay._ fomimiant eo 0 — ~_Sypebol. Ate, bana rly ta Fire chronnol,, O cambe acsimed on 4 and dean be werivod ano SS fate mip ind ame “anprerotnt thee. 2v x - “suai ate an even —Aiahachivaalys. bef Pm) = 0-5. PCA Rife: - PC 8%/rn)~" O12 a ‘ © tind. Pl%0) and PCA wt 4.0, Oana susstuadtobsidiin How pal Mente a ge. Leooo’ asnts? PC*% d= 1 | ea 4 ano ceuestued. tahoe is: Ss goa pent 2 PCMY/a1) =? : ae | the prbiy “ Ol coteutat He ply gp cum || Catena. tte Paohliy that the 184 aymbale a2s.2 tad = 085. Pm PCYmo) + PCA moe |__ bp Pemofangr =s PCRYme) Pome). Plaxo) = 0-818 —_ : iS : : : PD PC fay) = PCAVe) Pim? PED UY Ts ovages —— ctireckmoy_oy Poo Fone) 2 maa) + © faba pation Pm PCR my) x dn Tater emfuimiem, TOY de valtid >| [inutial. Tafomeation. . Ot tori bs. shaun tat tive, | ee gn Tins een We yoga |_| jnan TF ty) = oe ogr! glues POUDE 6, POR) 204 : > as” see HOO GEOR =P “Py = POA POW ¥ POR) PCY.) — Yew), eto Loy CY) bil ct ~ Ye do pend HOE Pry = “foe oa] HOt 0-94 - a OG OS. tOMMXO-D = O52. . Plyad = Pew) PC YAI) + Pew? r/o) Qt OHH HOF Plya) = Ply 069.989: Hoy) = PCD las Srey) ta) Yoya) Cs) pores 7 OF PORT OTP How) & = 2 F_ptaryy? 09, Pex a fer Jey HOLY) == (os og, OMS + elttog 1a +4 = = C a -begs-Orbt 40736 tags ore | —— Heo = _154)7_bibs sapere = 4 a> a lind HOY) RU) aoe ea 2 Plt 95- log “PCY age P— HOP — Vous tog.o8 + O- i bg, OR t A : + Qiou tag Or) + 0:36 log oF ic = a 5 |__| : _— Hon) = _arbaat BIG Sepmubgols Dae pied HOM) pe { Hoy) = HO) FA — HOW) = How 92 Ho) = 0.9924 bibs / | ee dt & cD = HOD HOY)» [a |e Meee = Oss) RO 1 aqme 1 lm eais i icky) = Hey) — HCy/x) = "0147 9G- 0.6207 = oer Low) 2 HOO +HCy) —HOwY= 0971+ 09958 7 -— th oat) 2.378 Sige — fob | aefys thn 2 BOM. Sy tae cig anlno _ Peay a ob. B PCH =O-4. Pas) + DU 22 PLS 29 4ptyyd = PO ee ong M pty) 2 PCa PCY, [ui + Pl? PU) emunceeeeearly ti) opti) PUY) + POG) PLY 8 = . "Otis PLY) PLA). PCY.) = OeBy a Pwd 22 84.) BOGS) % Beyu) | el. = . Tay) = “Fa ag 5. Cra): a, raat Yotgo) 2( Us) toa, CYAtuad) +9044) tog, Ceyu)) Fray Purr eae : [eisxoW “o-rxoy” owkoN 0-57. ut 284 bibs Jo poabal 0 popes naam T £012 log O12. + 0:96 fog 0:06 + D0? lag. toy) = 2 Sm LOR VY WORD HCX) + ERED = 31 x a stat aig acieaoart O€ 0-04 (99,-0.04 4 9 :R9 log 012d "2 ee DOny) = 91184 bile aymbol : wg a] HOW) = SPL Spain TEP SET | 02 tng 0.2 0106 Gog Tt F108 (og O12 FF —r—C \ —P Aas theannl A channel | teenid taba london = “_Delinainditte: Chdnnda~ 9 channel: Arn caibed bey ~——e-thannl—mabix, wit oohy ene mm gera element: da, tach 20m fa called a Aelenniuntodic cbainel Bronce! BM ca mLiioo fo ae fis Ye whi oo xy a) Traine makin Frartskion dusgaant z neo IG) votind qnantivwatisn “le wrb babi (hy ha brbaSRay A Debiapeiatadie Lanna . a hasnetniaad by HOZx) = 2 o a Cos Max ECRY) = Mal CHOW A) L ee - Spay {00a}: i Css wos bil Je iy ; a | Na 104 Yo symbols of, tre choonrl. e 8 Spmmnalai, Chinn — Egg Max EO) a | Peay | G62 Max. CHty) Te 2 & i eae eo. a Cs = a, ik Mak & PGT ey wih) ~ ie gpoay ETS eee toh Pl ys at) = POH, YS) : « PAY: | PCa)? = Pad TT the 0 syrnmishict, cbvoniel. | apni So guage -t- Soe = 2 rip, FO 1 ie ta Hilo cane A= As dee Geb . fe 5 . a crater a i tiga = pO PC YY 4d) + Pla2?: PCYYxe>. = 0-56 PCy2) = PCa) PCYALD + Ptr) PCYW/a,D = orgy HOD = Ply log, C¥ptyy) + Ply) “tog, C¥Ptya9) Hy) = 919.916 bis fay bot. _ | ale pend We) $= a : Tae ete prbl SPN =POHY) = age J pa melee sen =P ; “gona TPH 2 PRAY = | oe —o.g0-| | SHADE SEE peaivyy) log BGG aerial TS aut log os Ea eT begao2( . cL: 0132 Log 5 0+ 1B foie BO = =_Or1314 i ey + ! T i do ft LOY, eo yy 1 rey iyy SHURE OFF 45-0" 1214 El it Ces toga + SB PCA dog POA) j=) ee tog 8 [E's tog, 0-8 +0 log oa | ae r er igri Tt a hannah efpidenitgs EL gon'sion a BTL nina = Qgsa5rh oraiBo § ~ TPGD 2 Pu), PCY +200) PCYYag) a 2 O6x Ys town Ye = Ys. = DCAD Pl YAuj + PCH) LS) SOG YE FORAYS Es Cu) PCy) + TO) Peas A med £ PU) = PCH) PEI) + Perr) PC Sn) we Pra tos. 3 Vir Ve Die Ts ee oo HOM) 2-5 2 PCH) bog, PO) ST SET Jo tog, (¥e + Mx og, C¥6? + Vx log, CV) Tye 09, W)-* Ys.tog, C3) + Vo bey, C+ Ec : Hy 109, CY.) 4 App logo (Hd HOYs)= te 03 balk) a wh Hod ey) t Z Lou) = HOTS ACW) ee 19183 = Lex W= 0:18 bib fe undef, Sine the -ehonnal. pepe Tl sigak Mao apg ‘ [seed EPP See ee I : — | jase © i x jet) PO) = PMT E 05.2 ROW IE (Ya. Va. % Veh & Ty, ere L% ye wv | ea [Ply = Peay) 2. CYV I) + PER2)_ pl viene 2505 yOSx |. | Pld PAB PCa) 3 BLD Poa) = 2 rag 105m ty aes Vey Pus. 9) Rha 2 Raa) rene rosy % ST POWs POD AIG, 4 Bis? PC Tay = = Yu ny + iS } ty d= MU 103. yo BHM fap : : ACAD Ba s a SBA PO Y= f* ’ CAE in Ve if on 7 =a pt) = = % 49 GTR B+ {Un too, kee ikea Yona + FV gteg, Vs)? x 2 116 ileal — aan mh do bts. Tew) r- Towy= 1OyD- Had = asl asc Ui fo ye Chaninet” capssllg i. Gz log} $.2% log We +24 bl) T > es ; , OK)! i He oy! rife tli bts0l fae < Ap “ + B= 0-4 “pts % Be w p TS whan l=ps0-5 | Rez 1000 aymJoee. (a) fs H x © Taping HpOp).t-- hw spay)’ p- and pPltad=I-p _}: Ths. channel” mative ta PED =, PRPC) + PID PCV aad 2B pol + Ci-pr(t-6) 2 8sCp? Pls) = = PUD PC Yaad + Plus ROYER =p ti-g) Mpa ce 92 0P2. Hops tai 03, VRuo) + Puy3> ica CCST oe peat 892-109, Seep) 9,69) lay CYa5) + t [eps = SP) ta B1Cp) < G2 (p2-log, Gatp bil’ pad HOD te a [ Lede Seu n__PC ne [AP ap TT T l [G-axep2 eci-p) | Hom 2 a iz z Plxti95) begs POR ie ae c ip bg. TaaDP Pa) ¥ CBI PERE . ze . e tat +RCi-p) tog B epee - 2 log Cis Hog (1a) = Cap lng A) =P eB and vamtowt 2 = CI) og C158) 8 fog Sth pnd TO) and t_masinum Solve, ,Boov> 2 HOY) — 4 OWx) == 9,(p2 (04,0410) = 9. Cp) log tp? = FE er = Baty? lg ep = | oA i tog 2 = : Tow dae =O: > fat [3 tp dsitp slog utp. ip] 1 leg z AP... aD : apo S bog. Fae aatp oH pL Gclpd =. Peak + Cl=p) UB) LOO) = at48- “GW Pa A= PD ABD = ae P dep. ap 2 daig. —@ “ap Epl@+e- Cav) Ts plat=1 a P= PCat-1 2+ Glapicaty Tn the fran tomlin oq 5 Ro — Poe TT ag Ost OF ~ «We [02 OBO ax Lo 62 oF | ue, quaalthie Co aI ai fund Se on of = [er aim oe {071 9, 04-4 9-1 og ort ey ) ~ fons oe Toros o Locrtaggr, + 018 boa 0 qi He =f 2 tay Ora, OF Ng ne £0 i 058) +0" 162+ o1Gs2~ 0 Fas Torqag Se ORG, 4993 = 0" T2IF 93 = = 017319 Cer eas a ge] S32 HE ils /seybonts : a er a he m nb. POY )axfe Pw H The matin to 2 : Te hb ee ee | Gad +O p)lay ys pikes gig POTTS HIT OTD SGP Ieee bep i fig! 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