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.. , ..

,
.. , .. ,
..

-
2009

51(075.8)
22.1173

91
:
- .-. , .
.. ;
- .-. , ., ..

91

.., .., ..,


.., ..
: . . .: , 2009. 373 .
( ).
ISBN 978-5-16-003449-2

,
.

22.1173

ISBN 978-5-16-003449-2

, 2009


.

.. , .. , .. , .. , .. [1] -
, .

(), .
.
.
.
. :
() () .
: ,
.
.
: 1) , 2) , 3) 1) 4)
. , .
3



()

()

()




!


/



:









, det

,
N, Z, Q, R, C , ,
, ,
n
n-
R

R+



~















\

:
,

:
-
:

: ...
: ...

.


4

10
1
[ ]

{ }
,
1 n
1, n
..
..
.

= () ..
D( f )
E( f )
U(a) - . , (a) = U(a)\{a}
C[X] ,
C1[X] ,
C[a,b] , [a, b]


m

f
f
..
..





()

()

()
OM -


!

rang A A
Re
Im

gradU U

div a a

1


1.

1
1.1. ,
a
a
A = 11 12 II
a21 a22
a
a
det A = 11 12 = a11a22 - a21a12 II
a21 a22
a11 a12 a13
a21 a22
a22 a23
a21 a23
= a21 a22 a23 = a11
- a12
+ a13

a31 a32
a32 a33
a31 a33
a31 a32 a33
III
:
10. .
20. : det A = ai1Ai1 + ai2Ai2 + ai3Ai3,
Aij = (-1)i+jMij ;
Mij aij.
30. () .
40. = 0.
50. .
60. () (), k 0, .
1.2. .
n

aij x j
j =1


(! )

= bi , i = 1, m

( )



a 11 a12 ... a1n b1
a
a22 ... a2 n b2
21
, ( A \B ) =
... ... ... ... ...
a

m1 am2 ... amn bm


= rang(A\B).
: m = n,
a11 a12
a21 a22
det A =
... ...
an1 an2

... a1n
... a2 n
j
0, x j =
, j = 1, n;
... ...

... ann

j j-

1.3. .
= (ij), B = (bij), i = 1, m, j = 1, n, A = B ij = bij
: = + = (ij + bij)
: = = (ij)
: mp, pn
C = A B = (i1b1j + i2b2j + ... + ipbpj), (AB BA)
1 0 0 ... 0
0 1 0 ... 0
, = (ij), i, j = 1, n AE = EA = A
E =
... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 ... 1
A-1 = (ij), i, j = 1, n -1 =
: = (ij), i, j = 1, n, det A 0 -1
A -1

A11
1 A12

=
det A ...
A
1n

A21
A22
...
A2 n

... An1
... An2
,
... ...
... Ann

Aij ij
:
AX = B, = (ij), i, j = 1, n, X = (xj), B = (bi) -,
det A 0 X = A-1B

. 1.1
1. II :
-1 4
sin 2 cos 2
; )
.
-5 2
sin 2 cos 2
: :
-1 4
= (1)2 4(5) = 18;
)
-5 2
)

sin 2 cos 2

= sin2 cos2 sin2 cos2 =


sin 2 cos 2
= (sin cos sin cos) (sin cos + cos sin ) =
= sin( )sin( + ).
2 -3 1
2. III 4 0 -3 : )
5 -1 1
; ) .
: )
2 -3 1
0 -3
4 -3
4 0
4 0 -3 = 2
- (-3)
+1
=
-1 1
5 1
5 -1
5 -1 1
)

= 2(3) + 3 19 4 = 6 + 57 4 = 47;
) 20
2 -3 1
4 -3
2 1
4 0 -3 = (-1)3 (-3)
+ (-1)5 (-1)
=
5 1
4 -3
5 -1 1
= 3 19 + (10) = 47.
3. III
1
2
5
D = 3 -4 7 .
-3 12 -15
: 50, 3
, 2
, , 60,
(3) ,
8

,
:
1 2 5
1 1 5
1 1 5
= 3 3 -4 7 = 6 3 -2 7 = 6 0 -5 -8 =
-1 4 -5
-1 2 -5
0 3 0
= 6 1 (-1)2

-5 -8
= 6 24 = 144.
3 0

4. IV
2 1
3 -1
1 4
2
3
D=
.
3 1 -1
2
-5 2 -2
3
: .
(4), (1), (2), , , .
:
2
-7
=
1
-9

1
0
0
0

-7
= -2 1
-9

-5
-2
-4

3
-10
-4
-8

-1
-7
7
3
= 1 (-1) 1
3
-9
5

-10
-4
-8

7
-2 3
1
+5
3 = -2 -7
-9
-4 5
5

7
3 =
5

3
1
+7
-9
5

-2
=
-4

= -2[-7(-10 + 12) + 5(5 + 27) + 7(-4 - 18)] = 16.


II :
1) 3 10 ; 2) 2 3 ; 3) sin cos ; 4) 1 1 ; 5) a -1 .
;
x1 x2
2
6
- cos sin
-1 2
a
a
: :
9

6) 4
5
3

2
3
2

-1 2- ;
-2
-1

7) 0
1
1

1
0
1

1 3- ;
1
0

8) 1
1
1 1- ;
4
5
9
16 25 21
9) 3
4 -5 2- .
8
7 -2
2 -1
8
:
a ; 11) 2 3 4 ; 12) 12 6 -4 ; 13) 1
10) a -a
a
a -a
6 4
4
5 -2 1
4
a -a -a
3 2
8
1 2 3
7
x :
15) x x + 1
14) 2 x - 4
= 0;
= 0;
-4 x + 1
1
4
2
16) x 4 9
17) 3
.
x -x
x 2 3 = 0;
2
-1 3 = 0.
1 1 1
x + 10 1
1
IV :
4 3 ; 19) 3 -1
5
3;
18) 2 -5
3 -4
7 5
5 -3
4
2
4 -9
8 5
7 -5
1
1
-3
2 -5 3
1 -3 -7 -5

20) 2
0
3
3
10

-1
1
-1
1

1
2
2
6

0 ; 21)
-1
3
1

8
-8
4
0

7
2
4
4

2
7
4
-3

10 .
10
5
2

2
5
8

3.
6
9

. 1.2
-1 -2 -3
1. A = -1
1
2 .

7 11
2
: .
(1), , 2 :
-1 -2 -3
A 0
3
5 . (1)

3
5
0
-1 -2 -3
3
5 rang A = 2.
, A 0

0
0
0
2. :
2 x - y + z = 2,

3 x + 2 y + 2 z = -2,
x - 2 y + z = 1.

: ) .
, (2), (1)
2-, 3- :
2 2 -1 1
2
2 -1 1

( A \B ) = 3
2 2 -2 -1
4 0 -6 .

1 -1 -1 0 -1
1 -2 1
(1) :
2
2 -1 1

4 0 -6 ; rangA = rang (A\B) = 3


(A\B) -1

5
0 -5 0
. , :
y = -1,
2 x - y + z = 2,

- x + 4 y = -6, x = 4 y + 6 = 2,
-5 y = 5;
z = 2 - 2 x + y = -3;

11

) .
2 -1 1
2
= 3
2 2 = -1
1 -2 1
-1
2
1 = -2
1
2
2 = 3
1
2
3 = 3
1

-1
2
-2
2
-2
1
-1
2
-2

1
2
2 = -6
1
-1

-1
4
-1
-1
4
-1

1
-1
0 = 1 (-1)4
-1
0
1
-6
0 = 1 (-1)4
-1
0

4
= 1 + 4 = 5,
-1
4
= 6 + 4 = 10,
-1

1
2
2 1
-1 -6
2 = -1 -6 0 = 1 (-1)4
= 1 - 6 = -5,
-1 -1
1
-1 -1 0
2
2 -2
3 -2
3
2
-2 = 2
+
+2
=
-2
1
1
1
1 -2
1

= 2 (-2) + 5 + 2 (-8) = -15,


x = 1/ = 10/5 = 2; y = 2/ = 5/5 = 1; z = 3/ = 15/5 = 3.
: (x, y, z) = (2, -1, -3).
3.
3 x1 + 2 x2 + x3 + 3 x4 + 5 x5 = 0,
6 x + 4 x + 3 x + 5 x + 7 x = 0,
1
2
3
4
5

9 x1 + 6 x2 + 5 x3 + 7 x4 + 9 x5 = 0,
3 x1 + 2 x2 + 4 x4 + 8 x5 = 0.
: (
, ).
(bi = 0, i = 1, 4), .
(2), (3), (1) 2, 3, 4- :
1
3
5
3 2 1 3 5 3 2
6 4 3 5 7 0 0
1 -1 -3
.

A=
2 -2 -6
9 6 5 7 9 0 0
3 2 0 4 8 0 0 -1
1
3
(2), 1
, :
12

3
5
3 2 1
0 0 1 -1 -3
, rang A = 2.
A
0
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0
0
, :
 Y  Y Y  Y  Y  ,

Y Y  Y  .

x3 = x4 + 3x5, x4, x5 . x2 x1, x4, x5:


2x2 = 3x1 (x4 + 3x5) 3x4 5x5 = 3x1 4x4 8x5 x2 =
= 1,5x1 2x4 4x5.
: (x1; 1,5x1 2x4 4x5; x4 + 3x5; x4; x5).
4.
x + 2 y + 3z = 4,

2 x + y - z = 3,
3 x + 3 y + 2 z = 10.

:
1 2
= 2 1
3 3

3
1
-1 =
3
2

2
-1
-2
2
3

2
-1
+3
2
3

1
=
3

= 5 - 2 7 + 3 3 = 0.
. (A\B),
(2), (3) ,
:
3
4 1
2
3
4
1 2

( A \B ) = 2 1 -1
3 0 -3 -7 -5 .

2 10 0 -3 -7 -2
3 3
(1) :
2
3
4
1

( A \B ) 0 -3 -7 -5 , rang A = 2, rang( A \B ) = 3

0
0
3
0
13

(
0 = 3).


:
22) 5 x + 2 y = 4, 23) 3 x - 5 y = 13,

2 x + 7 y = 81;
7 x + 4 y = 8;

24) 3 y - 4 x = 1, 25) 2 x + 3 y = 1,

3 x + 5 y = 4.
3 x + 4 y = 18;
:
27) x + 2 y + 3z = 5,
26) x + 2 y + 3z = -1,

2 x + 4 y - z = 12,
2 x - y - z = 1,
x + y - 3z = 9;
x + 3 y + 4 z = 6;

29) x + y + z = a,
28) x + 2 y + z = 4,

3 x - 5 y + 3z = 1,
x - y + z = b,
2 x + 7 y - z = 8;
x + y - z = c;

30) 2 x1 + 2 x2 - x3 + x4 = 4, 31) 2 x1 + 3 x2 + 11x3 + 5 x4 = 2,


x + x + 5 x + 2 x = 1,
4 x + 3 x - x + 2 x = 6,
1
1
2
3
4
2
3
4

2
x
+
x
+
3
x
+
2
x4 = -3,
,
8
x
+
5
x
3
x
+
4
x
=
12
2
3
2
3
4
1
1
x1 + x2 + 3 x3 + 4 x4 = -3.
3 x1 + 3 x2 - 2 x3 + 2 x4 = 6;
, , :
32) 2 x1 - x2 + 3 x3 - 7 x4 = 5,

6 x1 - 3 x2 + x3 - 4 x4 = 7,
4 x - 2 x + 14 x - 31x = 18;
2
3
4
1
33) 9 x1 - 3 x2 + 5 x3 + 6 x4 = 4, 34) x - y + z = 1,

6 x1 - 2 x2 + 3 x3 + x4 = 5,
x + y - z = 2,
3 x - x + 3 x + 14 x = -8;
5 x + y - z = 7;

2
3
4
1
35) 2 x1 + x2 - x3 + x4 = 1,
36) 3 x1 + 5 x2 + 2 x3
4 x + 7 x + 5 x
3 x - 2 x + 2 x - 3 x = 2,
1
1
2
3
2
3
4

+
=
x
x
4
x
5
x
+
x
x
+
2
x
=
1
,
2
3
2
3
4
1
1
2 x1 + 9 x2 + 6 x3
2 x1 - x2 + x3 - 3 x4 = 4;
14

= 0,
= 0,
0,
= 0;

37) x1 - 2 x2 + x3 + x4 - x5 = 0,
2 x + x - x - x + x = 0,
1
2
3
4
5

x
+
7
x
5
x
5
x
+
5 x5 = 0,
2
3
4
1
3 x1 - x2 - 2 x3 + x4 - x5 = 0.

:
39) 2 x - 5 y + 2 z = 0,
38) x - 2 y + z = 0,

x + 4 y - 3z = 0;
3 x - 5 y + 2 z = 0;
40) -5 x + y + z = 0,

x - 6 y + z = 0,
x + y - 7 z = 0;

41) x + y + z = 0,

3 x + 6 y + 5z = 0,
x + 4 y + 3z = 0;

42) 3 x + 2 y - z = 0,

2 x - y + 3z = 0,
x + 3 y - 4 z = 0;

43) 3 x + 2 y - z = 0,

2 x - y + 3z = 0,
x + y - z = 0.

44) 1)
,
. J (),
l (%), m (%) n (%),

Ji, i = 1, 3, li, mi, ni . ( ) Ji, i = 1, 3.
2)
: I 95 ., II 100 ., III 185 .
. , , .

I
II
III

1
3
4
3


2
2
1
5

3
1
2
4

. , .
15

. 1.3
1. 3 + 2,
2
A=
0

-1
-2
, B=

-4
-3

1
1

1
2

0
.
2

: 23,
:
3 2 + 2 (-2) 3 1 + 2 1 3 (-1) + 2 0
C = 3 A + 2B =
=
3 0 + 2 (-3) 3 1 + 2 2 3 (-4) + 2 2
2
=
-6

5
7

-3
.
-8

2. = ,
2
A=
-1

3
0

2
1
, B = 1

1
0

1
3
2

-1
-2 .

: 23, 33, 23,


ij i- j- :
C = AB =
2 1 + 3 3 + 1 2
2 (-1) + 3 (-2) + 1 1
2 2 + 3 1 + 1 0
=
=
(-1) 2 + 0 1 + 1 0 (-1) 1 + 0 3 + 1 2 (-1) (-1) + 0 (-2) + 1 1
7 13
=
-2 1

-7
.
2

2 -1
.
3. A =
1
3
2 -1
= 5 0, ..
: det A =
3
1
. : 11 = 1,
1/5 1/5
1 A11 A21 1 1 1
-1
=
=
.
12 = 3, 21 = 1, 22 = 2; A =
-3/5 2/5
det A A12 A22 5 -3 2
16

4. :
2 x1 - x2 = 4,

x1 - 2 x2 + x3 = 0,
3 x - 4 x + 2 x = 3.
2
3
1
2
: AX = B, A = 1

X = A-1B.
3
-1
.
2
det A = 1
3
A12 = A22 =

2
3

A32 = -

-1

1
3

-1
-2
-4

0
-2
1 = -1 0, A11 =
-4
2

0
x1
4

1 , X = x 2 , B = 0 ;


2
3
x3
1
= 0,
2

-1
1
1 -2
= 2, A21 = = 1, A13 =
-4
2
3 -4
0
2
= 4, A23 = 2
3

2
1

-1
-2
-4

0
2
= -2, A33 =
1
1

A11
1
=
A12
det A
A13

A21
A22
A23

-1
-1
= 5, A31 =
-4
-2

0
= 2,
2
0
= -1,
1

-1
= -3.
-2

A 31
0

A32 = - 1

A33
2

2
4
5

-1
-2 ,

-3

x1
0 + 0 - 3 3
0 2 -1 4
x = - 1 4 -2 0 = - 4 + 0 - 6 = 2 ,
2



8 + 0 - 9 1
2 5 -3 3
x3
.. 1 = 3, 2 = 2, 3 = 1.


1 -3 2
2

45) + 4, , A = 3 -4 1 , B = 1

2 -5 3
1
3
2
3
4

46) , , A =
, B=
.
5 -4
2 5

5
2
3

6
5 .

17

:
47) 1
3

49) 2
4

-2 ; 48) 4
7
-4

-3 9
-6 6

3 -28
5 38

-6
3
+ 2

-4
0

93 7
-126 2

0 ; 50) ( 4
-2

3 ;
1

-2

3
1

1 ) -1 ;
5

2

6
.
3 ; 52) 0 0 1
-2
-1 -1

1 1 2
3
4
2

7
2
1
2
2 2 3
1
4
3 3 4 1
, :
53) 1 2 ; 54) 4 0 ; 55) 2 7 3 ; 56) 2
5
7 ;
-2 4
3 4
3 9 4
6
3
4

1 5 3
5 -2 -3
51) 5
4

0
1
1

2
5
-1

57) 1
2
2 .
2
1 -2

1
2 -2
, :
58) x - y = 1, 59) 3 x + 2 y = 1, 60) 2 x1 - 3 x2 + x3 = 2,

x1 + 5 x2 - 4 x3 = -5,
2 x + y = 5;
x + 5 y = 9;
4 x + x - 3 x = -4;
2
3
1
61) 2 x1 - 4 x2 + 3 x3 = 1, 62) x1 + 3 x2 = 2,

- x1 - x2 + x3 = 3,
x1 - 2 x2 + 4 x3 = 3,
2 x + 5 x = 13;
3 x - x + 5 x = 2;
3
1
2
3
1
63) 5 x1 + x2 - x3 = 0,

4 x1 + 3 x2 = 3,
x + 2 x = 2.
2
1

18

2.

2
2.1.

b = a b : b = a ; b a, > 0, b a, < 0

2.2. e1,

e2 , e3 .

a = 1e1 + 2e2 + 3e3,


{1, 2, 3} a e1, e2 , e3,

b = {1, 2 , 3 } a + b = {1 + 1, 2 + 2 , 3 + 3 },

a = {1, 2 , 3 }.

e1, e2 , e1,| | e2 .

2.3. a l (l a),

l AB = A B ,

(+), A B l , (-), A B l


10. l a = a cos(a
, l ).

20. l (a + b ) = l a + l b .

30. l a = l a
2.4.


i , j, k ,

a = ax i + ay j + az k

a = ax2 + ay2 + az2


A(xA, yA, zA), B(xB, yB, zB)

AB ={xB - xA, yB - yA, zB - zA}

19

2.5.

a b = a b cos = a a b ;

a = {ax , ay , az }, b = {bx , by , bz }

a b = ax bx + ay by + az bz

:

10. a b = b a.


20. (a ) b = (a b ).


30. a(b + c ) = a b + a c .

2
40. a 2 = a .


50. a b a b = 0
:

: A = F BC

j a b: cos =

a b
a b =
a


ab

a b

2.6.

1) c a, c b



c = a b 2) c = a b sin

3) a, b , c


i
j k

a b = ax ay az
bx by bz
:


10. a b = -b a.


20. (a ) b = (a b ).


30. a (b + c ) = a b + a c .


40. a b = S , S = a b 2 .

50. a b a b = 0 ax bx = ay by = az bz


: M 0 = r F
20

2.7.
ax ay az


abc = (a b ) c , abc = bx by bz
c x c y cz
:

10. (a b ) c = a (b c ).


20. abc = -bac .

30. abc = bca = cab .

40. , a, b, c:


V = abc ; V = abc 6.


50. a, b, c a b c = 0
2.8. . Rn

R n = {a = {1, 2 , ..., n }; i R, i = 1, n} n-


a + b = {1 + 1, 2 + 2, ..., n + n},


a = {1, 2, ..., n}, R, a, b Rn.

Rn e1, e2 , ..., en Rn.


e1 = (1, 0, ..., 0), e2 = (0, 1,..., 0) ,..., en = (0, 0, ..., 1),

a b = 11 + 22 + ... + nn Rn n-
, a = 12 + 22 + ... + 2n .
2.9. . . Rn


R n x = Ax, x, x R n ,


n
A( x + y ) = Ax + Ay, A(x ) = Ax x, y R , R.

e1, e2 , ..., en Rn A = (aij), i, j = 1, n.


x A x : Ax = x, R

det(A - E) = 0 .
Rn

Ax y = x Ay A = (aij) = (aji),
i, j = 1, n :

21

f (x1, x2, ..., xn) =

aij xi x j , aij = aji,


i =1 j =1

i, j = 1, n, A = (aij) ,
n

i xi2, li
i =1

. 2.1, 2.2

1.
D

= a, AD = b .
AB

a, b MA, MB, MC, MD,


(. 2.1).

:
AC = a + b ,
BD = b - a. , , , :

1
1 1 1
MA = - AC = - (a + b ), MC = AC = (a + b ),
2
2
2
2

1 1 1 1
MB = - BD = (a - b ), MD = BD = (b - a ).
2
2
2
2

. 2.1

2.
OA
= 3,
OB
= 4,
OM
, N
.

, ON , MN
i , j OA, OB (. 2.2).
:

OA = 3i , OB = 4 j , BM = MC = 1,5i ,

NC = AN = 2 j .

OM = OB + BM = 4 j + 1,5i ,
ON = OA + AN = 3i + 2 j ,

= OA + AN = 3i + 2 j , MN = MC + CN = 1,5i - 2 j .
. 2.2

22

3.

a = {2; - 1}, b = {3; 2}, c = {-1; 4}.


c a, b.

: a, b c = a + b , , .
: {1; 4} = {2 + 3, + 2}.
, :
-1
4
2 + 3 = -1,
=

2
- + 2 = 4,
-1
2
-1
=
2
-1

3
2
14
= - = -2;
3
7
2

-1
4


7
= = 1 c = -2a + b.
3
7
2


1) :




b -a a+b a+b a-b
; a.
a+
=
=
2
2
2
2
2)
= 60, |OB| = |BC | = |CA| =
= 2, N

. 2.3
AC

(.
2.3).

,


OM , ON , MN m, n OA, OB
.
3) DABCD

: AB = m; AD = n; AA = p

(. 2.4). m + n + p;
1 1 1
m + n + p; m + n - p; m + n + p.
2
2
2
4)



AB = a, CA = b . a, b . 2.4
, .
23



5) a, b , a = 5,


b = 12. a + b ; a - b .


6) , a = 13; b = 19; a + b = 24. a - b .

7) M, N, P, ,
.

R, M = 2 H; N = 10 H; P = 11H.

8) a = {1; -2; 3}; b = {0; 2; 1}.

3a + 2b , a - 4b .

9) p = {2; -3}; q = {1; 2}.


a = {9; 4} p, q.

10) p = {3; -2; 1}; q = {-1; 1; -2}; r = {2; 1; -3}.



c = {11; -6; 5} p, q , r .

a
=
{
2
;
1
;
0
};
b
= {1; -1; 2}; c = {2; 2; -1};
11)

d = {3; 7; -7}. , .

12)
a = {; -1; 2}; b = {3, , 6}. ,

, a, b .

13)

a
, b , c . ,

a + b + c ; a + b + c .

. 2.3, 2.4
1. ,
a = {4; 3; 1}, (3; 1; 2).

: a = {4; 3; 1} = {xB 3; yB 1; zB + 2} xB = 4 + 3 = 7, yB =
= 3 + 1 = 2, zB = 1 2 = 1 B(7; 2; 1).
2. (1; 2; 3), (0; 3; 5),(1;
2;
3).

a = AB - 3 AC .
: :

AB = {1; 1; 2}, AC = {2; -4; 0}; a = {1 - 3 2; 1 - 3 (-4); 2 - 3 0} =

13
-5
= {-5; 13; 2} a = 25 + 169 + 4 = 198, cos =
,
, cos =
198
198
2
cos =
.
198

3. a Y
= 60, = 120. ,

a = 2.
24

: 10 ,
:

1
1
aX = a cos = 2 = 1; aY = a cos = 2 - = -1.
2
2

2
2
2
2
2 = 1 + (-1) + aZ aZ = 2; aZ = 2; a = {1, 1, 2 }.

14)
l: l a = 5;

l b = 3; l c = 8; l d = 6, , ?

15) , a = 6; l a = 3, a
l.

16) (1; 3; 4) a = {2; 4; 1}.


.
17) .(2; 5; 3) ,

BC
, AB
=
{4;
1;
2};
=
{3;
2; 5},

CA.
18) (2; 1; 1) R = 7. = 2; Y = 3,
, .
19)
(1; 2; 3), (3; 2; 1), (6; 4; 4).
D.

20) a = {1; 2; 3}; b = {0; 1; 2};

c = {3; 0; 1}.

d = a - 2b - c .
21) ,
- 3.
22)
. 2.5

(. 2.5).

F , F = 1000 . ,
= 30; = 60.
23) P
, ,
(. 2.6).

.
. 2.6
25

. 2.5

1. a = 1; b = 3; (a, b ) = . 3

(4a - b ) (2a + 3b ).
: 1030,
,
40:



(4a - b ) (2a + 3b ) = 8a 2 - 2a b + 12a b - 3b 2 =

= 8 a 2 + 10 a b cos(a, b ) - 3 b 2 =

= 8 1 + 10 1 3 cos - 3 9 = 8 + 15 - 27 = -4.
3

b
a

2.

=
{4;
-2;
3};
= {1; -2; 0}; c = {2; 1; -3}.

(a + 3b ) (a - b + c ).


: m = a + 3b , n = a - b + c :

m = {4 + 3 1; 2 + 3 (2); 3 + 3 0} = {7; 8; 3}; n = {4 1 + 2; 2 +



+ 2 + 1; 3 0 3} = {5; 1; 0} m n = 7 5 + (8) 1 + 3 0 = 35 8 =
= 27.

3. : a = {-1; 2;3}; b= {0; 1; -2}; c = {2; 1; -3}.

a d = 2b - c .
: d = {2 0 - 2; 2 1 - 1; 2 (-2) - (-3)} = {-2; 1; -1},

a d (-1)(-2) + 2 1 + 3 (-1)
1
1
cos = =
=
=
,
1+ 4 + 9 4 +1+1
14 6 2 21
a d
1
= arccos
.
2 21

AB, (1; 2; 3); (0; 1; 2);


4. CD
(1; 2; 3); D(3; 1; 0).

: AB = {1; -1; -1}; CD = {2; 3; -3},



AB CD 1 2 + (-1) 3 + (-1)(-3)
2
22

CD AB = =
=
=
.
11
4+9+9
22
CD

. :
24) , a = 3; b = 4; (a, b ) =

) (3a - 2b )(a + 2b );
26


) (a + b )2 .


25) , a = b = c = 1, a + b + c = 0.

a b + b c + c a.

26) , a = 3, b = 2, (a, b ) = . a - 2b .
3

. , 27) : a = 2, b = 5, (a, b ) =
3

p = a + 17b q = 3a - b .

28) : a = 2m - n, m = n = 1, (m
, n) = 120. s j,

= (a, m).
29) ,
,

a, b (a b ),

a2 - b 2
cos = 2 2 .
a +b

30)

a, b,

a + b a - b ?
31) a
, .
.

=
{5;
0;
4};
= {0; -1; 2}; c = {3; 1; 4}.
32)

a
b

(a + c )(b - 2a ).
33)
3; 7); (2; 1; 5); (0; 1; 5).



(1;

(2 AB - CB )(2BC + BA).

34) , F = {6; 2; 1},


, , (3; 4; 2) (4; 2; 3).

35) P = {3; 4; 2}; Q = {2; 3; 5}; R = {3; 2; 4},


. ,
, , , 1(5; 3; 7) 2(4; 1; 4).
36) (1; 2; 4); (4; 2; 0);
(3; 2; 1). .
37) (3; 2; 3); (5; 1; 1);
(1; 2; 1). .
27

38)

a = {2; -3; 4}; b = {4; 0; 5}; c = {3; 1; 1}.

d c, d = 2a - b .
39) (5; 7; 6), N(7;
9;

9).

a = {1; 3; 1} MN .
40) ,


c = 2a + b d, a = i + 2 j - k ; b = 3i + j + k ; d = i - 3k .

41) x, a = {2; 1; 1}

x a = 3.
42) R = {1; 8; 7}
,

a
=
2
i
+
2
j
+
k
.

F R a.

. 2.6


1. , a b , a = 3, b = 4.

(3a - b ) (a - 2b ) .
: 1030,
:




(3a - b ) (a - 2b ) = 3a a - b a - 6a b + 2b b = -5a b .


50 a a = 0, b b = 0.

(3a - b ) (a - 2b ) = -5a b = 5 a b sin(a, b ) = 5 3 4 = 60.



2. a = i - 2 j + k , b = 3i + 4 j .

(2a - b ) (a + 3b ).

:
2a - b = {2 1 3;

2 2 4; 2 1} = {1; 8; 2}, a + 3b = {1 + 3 3; 2 + 4 3; 1} =
= {10; 10; 1}.


i
j k

(2a - b ) (a + 3b ) = -1 -8 2 =
10 10 1
-8
=i
10

-1
2
- j
1
10

-1
2
+k
10
1

-8
= -28i + 21 j + 70k.
10

3. : (1; 2; 0), (3; 0; 3), (5; 2; 6).


.
28

: AB = {2; -2; -3}, AC =


1
= {4; 0; 6}. 40 S ABC = AB AC .
2


i
j
k

AB AC = 2 -2 -3 = -12i - 24 j + 8k ,
4 0 6
S ABC =

1
122 + 242 + 82 = 14 (. .).
2

43) : a = 2, b = 3, (a, b ) =
. [(3a + 2b ) (a - 3b )]2 .
3



44) : a = 10, b = 2, a b = 12. a b .

45) a b 45.

,
a - 2b 3a + 2b , a =

= b = 5.

p = a + 5b
46)

q = 3a - b , a b .

(
a
+ b + c)
47)

(a - 2b ), a = 2i + j ; b = i - 3 j + k ; c = j + 2k .
48)
,

a = {0; -1; 1}; b = {1; 1; 1}.


49) (2; 1; 2); (1;
2; 1). 2; 1);
(3;
(BC - 2CA) CB.
50) D (1; -2; 8); (0; 0; 4); (6; 2; 0).

51) F = {2; -4; 5} (4; 2; 3).


(3; 2; 1).

52) F1 = {2; 1; 3}; F2 = {3; 2; 1}; F3 = {4; 1; 3},


A(1; 4; 2). (2; 3; 1).

53)
x,

a = {2; -3;
1}; b = {1; -2; 3}

x (i + 2 j - 7k ) = 10.
29

. 2.7


1. a, b , c ,
,

, a = 2, b = 3, c = 4. a b c.

a
b c = V,


a, b , c , V = a b c

, a b c = 24.


2. , (a + b )(a + c )b = -abc .
:


(a + b )(a + c )b = (a + b )(a b + c b ) =


= aab + acb + bab + bcb = acb = -abc ,
20, 50.

=
{1;
-1;
3},
= {-2; 2; 1}, c = {3; 0; -1}.
3.

b
a

(2b + c )(a + b + c )(a - b ).

:
2b + c = {4; 4; 2} +

+ {3; 0; 1} = {1; 4; 1}, a + b + c = {2; 1; 3}, a - b = {3; 3; 2},



(2b + c )(a + b + c )(a - b ) =

-1
2
3

4
1
-3

1
3 = 0.
2

4. D,
(2; 1; 1), (5; 5; 4), (3; 2; 1), D(4; 1; 3).
: 40

1
V = AB AC AD , AB = {3; 6; 3}, AC = {1; 3; - 2}. AD = {2; 2; 2},
6

3 6
3

1
AB AC AD = 1 3 -2 = -18. V = -18 = 3 (. .).
6
2 2
2

b,
a,
a,
54) c


30, a = 6, b = c = 3. abc.
55) ,



(a - b )(a - b - c )(a + 2b - c ) = 3abc ;
30



(a + b )(b + c )(c + a ) = 2abc .

56) ,
a, b , c

3, a = {3; 2; 1}, b = {2; 1; 2}, c = {3; 1; 2}.

b
=
2
i
3
j
4
k
,
57) ,

a
=
i
+
3
j
+
2
k
,

c = -3i + 12 j + 6k . c a b.
58) , (2; 1; 1); (1; 2; 1); (2; 3; 0);
D(1; 6; 2) .

59) a = {l; 3; 1}, b = {5; -1; 2}, c = {-1; 5; 4}


?
60)

a = 3i + 4 j , b = -3 j + k , c = 2 j + 5k .
61) D,
D, (1; 1; 1), (2; 0; 2), (2; 2; 2),
D(3; 4; 3).

. 2.8
1.

3 x1 - 2 x2 + x3 - 4 x4 = 0,

2 x1 - 3 x2 - 2 x3 + x4 = 0,
4 x - x + 4 x - 9 x = 0.
2
3
4
1
: , :
8

x2 = 7 x1 - 4 x4 ,

x = - 5 x + 2x ,
1
4
3
7
x1, x4 .
u v, x1 = 1, x4 = 0, x1 = 0, x4 = 1:

u = (1; 8/7; -5/7; 0), v = (0; -4; 2; 1).

x = x1u + x4v,


u v. , , u v , .

, x1u + x4v = 0
31

x1 = 0, x4 = 0. .

2. , x1 = (1; 2,1; 2), x2 = (-1; 3; 2,1),

x3 = (-13; -1,2; -11) . .

: 1 x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 0.
:
1 - 2 - 13 3 = 0,
2 + 3 - = 0,
1
2
3

+
+
2
3 = 0,
1
21 + 2 - 11 3 = 0.
, : 1 = 83; 2 = -53. 8x1 - 5x2 + x3 = 0.

.

3. e1 = {1; -2; 1; 3},

e2 = {2; 1; -3; 1} 4.

: e1 e2 = 2 - 2 + 3 - 3 = 0. e3 = {1; 2; 3; 4},


e1 e3 = 0; e2 e3 = 0
1 - 2 2 + 3 + 3 4 = 0,

21 + 2 - 33 + 4 = 0.

, e3, e3 = {-4; 2;


-1; 3}. e4 = {1; 2; 3; 4}, e1 e4 = 0, e2 e4 = 0, e3 e4 = 0

1 - 22 + 3 + 34 = 0,

21 + 2 - 33 + 4 = 0,
-4 + 2 - + 3 = 0.
1
2
3
4

, e4, e4 =
= {2; 4; 3; 1}.


62) 3?

) x1 = (3; 0; 2), x2 = (7; 0; 9), x3 = (4; 1; 2);

) x1 = (1; 1; 0), x2 = (3; 0; 1), x3 = (5; 2; 1).


32


63) , e1, e2, e3 ,

x : e1 = (1; 1; 1), e2 = (1; 1; 2), e3 = (1; 2; 3), x =


= (6; 9; 14).
64) :
2 x1 - 4 x2 + 5 x3 + 3 x4 = 0,

) 3 x1 - 6 x2 + 4 x3 + 2 x4 = 0,
4 x - 8 x + 17 x + 11x = 0;
2
3
4
1
3 x1 + 5 x2 + 2 x3 = 0,
4 x + 7 x + 5 x = 0,

2
3
) 1
x
x
4
x
0,
+
=
2
3
1
2 x1 + 9 x2 + 6 x3 = 0.

65) a = (1; 0; 1; 0), b = (1; 1; 1; 1).


66) n :

) e1 = (2/3; 1/3; 2/3), e2 = (1/3; 2/3; -2/3), n = 3;

) e1 = (1; 1; 1; 2), e2 = (1; 2; 3; -3), n = 4.

. 2.9
1.
,
-3
A = -2

15

2
1
-7

0
0 .

:
-3 -
2
0
-2
1-
0 = 0 (4 - )( 2 + 2 + 1) = 0.
15
-7 4 -
, 1 = 4, 2 = 3 = -1 . ,
(-3 - ) x1 + 2 x2 = 0,

-2 x1 + (1 - ) x2 = 0,
15 x - 7 x + (4 - ) x = 0.
2
3
1
33

1 = 4
-7 x1 + 2 x2 = 0,

-2 x1 - 3 x2 = 0,
15 x - 7 x = 0.
2
1

u =
= k(0; 0; 1), k (k 0).
= -1:
-2 x1 + 2 x2 = 0,

-2 x1 + 2 x2 = 0,
15 x - 7 x + 5 x = 0.
2
3
1

8
x1 = x2, x3 = - x2, .. v = l(1; 1; -8/5), l
5
.
2. ,

1 1 1
A = 1 1 1 .

1 1 1
: , . : 1 = 3, 2 = 3 = 0,
,
-2 x1 + x2 + x3 = 0,

x1 - 2 x2 + x3 = 0, x1 + x2 + x3 = 0.
x + x - 2 x = 0;
2
3
1
x1 (1; 1; 1), ((x2 + x3); x2; x3).

e1 = (1; 1; 1), e2 = (-1; 1; 0), e3 =


3 0 0
(-1; 0; 1). 0 0 0 .

0 0 0
3. f(x1, x2) = 3x12 + 10x1x2 +
+ 3x22 .
3 5
: A =
.
5 3
:
34

3-
5
= 0 1 = 8, 2 = -2.
5
3-
:
-5u1 + 5u2 = 0,

5u1 - 5u2 = 0.

5u1 + 5u2 = 0,

u1 = u2, u1 = -u2,

a1 = u1(1; 1), a2 = u1(1; 1). (1; 1); (1; 1);

e1 = (1/ 2; 1/ 2); e2 = (1/ 2; 1/ 2).


,
x1 = x1/ 2 + x2 / 2,

x2 = x1/ 2 - x2 / 2
f(x1, x2) = 8(x1)2 2(x2)2.
4. , f(x1, x2,
x3) = 6x12 + 5x22 + 7x32 - 4x1x2 + 4x1x3 .
:
6
A = -2

-2
5
0

2
0 .


6 - -2
2
-2 5 -
0 = 0 1 = 3, 2 = 6, 3 = 9,
2
0
7-
.. .


67) :
x1 = 3 x1 + 5 x2 , x1 = 7 x1 - 8 x2 ,

x2 = 4 x1 + 7 x2 ; x2 = x1 - 5 x2 .
68) , , :
35

x1 = 2 x1 - 3 x2 + x3,
x1 = 2 x1 - 4 x2 + 3 x3,

) x2 = x1 + 5 x2 - 4 x3, ) x2 = x1 - 2 x2 + 4 x3,
x = 4 x + x - 3x ;
x = 3x - x + 5x .
1
2
3
1
2
3
3
3
69) . , x1, x2, x3 x1, x2, x3:
x1 = 2 x1 + x3 ,
x1 = 5 x1 - x2 + 3 x3,

) x2 = x2 - 3 x3 ,
) x2 = x1 - 2 x2 ,
x = 2 x .
x = 7 x - 3x ;
2
3
1
3
3
70) :
2
) 5

-1

-1
-3
0

2
-1

3 ; ) 0

0
-2

-2
4
5

12
7

3 ; ) -2

6
0

-2
6
-2

0
-2 .

71) ( ):
11
) 2

-8

2
2
10

-8
17

10 ; ) -8

5
4

-8
17
-4

4
-4 .

11

72)
:
) f(x1, x2) = 9x12 4x1x2 + 6x22;
) f(x1, x2, x3) = 11x12 + 5x22 + 2x32 + 16x1x2 + 4x1x3 20x2x3.
73) , :
) x12 + x22 + x32 + 4x1x2 + 4x1x3 + 4x2x3;
) 17x12 + 14x22 + 14x32 4x1x2 4x1x3 8x2x3.
74) k Q(x1, x2, x3)
?
) Q(x1, x2, x3) = kx12 + 2x22 + 3x32;
) Q(x1, x2, x3) = 3x12 kx22 4x1x2.

36


1. ,
a b a ?
1.1.
,

, a + b , a.
: .
1.2. , :


a + b , a.
: .
1.3. , x1, x2, ..., xn n.
: .

2. x, a = {3; 2; 2}
b = {18; 22; -5}, OY . , |x| = 14.
: {4; 6; 12}.

3. x1 = {1; 2; 1; 2}; x2 = {1; 3; 2; 1}; x3 =


= {13; 1; 2; -1} .


: { x1; x2} { x2; x3}.

1}; c = {3; 0; 4} 4. a = {3; 5; 2}; b = {4; 5;



. , a, b, c ,
u = {4; 25; 10} .
: {1; 4; 3}.
5.
,

a = 2m + n b = m 2n, | m| = | n | = 1,

(m
, n) = 60.
: 7, 13.


6. , a b = b c = c a, a + b + c = 0.

7. a OY OZ
= 120 = 45. ,

|a| = 6.

: a1 = {3; 3; 3 2}, a2 = {3; 3; 3 2}.

8. a = {2; 1; 2} b = {3; 2; 6}

.
c,

a b, | c | = 5 42.

: c = {25; 5; 20}.
37

9.
,
m = a + b + c ,n = a - b + c , p = a - b - c .

: V = 4abc.
10. ,
, = ,
.
11. ,
(.. ), | A |.
12. , .
: os = 4/5.

13. a b, ,
,
,
a.

ab
: h = 2 (a - b ).
a
14. ,

a = 3m + 5n, b = m 2n, c = 2m + 7n, | m| = 0,5; | n| = 3, (m


, n) =
= 135.
: V = 0.
15. , ,
, .

16. x, a = (6; 8; 7,5),

OZ. , | x | = 50, .

: x = (24; 32; 30).



a (a b )
17. , p = b - 2
a
a.
18.

x , x

x a = , a .

: , a , , ,

/| a |.

38

19. V = 5,
(2; 1; 1), (3; 0; 1), (2; 1; 3). D, , OY.
: D1(0; 8; 0), D2(0; 7; 0).

= 60, | a | = 5, | b | = 8.
20. a b


| a + b | | a b |.
: 129, 7 .

21. s = a a + b + c, a, b , c .

: s = 2 a + 2 b + 2 c .


22. p, q, r , n. , a = p n; b =

= q n; c = r n .
23. D. :
2 2 2 2
MA MC = MB MD, MA + MC = MB + MD .


24.

a d, b c, a b =


= c d, a c = b d.

25. s = (4; 3; 2) ,
.
: 3.

26. a, b , c

=
+
j, b =
c,
a
i

= j + k.
: (1/3; 4/3; 1/3) (1; 0; 1).

27. , R = {1, -8, -7},


a = 2i +

,
+ 2 j + k. R a.
: (14/3; 14/3; 7/3).

28. a b , ,
, , r.

ab
: r.
ab

29.
,
a, b , c,

a b + b c + c a = 0, .

30. , a b , a c, a (b c) = 0.

39



31. , |abc| | a | | b | | c |.
?


32. a (b c ) = b (a c ) c (a b ).

33.
(a b ) c + (b c )


a + (c a ) b = 0.

34. s ,

?

: | s | .
35. ,
, ,
72.
: 0.
36. : 4, 2, 2, 2. =
= ,
CH4
4
H
CH O
2
2
, B = C , =
A=

O2
0
O
H O
2
2

1
1
0
0

0
1
,
2
1

i, i = 1, 4,
14 + 22 + 32 + 42 = 0.
: 4 + 2 =
= 2 + 2.
: (1234)
= 0 .
37. 2, Br2, HBr.
H
H
2
H
) (. 36) A = Br , B = ,
Br
Br
2
HBr
;
) , = , - 2 + Br2 = 2HBr.
: Br2 2Br, Br + H2 HBr + H, H + Br2 HBr + Br.
40


1
1.
x + y + z = 3,

x - y + 5z = 5,
3 x + y - z = 3.

: (1; 1; 1).
2. (2; -3; 1), (4;
11; 6), (4; -4; 3). , .
: | | = 3, | AB| = 15, BAC = 90.

3.



2i ( j k) +
+ 3 j (i k) + 4k (i j ).
: 3.

4.

m a = 7i - 3 j + 2k; b = 3i - 7 j +
+ 8k; c = mi - j + k ?
: m = 1.

a = (2; 1; -1) 5. b,

a b = 12.
: {4; 2; -2}.

6. a b = /6, | a | = 3, | b | = 1.

p = a + b q = a b.
: cos = 2/ 7.
2
1.
3 x + 2 y - z = 0,

2 x - y + 3z = 0,
x + 3 y - 4 z = 0.

: (5k; 11k; -7k).


2.


, OA = i + j OB = 3 j + k.
: = arccos (4/ 27).

3.
a = i + 2 j 6k; b = i +

+ j 3k ?
: = 2, = 1.
41

4. (2; 2; 2),
(4; 3; 3), (4; 5; 4), D(5; 5; 6).
: 7.

5.
a b c, a =

= {1; 0; 2}, b = {3; 1; 0}, c = {1; -2; 1}.


: cos = 4/ 41.

F = 3a 2b
6.

S = 5a 6b, | a | = 4, | b | = 6 a b
/3.
: 336 (. .).
3
1.
x + 2 y + 3z = 4,

2 x + 2 y - z = 3,
3 x + 3 y + 2 z = 10.

: .

2. a = (3; 2; 1), b = (1; 1; 2). r =

= (x; y; z), a b,
35.

: r1 = (3; 5; 1), r2 = (3; 5; 1).


3. (2; 2; 2),
(4; 0; 3) (0; 1; 0).
: 65/2.
4. , (5; 7; 2), (3; 1; 1), (9; 4; 4) D(1;
5; 0) .

5. a .

, | a | = 3 3.
: (3; 3; 3); (3; 3; 3).
6. ,


a = m + 2n b = 2m + n, | m| = | n | = 1, m n
30.
: 1,5.

42

4
1.
x - y + 5z = 5,

3 x + y + 7 z = 11,
4 x + 2 y = 6.

: (1; 1; 1).

2.
a = (2; 1; 1), b = (1; 5; 0), c = (4; 4; 2).

c (3a - 2b ).
: 11.
3.

,

a = i + j + 2k b = 2i + j + k.
1 -3 1 -1 3 -1
;
;
;
;
;
.
:
11 11 11 11 11 11

4. c a = (1; 1; 1), b =

= (1; 1; 1), c = (2; 3; 4). ?


: 4, .
5.
,


a 2b 3a + 2b, | a | = | b | = 5, a b
45.
: 50 2.

6. d = (5; 7; 8) a = (4;

5; 2), b = (3; 0; 1) c = (1; 4; 2).


: (1; 4; 3).


1.
aij .
2. III 2- ,
3- .
3. ,
, ?
4.
? .
43

5. ?
,
?
6. ,
?
7. , ,
. .
8. .
9.
.
10. ?
.

: n
n +
, , m =
+ 1,
2
+ + +
l =
+ 1, [...] .
5

1. III
(-1)n m
m - 2l
n

(-1) 2

m - 4l
m - 3l

2
5

-3

m - 10

2. IV
0

m-5

(-1)n 3 m - 7 (-1)n
2
3
-l
m - 2l

-2

l -1

(-1)n
2
4

(-1)n 3

3. :
(-1)n (m + 1) x - (m + 3) y = (-1)n 2,

n +1
n +1
(-1) (l + 3) x + (l + 1) y = (-1) 2(l + m + 3).
44

4.
(m - (-1)n 5) x1 + 5 x2 + x3 = 2m,

n
n
n
(-1) mx1 + 4 x2 - (-1) x3 = (-1) 4,

n
(m - 3l ) x1 + (-1) 3lx2 - 2 x3 = - m:
) ; ) ; ) .

5. : | a | = m + 1, | b | = l + 1.
: )

c = (m - 5)a + (-1)n b ; d = (l + (-1)n + 2)a + b ; (a, b ) = /3;



) | c d |, (a, b ) = /2.

n
j
=
(m
4)
+
((-1)
l)
+
3
6. :
b = (-1)nl i + (-1)n j +
k;
i
a

+ (m - 3)k.
: )

c = (1)n(l + 1)a + (m l)b d = b + (1)n(m + 1)a ;

c;

) c d e, e = 3 j + 2k.
7. : ((1)nm; l; 0); B((-1)n2; 3; m 4); C(m 2l; 1; 3).

AB ; ) S
: ) osABC; ) AC
ABC; )

D(0; (1)n; 2).

8. F = (1)nm i l j + 3k A(m l; 0;
(1)n).

n
F
: ) E

AB, (3; (1) ; m 5);


) | M | F (0; 0; 0).

9. , a = (2; (1)nm; l; 1), b = ((1)n; 3;

2; 1), c = ((1)n+1m 2l; m((1)n+1l 3); l 2 + 2m; (m + l ))


, .
. 1, 2
1.1.
1) 2; 2) 7; 3) 1; 4) 2 1; 5) 2; 6) 1; 7) 2; 8) 40; 9) 0; 10) 43;
11) 10; 12) 72; 13) 0; 14) = 12; 15) 1 = 1; 2 = 4; 16) 1 = 2; 2 = 3.
: 3- : = (12 18)
45

- (32 9) + (22 4) = 0; 17) 1,2 = 4 22; 18) 4. : , , 3, 4, 3 2, 3, 4- ,

-1
0
=
0
0

-1
-7
-13
5

-3
-2
-4
4

-2
-1
;
-3
9

19) 0; 20) 0; 21) 1800.


1.2. .
22) x = 0; y = 2; 23) = 16; = 7; 24) = 2; = 3; 25) = 7; = 5;
26) = 1; = 2, z = 2; 27) x = 1; y = 1; z = 2; 28) x = y = z = 1; 29) x =
= (b + c)/2; y = (a b)/2; z = (a c)/2; 30) x1 = x2 = 1; x3 = x4 = 1;
31) x1 = 2; x2 = 0; x3 = 1; x4 = 1; 32) x3 = (34x1 17x2 29)/5; x4 =
= (16x1 8x2 16)/5; 33) x3 = (26 27x1 + 9x2)/13; x4 = (13 + 3x1
- x2)/13; 34) ; 35) ; 36) x1 = x2 = x3 = 0;
37) x1 = x2 = x3 = 0; x4 = 5; 38) x = y = z = k. :
b1
a1 x + b1 y + c1z = 0,
x=k

b2
a2 x + b2 y + c2 z = 0,
z=k

a1
a2

c1
a1
, y = -k
c2
a2

c1
,
c2

b1
, k R;
b2

39) x = 7k; y = 8k; z = 13k; 40) x = y = z = 0. : 0; 41) x = k;


y = 2k; z = -3k. : = 0, ; 42) x = 5k; y = 11k, z = 7k; 43) x = y = z = 0;
1 1
1
1 1 1
1
1 1
J
J
J
44) 1) J1 =
l l2 l3 ; J 2 =
l1 l l3 ; J 3 =
l1 l2 l ;

m m2 m3
m1 m m3
m1 m2 m
1
1
1
3
= l1 l2 l3 . : , J1 = J .
i =1
m1 m2 m3

46

Jl =
Jm =

i =1

i =1

J i li ;
i =1

J i mi ; Jn = J i ni . -

Ji; i = 1, 2, 3. ,
7 23 22
; 44) 2) (15; 20; 10); 45) 1 12 19 ,

5
2 17
5 -5
1
5 2 29 -22
2 0
13 -14
3 10
,
;
; 47)
0 ; 46)
; 48)

7 0 31 -24
0 3
21 -22
9 -7
2
5
56
15
1
6 0
-2
; 50) 31; 51) 69 ; 52) ; 53)
49)
;


25
3
2
1
2
0 -4


17
35
-1
1
-7 3 2 -1 3
1
1 4 0

; 55) 5 3 -1 -1 3 ; 56) -38


41 -34 ;
54)

1 8 1 4
24
1
1
-2
27 -29
1 9 2 9 2 9
57) 2 9 1 9 -2 9 ; 58) x = 2, y = 1; 59) x = 1, y = 2; 60) x1 = 5,

2 9 -2 9 1 9
x2 = 6, x3 = 10; 61) x1 = 1, x2 = 0, x3 = 1; 62) x1 = 1, x2 = 1, x3 = 3;
63) x1 = 0, x2 = 1, x3 = 1.
2.1.
2.2.

ON
OM = 2n + m,
2)
AC = 2(n - m),
= n + 3m; MN = - n + 2m;
4)BM = a + b/2;AN = a/2 - b/2; CK = a/2 + b; 5) | a + b | = | a

- b | = 13; 6) | a b | = 22; 7) | R| = 15 H;
(1; 10; 1);
8) (3; 2;
11),

9) a = 2 p + 5q; 10) c = 2 p 3q + r ; 11) d = 2a 3b + c, c = 2a + 3b +


3 1 1 2 1 1
+ d, a = b - c + d; b = a + c - d ; 12) = 1, = 3; 13) =
2
2
2
3
3
3
= = 1.
47

2.3. ,
2.4.


14) . l (a + b + c + d) = 0, a + b + c + d
,
l. 15) 120;
16) (3; 1; 3); 17) (6; 4; 5), (9; 6; 10), CA = {7; 1; 7};
18) B(4; 2; 5) B(4;
2; 7), os = 2/7, cos = 3/7, cos = 6/7;
19) D(4; 0; 6); 20) | d | = 2 5, cos = 1/ 5, cos = 2/ 5, cos = 0;
21) M( 3, 3, 3); 22) S1 850 H, S2 = 500 H. : ,

F

S1 S2 ,
,

F + S1 + S2 = 0.
AC
BC, . ,
BCA

= 90
S
S
(. 2.7).

=
0,

X 1

Y 1 = S1,
X S2 = S2, Y S2 = 0, X F = -F cos b,

cos a,
Y F = -F
F + S1 + S2 = 0 . 2.7

S1 - F cos = 0,

S2 - F cos = 0,

S1 = F cos = F 3 2,

S2 = F cos = F 2 .


, ;
23) T1 = Pcos j, T2 = Ptg j.
2.5.
24)) 61; ) 13; 25) 3/2. : ,

a, b, c .
26) 13. :
2 4

, | a 2 b | = (a - 2b ) ; 27) 40. :


, ( a + 17b )(3a b ) = 0,

(2m - n)m

. 28) 5/(2 7). : cos(a, b ) =


.
2m - n
, -

48

26. 29) : , 1 1
(a - b ) (a + b )


2
;
: (a + b )/2, (a b )/2; cos = 2
1 1
a-b a+b
2
2



30) | a| = | b |; 31) a 6. : R = (m + n + p)2 , m, n, p ; 32)
33) 524; 34) 17. :
129;
F

AB ; 35) 13; 36) /4; :



BA BC
cos(ABC ) = ; 37) arccos(4/9); 38) 1/ 5; 39) 3; 40) 3;
BA BC

41) x = (1; 1/2; 1/2). :


x = (2; ;


), , x a ; 42) F = (14/3;
14/3; 7/3).

:
a F
, k = (a R)/| a |.
2.6.

2
S
= |(a 2b ) (3a +
43)

(33 3) ; 44) 16; 45) 50 2. :

+ 2b )|/2; 46) 15. : ( a + 5b ) (3a b ) = 0; 47) (19; 6; 21);


48) 6; 49) (12;8; 12);
50)
S = 7 5 . ., BD = 2 21/3; 51) (4;
3; 4}. : M = CA F ; 52) 66, os = 1/ 66, os = 4/ 66,
os = 7 66; 53) (7; 5;1). :

x a b x = (a b ),
.
2.7.
54) 27;
(+) ,
() ; 56) .

0;
57)
=
5
+
;
58).
: , :
c
c
a
a
b
b

AB, AC , AD ; 59) = 3; 60) 51; 61) V = 2, = 6 2.
: = 3V/S.
2.8. . n

62) ) ; ) ; 63) (1; 2; 3); 64) ) u = (1; 0; 5/2; 7/2), v =


= (0; 1; 5; 7); ) ,

; 65) = 45; 66) ) e3 = (2/3; 2/3; 1/3); ) e3 = (1; 2; 1; 0);

e4 = (25; 4; 17; -6).

49

2.9. .
.
n
11
7

x1 = 2 x1 + 4 x2 - 2 x3 ,

10 -3
13
9

x1 + 5 x2 - x3 ,
;
67)
6 8 ) ) x2 =

2
2
2
5

19
13

x3 = 2 x1 + 7 x2 - 2 x3 ;
6
17
2

x1 = 25 x1 - 25 x2 + 5 x3 ,
x1 = 10 x1 + 5 x2 + 3 x3,

7
1
1

69 ) x2 = x1 - 23 x2 + 9 x3,
) x2 = - x1 x2 + x3 ,
25
25
5
x = 10 x - 2 x + 6 x ;

1
2
3
3
2
1

x3 = - 5 x1 + 5 x2 ;

70) ) 1 = 2 = 3 = -1, u = c(1, 1, -1), c 0; ) 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 3 = 9;


c1(1; 0; 0), c2(7; -1; 1), c3(27; 15; 25); ) 1 = 9, 2 = 6, 3 = 3;
0
0
9

0 , e1 = (2/3; 2/3;
c1(2; -2; 1), c2(2; 1; -2), c3(1; 2; 2); 71) ) 0 -9

0 18
0
0
9 0

0 ,
1/3), e2 = (1/3; 2/3, 2/3), e3 = (2/3; 1/3; 2/3); ) 0 9

0 0 27

e1 = (1/ 2; 1/ 2; 0), e2 = (1/ 18; 1/ 18; 4/ 18), e3 = (2/3; 2/3; 1/3);


1
2

x1 = 5 x1 + 5 x2 ,
72) ) 5( 1 )2 + 10(2)2,
) 9(1)2 9( 3 )2 +
x = - 2 x + 1 x;
1
2
2
5
5
2
2
1

x1 = 3 x1 + 3 x2 - 3 x3 ,

1
2
2

+ 18(2)2, x2 = - x1 + x2 + x3 , 73) ) ; ) ; 74) ) k > 0;


3
3
3

2
2
1

x3 = 3 x1 - 3 x2 + 3 x3 ;

) k.
50

3.
:

3
3.1.
k = tg , b y = kx + b, M0(x0, y0) L
y - y0 = k(x - x0),
k2 - k1

,
= (L
1, L2 ), tg =
1 + k2 k1
L1 L2 k2 = k1, L1 L2 k1k2 = -1.
Ax + By + C = 0 L
(A2 + B2 0). 1(x1, y1), M2(x2, y2) L
y - y1
x - x1
=

y2 - y1 x2 - x1
d =

AxK + ByK + C
A2 + B 2

3.2.
M
, (x,
y, z) ,
0(x0, y0, z0)
N = {A, B, C}, M 0 M N
A(x - x0) + B(y - y0) + C(z - z0) = 0,
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0


N1 N 2

cos = cos( N1, N 2 ) =


N1 N 2

1 2 N1 N 2 = 0 A1A2 + B1B2 +
+ C1C2 = 0

B
C
A
1 || 2 N1 N 2 = 0 1 = 1 = 1
A2 B2 C2
d =

AxK + ByK + Cz K + D
A2 + B 2 + C 2

51

3.3 .

= {m, n, p} L,
M0(x0, y0, z0) L,

M0M
S
x - x0
y - y0 z - z0
=
=
m
n
p

x - x1
y - y1
M1(x1, y1, z1), M2(x2, y2, z2) L S = M1M 2
=
=
x2 - x1 y2 - y1
z - z1
.
=
z2 - z1

Li , Si || Li , i = 1, 2


S1 S2

cos = cos(S1, S2 ) =
S1 S2



N S

sin = cos( N , S ) =
N S

L || W N S = 0,

LWN S =0

S = N1 N 2
A1x + B1 y + C1z + D1 = 0,
L:
A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0
L

. 3.1
1. L: 2x - 3y + 6 = 0. L; k, b.
: L : (3; 0), (0; 2) (. 3.1).
2
2
6
y = x + , k = , b = 2.
3
3
3
52

2.
: (2; 0), (2; 6), (4; 2).
BD.
: ,

.
:
y 6 = k(x 2). k BD
AC. :
y - yA
x - xA
y-0 x+2
=

yB - y A
xB - x A
2-0 4+2

. 3.1

1
1
y = ( x + 2) k AC = .
3
3
k kBD = 1, kBD = 3; .. BD: y 6 = 3(x 2)
3x + y 12 = 0.
3.
( = 1000 ) 5,5 , 10
9 . ,
. 7 .
: ,
1(5; 5,5) 2(10; 9) . y - 5,5
x -5
, ,
=

9 - 5,5 10 - 5
y - 5,5
x -5
=
y 5,5 = 0,7(x 5) y = 0,7x + 2. ,
9 - 5,5 10 - 5
y = 0,7x + 2.
y = 0,7x + 2 = 7,
y = 0,7 7 + 2 = 6,9 ( .)
7 .
4. L1:
2x 3y - 6 = 0, L2: 4x 6y 25 = 0.
: L1: (3; 0).
4 x A - 6 y A - 25
=
d(L1, L2) = L(A, L2) =
42 + (-6)2
4 3 - 6 0 - 25
13
13
=
=
.
2
16 + 36
52
53


1) : ) 5x 3y + 15 = 0; ) 4x y = 0.
2) M1(6; 1), M2(4; 3). (1; 8),
(3; 9) ?
3) , : 5 2 11 = 0; + 2 + 5 = 0; 2 + 1 = 0.
4) (8; 12) ,
(2; 3) (5; 1).
5) , 3 y + 5 = 0 2 + 3 + 1 = 0 7 3 + 5 = 0.
6) (12; 4), (0; 5) (12; 11).
: ) ; ) ; ) BD; ) , ; )
; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) .
7) 2 3 12 = 0.
, .
.

. 3.2
1. (0; 3; 4) ,
1(3; 0; 4), 2(5; 2; 6), 3(2; 3; 3).
: ,

1,
M
M
2, 3, G.
(;
;
z)

=
1

= ( 3; 0; z 4), M1M 2 = (5 3; 2 0; 6 4), M1M 3 = (2 3; 3 0;


3 4) , ..
x -3 y z -4

M1M M1M 2 M1M 3 = 0 G : 2
2
2 =0
-1 3 -7
5 x - 3 y - 2 z - 7 = 0.
:
5 0 - 3(-3) - 2 4 - 7
6
=
.
d (M , G ) =
2
2
2
38
5 + (-3) + (-2)
54

2. G,
1(0; 1; 3), 2(2; 4; 5).
: ,
. 1 : ( 1) + (z 3) = 0.
2 G, , : (4 1) +
+ (5 3) = 0 3 + 2 = 0 = 2/3. G: 2C(y 1)/3 +
+ C(z 3) = 0, C 0 2(y 1)/3 + (z 3) = 0.
G: 2y 3z + 7 = 0.


8) , : 5x + 2y + 3z
- 15 = 0; 3x z = 0. .
9) ,
1(3; 0; 4) 2(5; 2; 6) 2 + 4 +
+ 6z 7 = 0.
10) , : M1(1; 2; 0), M2(2; 1; 1), M3(3; 0; 1).
11) : )
Y (3; 5; 4); )
OZ N(2; 3; 2); ) Y
Q(1; 3; 4) P(2; 5; 6).
12) G1:
2x y + z 1 = 0, G2: 4x + 2y 2z 1 = 0.
13) M1(1; 1; 2) M2(2; 4; 1) 60 x z = 1.
14) , 2x 4y + 5z 21 = 0; x 3z +
+ 18 = 0; 6x + y + z 30 = 0 , .

. 3.3
2 x - y + z + 3 = 0,
1. L:
x + 3y - 5 = 0

G: 6x 3y + 2z = 0.
:

, G ), S L:
sin(L

i
j k


S = 2 -1 1 = -3i + j + 7k .
1 3 0
55


, , G: N =
= {6; 3; 2},

sin( L
, G) =

-6 3 - 3 1 + 2 7
-1
-1

=
(L
, G ) = arcsin
.
36 + 9 + 4 9 + 1 + 49
59
59

2. . (4; 3; 1) G: x + 2y
- z 3 = 0.
: G
AA, G, G.
.
S
G N =
= {1; 2; 1} G, .. S = {1; 2; 1},
x - 4 y + 3 z -1
. ,
=
=
:
1
2
-1

x - 4 y + 3 z -1
=
=
,

-1
2
1
x + 2 y - z - 3 = 0,

x = t + 4,
y = 2t - 3,

z = -t + 1,
x + 2 y - z - 3 = 0,

x = t + 4,
y = 2t - 3,

z = -t + 1,
t + 4 + 2(2t - 3) - (-t + 1) - 3 = 0,

x = t + 4,
y = 2t - 3,

A (5; -1; 0).

z = -t + 1,
t = 1,


15) ,
. 1(1; 2; 3), 2(3; 2; 5).
y = 3 x - 5,
y = x,
L2:
16) L1:
z = -2 x + 3
z = 1.
17) x - 2 y + 3z - 4 = 0,
L:
3 x + 2 y - 5z - 4 = 0.
x -7 y-4 z -5
=
=
18) L:

5
1
4
G: 3x y + 2z 5 = 0.
56

19) (1; 3; 2) 6 + 3
- z 41 = 0.
20) L: y = 3x 1, 2z = 3x + 2 2x + y + z 4 = 0.
x - 2 y +1 z + 5
21) L:
=
=
2
l
1
G: Ax + y - 5z + 3 = 0.
x -1 y + 2 7
=
= 22) L:
4
3
1
G: Ax + 3y 5z + 1 = 0?
23) ,
x-0 y-0 z-0
=
=
L2:
1(4; 3; 1) L1:
6
2
-3
x +1 y -3 z - 4
.
=
=
5
4
2
4. :
II

4
4.1. . II.
Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + 2Dx + 2Ey + F = 0,
(A2 + B2 + C2 0).
:
| CM | = R, C(x0, y0) , R .

(x - x0)2 + (y - y0)2 = R2
. II. A = C, B = 0.
:
x2 + y2 = R2
4.2.

:
F1M + F2 M = 2a,
F1(-c, 0), F2(c, 0) , 2c < 2a
:
x 2 y2
+
= 1, b2 = a 2 - c 2 ,
a2 b2
a, b
57

A1, A2, B1, B2


c/a = e < 1

4.3. : F1M - F2 M = 2a, F1(-c, 0), F2(c, 0)
, 2c > 2a
:
x 2 y2
= 1, b2 = c 2 - a 2 ,
a2 b2
a, b
b
y = x , a
M .
1, 2 , c/a = > 1

4.4. : |FM | = |MM |, F(p/2, 0) ,


|MM| .
(); p
. F .
: y2 = 2px,
: x = -p/2.
:

y2 = -2px
x2 = 2py
4.5.

M(x, y) XOY; O (a, b),
M(x, y) XOY :
x = x + a,

y = y + b

58

x2 = -2py

M(x, y) XOY; M(x, y ) XOY:


x = x cos - y sin ,

y = x sin + y cos

. 4
1. 16x2 9y2 = 144. : ) ; ) ; ) ; ) .
: ,
x 2 y2
= 1.
144:
9 16
= 3, b = 4. b2 = c2 a2, c = 32 + 42 = 5,
.. F1(5; 0), F2(5; 0). =
= / = 5/3 > 1, : y = 4x/3.
,
(. 4.1).

. 4.1

2. 52 + 92 30 + 18 + 9 = 0 .
59

: , , , : 5( 3)2 + 9( + 1)2

. 4.2

= 45.
x - 3 = x ,

y + 1 = y
(3; 1). ,
45, -

Y :
( x )2 ( y )2
+
= 1, = 3, b = 5.
9
5
, c = a2 - b2 = 9 - 5 = =2,2, Y: F1(2; 0), F2(2; 0).
Y (. 4.2).
3. 2 2 +
+ 10 6 + 25 = 0.
: f(x, y) = x2 2xy + y2 1 -1
.
A =
1
-1
:
1 - -1
= 0 (1 - )2 - 1 = 0 2 - 2 = 0 1 = 0, 2 = 2.
-1 1 -
:
2

(1 - )u1 - u2 = 0,

-u1 + (1 - )u2 = 0.

1 = 0 a1 = u1(1; 1), 2 = 2 a2 =
= u2(-1,
: (1; 1), (1; 1),
1),
: i = (1 2 ; 1 2 ), j = (-1 2 ; 1 2 ).
: x = x 2 - y 2;
y = x 2 + y 2, .. = 45.
: f(x, y) = 2(y)2,

-10 x - 6 y + 25 = -10( x

2 - y 2 ) - 6( x 2 + y 2 ) + 25.
2 y 2 - 8 2 x + 2 2 y + 25 = 0. y:
60

2
3 2
2
2 y +
=
y +
= 8 2 x
2
2
2

3 2
= 4 2 x .

2
Y:

3 2
,
x = x 3 2
2
2
O
,,

2
2
y = y + 2 ,


2
Y: y2 =
= 4 2x. OX
1,2(2 2, 4) X OY (. 4.3).

. 4.3


1) : ) 92 + 25y2 = 225; ) 4x2 5y2 = 20;
) 162 9y2 = 144.
, , ,
( ).
2) . , :
) y2 = 4; ) x2 = y/2.
61

3) x2 + y2 4x + 6y - 3 = 0.
4) :
) 5x2 + 9y2 30x + 18y + 9 = 0; ) 2x2 12x + y + 13 = 0;
) 5x2 4y2 + 30x + 8y + 21 = 0; ) 2y2 x 12y + 14 = 0.
5)
: ) x2
- 6x + y2 = 8; ) x2 + + y2 = 1.
5. :
II

5
5.1.

L:
|| OZ
z = 0,
L:
F ( x, y) = 0,

|| OY
y = 0,
L:
F ( x, z ) = 0,

|| OX
x = 0,
L:
F ( x, z ) = 0

5.2. 2-
x 2 y2 z 2
+
=0
a2 b2 c 2
x = 0,
2

y
z2
2 - 2 =0
c
b
z = h,
2
x
y 2 h2
2 - 2 = 2
b
c
a

62

5.3.
x 2 y2 z 2
+
+
=1
a2 b2 c 2
x = h, y = h, z = h .
:
(x0, y0, z0) ,
R
(x - x0)2 + (y - y0)2 + (z - z0)2 = R2
5.4.
:

x 2 y2 z 2
+
=1
a2 b2 c 2

x = 0,
2

y
z2
2 - 2 =1
c
b
z = h,
2

x
y2
z2
2 + 2 =1+ 2
b
c
a
x 2 y2 z 2
: 2 + 2 - 2 = -1
a
b
c
x = 0,
2

z
y2
2 - 2 =1
b
c
z = h,
2

x
y 2 h2
2 + 2 = 2 -1
b
c
a
5.5.

x 2 y2
+
= 2 z,
p
q
p, q
p, q > 0
x = 0,

2
y = 2qz
z = h,
2

x
y2
+
= 2h
p
q

63

x 2 y2
= 2 z,
p
q
p, q
x = h,

y = 0,
h2
2
2
x = 2 pz; y = q p - 2 z

z = h,
2

x
y2
p - q = 2h

. 5
1. ,
2 = 2z.
: ,
,
x 2 = 2 z,
OY, L:
XOZ y = 0
. . = 0 OZ
(0; 0; 0) (), (2; 0; 2) (. 5.1).

. 5.1

2. , y =
x2 z2
=
+ .
4
9

64

: .

z2
x2
y = , y =
,
x = 0, z = 0 :
9
4 x = 0, z = 0

. y = h, h > 0,
x2 z2
= 1,
+
, 4 h 9h
y = h.

, OY,
(0; 0; 0) (. 5.2).

. 5.2


1) 2 + 2 + z2 4x - 2y + 2z 19 = 0.
2) , :
y2 z 2
x 2 y2 z 2
x 2 y2
= 1; )
+
+
= 1; )
+ z 2 = 1;
)
9
4
9
25 9
4 18
y2 z 2
x2
+
= -1; ) 8 = y2 + z2; )
- y 2 = 2 z.
) x 2 4
4
4


4 x - y - 7 z + 1 = 0,
1)

2 x + y + z - 1 = 0
4y - z = 0.
x +1 y z
= = .
:
17
1 4
65

2) x + 2y + 4z - 1 = 0
,
1(1, -1, ), 2(2, -1, 1), 3(1, 2, 2)?
: = -1.
x - 2 y + z - 3 = 0,

3)
2 x - y - z = 0
XOZ.
x y z -1
.
: = =
1 0
1
4) , x + 4y - 3z - 1 = 0, 2x - y + 3z + 1 = 0
(1, -1, 0) .
: x + y = 0.
5) (2, 1, 2)
x - 4 y + z + 3 = 0,

x - z + 1 = 0.
: 1.
6) , 2x + 2y - 3z + 3 = 0
x - 3y + z - 2 = 0 3x - y - 2z + 1 = 0.
7) : (1; 0; 1); (-1; 1; 0); (0; 2; 1).
, (1, 1, 1) , .
: 2x + y - 3z = 0.
y - x = 0,
8) (2, 0, 2)
2 y - z = 0.
: (1; 1; 2).
9) ,
1(1; 2; -1), 2(1; 3; 1) x + 2y - 2z + 3 = 0.
: 6x - 2y + z - 1 = 0.
10) (0; 1; 5) x - 4z +
+ 3 = 0.
: (1; 1; 1).
11) 1(1; 2; -3) 2(3; 0; -1).
12 x + z = 0. 1, 2?
: (2; 1; -2). 12.
66

12) (1; 1; 1), (-1; 0; 2), (0; 0; 1).


. .
x -1 y z
= = .
:
0
1 1
13)
+ - 7 = 0 x - z + 8 = 0 60?
: = 1.
14) ,
x -1
y
z +1
=
=
6x + y + 5z - 1 = 0.
1
-1
2
: x - y - z - 2 = 0.
x - 8 y - 8z = 0,
3 x - z = 0,

15) ,
x - 4 y + 4 = 0
y + 2z + 1 = 0
. ?
: .
16) ,
2 x - y + z - 3 = 0,
(0; -4; 3)
x + y + z + 1 = 0,
t ,
t = -1.
x = -2(t + 1),

: y = -(t + 5),
z = 3(t + 2).

17) , 2x - 6y - 3z + 1 = 0 d = 2.
: 2x - 6y - 3z + 15 = 0, 2x - 6y - 3z - 13 = 0.
3 x - y + 2 = 0,
x - z - 1 = 0,

18) ,
2 x + y - z + 1 = 0 y - x = 0
, ,
.
: x - 2y + z + 1 = 0.
x + y - z + 1 = 0, x - 2 y + z + 5 = 0,

19) ,
3 y - 2 z - 5 = 0
2 x - y - 3 = 0
, ,
.
: 10x + 7y - 8z + 5 = 0.
67

20) ,
x+4 y+3 z
=
= .

2
-1
0
x y z
: = = .
1 2 0
x -1 y +1 z - 3
21)
=
=
1
1
-2
, .
: (2; 0; 1).
22) ,
x -3 y+3 z
x -3 y+3 z
=
=
=
=
-1
2
0
-1
2
1
= .
: 2x + y - 3 = 0.
23) , OZ
x + 2 y +1
z
=
=


2
1
-2
Y.
: x - 2y = 0.


1
1. L, . 1(4; 3)
L1: 2x + 5y 8 = 0, L2: x 3y + 4 =
= 0.
: 17x 40y + 52 = 0.
2. G1: 4x 5y + 3z 1 = 0, G2:
x 4y z + 9 = 0.
: = arccos 0,7.
3. 16x2 + 25y2 + 32x 100y 284 = 0.
x 2 y 2
+
= 1.
:
25
16
x 2 y2
= 1.
4. ,
4
9
: .
68

2
1. 0(2; 5; 3) ,
2 x - y + 3z - 1 = 0,

5 x + 4 y - z - 7 = 0.
x -2 y+5 z -3
=
=
.
:
-11
17
13
2. : L1: 2x + y 5 = 0, L2: 6x - 2y + 7 = 0.
: = 3/4.
3. 4x2 - 8x y + 7 = 0.
1
: x 2 = y .
4
x2
+ y 2 + z 2 = 1.
4. , 4
+ z2 = 1.
: .
3
1. , ,
(8; 6), (3; 1), : = 5.
: y = 7.
2. , . (2;
x + y - z = 0,
1; 4)
2 x - y + 2 = 0.
: x + 2y + 3z 16 = 0.
3. 16x2 - 9y2 - 64x 18y + 199 = 0.
y 2 x 2
:
= 1.
16
9
y2 z 2
+ .
4. , x =
4
9
: .

69


1. . .
2. . k b.
3. . , , . .
4. . .
5. . . , .
6. . . a, b, c
.
7. . .
a, b, c .
8. . . a .
9. .

:
, n , 1 = ](n + + )/5[;
1 = ](n + )/4[; 1 = ](n + )/3[, ]...[ .
1. 0(3 + + ; 3 + ) L: ( + 1) +
+ ( + 1) = 2 2 - 2 + ( ).
:
) d 0 L; )
L1, 0 L; ) 0 L;
) ).
2. : 1( - 3; - 3 + 6); 2( - 1; - + 1)
L: (2 - 3) - 2 + 2 - 5 + (3 - 2) = 0.
70

:
) 12; )
12 L; ) Q 12
L; ) ).
3. : 0( + 1; 1 ; + 1); 1(; ; + 1);
2(2; 2; + 2); 3( + 1; 1 ; ).
:
) G,
1, 2, 3; ) d 0 G;
) G1, 0
G.
4. G: ( + 1) + (1 )y + z = ( + 1) L:
x - y + z = ,

x + y + z = + + .
:
) ; )
; ) ; ) Q
, .
5. :
) ( + 1)2 + ( + 6)2 2( + ) + 2( + 6) +
+ ( + 6) + ( 6) + 6( 6) - 36 = 0;
) ( + 1)2 ( + 1)2 2( + ) + 2( + ) +
+ ( + 4) + ( + 4) + ( 4) - 4 = 0;
) 2 + ( + 1) + 2 + 2 2 3 - 2 = 0;
) 2 2 ( + 1) 2 + 2 - 3 4 = 0.
. 3, 4, 5
3.1.
2) L, B L; 3) arctg(8/9); arctg(4/3); arctg 12; S = 12 . .;
4) (12; 5); 5) 77 33 + 133 = 0; 6) ) = 15, = 25, = 20;
) : 3 + 4 20 = 0; : 7 24 180 = 0; : 4 3 + 15 = 0;
) 24 + 7 35 = 0; ) x + 18y + 60 = 0; ) AE = 5 13; ) 9x 13y
- 35 = 0; ) S = 150 . .; ) cosC = 0,352; ) (0; 10/3);
7) (6; 0); 2x + 3y 12 = 0.
71

3.2.
8) = arccos(6/ 95); 9) x 2y + z 7 = 0; 10) x + y 3 = 0;
11) a) z - 4 = 0; ) 3 + 2 = 0; ) 10 + z 14 = 0;
12) 3/(2 6); 13) y z - 3 = 0; 14) (3; 5; 7).
3.3. .

x +1 y - 2 z -3
; x = 4t 1, y = 2, z = -8t + 3;
=
=
15)
4
0
-8
x - 2 y +1 z
=
= ; x = 2t + 2, y = 7t - 1,
16) = arccos(2 7/7); 17)
2
7
4
z = 4t; 18) (2; 3; 1); 19) (7; 0; 1); 20) sin = 1/ 6 ;
21) A = 10, = 1/5; 22) A = 1; 23) 16x - 27y + 14z
- 159 = 0.
4. : II
1) ) = 5, b = 3, F1,2(4; 0), = 4/5; ) a = 5, b = 2,
2
F1,2(3; 0), = 3 5/5; y = x; ) b = 4, a = 3, F1,2(0; 5),
15
= 5/4, y = 4x/3; 2) a) p = 2, F(-1; 0); ) p = 1/4, F(0; 1/8);
1
x 2 y 2
3) C(2; - 3), R = 4; 4) a)
+
= 1; ) x 2 = - y ;
2
9
5
2
2
2
2
x
y
x
y
1
= 1; ) y 2 = x ; 5) a) )
+
= 1, = 45;
4
5
4
2
2
x 2 3 y 2
+
= 1, = 135.
)
2
2
5. :
II
1) (2; 1; 1), R = 5; 2) ) ; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) .

2

6. .

6
6.1.
A B = {x: x A x B}
A B = {x: x A x B}
A\B = {x: x A x B}
B A A\B = B
6.2.
y = f(x), x X, y Y X
: Y: x X ! y Y, X = D( f )
, Y = E( f ) , x (), y (),
R = (-, +)
6.3. .

1) y = c, c const
2) y = xn, n R\{0} c, E( f )
n
3) y = a x, a > 0, a 1 ,
D( f ) = (-, +), E( f ) = (0, +)
4) y = logax, a > 0, a 1 , D( f ) = (0, +),
E( f ) = (-, +)
5) :
y = sin x, D( f ) = (-, +), E( f ) = [-1, +1];
y = cos x, D( f ) = (-, +), E( f ) = [-1, +1];
y = tg x, D( f ) = R\{/2 + k}, k = 0, 1, 2, ..., E( f ) = (-, +);
y = ctgx, D( f ) = R\{k}, k = 0, 1, 2, ..., E( f ) = (-, +)
6) :
y = arcsinx, D( f ) = [-1, +1], . y [-/2, /2];
y = arccos x, D( f ) = [-1, +1], . y [0, ];
y = arctg x, D( f ) = (-, +), . y (-/2, /2);
y = arctg x, D( f ) = (-, +), . y (0, )
( ) y = [(x)]
y = (z), z = (x), x X, z Z, y Y
73

(..) ,
.. (+), (-), (),
(:)

74

. 6.1
1. ,
. ,
.
: = , = N = {1, 2, , n, }.
2. , 2, , 5. .
: ,
2 5, .. , 10.
3. = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {3, 5}. \, \.
: \ = {1, 2, 4}, B\A = .


1) = {1, 2, 3}, B = {2, 3, 4}; A B, A B, A\B ?
2) ,
, : ) ;
) ?

. 6.2, 6.3
1. D( f ) :
2 x 2 - lg( x + 5)
.
) y = 1 - x 2 ; ) y =
8 - x3
: ) ,
1 - 2 0, (1 )(1 + ) 0, ..
[-1, 1] (. 6.1) D( f ) = [-1, 1];

. 6.1

)
x + 5 > 0,
x > -5,
x > -5, x > -5

3
2
8 - x > 0,
(2 - x )( x + 2 x + 4) > 0, 2 - x > 0, x < 2,
.. D( f ) = (5; 2).
2. E( f ) :
) y = x2 6x + 5; ) y = 3 + 2 sin x; ) y = 16 - x 2 .
75

: ) y = x2 6x + 5 = (x 3)2 - 4 y [4, +), E( f ) =


= [4, +);
) -1 sin x 1 2 2 sin x 2 y [1, 5], E( f ) =
= [1, 5];
) D( f ): 16 - x2 0, x2 16, 4 x 4, D( f ) =
= [4; 4] E( f ) = [0, 4]. y2 = 16 x2
y2 + x2 = 16 4, y = 16 - x 2
(. 6.2).
. 6.2

3. T : ) f(x) = cos 8x;


) f(x) = sin6x + tg 4x.
: ) sx T1 = 2 T = 2/8 = /4;
) sin 6x tg 4x T1 = 2/6 = /3
T2 = /4 . f (x) =
= sin6x + tg4x /3 /4,
.. = .
4. :
x+3
) f(x) = 2x + 2-x; ) f(x) = x2 + 5x; ) f ( x ) = lg
.
x -3
: ) f(-x) = 2- + 2x = f(x) ;
) f(-x) = x2 - 5x -f(x) f(x) f(x) ,
;
-1
-x + 3
x -3
x +3
x + 3
= - f ( x) f ( x)
= lg
= lg
) f (- x ) = lg
= - lg

-x - 3
x +3
x -3
x -3
f(x) .
2

5. y = 2sin x .
: sinx2 = z, x2 = t. y = 2z,
z = sint, t = x2.


:
1
1
;
; 5) y =
3) y = x 2 + 2x - 5; 4) y = 2
2
x - 3x + 2
x + x-6
3x - 1
;
6 ) y = 1 - 4 x + arcsin
7 ) y = x - 1 + 1 - x + x 2 + 1;
2
8) y = lgsin x.
76

:
2

9) y = -x2 + 8x - 13; 10) y = 4 - x ; 11) y = 1 - 3 cosx.


:
12) f(x) = lgcos2x; 13) f(x) = -2cos(x/3) + 1; 14) f(x) = tg3x +
+ cos4x.
:
2

15) f ( x ) = x 2 3 x + 2 sin x; 16) f ( x ) = x - 5e x ; 17) f(x) = x4 sin7x;


18) f(x) = lgcos x.
19) y = z , z = sint, t = x2. ().
20) y = sinx, = lg y, u = 1 + 2 . u(x).
21)
:
3

) y = sin(cos x ); ) y = lg tg 2x; ) y = arcsin e x .


22) f (x) = x3 - x, (x) = sin 2x. :
) f((/2)); ) ( f(1)); ) f((x)); ) f( f (x)); ) ( f (x)).
7.

7
7.1.
xn = f(n), n N, lim xn = a
x

> 0 N = N():
n > N | xn - a| <

:
n > N xn (a -, a +)

7.2.
lim f ( x ) = b > 0 = ():
x a

0 < |x - a| < | f(x) - b| <


:
x (a - , a + )
f(x) (b -, b +)
7.3.
(x) - .., x a lim ( x ) = 0,
x a

77

f(x) - .., x a (lim f ( x ) = ) M > 0 = (M):


x a

|x - a| < | f(x)| > M


.. ..: 1/0 = , 1/ = 0
7.4. ..
.1: , , .., x a ( + - ) .., x a
.2: | f(x)| < M, (x) .., x a f(x)(x) .., x a
7.5.
.1: lim c = c, c const
x a

T.2 ( lim):
f (x) = b + (x), (x) .., x a lim f ( x ) = b
x a

.3: lim[ f1( x ) f2 ( x )] = lim f1( x ) lim f2 ( x )


x a

x a

x a

.4: lim[ f1( x ) f2 ( x )] = lim f1( x ) lim f2 ( x )


x a

.5: lim

x a

f1( x )

x a f2 ( x )

lim f1( x )

x a

lim f2 ( x )

x a

x a

, lim f2 ( x ) 0
x a

7.6.
0

, , {0 }, { - }, {1 }
0
sin x 0
= =1
x
0
n
1

II : lim 1 + = {1 } = lim(1 + n)1 n = e


n
n 0
n
I : lim

x 0

7.7. ..
0 = o(), x a

( x ) A 0, ,
lim
=
x a ( x )
1
,

( x )
( x )
= lim

x a ( x )
x a ( x )

: (x) ~ (x), (x) ~ (x), x a lim

78

. 7.1, 7.2
1. , lim

n n

n
= 1.
+1

n
1
1- e
-1 =
<en>
.
: > 0: | xn - 1| <, ..
n +1
n +1
e
1
1- e
=
<en>
.
n +1
e
, N (1 -)/,
.. N = [(1 -)/]. | xn - 1| <
n > N, .

3n - 1
= 1.
n 3n
3n - 1
1
1
- 1 = 1 - n - 1 = n < e, 3n > 1/
: > 0
n
3
3
3
log3 3n > log3(1/) n > log3(1/); ,
N = [log3(1/)], n > N
3n - 1
- 1 < e, .
3n
3. , 2 2n + 1
n .
un =
4n + 2
2n + 1
6n + 3 6n + 3
-2 = =
.
: un - 2 =
4n + 2
4n + 2 4n + 2
6n + 3 6n + 3
= =
.
4n + 2 4n + 2
6n + 3
< e.
n
4n + 2
6n + 3 (4n + 2) + 2n + 1
1
=
= 1 + > 1, , 4n + 2
4n + 2
2
> 0,
= 0,5.
, 2 2n + 1

.
4n + 2
4. , f(x) = 3x - 2 = 1 , 1, .. lim(3 x - 2) = 1.
2. , lim

x 1

79

: > 0 |3x - 2 - 1| = |3(x - 1)| = 3|x - 1| <


| x - 1| </3 /3, | x - 1| <
|(3x - 2) - 1| <, .
1
5. , lim x sin = 0 ( 0).
x 0
x
: > 0 | x sin(1/x) - 0| = | x sin(1/x)| < | x sin(1/x)| =
= | x ||sin(1/x)| | x| < (|sin(1/x)| 1 0). ,
, | x | < |xsin(1/x)| < ,
.


1) , 1, 17/14, 37/29, 65/50,
101/77, , (4n2 + 1)/(3n2 + 2) n ,
4/3.
2) :
1
4n - 3
= 4.
) lim (2 + ) = 2; ) lim
n
n n + 1
n
3) , n 1, 1/3, 1/5, ,
1/(2n - 1) .
4) , : ) lim(3 x - 5) = 1; ) lim x 2 = 4.
x 2

x 2

. 7.37.7
2
3x + 1
5x + 2
.
; ) lim(3 x )x ; ) lim 2
x 1 x - 1
x 1 2 x + 3
x 2
: ) (. 7.5
()),
5x + 2
=
: lim
x 1 2 x + 3
5 1 + 2 8
=
= ;
2 1 + 3 5
2
) : lim(3 x )x =

1. : ) lim

= lim(3 x )
x 2

lim x 2

x 2

x 2

= 6 = 1296;

) lim( x 2 - 1) = 1 - 1 = 0,
x 1

,
3x + 1
(. 7.3 ): lim 2
=
x 1 x - 1
4
= = .
0
80

x2 - 9
x +1 -1
; ) lim
.
2
x 3 x - 2 x - 3
x 0
x
:
) )
{0/0}. , , ,
:
2. : ) lim

( x - 3)( x + 3)
x2 - 9
x+3 6 3
0
= = lim
= lim
= = ;
x 3 x 2 - 2 x - 3
x

3
x

3
(
)(
)
0
x
+
1
x
3
x +1 4 2

) lim

( x + 1 - 1)( x + 1 + 1)
x + 1 - 1 0
= = lim
=
x 0
x
x( x + 1 + 1)
0 x 0
x +1-1
1
1
1
= lim
=
= .
= lim
x 0 x( x + 1 + 1)
x 0 x + 1 + 1
1+1 2

) lim

x3 - 2x + 3
x3 - 2x + 3
;
lim
;
)
x
x x 4 + 2 x
x2 - 5

3. : ) lim

x3 - 2x + 3
.
x 3 x 3 + 5
: {/},
, k, k
:
2
3
1- 2 + 3
1 - 0 + 0 1
x3 - 2x + 3
x
x
= = lim
=
= = ;
) lim
2
1
5
x
x

0-0
x -5

0
- 3
x x
1
2
3
- 3 + 4
x3 - 2x + 3
x = 0 = 0;
= = lim x x
) lim
4
x x + 2 x
1
x 1 + 2
3
x
2
3
1- 2 + 3
x3 - 2x + 3
x
x = 1 - 0 + 0 = 1.
= = lim
) lim
3
5
x 3 x + 5
3+0
3
x 3 +
x3
, :
) lim

81


, m > n,
Pm ( x )
a0 x m + a1 x m -1 + ... + am
lim
= = lim
= 0, m < n,
x Qn ( x )
x b0 x n + b1 x n -1 + ... + bn
a
0 , m = n.
b0
x3

- x ; ) lim ( x + a - x ).
4. : ) lim 2

x x + 1
x
: { - }:
)
{/}:
x3

x3 - x3 - x
-x
lim 2
- x = { - } = lim
= lim 2
=

x x + 1
x
x x + 1
x2 + 1
m = 1
= =
n =

= 0;
2
( x + a - x )( x + a + x )
=
) lim ( x + a - x ) = { - } = lim
x
x
( x + a + x)
= lim

x+a-x
a
=
= 0.
x + a + x +

arcsin x
tg x
arctg x
; ) lim
; ) lim
.
x 0
x 0 x
x 0
x
x
: {0/0}, I (, . 7.6):
tg x 0
sin x
1
= = lim

= 1 1 = 1;
) lim
x 0 x
0 x 0 x cos x
arcsin x 0 arcsin x = y, y 0
y
) lim
= 1;
= =
= lim
x 0
y

0
x = sin y
sin y
x
0

arctg x 0 arctg x = y, y 0
y
) lim
= 1.
= =
= lim
x 0
y

0
=
tg
x
y
tg
x
0
y

5. : ) lim

arcsin 2 2 x
1 - cos x
; ) lim
;
3
2
x 0 x - x
x 0 x sin 3 x

6. : ) lim
tg - sin
.
0
3

) lim

82

: {0/0},
,
(..) (. 7.7 ) .. (. 5): sin x x,
tg x x, arcsin x x, arctg x x 0. :
arcsin 2 2 x 0 arcsin 2 2 x (2 x )2 ,
4x2
lim
=
=
=
=
) lim 3

3
2
x 0 x - x 2
x0
0
x 0 x - x

4x2
4
=
= -4;
x 0 x 2 ( x - 1)
0 -1

= lim

2
x sin 2 x x ,


1 - cos x 0
2
2
2 =
) lim
= = lim
=

x 0 x sin 3 x
x

0
sin
0
x
3
x
sin
3
x

3
x
,

x 0

2 sin 2

x2
1
1
= 2 lim 4 2 = 2
= ;
x 0 3x
12 6
tg - sin 0
) lim
= = lim
0
3
0 0

sin
-1
cos
3

sin 2 sin 2
sin (1 - cos )
2 =
= lim
= lim
0
0
3 cos
3 cos
2

2
sin , sin

,
4 1 = 2 = 1 .
=
2
4 = 2 lim
3
0
4 2

0,

x
7. lim(1 - x )tg .
x 1
2
: {0 },
{0/0} - 1 = , 0:
x
1- x
0
lim(1 - x )tg
= {0 } = lim
= =

x
x 1
x 1
2
0
ctg
2
x - 1 = y,

-y
-y
= lim
=
=
= lim
y
y

0
y

x = 1 + y, y 0
- tg
ctg +
2
2
2
y y

,
y
2
83
tg
= 2
= .
2 = lim
y 0 y

y 0
2

2
x - 1 = y,

-y
-y
= lim
=
=
= lim
x = 1 + y, y 0 y 0 ctg + y y 0 - tg y
2
2
2
y y

,
2
y
tg
= 2
= .
2 = lim
y 0 y

y 0
2
3 x +1

2x + 3
.
8. : ) lim(1 + sin x ) x ; ) lim

x 0
x 2 x + 9
: {1}, , II (, . 7.6):
1

) lim(1 + sin x ) x = {1 } = lim((1 + sin x ) sin x )


x 0

x 0

lim

= e x 0

sin x
x

= e1 = e;

2x + 3
) lim

x 2 x + 9

3 x +1

lim v( x )(u( x ) -1)

x a

2x + 3
lim

x 2 x + 9
lim

-18 x - 6
2x +9

3 x +1

=e

= lim 1

x
2x + 9

-18
2

3 x +1

= {1 } -

lim u( x )v( x ) = e x a

= e x

sin x
x

=e

lim (3 x +1) 2 x + 9

= e-9 .


:
sin x
sin x
5 ) ) lim
) lim
;
;
1 + tg x
1 - tg x
x
x
4

x2 - 2x
;
x 2 x 2 - 4 x + 4

6 ) lim

x2 + 6x + 8
x2 + x - 2
3
1
;
lim
; 9) lim
7) lim
8)
;
3
3
2
x -2
x 1 x - x - x + 1
x 1 1 - x
x +8
1 - x3
4
x -1 - 2
4 + x + x2 - 2
x -1
; 1 1 ) lim
;
; 1 2 ) lim
x 5
x -1
x 1 x - 1
x -5
x +1
3
x -1 - 2
x x +5
; 14) lim ( x 2 + 1 - x 2 - 1); 15) lim
;
13) lim
x 9
x

x
x-9
x2 + 3

1 0 ) lim

16) lim

84

5 4
2n2 + 3n - 1
n +1
; 17) lim
; 18) lim ( x 2 + 4 x - x );
4
5
3
n
x +
n+2
n +3+ n

x4

1 - cos3 x
tg2 2 x
- x ; 20) lim
;
19) lim 3
; 21) lim

x x + 1
x 0 x sin 2 x
x 0 sin 3 x sin 5 x
cos x - cos x
2 - 1 + cos x
sin 3 x
; 24) lim
;
; 23) lim
22) lim
x 0
x 0
x 0 x + 2 - 2
x2
sin 2 x
1 - sin x
sin 3 x

;
;
25) lim
26) lim - x tg x;
27) lim
2

x sin 2 x
2

x
x
2
- x
2

2
1
1
28) lim
;
x 0 sin x
tg x
3

31) lim 1
x
2 x + 1

3x -2

1
2 x tg x

29) lim(1 + x )
x 0

3x - 4
; 32) lim

x 3 x + 2

x +1
3

30) lim 1 +
n

n2 -1
n

x 2 + 5x + 4
; 33) lim 2
;
x x - 3 x + 7

34) lim (1 + tg 2 x ) 2 x ; 35) lim x(ln( x + 1) - ln x ).


x

x +

,
. 7.7:
36) (x) = sin 5x, (x) = x + x3, x 0; 37) ( x ) = 6 x + 1 - 1,
1- x
, ( x ) = 1 - x , x 1;
(x) = 3x, x 0; 38) ( x ) =
1+ x
1
1
1
,
, (n) =
, n ; 40) (n) =
39) (n) = 2
2
n +3
n +5
n +3
1
(n) =
, n ; 41) (x) = 3x sin x, (x) = tg x, x 0;
n+5
( x - 3)2
, x 3.
42) a(x) = x2 - 2x - 3, ( x ) =
x2
43) Q0 .
% .
t .
: Qn t
n n .

85

8.

8
8.1.
y = f(x0 + x) - f(x0) f(x) 0
.1: f(x) . x0
1) f (x) . x0
;
2) lim y = 0
x 0

.2: .1 2)
2) lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 )
x x0

.1 ~ .2
(x0 + x = x)
8.2. (..) ,
lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 - 0) lim , x < x0;
x x0 - 0

lim f ( x ) = f ( x0 + 0) lim , x > x0:

x x0 + 0

x < x0

x0

x > x0

..:
1) ..: f(x0 + 0) = f(x0 - 0), f (x0)/;
2) .. 1- : f(x0 + 0) f(x0 - 0);
3) .. 2- ..

8.3. , . x0
10. (), () . 0

86

( x ) + ( x ),

( x ) ( x ),
. x0.
( x ) ( x ), ( x ) 0.

20. y = (z) . z0, z = (x) . x0,


z0 = (x0) j[(x)] . x0
:
.
8.4. , [a, b]
( C[a,b])
m , f(x) [a, b]
m f(x) M
10. f(x) C[a,b] x1, x2 [a, b]: f(x1) = m, f(x2) = M.
20. f(x) C[a,b], f(a) f(b) < 0 c [a, b]: f(c) = 0.
30. f(x) C[a, b] f(a) f(b) [a, b]: f() =

. 8
1. , = 4 = /( 4)
.
: = /( 4) ,
(; 4) (4; ), = 4 .
x
= +,
= 4 : lim
x 4 + 0 x - 4
x
= -, .. = 4 2- .
lim
x 4 -0 x - 4
. 8.1.
1
.
2. f ( x ) =
1 + 21 x
: , , = 0,
1
= 0,
. lim
x 0 + 1 + 21 x
87

. 8.1

1
= 1, .. = 0 1-
21 x
, 1 (. 8.2).
lim

x 0 - 1 +

. 8.2

x 2 , x 2,
3. f ( x ) =
1, x = 2.
: ,
(, +). = 2: lim f ( x ) = 4,
x 2-0

lim f ( x ) = 4, f (2) = 1. , = 2

x 2+ 0

.
x 2 , x 2,
4. g ( x ) =
4, x = 2.
: g(2 0) = g(2 + 0) = g(2) = 4 g(x) = 2 .


:
1) f(x) = x/|x|; 2) f(x) = arctg(1/x); 3) f ( x ) =
88

x3
;
( x + 1)( x + 2)( x + 3)

4) f ( x ) = 31 ( x - 3); 5) f(x) = lg(x2 + 3x).



1
2 x 2 - 11x + 5
sin3 2 x
.
:
3.
2.
lim
. : 8/5.
x 5 x 2 - 7 x + 10
x 0 5 x 3

1. lim

3x5 - 4
x - 3 2
-3/2
.
:
e
.
4.
lim
. : 0.
3. lim

x x
x 2 x 7 + 3 x 3 - 1
5. lim sin 2 x ctg x. : 2.
x 0

2
3x3 + 3x + 5
2 x 2 - 3x + 1
. : 3/8.
. : . 2. lim 3
2
1
x 8 x - 7 x + 10
x 4x - 4x + 1

1. lim

cos 7 x - 1
. : -49/16. 4. lim(1 + 10 x )5 x . : e 50.
x 0 2 x tg 4 x
x 0

3. lim

5. lim ( 3 x 2 + 1 - 3 2 x 2 + 5 ). : .
x

3
3 3
n + n2 + n
1 + 2x - 3
. : 0.
. : 4/3. 2. lim
x
x 4
n2 + 1
x -2
2
arcsin( x + 2)
x - 3 . : e 6.
.
lim(
3
x
8
)
:
-1/2.
4.
3. lim
x -2
x 3
x 2 + 2x
3
2
x
x
5. lim 2
. : 1/4.

x 2 x - 1
2 x + 1

1. lim

. 6, 7, 8
6.1.
1) B = {1, 2, 3, 4}, A B = {2, 3}, A\B = {1}; 2) a).
6.2.
6.3. .
3) D( f ) = (, ); 4) D( f ) = (, 1) (1, 2) (2, +);
5) D( f ) = (, 3) (2, +); 6) D( f ) = [1/3; 1/4];
7) D( f ) = 1;
8) D( f ) = (2k, (2k + 1)), k Z;
89

9) E( f ) = (, 3]; 10) E( f ) = (0, 1]; 11) [2, 4]; 12) T = ;


13) T = 6; 14) T = ; 15) ; 16) ; 17) ;
18) ; 19) y = sin x 2 ; 20) y = 1 + lg2 sin x ; 21) ) y = sin z,
z = cost, t = x ; ) y = lg z, z = tg t, t = 2x; ) y = arcsin z, z = et,
t = 3 x ; 22) ) f((/2)) = 0; ) ( f(1)) = 0; ) f ((x)) = sin32x - sin2x; ) f( f(x)) = (x3 - x)3 - x3 + x; ) ( f(x)) = sin2(x3 - x).
7.37.7. (..)
. .. . .
C ..
5) ) 2/4; ) ; 6) ; 7) 1/6; 8) ; 9) -1; 10) 1/4; 11) 1/4;
1
1
12) - ; 13) ; 14) 0; 15) ; 16) 2; 17) 0; 18) 2; 19) 0; 20) 4/15;
4
12
3
21) ; 22) 6 2; 23) (2 2)/2; 24) 2/8; 25) -3/2; 26) 1; 27) 1/2;
4
28) 0; 29) ; 30) 5; 31) -9/2; 32) -2/3; 33) 8; 34) 1/2; 35) 1; 36) ; 37) ~ ; 38) ~ ; 39) = o(); 40) ~ ;
pt
nt
p

100
41) = o(); 42) = o(); 43) Qn = Q0 1 +
, Q = Q0 e .

100n
8.
1) = 0 1- , 2; 2) = 0
1- , ; 3) = 1, = 2, = 3 2-
; 4) = 3 2- ; 5) = 0, = 3 2-
.

3


9.

9
9.1. ,
y
f ( x + x ) - f ( x )
= lim
y = lim
x 0 x
x 0
x
s = s(t)
v = s(t)
9.2. y
f (x) = tg = k . (x, y)
y - y 0 = f (x 0 )(x - x 0 )
. 0(x0, y0)

9.3.
f (x) f (x)
9.4.
1) (c) = 0, c = const;
2) (u + v - w) = u + v - w;
3) (uv) = uv + uv , (cu) = cu;
u uv - v u
,v 0
4) =
v
v2
9.5.
([(x)]) = [(x)](x)
(lny) = y/y
-
[u(x)v(x)] = v.uv-1u + uv lnu v

91

9.6.
(xn) = nxn-1, (ax) = ax lna, (ex) = e x,
1
(log a x ) =
, (lnx) = 1/x,
x ln a
(sinx) = cos x, (cos x) = -sin x,
(tgx) = 1/cos2x, (ctg x) = -1/sin2x,
1
1
,
(arcsin x ) =
, (arccos x ) = 2
1 - x2
1- x
1
1
(arctg x ) =
, (arcctg x ) = .
2
1+ x
1 + x2
9.7.
dy = f (x)x dy = f (x)dx, dx = x
dy y, x 0 f(x + x) f(x) + dy
:
10. dc = 0, c = const.
20. d(u + v) = du + dv.
30. d(uv) = vdu + udv.
40. d(cu) = c du.
u v du - u dv
, v 0.
50. d =
v
v2
60. d[(x)] = [(x)]d(x) dy
9.8.
f (n)(x) = [ f (n-1)(x)], dny = d[dn-1y] = f (n)(x)d xn
9.9.
x = x(t ),
y (t )
( y )
yx =
, yx = x t

x (t )
x (t )
y = y(t ),

. 9.19.6
1. :
x
.
) y(8), y = 3 x ; ) y(1), y = x + ( x - 1)arcsin
x +1
: )
3
8 + x - 3 8 0
y
= lim
= =
y (8) = ( 3 x ) x = 8 = lim
x 0 x
x 0
x
0
8 + x - 8
=
= lim
92
3
x 0
x( (8 + x )2 + 2 3 8 + x + 4)
= lim

1
( (8 + x )2 + 2 3 8 + x + 4)

x 0 3

1
;
12

3
8 + x - 3 8 0
y
= lim
= =
x 0 x
x 0
x
0
8 + x - 8
=
= lim
3
x 0
x( (8 + x )2 + 2 3 8 + x + 4)

y (8) = ( 3 x ) x = 8 = lim

= lim

x 0 3

1
;
12

( (8 + x ) + 2 8 + x + 4)
1 + x
-1
1 + x + x arcsin

2 + x
=1+ .
) y (1) = lim
x 0
x
4

2. , :
3

ex
x 2 + 3x5 - 4
3
y
=
.
)
y
=
x

arctgx;
y(1)
=
?
)
;
5
3arccos x
x
7
24
1
8
19
6
7 -15 72 5 4 - 5
+
x
x + x ;
: ) y = x 15 + 3 x 5 - 4 x 5 =
15
5
5
3
3
2
3
) y = (x )arctg x + x (arctg x) = 3x arctg x + x /(1 + x 2);
3 1
+ ;
y (1) =
4 2

1 ex
1 (e x ) arccos x - e x (arccos x )
) y =
=
=

3 arccos x
3
arccos 2 x
) y =

ex
e x arccos x -
1 - x 2 e x ( 1 - x 2 arccos x + 1)
1
.
=
=
3
arccos 2 x
3 1 - x 2 arccos 2 x
3. :
3

) y = arcsin 2 x; ) y = x tg((3x + 1)/5); ) y = x + e x ;


) y = (x3 + 3)/ln sinx.
: ) y = ((arcsin x) 2 ) = 2 arcsinx (arcsin x) =
1
2 arcsin x
=
;
= 2arcsinx
1 - x2
1 - x2
3 x + 1
3x + 1
3 x + 1

+ x tg
) y = x tg
=
= ( x ) tg

5
5
5
3x + 1
1
3x + 1
3
x
3 x + 1
= tg
+
;
= tg
+x

3x + 1 5
3x + 1 5
5
5
cos 2
cos 2
5
5
93

) y = (

x+e

=
3

(x + e )
x

2 2

x2

) = ( x + e )

(1 + e

1
x2 3

x2

2
1
= x + ex
3
2
1 + 2 xe x
;

( x 2 ) =
3

)- 3 ( x + e x ) =
2

( x + e x )2
2

x 3 + 3 ( x 3 + 3) ln sin x - ( x 3 + 3)(ln sin x )


=
=
) y =
ln sin x
ln 2 sin x
1
3 x 2 ln sin x - ( x 3 + 3)
cos x
3 x 2 ln sin x - ( x 3 + 3)ctg x
sin x
=
=
.
ln 2 sin x
ln 2 siin x
4. :
( x + 1)3 x 2 - 3 e2 x
.
( x 2 - 1)5
: ) :
2
1
ln y = ln(ln x )x (ln y) = ( x 2 ln(ln x )) y = 2 x ln(ln x ) +
y
1
1
1
+ x2
y = y(2 x ln ln x + x 2
) y =
x ln x
ln x x
2
x
= (ln x )x (2 x ln ln x +
).
ln x
-
:
2
2
2
y = (ln x )x
= x 2 (ln x )x -1(ln x ) + (ln x )x ln(ln x )( x 2 ) =
2
2
2
1
= x 2 (ln x )x -1 + (ln x )x ln ln x 2 x = 2 x(ln x )x ln ln x +
x
2

) y = (ln x )x ; ) y =

+ x(ln x )x

-1

1
ln( x 2 - 3) + 2 x ln e - 5 ln( x 2 - 1))
2
1
3
1 1
1
y =
+
2x + 2 - 5 2
2 x;
2
y
x +1 2 x -3
x -1
) (ln y) = (3 ln( x + 1) +

y =

94

x
( x + 1)3 x 2 - 3 e2 x 3
10 x
+ 2
+2- 2
.

2
5
x +1 x -3
x - 1
( x - 1)

5. 3
s = 1 + t + t 2 (s , t ). 5 .
: E = mv2/2, v = s = 2t + 1,
v(5) = 11 (/), E = 3 121/2 = 181,5 .

6. y = 8a3/(4a2 + x2) (a = const)


2a.
: , . 9.2.
:
8a3
-8a3 2 x
-16a3 x
=
=
y(2a) = 8a3/(4a2 + 4a2) = a, y = 2
4a + x 2
(4a2 + x 2 )2 (4a2 + x 2 )2

-8a3 2 x
-16a3 x
-16a3 2a
1
=
,
y
(
2
a
)
=
= - y - a = -(x - 2a)/2

2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
4a + x )
(4 a + x )
(8a )
y + x/2 - 2a = 0 .
, ,
k = -1/k = 2. : y - a = 2(x - 2a) y - 2x + 3a = 0.


(0),

:
1
3
1

+
; 2) y = 5 x + 3 x 3 x ; 3) y = 6 3 x - 2
1) y = 2 x 3
5 x 3 x2
x
(7x - 3); 4) y = 3x4 + 4x3 5x2 5x 2, (0) = ? 5) y =

x2 - 1
,
x2 + 1

ln x
sin 2 x
, (e),
; 8) y =
x
x
1
3
sin 2 e x
3
+ 2
, (0) = ? 10) y =
y (1/e) = ?; 9) y =
+
;
x + 2 x +1
3
sin3 x
sin5 x
, y (p) = ?;
11) y = cos x 5 ln 2 x; 12) y = 5 tg3 x 2 ; 13) y =
cos 3 x
2
3
2
14) y = e x ; 15) y = 101- 5 x ; 16) y = 5sin x ; 17) y = x2e-2x, y (1) = ?
(1) = ? 6) y = x arctg x, y(1) = ? 7) y =

18) y =

arcsin x 2 ;

1 9 ) y = x 2 a r c t g 5x ;

2 0 ) y = arccos5 x ;
95

x
1
21) y = x arctg2 , y(1) = ?; 22) y = 2 ; 23) y = x log3 ( x + 3);
x
ln x
24) y = ln4 sinx; 25) y = ln2(x2 4x), y(5) = ?
y (x) y (x0), :
26) y = x x+1; 27) y = (arctg x )

x 2 +1

; 28) y = ( 3 x )cos 3 x , y (p) = ?;

(1 - x 2 )cos x
(6 x + 5)3 (4 x - 5)2
, y (0) = ?;
; 30) y = 5
3
( x 2 + 1)3
(2 x + 7)
arcsin x
ln3 x
1
.
; 33) y =
31) y = xsin2x; 32) y =
x
x - 1 sin 2 x
y (x) y(x0):
ln(3 x 2 + 3)
,
35) y = 3
y (0) = ?;
3 4 ) y = 3 ( x - sin e x )2 ;
x + 3x + 5
2 x 2 3x x 4 x
+ 3
+ 5, y (1) = ?; 37) y = xe1+tgx; 38) y =
36) y =
x
x
x
3
3
,
= x2 sinx + xlog3x, y(1) = ?; 39) y = (cos x ) x ; 40) y =
4
x
3 arctg

2
29) y =

sin x

4 2 ) y = 5 ( x + 2)2 ( x 2 - 1)3 x - 4;
x
4 3 ) y = e x - 1 - arctg e x - 1;
4 4 ) y = ln tg - ;
4 2
x
1
45) y = 2 ln tg +
; 46) y = sin2(tg x); 47) y = 3 arcsin(2 x + 1);
8 cos 2 x
8
3
3x - 1 2 x + 1
; 49) y = (sin x ) x .
48) y =
5
15 x + 1
, y = f(x) F(x, y, y) = 0:
50) y = x sin x y /cos x x = tg x; 51) y = (x +
+ 1)ex y y = ex; 52) y = 2 ln x - x 2 + c xyy = 1 - x 2.

y = f(x) 0(x0, y0):
53) y = 2x2 6x + 3, x0 = 1; 54) y = 1/(1 + x2), x 0 = 2;
55) y = 6 3 x + 2 x , x0 = 64.
y (2) = ?;

96

41) y = e

56) s = t 3/3 + 2t 2 t,
s ( ), t ( ).
1 .
57) s = (t 4 4t 3 +
+ 2t 2 - 12t)/4, s ( ), t ( ). ?
58) 25
s = ln(1 + t 2). (mv 2/2) 2
.
59) , ,
,
t = 0 Q = 2t 2 + 3t + 1 ().

. 9.79.9
2
1
1. d, : a) y = 5 x arccos ;
x
) y = x arcsinx.
:
1
2
) dy = 5 x arccos dx =

x
2
2

1
1
= 2 x 5 x ln 5 arccos + 5 x 2
x

1 - 1

1
- 2 dx =
x

1
1

dx;
2 x ln 5 arccos +

2
x x x - 1
) dy = ( x arcsin x ) dx =
= 5x

dx.
= arcsin x x arcsin x -1 1 + x arcsin x ln x

1 - x2
2. arctg 0,96.
: (,
. 9.7). 1 = 0 + = 0,96, 0 = 1, =
1
1
, f (1) = , f(0,96) =
= 0,04. f(x) = arctgx, f ( x ) = 2
2
x +1
1

= f (1) + f (1)Dx = arctg 1 + (-0,04) = - 0,02 0,765.


2
4
97

3. :
2
) y = e x , y = ?; ) y = x5 lnx, (1) = ? ) y = sin3x, y(n) = ?
:
2
2
2
2
2
x2
= 2e x + 2 xe x 2 x = 2e x (1 + 2 x
= 2 xe x , y = ( y ) = 2 xe
) y = e x

( )

2 xe x 2 x = 2e x (1 + 2 x 2 );

1
) y = (x 5 ln x) = 5x 4 ln x + x5 = 5x 4 ln x + x4; y = ( y ) =
x
= (5x 4 ln x + x 4) = 20x 3 ln x + 9x 3; y = ( y) = (20x 3 ln x +
1
+ 9x 3) = 60 x 2 ln x + 20 x 3 + 27 x 2 = 60 x 2 ln x + 47 x 2; y (1) =
x
= 47;
) y = cos3x 3 = 3cos3x = 3sin(3x + /2), y = (3cos3x) =
= -9 sin 3x = 3 2 sin(3x + ), y = (-9 sin3x) = -27 cos 3x =
= 33 sin(3x + 3/2), y IV = (-27 cos 3x) = 34 sin(3x + 2), , y(n) =
= 3n sin(3x + n/2).
4. d2y, y =
= arcsin x .
1
1
1
: y = (arcsin x ) =
; d2y = ydx 2 =

=
1 - x 2 x 2 x - x2
3
1
1 1
1 - 2x

2
dx = - ( x - x 2 ) 2 (1 - 2 x )dx 2 = dx 2 .
=

2 3
2 2
2 x - x2
4 (x - x )
5. ,

:
) x = acos3t, y = a sin3 t, a = const. 0(0, 0) t0 = /4.
: , . 9.9:
y (t ) (a sin3 t )
3 sin 2 t cos t
yx =
=
=
= - tg t,
3
x (t ) (a cos t ) 3 cos 2 t (- sin t )
1
( y (t ))t
(- tg t )
1
cos 2 t
=
=
=
.
yxx
=
3
( x (t ))t (a cos t ) 3a cos 2 t (- sin t ) 3a cos 4 t sin t
:
3

2
2
a 2
a 2
, y0 = y(t0 ) = a
,
=
x0 = x(t0 ) = a
=

2
4
2
4

yx (t0 ) = - tg = -1,
4
98

a 2
a 2
a 2
= 0.
y= - x y+x
4
4
2


dy, :
60) y = (1 + x - x2)3; 61) y = 5ln sin x; 62) y = (x3 + 1)tg2 x;
x
2x
.
; 64) y =
63) y = arctg3
2
cos x
1- x
:
65) 3 8, 01; 66) cos 32; 67) arcsin 0,48; 68) lg 10,08.
:
2

69) y = xe- x , y = ?; 70) y = x 6 - 4x 3 + 4, y IV (1) = ?;


71) y = e2x sin 3x, y(0) = ?; 72) y = ln2x, y = ?; 73) y = e3x,
y(n) = ?; 74) y = sin2x, y(n) = ?
:
1+ x
; 77) y = tg(1 + x).
75) y = arctg3x; 76) y =
x
78) , y = 5e2x 3ex y 3y + 2y = 0.
79) x = t3/3 2t 2 + 3t.
.
?
, :
,
80) x = a(t - sin t ), 81) x = arcsin t, 82) x = et cos t,

2
t
y = a(1 - cos t );
y = ln(1 - t );
y = e sin t .
83) L:
x = sint, y = 2t t0 = 0.

99

10.

10
10.1.
. :
f(x) C[a,b], f (x) x (a, b) (a, b):
f (b) - f (a)
f (c) =
b-a
:
k. . = k

. : f(x), g(x) C[a,b], f (x), g (x) x (a, b),


g (x) 0 c (a, b):
f (c)
f ( b) - f ( a )

=
g (c)
g ( b) - g ( a )
10.2.
.
f (x) 0
f ( x )
lim
= = lim
x a g( x )
x

a
0
g

( x )

10.3.

:
> 0 (a, b) f ( x ) ,
f ( x )
< 0 (a, b) f ( x )
10.4. (.)

100

x0 . f (x) = 0\
. I:
f(x) C[a,b], x0 (a, b) .,
f (x):

f ( x0 ) = ymax
f ( x0 ) = ymin

10.5. ,

. II: f (x0) = 0,
< 0 x0 . max,
f ( x0 )
> 0 x0 . min
10.6. ,

:
< 0 x (a, b)
f ( x )
> 0 x (a, b)
10.7. (..)
. x0
f (x0) = 0
\
: f(x) C[a,b],
x0 (a, b)
f (x):

(x0, f(x0)) ..

10.8.
L: d(M, L) 0 .
: x = a.
:
lim f ( x ) =
x a 0

101

:
f (x)
, b = lim [ f ( x ) - kx ]
y = kx + b, k = lim
x x
x

. 10.1, 10.2
1. :
x3 - 1
- 2 arctg x
ln 2 x
; ) lim
; ) lim
.
) lim
1
x 1 ln x
x
x + x 3

ln 1 +


0
: ), ) , ) ,
0


:
( x 3 - 1)
x3 - 1 0
3x 2
= = lim
= lim
= lim 3 x 3 = 3;
) lim
x 1 ln x
x 1 1
x 1
0 x 1 (ln x )
x
1
-2
- 2 arctg x 0
2( x 2 + x )
1 + x2
= = lim
= lim
=
) lim
1
x

0 x 1 - 1 x (1 + x 2 )
ln 1 +

1 + 1 x x2
x
(*)

2x + 1
2

= = 2 lim
= = 2 lim = 2;
x 2
x 2 x


( (*) ,
2.)
1
1
2 ln x
2
ln 2 x

x
x =
= = lim
= = lim
) lim
x + x 3
x + 3 x 2
x + 9 x
2
1
= lim 3 = 0.
9 x + x

102

2. :
1

) lim x - tg x; ) lim
.

x 1 x - 1
ln x
2
x
2

: {0 }, { - }
{0/0}, :

x
1

2 = 0 = lim
= -1;
) lim x - tg x = {0 } = lim

2
0 x - 1
x
x ctg x
2
2
2
sin 2 x
1
x ln x - x + 1 0
x
= =
) lim
= { - } = lim
x 1 x - 1
x 1 ln x( x - 1)
ln x
0
1
1
ln x + x - 1
ln
x
0

x
= lim
= lim
= = lim x
=
1
1
x 1 x - 1
x 1
x 1 1
+ ln x
+
1 - + ln x 0
x
x
x2 x
x
1
= lim
= .
x 1 1 + x
2
3. :
) lim x
x 0 +

tg x

; )

1
1
ln
x
1
lim (ln 2 x ) ; ) lim x x .
x +
x 1
0
0

: ) {0 }, ) { }, ) {1} 0

,
0

lim ( x )ln ( x )

lim ( x ) ( x ) = e x a

x a

lim tg x ln x

) lim x tg x = e x 0 +
x 0 +

= e 0 = 1;

1
ln x
x
lim tg x ln x = {0 } = lim
= lim
=
1
x 0 +
x 0 + ctg x
x 0 +
- 2
sin x
sin x
= - lim
sin x = 0;
x 0 + x
)

1
lim (ln 2 x ) ln x
x +

=e

lim

x + ln x

ln(ln 2 x )

= e 0 = 1;
103

1 2
ln ln 2 x
ln
2 x 2 x = lim 1 = 0;;
lim
= = lim
1
x + ln x
x
+
x + ln 2 x


x
1

{ }

lim

) lim x 1- x = 1 = e x 11- x
x 1

ln x

= e-1;

1
ln x
0
= = lim x = -1.
lim
x 1 1 - x
0 x 1 -1


:
x m - am
sin x
ex - 1
e x - e- x - 2 x
;
; 3) lim n
; 2) lim
lim
;
1) lim
4)
x a x - an
x 1 ln x
x 0 sin x
x 0
x - sin x
tg x - x
ln cos x
ea x - 1
ln x
; 8) lim
; 7) lim
; 6) lim
5) lim
;
2
x 0 sin x - x
x 0
x 0 sin bx
x 0 + ctg x
x
a
ln sin 2 x
e3 x
;
;
10 ) lim 3
1 1 ) lim x sin ;
9) lim
x
x 0 ln sin x
x + x + 2 x 2 - 3
x
1
1

- 2;
12) lim sin x ln x; 13) lim(1 - e2 x )ctg x; 14) lim
x 0 +
x 0 x sin x
x 0
x
15) lim (sec x - tg x );

x
2

16) lim sin x tg x ;


x 0

17) lim (tg x )2 x - ;


x

2
1
18) lim(e2 x + x ) x ; 19) lim ln ; 20) lim(cos x )ctg x .
x 0
x 0
x 0
x

. 10.310.8
1. 2
y = x 2 3 6 x - 7.
3
: :
1) D( f ): x (-, +);
2) , :
2
6
2
4
y = x 2 3 6x - 7 = x 3 6x - 7 + x 2
=
3

3
3
3
3 (6 x - 7)2
=
104

4 x(6 x - 7 + x )
3 3 (66 x - 7)2

28 x( x - 1)
3 3 (6 x - 7)2

y = 0 x(x - 1) = 0 x1 = 0, x2 = 1
;
y
/ 6x - 7 = 0 x3 = 7/6 ;
3) D( f ) ,
, :
x (-, 0)

(0, 1)

ymax = 0

y
y

(1, 11/6)

1
ymin = -2/3

11/6
(11/6, +)

/
+

2. , , y = ln(1 + x2).
: :
1) D( f ): x (-, +);
2) , :
1
y = (ln(1 + x 2 )) =
2 x,
1 + x2
2
2
2 x 2(1 + x ) - 2 x 2 x 2(1 - x )
y =
=
=
,

1 + x2
(1 + x 2 )2
(1 + x 2 )2
y = 0 1 - x2 = 0 x = 1 ,
, y (-, +).
D( f ) , , , , :

x
y
y

(-, -1)

-1
y.. = ln2
0

(-1, 1)
+

1
y.. = ln2
0

(1, +)

3. :
ex
) y = 3 x 3 - 3 x ; ) y =
.
x+2
: ) , 3 3
x - 3x
=
. : y = kx + b, k = lim
x
x
3
= lim 3 1 - 2 = 1, b = lim ( 3 x 3 - 3 x - x ) = { - } =
x
x
x
105

x3 - 3x - x3

=
( x 3 - 3 x )2 + x 3 x 3 - 3 x + x 2
3
x
= 0.
= lim
2
x
3
3

3 1
+ 31- 2 +1
x2
x
y = x ;
) = -2, ex
lim f ( x ) = : lim
=
x a 0
x -2 0 x + 2
x = -2 .
ex

= =
: y = kx + b, k = lim
x + x( x + 2)

x
x
x
e
e
e

= 0; b =
= lim
= = lim
= ; k = lim
x
-
x + 2 x + 2
x
+
x
(
x
+ 2)
2


ex
= lim
= 0 = 0
x - x( x + 2)
-.
= lim

x 3

4. : =
= 1/x + 4x2.
:
:
1) D( f ), ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) , ;
5) , , ;
6) ;
7) , ,
D( f );
8) .
, :
1) D( f ): x (-, 0) (0, +); x = 0 ;
2) : = 0
1
: lim + 4 x 2 = x = 0

x 0 x
106

1
+ 4x2
x
=
. : y = kx + b, lim
x
x

1
lim 2 + 4 x = ;

x x
1
+ 4 x 2 f ( x ) - f ( x ) ;
3) f (- x ) =
-x
1
-1 + 8 x 3
1

+
8
x
=
; y = 0
4) y = + 4 x 2 =
x

-x2
x2
83 - 1 = 0 = 1/2 ,
D( f ). x = 0 ,
.
:
x
y
y

(-, 0)

(0, 1/2)

1/2
ymin = 3
0

(1/2, +)
+

2
2(4 x 3 + 1)

1
; y = 0
5) y = 2 + 8 x = 3 + 8 =

-x
x
x3
3
1
2
,
4x3 + 1 = 0 x = - 3 = 2
4
D( f ). ,
, :

2
-,
2

2
2
.. = 0
0
-

32
, 0
2

(0, +)

1
6) : = 0 +
x
3
2
2
3
+ 4x = 0 4x = -1 x = . 2
Y : 0;
7) (. 10.1).
5. .
, 107

. 10.1

(II) .
: 2NO + O2 = 2NO2 v = kx2y,
NO ; O2;
k , . = 100 - , v = kx2(100 - x) = k(100x2 - x3).
dv
dv
= vx = k(200 x - 3 x 2 )
= 0 1 = 0, 2 = 66,7%

dx
dx
(k 0). ,
, vxx = k(200 - 6x); v (x1) = v (0) > 0,
.. 1 = 0 min; v (x2) = k(200 - 6 66,7) < 0, , v, .. , 2 = 66,7% .
= 66,7%, = 100% 66,7% = 33,3%, ..
,
33,3% , .. = 0,5.


:
x
x
x2
; 24) y = x .
21) y =
; 22) y = ln cosx; 23) y = 2
2
x +1
e
4-x
, ,
:
108

25) y = a - 3 x - b ; 26) y = x - ln(x + 1); 27) y = x3 - 3/x;


28) y = 3 x 3 - 2 x 2 .
:
1
x3
; 30) y =
.
29) y = x
e -1
3 - x2
31) 2, 3, 2130 .
32) s =
= 6t2 - t3. ?
33) k = x3 - 6x2 + 15x
(x ). , .
34) . R
,
, ?

1
x3 + 5
x(3 x sin x 2 - 2 x 3 cos x 2 - 10 cos x 2 )
;
y
=
?
:
y
=
.

sin x 2
sin 2 x 2
dx
.
2. y = lnarctg x; dy = ? : dy =
2 x ( x + 1)arctg x
x

x
x
ctg
ctg 4 ctg
x
ln(tg
2
)

2
3. y = (tg 2 x ) 2 ; y = ? : y = (tg 2 x ) 2
.
x
sin 4 x
2
2 sin

2
2
32 sin 4 x
x
+
.
4. y = 3 3 + tg 4 x; y = ? : y = 3 4
cos3 4 x
x
3 x

1. y =

x = sin t + cos ,
5 yxx = ? : y
5.
xx = 2.
y = sin 2 t;

x cos x - sin x
6. lim
= ? : -1/3.
x 0
x3
3

7. lim x 1+ ln x = ? : e3.
x 0

109

8. , y = xln2x. : max = y(1/e2) = 4/e2, ymin = y(1) = 0.


2
esin x
1. y = 3 x 2 esin x ; y = ? : y = 3 (2 + 3 x cos x ).
3 x
2 ln x
dx.
2. y = arcsinln2x; dy = ? : dy =
x 1 - ln 4 x

1
1
1
tg
tg tg
ln x
x
x
x
.
3. y = x ; y = ? : y = x
1
x
x 2 cos 2

x
4. y = arctgx5; y = ? : y =

10 x 3 (2 - 3 x10 )
.
(1 + x10 )2

x = arctg t,
2
5.
yxx = ? : y
xx = 2(1 + t ).
2
y = ln(1 + t );
ctg x - 1
1
= ? : - .
6. lim
sin 4 x
2
x
4

1
1
7. lim
- = ? : 0.
x 0 arctg x
x
8. , ,
y = arctgx - x. : .. = y(0) = 0.

a b g d , n
.
1. f j ( x )( x + x0 + 1)k ( x - k )
, k =
(), y( x ) =
( x - x0 + 1) +1
+ + +
n
n +
n +
+ 1; = + 3; j =
k=
+ 1; a =
+ 2;

2
5
4
n +
+ 1; fj (x), x0 :
b=
3

110

fj(x)

sin(ax + b)

ln(x + a)

tg(ax + b)

x0

-b/a

1 - a

-b/a

4
x + a -1
1 - a

2. y =

i [ j ( x )]
( -1)

( x k + 1)

+ + n
+ n
+ 1; =
+ 2,
j, , k, a 1, i =

4
i(), j() :
1
sinx

i
i(x)

2
cosx

3
tgx

4
ctg x

1
x

j
j (x)

5
6
7
8
arcsinx arccosx arctgx arcctgx

2
ax

3
log a x

4
lnx

3. y() = f(x)
0 = , :
x r + x +
n +
n +
n
+ 1.
+ 1, =
f ( x) =
, r = + 2, =
r

7
x +
3
6
4.
y() 0, :
n

y(x)
3

1
3

2
3

x3 + 7x

x + 5 - x2
2
3

4
5
6

x0

y(x)

0,98

11

x23

0,98

x2 + x + 3
x11
3

3x - 8

13

27,17 14

16

31,87 17
1,97

18

1,008 19
2,97

20

x6

2,007 23

4,93

4x + 5

4,97

2x + x + 1

y(x)

x0

x7

2,003

13 x - 1

4,97

29

1
x

8,97

30

2,98

5x + 7

4,003

x3

31,94

ln(1 + 4x)
4

0,007
3,998

1 + x + sin x 0,007

27

1,006 28

4x - 3

1,996 25
2,993 26

24

5x + 1

15,95 22

x
4

x0

0,998 21

x3

5x + 2

0,007 15

x + 2 x + 5 0,97
5

1,012 12

9
10

x2

arcsin x
3

7
8

3 x + cos x

0,005

x
2

1,003

2 x - sin

x2 + 5

1,995
111

14
1. ? , .
2. ? .
3. ?
?
x = x(t ),

5. L:
y = y(t ).
t = t0, (t), y(t), t0, :
n

x(t)

y(t)

a sin 3t

acos3t

3 cos t

sin t

3 a(t - sint)
4

2t - t2

t0

x(t)

y(t)

/3 11

at cost

at sint

/3 12

sin2t

cos2t

3t - t 3

14

cost +
sin 2t /4 15
+ sint
t
t
arccos
-1 16
6 arcsin
2
1
+t
1+ t

t + ln t
t2
1+ t
t2

3 + 2 lnt
t
3
2
+
2t 2 t

asin4t

a cos4t

t(t cost - t(t sint +


a(tsint +
/4 17
- 2 sint) + 2cost)
+ cost)
3at
t +1
3at 2
8
2 18
2
t
1 + t2
1+ t
1+
tgt +
9
/4 19 1 - t 2
+ 2lnctgt + ctg t
7

t2 t4
2
4

x(t)
y(t)
t0
t/2 21
tcost 0
-tsint
1:
/6 22 1/t 2
1
:(t2 +1)

t
t
a
arccos
/3 13 arcsin
1
2
(1-cost)
1 + t2
1+ t

10

t0

t2 t4
+
2
4

23 3cos t 4sin t /4

24 t - t 4 t 2 - t 3

25 t 3 + 1

t2 +
+t+1

sint

/3

/6 26 2cos t

a(sint 2sin2t +
/4 27 2tg t
/4
- tcost)
+ sin2t
t -1
-1 28 t3 + 1
t2
-2
t
t - t3

20 ln(1 + t 2) t- arctg t

29

sin t

30

sin t

et

cos2t /6

6. m-
y = f(x), , a, b 1, 2,
3, f(x) :

112

f(x)

sin ax

eax + b

log a ( x + b)

4
x+a
x+b

5
1
ax + b

6
ax + b

( x )
, :
x a ( x )

7. , lim
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(x)
x - arctgx
- 2arctg x
x - sin x
- 2arctg x
- 2arcsinx
e x - e-x
1 - sin(x/2)
sin(x/2)
xlnx - x + 1
a2 - x2

(x)
x3
ln(1 + 1/x)
x - tgx
ln(x/(x + 1))
sin3(x - 1)
sinx cos x
lnx
ln(1 - x)
(x - 1)ln x
ctg(x/(2a))

a
0

1
0
1
0
1
a

11

ex - 1

cosx - 1

12
13

ln(sin2x)
x cos x - x sinx

ln(sinx)
x sinx

0
0

sinx

14

15

a x - b x

x 1 - x2

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

1 - cos2x
lnx
e3x - 3x - 1
cos xln(x - 3)
tg(x/2)
ex - e-x - 2x
e2x - 1
ex - 1 - x
(x - 2)2

cos7x - cos3x
1 + 2 ln(sinx)
sin2 5x
ln(ex - e3)
ln(1 - x)
x - sinx
arcsinx
x(ex - 1)
tg(cosx - 1)

0
+0
0
3 + 0
1 - 0
0
0
0
2

25

cosx

(1 - sin x )2

/2

26
27

-1

1 - sinx
tgx - x

(/2 - x)
sinx - x

/2
0
113

(x)

(x)

28

1 - cos x

sinx

29
30

lnx
ln(1 + x 2)

x
ln(/2 - arctgx)

8. y = (x), y = F(x) , 1, r, 3;
(x), F(x) :

(x) (x - a)2(x - r) ax 2(x - r)2 ax2(x2 - r 2) ax(x 2 - r 2)


F(x)

ax + r
( x + a)2

( x + r )2 + a2
ax 2
2
a( x + r )
x -r
2

ax 3
r-x

5
ax
x2 + r 2

6
ax
x2 + r 2

x 3 + 2r 3
ax

( x + a)2
x-r

9. .
1. v1 (/)
v2 (/) , /2
.
(), b ().

?
2. V (3). ( R
H), ?
3. .
().
( ), ?
4. () b (), ,
.
5. (),
. ( ,
bh2, b
, h .)
114

6. ()
. , b () .
v1 (/), v2 (/).
,
?
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3

v1

v2

20

30

50

60

V
8

14
40
30
3
40

30
5
20

4
10

5
30
16

10,5
50 18
27
4
5
30 20

3
40

6
60
4

n
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

4
70
5
21
6
2
1
50
2
3
17,5
4
50
5
24
6
3
1
40
2
3
42
4
70
5
33
6
2

v1

v2

5
30

6
20

40
4
40

32
32
6
50

3
10

5
40
64

55
3

69
1.
?
2. . ?
3. ?
. 9, 10

9.
1
2
5
2
1
2

; 2)
+ 4 3 x ; 3)
+ 3 (7 x - 3) + 7 6 3 x 1) 6 x 2 +

3 5
3
3
2

2 x
x
x
x
10 x
x
2
1
3
(7 x - 3) + 7 6 x - 2 ;
4) -5;
5) 1;
6) /4 + 1/2;

x 3
x
115

1
sin 2 x
1
1
9 cos x
2
x
; 8) 0; 2e2; 9) - ; 10) sin(2e x )e x ;
7)
x
4
3
sin 4 x
2
cos x 5 2 ln x
6
1
; 13) 0;
; 12) x tg 5 x 2
11) -5 x 4 sin x 5 ln 2 x +
x
5
cos 2 x 2
2
2
3
14) 2 xe x ; 15) 101- 5 x (-15 x 2 )ln10; 16) 5sin x sin 2 x ln 5; 17) 0;
x

5x
;
1 9 ) x arctg 4 x
+ 2 arctg x ;
18)
2
4
2

1+ x
(1 - x )arcsin x
2 x sin x cos x -

ln x - 2

;
21) - ;
22)
4
4
ln3 x

1
x
12 ln 5
log3 ( x + 3) +
; 24) 4 ln3 sin x ctg x; 25)
;
23)

5
2 x
( x + 3)ln 3
2
x + 1
1

x ln arctg x

;
+
; 27) (arctg x ) x +1
26) x x +1 ln x +

2
2
x
x +1
arctg x x + 1
20) -5 arccos 4 x

1
1
;
1- x 2 x

(6 x + 5)3 (4 x - 5)2
9
8
6
2(6 x + 5) + 4 x - 5 - 2 x + 7 ;
3
3 4
(2 x + 7)
3
ln3 x
sin 2 x
3

;
30) 0 ;
31) x sin 2 x 2 cos 2 x ln x +
32)

x
x - 1 sin 2 x x ln x 2(
arcsin x
arcsin x
ln3 x
1
1
ln x

3
+
;

- 2 ctg 2 x ; 33) -

x
x
x - 1 sin 2 x x ln x 2( x - 1)
1- x
2(1 - e x cos e x )
-3 ln 3
x

; 35)
; 36) 8,5; 37) e1+ tg x 1 +
34)
;
2
3
x

25
x
cos
3 x - sin e
3
1

38) 2 sin 1 + cos 1 + 1/ln 3; 39) (cos x ) x


ln cos x - 3 x tg x ;
3 2

3 x
73
2
cos xe sin x

4
+
;
41)
4 2 ) 5 ( x + 2)2 ( x 2 - 1)3 x - 4
40) - ;

5( x + 2)
2 sin x
28) -

; 29)

2
6x
1
ex - 1
1

- 1)3 x - 4
+ 2
+
;
;
;
43)
44)
5( x + 2) x - 1 2( x - 4)
2
cos x
sin(2 tg x )
1
2
1
; 47)
;
; 46)
45)
2
x
x
cos x
3 3 (arcsin 2 x + 1)2 1 - (2 x + 1)2
4 sin cos3
8
3
3
3x - 1 2 x + 1 1
1
3
ln sin x
+
+
49) (sin x ) x
48)

;
5
2 x
3 x - 1 2 x + 1 15 x - 4
15 x + 1
116

ln sin x

+ x ctg x ; 53) y = -2x + 1 ; y = x/2 2 x

- 3/2 ; 54) 4x + 25y - 13 = 0 ; 125x - 20y - 246 = 0 ; 55) y = x/4 + 2 ; y = 296 - 4x ; 56) v(1) = 4 /; 57) 3 ; 58) 8 ; 59) 23A;
60) 3 ( 1 + x - x 2 ) 2 ( 1 - 2 x ) d x ;
61) 5 l n s i n x c t g x l n 5 d x ;
2 ln( x 3 + 1) 3 x 2 tg 2 x
6
2x
+
dx; 63)
arctg 2
dx;
62) ( x 3 + 1)tg 2 x

2
3
2
cos 2 x
x +1
1+ x
1 - x2
2 cos x + x sin x
dx; 65) 2,008; 66) 0,849; 67) 0,5005; 68) 1,0035;
64)
2 cos x cos x
2
2(1 - ln x )
; 73) 3 n e 3x ;
69) 2 xe- x (2 x 2 - 3); 70) 360; 71) 9; 72)
2
x
54 x

2
n -1
dx 2 ; 76) d 2 y =
74) -2 cos 2 x + n ; 75) d y =
2
(1 + 9 x 2 )2
2 sin(1 + x ) 2
2
x (3 - x ) 2
dx ; 79) x = t 2 4t + 3;
d2 y = dx ; 77) d y =
3
cos3 (1 + x )
4x
2
t
1
2t
;
x = 2t 4; t1 = 1; t2 = 3; 80) ctg ; ; 81) ;2
t
2 4a sin 4
1 - t2
1- t
2
1 + tg t
2
;
; 83) y - x ln 2 - 1 = 0; y ln 2 + x 82)
1 - tg t et (cos t - sin t )3
- ln2 = 0.

(sin x )

10.
m
a
1) 1; 2) -; 3) a m - n ; 4) 2; 5)
; 6) 0; 7) 0; 8) 0; 9) 1; 10) ;
n
b
11) ; 12) 0; 13) -2; 14) 1/6; 15) 0; 16) 1; 17) 1; 18) e3; 19) 1;
20) e -1/2 ; 21) y min = y(0) = 0; 22) y max = y(2k) = 0;
23) ymax = y(1) = 1/2; ymin = y(-1) = -1/2; 24) ymax = y(1) = 1/e;
25) y . = y(b) = a; 26) .. ; 27) y 1 . = y(-1) = 2;
y2 . = y(1) = -2; 28) y. = y(2) = 0; 29) x = 0, y = 0, y = -1;
30) x = 3; x + y = 0;
31) :

2)
3)
3)

117

21)

24)

27)

22)

25)

28)

30)

32) 12 . ; 33) 3; 34) H = R.

23)

26)

29)

11.

11
11.1. .
Rn
O: Rn = {(x1, x2, ..., xn): xi R, i = 1, n}
y = f(x1, x2, ..., xn), (x1, x2, ..., xn) D Rn, y Y R
D
: Y : (x1, x2, ..., xn) D ! y Y R
z = f(x, y), (x, y) D R2 ;
f(x, y) = c, c = const

: U(M0) = {M R2: |MM 0 | < } - . M0(x0, y0)


D M D > 0: U(M) D
11.2.
: A = lim f ( x, y) > 0 (): M U (M 0 )
M M0

| f(x, y) - A| <
: z = f(x, y) . 0(x0, y0)
1) f (x, y) U(M0); 2) lim f ( x, y) = f(x0, y0)
M M0

11.3.
z = f (x, y):
: x z = f(x + x, y) - f(x, y), y z = f(x, y + y) - f(x, y)
x y
yz
z
z z
= lim
= lim x ,

:
x x 0 x y y 0 y
x y
11.4. ,

: z = f (x + x, y + y) - f (x, y)
z = f(x, y)
119

: z = f (x, y) . M(x, y) z =
= Ax + By + (x, y), = o() r = (x )2 + (y)2 0,
z
z
dz =
dx +
dy (dx = Dx,
x
y
dy = Dy).
f
f
x +
y x
y

f(x + x, y + y) f(x, y) +

11.5.

2 z
2 z
=

x y y x
d2z = d(dz) 2- ,
n


dy z.
dnz = d(dn-1z) = dx +
x
x

11.6.
dz z dx z dy
=
+
;
1) z = f(x, y), x = x(t), y = y(t):
dt
x dt y dt
dz z z dy
=
+
;
2) z = f (x, y), y = y(x):
dx x y dx
3) z = f (x, y), x = x(u, v); y = y(u, v):
dz z x z y dz z x z y
=
+
,
=
+
du x u y u dv x v y v
11.7. ,
dy
F
=1. F(x, y) = 0 y = y(x)
x
dx
2. F(x, y, z) = 0 z = z(x, y)
F F
z
F F z
=
,
=y z
x z y
x

120

F
y

. 11.1, 11.2
1. ()
1
z=
.
2
2x + y2
: z x, y,
= 0, = 0, .
z OY, (0, 0) ( ) (. 11.1).

. 11.1

1
.
3 xy
: z , ,
D = {(x, y) XOY |
x > 0,
x < 0,

xy > 0}
y > 0
y < 0.
, ,
XOY ( ) (. 11.2).
2. z =

. 11.2

y -1
.
x
: ,
D = {(x, y) XOY| -1 (y - 1)/x 1, x 0}.
3. z = arccos

121

x < 0,
, ,

x y - 1 - x,
x > 0,
x > 0,
x < 0,

1 - x y x + 1.
x + 1 y 1 - x; - x y - 1 x,
, z
, y = x + 1 y = 1 - x,
, (. 11.3).

. 11.3

4. u = 1 x2 y2.
: 1 x2 y2 =
x2 + y2 = 1 (. , . 11.1).
R = 1 - c ,
1 > 0, .. c < 1. = 1 ( ),
> 1 .
5. u = xy.
: xy = c, R.
y = c/x = 0, = 0. =/
,
(. 11.4).

. 11.4

122

x 2 + y2
.
z
: cz = x2 +
+ y2. .
6. u =

7. u = 52x+3y-z.
: 52x+3y-z =
= c, 52x+3y-z = 5c, , 2x + 3y - z = c .
8. : ) lim

x 2
y0

1 - 1 - xy
tg( xy )
.
; ) lim
x

0
xy
y
y0

:
tg( xy)
tg( xy ) 0
x tg( xy )
) lim
= = lim
= lim x lim
=
x 2
x

2
x

2
x

2
y
xy
xy
0
y0

y0

y0

xy = ,
tg

= 2 1 = 2;
= x 2, 0 = 2 lim
0

y 0,

(1 - 1 - xy )(1 + 1 - xy )
1 - 1 - xy 0
) lim
= = lim
=
x 0
xy
xy(1 + 1 - xy )
0 x 0
y0

y0

1 - 1 + xy
1
1
= lim
= .
x 0 xy(1 + 1 - xy )
x 0 1 + 1 - xy
2

= lim

y0

y0

1 ) z = 3 - x 2 - 3 y2 ;

2) z =

1
;
4 x - y2
2

2
; 4) z = ln(x + y); 5) z = arcsin(x + y); 6) u =
y
= ln(-x2 - y2 + 2z).
4
;
: 7) z = 2
2
2
2
x
+
y
8) z = arctg(y/x); 9) z = x - y .
3) z =

2x -

: 10) u = z -

x 2 y2
- ;
4
9

11) u = x2 + y2 - z2.
123

3 xy
tg( x 2 + y 2 )
; 13) lim
.
x 0 2 - 4 - xy
x 0 2 x 2 + 2 y2

: 12) lim

y0

y0

. 11.311.5
1. :
y

) z =

2
x2 y
e ; ) z =
; ) u = x z .
x + sin y

: ) z =

e y .

z dz
z
z dz
. :
=
,
,
=

y
x
dx y = const y dy x = const

( )

z ( )
= e
y
y

z
= ex
x

y
x

y
y
1
= ex = ex y = - 2 ex;
x x
x x
x
y

x ( y = const)

1
1
y
= e x = e x ( y)y = e x ;
x y
x
x
y

y( x = const)

z
,
x

) :

( x 2 y)x ( x + sin y) - x 2 y( x + sin y)x


z x 2 y
=
=
=

x x + sin y x ( y = const)
( x + sin y)2
=

y 2 x( x + sin y ) - x 2 y(1 + 0) xy( x + 2 sin y )


=
;
( x + sin y )2
( x + sin y)2

( x 2 y )y ( x + sin y ) - x 2 y( x + sin y)y


z x 2 y
=
=
=
y x + sin y y( x = const)
( x + sin y)2
=

x 2 ( x + sin y) - x 2 y(0 + cos y) x 2 ( x + sin y - y cos y)


=
;
( x + sin y)2
( x + sin y)2
y

) u = x z . :
u du
u du
u du
;
=
,
=
,
=

dy x,z = const z dz x, y = const


x
dx y,z = const y
y
y
u
y z 2 -1
z2
;
= x
x = 2 x
x
z

( )

124

( )
y

2
u
= xz
y

y
y

=x

z2

( )

2
1
ln x 2
y
ln x 2 = x z ln x 2 = 2 x z ;
z y
z
z

y
y
y
y
2 y ln x z 2
u
y
-3
z2
z2
z2
ln x 2 = x ln x y(-2 z ) = x .
= x
z = x
z z
z
z3
2
2. : ) z = x ln(x + y2);
x 2 yz
) u = 2
.
x +z
: , . 11.4, :
) dz = (x ln(x2 + y2))x dx + (x ln(x2 + y2))y dy = (ln(x2 + y2) +
1
1
+ x 2
2x) dx + x 2
2ydy =
2
x +y
x + y2

2x2
2 xy
= ln( x 2 + y 2 ) + 2
dx + 2
dy;
2

x +y
x + y2
u
u
u
) du =
dx +
dy +
dz
x
y
z
u = u(x, y, z):

x 2 yz
x 2 yz
x 2 yz
du = 2
d
x
+
d
y
+
2

2
dz =
x + z x
x + z y
x + z z
=

2 xyz( x 2 + z ) - x 2 yz 2 x
1
x 2 y( x 2 + z ) - x 2 yz
2
x
+
x
z
y
+
dz =
d
d
x2 + z
( x 2 + z )2
( x 2 + z )2

2 xyz 2
x2z
x4 y
d
+
d
+
dz.
x
y
( x 2 + z )2
( x 2 + z )2
x2 + z

3. (4, 05)2 + (3, 07)2 .


: z =
= x 2 + y 2 1 = 4,05, 1 = 3,07. 0 = 4, 0 = 3
z
z

z( x1, y1 ) = z( x0 , y0 ) +
x +
x ( x , y )
y ( x
0 0

z
z
x +

y ( x
x ( x0 , y0 )
z
=
x

0 , y0 )

y. = 1 - 0 = 0,05, = 1 - 0 = 0,07,

0 , y0 )

x 2 + y2

x
x 2 + y2

z
=
y

x 2 + y2

y
x 2 + y2

125

z(4, 05; 3, 007) = (4, 05)2 + (3, 07)2


+

3
2

4 + 32

42 + 32 +

4
42 + 32

0, 05 +

0, 07 5 + 0, 08 = 5, 08.

4. :
2 z 2 z 2 z 2 z
) z = 2xy; 2 ,
,
,
=?
x x y y x y 2
3u
) u = exyz,
=?
x y z
z
z
= 2 xy ln 2 y;
= 2 xy ln 2 x;
: )
x
y
2 z

2 xyxylnln22
)x y)
= ((2
y
= x = y ln2(2 xy )x = y ln 2 2 xy ln2
2
x
2 z
2 z
2
y = y ln 22 2 xy;
=
= (2 xy ln 2 y)y = ln 2(2 xy ln 2
x y y x
2 z
= (2 xy ln2 x)y =
xy + 2 xy ) = ln2 2 xy (xy ln2 + 1);
y 2
= x2 ln22 2xy.
u
2u
= (e xyz )x = yze xyz ,
= ( yze xyz )y =
)
x
x y
= (yze xyz )y = (yz)y e xyz + yz(e xyz )y = ze xyz + yze xyz xz = (z +
3u
= ((z + xyz 2 )e xyz )z = (1 +
+ xyz 2 )e xyz ,
x y z
+ 2xyz)exyz + (z + xyz 2)exyz xy = exyz(1 + 3xyz + x2y2z2).
5.
z = y/x - x/y.
: 2 z
2 z
2 z
, . 11.5: d 2 z = 2 dx 2 + 2
dxdy + 2 dy 2 .
x y
x
y

z y x
1
x
2 z
z y x
y
1
= - = + 2;
=
= - =- 2 - ;
y x y y x y
x x y x
y
x 2
x
2 z
1
1
1
2 z
1
2y
y
y
= - 2 - = - 2 + 2 ;
=
= - 2 - = 3 ;
x
x y x
y y
y x
x
y
y 2
x
126

x
2x
2y
1
= + 2 = - 3 , : d 2 z = 3 dx 2 +
x y y
y
x
1
2x
1
+ 2 2 - 2 dxdy - 3 dy 2 .
y
x
y


:
3x - y2
y
y
;
1 5 ) z = arctg ;
1 6 ) z = tg
14) z = x y + 3 ;
x
x
x
y
17) z = xy ln(x + y); 18) z = x x ; 19) u = ln(x 2 + y 3 + z 5 );
20) u = (sin x)yz; 21) u = xy 2z 3t 4 + 3x - 4y + 2z - t + 1 .
x 2 + y2
xy
; 23) u =
+
: 22) z = 2
2
z
x -y
+ sin(y + 3z).

:
2 4 ) ln( 3 1, 03 + 4 0, 98 - 1);
3,03
25) (2,01) .
:
x-y
; 28) z = arcsin(xy);
26) z = sin 2 (2x + 3y); 27) z =
x+y
2
3 z
29) z = e xy , 2 ; = ?; 30) u = xy z + x 2 z + y 3, uxyz
; = ?; 31) u =
x y
2u 2u 2u
1
+
+
= 0; 32) z =
. ,
=
x 2 y 2 z 2
x 2 + y2 + z 2
2

z z
2 z 2 z 2 z
+
= 1, 2 2 -
= ln(e + e ). ,
= 0.
x y
x y
x y
:
33) z = x 2 + 2 xy ; 34) z = x sin2 y.
x

. 11.6, 11.7
1. :
dz
= ? ) z = log3(ex +
) z = x 2y, x = arctg(2t), y = t2 + 5;
dt
x
dz
+ ey), y = ctg2x;
= ? ) z = ln tg , x = sin v + 2u, y = cosv - u;
y
dx
z z
=?
,
u v
127

: ) 1 , . 11.6:
2
dz
= ( x 2 y )x (arctg 2t )t + ( x 2 y )y (t 2 + 5)t = 2 y
+
dt
1 + 4t 2
2

2
+ x 2 y ln 2 2t = 2t + 5
+ 2t arctg 2t ln 2 ;
2

1 + 4t
) 2 , . 11.6:
dz
ex
= (log3 (e x + e y ))x + (log3 (e x + e y ))y (ctg2 x )x = x
+
dx
(e + e y )ln 3
2 2 ctg x
e x - ectg x
y
e
1

sin 2 x ;
ctg
=
x
+ x
2

2
sin 2 x
(e + e y )ln 3
(e x + ectg x )ln 3
) 3 , . 11.6:
dz
x
x

= ln tg (sin v + 2u)u + ln tg (cos v - u)u =

du
y
y
x

2
sin v + 2u

2 +
;
cos v - u
sin v + 2u
sin 2
(cos v - u)
cos v - u
dz
x
x

= ln tg (sin v + 2u)v + ln tg (cos v - u)v =

dv
y
y

1
1
1
1
1

cos v +

x
x
x
x
y
tg
cos 2
tg
cos 2
y
y
y
y

x
- 2 (- sin v) =
y

sin v + 2u
2

cos v + sin v
.

v
2
u
sin
+
cos v - u

sin 2

(cos
v
u
)
cos v - u

2. :
) xy + sin y + sin x = 0; dy/dx = ? ) z = ye x/z ; z/x,
z/y = ?
: ) 1 , . 11.7:
( xy + sin y + sin x )x
dy
y + cos x
==;
( xy + sin y + sin x )y
dx
x + cos y
) 2 , . 11.7:
128

z - ye z x

x
y
- ez
yze z
dz
z
===
;
x
x
dx

x
xy

z 2 + xye z
1 + 2 ez
z - ye z z
z
x
x
x

z
2 z
z

z
y
e
z e
-e
dz
y
===
.
x
x
dy
x
xy z

2
z
z + xye
1+ 2 e
z - ye z y
z


:
35) z = xy, x = ln t, y = sin t; dz/dt = ? 36) z = x2 + xy + y2,
2 dz
x +1
, y = e( x +1) ;
=?
x = sin2t, y = tg t; dz/dt = ? 37) z = arctg
y
dx
z z
u
,
= ? 39) z = x2y - y2x,
38) z = x2 ln y, x = , y = 3u - 2v;
u v
v
z z
,
= ? 40) u = (yz)/x, x = et, y = lnt,
x = u cos v, y = sin v;
u v
z = t 2 - 1; du/dt = ? 41) u = x + y2 + z3, y = xt, z = xtv; u/x,
u/t, u/v = ?
:
y
y
42) x 2 + y 2 + ln(x 2 + y 2) = 1; dy/dx = ? 43) + sin = 2;
x
x
dy
z z
x
y
z
= ? 44) y = x ; dy/dx = ? 45) e - xyz = 0;
,
=?
dx
x y
y z z
z z z
; ,
= ? 47) z = x + arctg
=?
46) x = z ln ; ,
z - x x y
y x y
48) , = (x - at) + (x + at),
a = const, ,
2
y
tt = a y
xx.
49) , z = (x)(y) zz xy
= zx zy.
50) , z = z(x, y) x = u cos v,
y = usinv yzx - xz y = -z v .

129

12.

12
12.1.
O: > 0:
f ( x0 , y0 ) > f ( x, y)
f ( x0 , y0 ) < f ( x, y)
. M 0
. M 0

( x, y) U ( M 0 )
max ( x, y) U ( M 0 )
min
. ( ):
z
z = f(x, y) . M 0
x M

z
,
= 0
y M
0
0

. ( ):
2 f
2 f
2 f
A=
,
,
;
B
C
=
=
x y
x 2
y 2

( M 0 ) =

A B
B CM

> 0, AM 0 < 0 max,

> 0, AM 0 > 0 min,

= < 0 ,

= 0

12.2. .
: z = f (x, y), (x, y) D, F (x, y) = 0 L D,
M0(x0, y0) L . . max (min) f (x, y)
f (x, y) < f(x0, y0) (> f (x0, y0)) (x, y) U(M0) L
:

130

F
F f
x = x + x = 0,

F
F f
=
+
= 0,
(1)

y
y
y

F
= F ( x, y) = 0,


(, , ) = f(x, y) + F(x, y) , l R
:
0
Fx( M 0 )
Fy( M 0 )
0 = - Fx( M 0 ) F xx ( M 0 , 0 ) F yx ( M 0 , 0 ) =
Fy( M 0 ) F yx
( M 0 , 0 ) F yy ( M 0 , 0 )
< 0 . M 0 . . max,
=
> 0 . M 0 . . min
0(x0, y0), 0 (1)
12.3. .

F(x, y, z) = 0 . 0(x0, y0, z0):
F
F
F
( y - y0 ) +
( z - z0 ) = 0

( x - x0 ) +
z M
y M
x M 0
0


x - x0
y - y0
z - z0

=
=
F
F
F

x M 0 y M
z M
0

F1( x, y, z ) = 0,
L:

F2 ( x, y, z ) = 0

i
j
k

F1 F1 F1

S = N1 N 2 =
x
y
z
L
F2 F2 F2
x
y
z M
0

131

. 12

AM1,2

1. z = x4 + y4 - 2x2 + 4xy - 2y 2.
: R2. :
z
= 4 x 3 - 4 x + 4 y = 0,
x
z
= 4 y 3 - 4 y + 4 x = 0.
y
x 3 - x + y = 0,

x 3 = - y 3 x = - y. 3
y + x - y = 0,
= : x3 2x = 0 x1 = 0, x2,3 =
= 2. (0, 0), 1( 2, 2),
2 z
2 z
= 4, C =
2( 2, 2). A = 2 = 12 x 2 - 4, B =
x y
x
A B
2 z
= 2 = 12 y 2 - 4 ( M ) =
(, . 12.1):
B C
y
20
4
D(O) = 0 ; ( M1,2 ) =
> 0, AM1,2 > 0 M1(
4 20
> 0 M1( 2, - 2 ), M 2 (- 2, 2 ), , zmin = 8.
(0, 0) . z y = 0 y = x. = 0
z = x4 2x2 z < 0. =
z = 2x4 z > 0. , (0, 0) .
2. z = x + 2y
x2 + y2 = 5.
: (, . 12.2):
F(, , ) = x + 2y + (x2 + y2 5). F/ = 1 + 2,
F/ = 2 + 2 5, F/y = 2 + 2y
1

x = - 2 ,
1 + 2x = 0,

1,2 = 1 2, x1 = -1,
y = - ,
2 + 2y = 0,

2
2
x + y - 5 = 0,
1
1
4 2 + 2 = 5,

132
y1 = -2, x2 = 1, y2 = 2.

y1 = -2, x2 = 1, y2 = 2.
, , : 1(-1, -2) = 1/2, 2(1, 2) = -1/2.
F
= ( x 2 + y 2 - 5)x = 2 x,
2F/2 = 2, 2F/ = 0, 2F/2 = 2,
x
F
= ( x 2 + y 2 - 5)y = 2 y (, . 12.2)
y
0 -2 -4
0
Fx
Fy
0 > 0, D(M2, l2) =
= - Fx F xx F xy , .. ( M1, 1 ) = - -2 1
-4 0 1
Fy F xy F yy
0 2 4
( M 2 , 2 ) = - 2 -1 0 < 0. 1 min,
4 0 -1
zmin = -5, 2 max, zmax = 5.
3. , , S
.
: V = xyz, , , z . S = xy + 2zx + 2zy,
z , V: z = (S - xy)/(2x + 2y)
V = xy(S - xy)/(2x + 2y).
, , x > 0, y > 0.

(Sy - 2 xy 2 )( x + y) - (Sxy - x 2 y 2 )
V Sxy - x 2 y 2
=
=
=

x 2( x + y) x
2( x + y)2
Sxy + Sy 2 - 2 x 2 y 2 - 2 xy 3 - Sxy + x 2 y 2 Sy 2 - x 2 y 2 - 2 xy 3
=
,
2( x + y )2
2( x + y))2

(Sx - 2 yx 2 )( x + y) - (Sxy - x 2 y 2 )
V Sxy - x 2 y 2
=
=
=

y 2( x + y) y
2( x + y)2

Sx 2 - x 2 y 2 - 2 yx 3
.
2( x + y)2


Sy 2 - x 2 y 2 - 2 xy 3 = 0,

2
2 2
3
Sx - x y - 2 yx = 0,

S - x 2 - 2 xy = 0,

2
S - y - 2 yx = 0,

x 2 = y2 x = y S - 3x 2 = 0 x = y =

S
.
3

133

2
2 2
3
S - x 2 - 2 xy = 0,
Sy - x y - 2 xy = 0,

2
2 2
3
2
Sx - x y - 2 yx = 0,
S - y - 2 yx = 0,

S
.
3
:
S S
M
,
. V 0 0 xy S (V = 0
3 3
= 0, = 0, xy = S) , , max.
, (,
1 S
S
S
,
, =
, z =
. 12.1). , =
2 3
3
3
.
x 2 = y2 x = y S - 3x 2 = 0 x = y =

4. G: z = x2 - 2xy + y2 - x + 2y.
0(1, 1, 1).
F
: : F = x2 - 2xy + y2 - x + 2y - z,
=
x M
0
F
F
= (-2 x + 2 y + 2)M 0 = 2,
= (2 x - 2 y - 1)M 0 = -1,
= -1.
z M
y M
0

(, . 12.3) -( - 1) + 2( - 1) x -1 y -1 z - (z - 1) = 0 x - 2y + z = 0;
=
=
-1
2
x -1 y -1 z -1
=
=
.
-1
2
-1


:
1) z = 1 + 6x - x2 - xy - y2; 2) z = x2 + y2 - 2 lnx - 12 lny;
3) z = x3 + y3 - 3xy.
:
4) z = 1 - 4x - 8y x2 - 8y2 = 8; 5) z = xy 2x + 3y - 5 = 0; 6) z = x2 + y2 x/4 + y/4 = 1.
7) 1 2 , 1 2 q, 1 2 s. , ,
V (3),
?
134

8) .

V?
:
9) G: z = x 2 + y 2 - xy, M 0(3; 4; -7); 10) G: z = sin x cos y,
1
M 0 ; ; ; 11) G: x 2 yz + 2x 2 z - 3xy + 2 = 0, M0(1; 0; -1).
4 4 2
:
y 2 + z 2 = 25,
2 x 2 + 3 y 2 + z 2 = 47,
12) L:
M 0(1; 3; 4); 13) L:
2
2
2
2
x + y = 10,
x + 2 y = z,
M0(-2; 1; 6).
: 12), 13)
s .

1
1
y

1
-1
y

1
y

(tg x )
(tg x ) ln tg x
dx dy.
y cos 2 x
y2
x2
x3
2 z
.
- tg 2 y;
= ? : 2. z =
3 y
3 4
x y
y
z z
=?
3. z = ln(x 3 + 3y), x = utg v, y = 1/u 3; ,
u v
z
3x 2
9
z
3 x 2u
:
tg v - 3
,
.
= 3
=
u x + 3 y
( x + 3 y)u4 v ( x 3 + 3 y)cos 2 v
dy
1
= ? : y
.
4. x2 - x 2y+1 + 4 y - x + 2y + 2 = 0;
dx
2 ln 2
5. z = x2 + xy + y2 - 3x - 6y.
: zmin = z(0; 3) = -9.
1. z = (tg x ) ; dz = ? : dz =

2
1. z =

x3 y
; dz = ?
x + ln y
135

2 x 2 y + 3 x 2 y ln y
x 4 - x 3 + x 3 ln y
d
x
+
dy.
( x + ln y)2
( x + ln y)2
dz
=?
2. z = arccosx2 y, x = e3t, y = cos 5t;
dt
6 xye3t
5 x 2 sin 5t
: +
.
1 - x 4 y2
1 - x 4 y2
z z
3. xsiny + ysinx + z sinx = z 3; ,
=?
x y
z sin y + ( y + z )cos x z x cos y + sin x
=
,
=
.
:
x
y
3z 2 - sin x
3z 2 - sin x
2 z
4. z = y lnx; 2 = ? : ln x(ln x - 1)y ln x-2.
y
5. G:
z = ln(x2 + y2) 0(1, 0, 0). : 2x - z - 2 = 0,
x -1 y
z
= =
.
2
0 -1
: dz =

. 11, 12
11.
1) D = {(x, y): x2 + 3y2 3} ( );
2) D = {(x, y): y 2} ( ); 3) D =
= {(x, y): x 0, y > 0}; 4) D = {(x, y): x + y > 0}; 5) D = {(x, y):
-1 x + y 1}; 6) D = {(x, y, z): x2 + y2 < 2z}; 7)
4
x 2 + y 2 = ; 8) = ; 9) 2 - 2 = ; 10) c
x 2 y2
z = c +
+ ; 11) 2 +
4
9
x
1
y
2
2
+ 3 ;
; z y =
+ y - z = c; 12) 12; 13) 1/2; 14) z x = y 3 4
x
2 y
3 x
2
y
x
y
; z y =
; 16) z x = ; z y = 2
15) z x = - 2
2
2
2
x +y
x +y
2
2 3x - y
x cos
x
2y
xy
=; 17) z x = y ln( x + y) +
; z y = x ln(x + y) +
2
x+y
2 3x - y
x cos
x
y
y
xy
+
; 18) z x = x x x y -1( y ln x + 1); z y = x y x x ln 2 x; 19) u x =
x+y
136

2x
3 y2
5z 4
,
u
=
,
u
=
; 20) u x =

y
z
x 2 + y3 + z 5
x 2 + y3 + z 5
x 2 + y3 + z 5
= yz(sinx)yz-1cosx; uy = z(sinx)yz lnsinx; uz = y(sinx)yz lnsinx; 21) ux =
= y2z3t 4 + 3; uy = 2xyz3t 4 - 4; u z = 3xy 2z 2t 4 + 2; u t = 4xy 2z 3t 3 +
y
4 xy( xdy - ydx )
; 23) du = dx + (cos(y + 3z) +
+ 1; 22) dz =
2
2 2
z
(x - y )
x
xy
+ )dy + (3 cos(y + 3z) - 2 )dz; 24) 0,005; 25) 8,29; 26) z xx =
z
z
= 8 cos(4x + 6y); z xy = 12 cos(4x + 6y); z yy = 18 cos(4x + 6y);
2( x - y)
4y
4x
; z yy
; z xy
; 28) z xx
=
27) z xx
=
= =
3
3
( x + y)
( x + y)
( x + y )3
yx 3
1
xy 3
; 29) z
; z yy
=
; z xy
z xx
=
=
xxy =
(1 - x 2 y 2 )3
(1 - x 2 y 2 )3
(1 - x 2 y 2 )3
2
- y 2dx 2 + 2 xydxdy - x 2dy 2
1
;
; 33)
2y 3(2 + xy 2)e xy ; 30) uxyz
=
3
2 z
( x 2 + 2 xy) 2
dz
y

= x y + ln x cos t ;
34) 2 sin 2y dx dy + 2x cos 2y dy 2 ; 35)
xt

dt
dz
1
dz
y(1 - 2( x + 1)2 )
= (2 x + y)sin 2t + (2 y + x )
; 37)
=
;
36)
dt
dx
cos 2 t
y 2 + ( x + 1)2
z
u
3u2
z -2u2
2u2
;
= 2 2 ln(3u - 2v) + 2
= 3 ln(3u - 2v) - 2
38)
u
v
v
v (3u - 2v)
v
v (3u - 2v)
2
z
z
2u
= (2 xy - y 2 )cos v;
= -(2 xy - y 2 )u sin v + ( x 2 - 2 xy )c
ln(3u - 2v) - 2
; 39)

v
v (3u - 2v)
u
2
- y )u sin v + ( x 2 - 2 xy )cos v; 40)
= -yz/x + z/(xt) + 2ty/x; 41) u x = 1 +
t
y
x
+ xt 2(2 + 3xtv 3); u t = xt 2(2 + 3xtv 3); u v = 3x3t 3v 2; 42) - ; 43) ;
x
y
y 2 (ln x - 1)
z
xz
z
yz
z
1
; 45)
= z
; 46)
= z
;
=
;
44) 2
z

x
x (ln y - 1)
e - xy
e - xy
1 + ln
y
z
z
z-x
z
z
= 1;
=
.
=
; 47)
x
y ( z - x )2 + y 2 + y
y y(1 + ln z )
y
ux =

137

12.

1) zmax = z(4, -2) = 13; 2) zmin = z(1, 6) = 7 - 6ln6; 3) zmin =
= z(1, 1) = -1; 4) z max = z(4, -1) = -7; z min = z(-4, 1) = 9;
5) z max = z(5/4, 5/6) = 25/24; 6) z min = z(36/25, 48/25) =
p+q
;
= 144/25; 7) 3 V
s
8) R , , h
h
h 5
, H = ; 9) 17 +
; R =
2
2
x -3 y-4 z +7
; 10) - - 2z + 1 = 0;
=
=
+ 11 + 5z = 60;
17
11
5

xy4 =
4 = z - 1 2 ; 11) 2 + 2 - z - 3 = 0; x - 1 = y = z + 1 ;
2
2
-1
1
-1
-2
x + 2 y -1 z x -1 y - 3 z - 4
=
=
=
; 12x - 4 + 3z - 12 = 0; 13)
=
12)
27
28
4
12
-4
3
x + 2 y -1 z - 6
; 27x + 28y + 4z + 2 = 0.
=
=
27
28
4

5
.

13. (..)

13
13.1. ..
z = x + iy, x, y R, i = -1, (i 2 = -1)
, = Re z, y = Imz
..: z 1 = z 2 Re z 1 = Re z 2
Im z1 = Im z2
z = x - iy - z
:

z (, y) OM
OX , OY
13.2. ..
z1 = x1 + iy1, z2 = x2 + iy2
1) z1 + z2 = (x1 + x1) + i(y1 + y2)
2) z1 - z2 = z z + z2 = z1
3) z1z2 = (x1x2 - y1y2) + i(x1y2 + x2 y1)
( ,
i2 = -1)
z
4) 1 = z zz2 = z1
z2
:

z1
zz
= 1 2 , z2 z2 = x22 + y22
z2 z2 z2

13.3. ..

r = OM = z , = (OX , OM ) = Arg z
:
arg z [0, 2) argz [, )
Arg z = argz + 2k, k = 0, 1, 2, ..., x =
= rcos, y = rsin z = r(cos + isin),
os + i sin = e i z = re i
z1 = z2 |z1| = |z2|, Arg z1 = Arg z2 + 2k
139

13.4.

z1 = r1ei1 = r1(cos 1 + i sin1), z2 = r2ei2
1) z1z2 = r1r2(cos(1 + 2) + isin(1 + 2)) = r1r2ei(1 + 2 )
z
r
r
2) 1 = 1 (cos(1 - 2 ) + i sin(1 - 2 )) = 1 ei (1 - 2 )
z2 r2
r2
13.5. n (n N)
n ..
n
z
z
...
z = r nein = r n (cos n + i sin n)
1) z =

2) n z = w w n = z, w =
=

z =

re i =

r ei (

n + 2 k n)

+ 2k
+ 2k

r cos
+ i sin
,

n
n

k = 0, n - 1.

. 13
1.
z2 - 4z + 5 = 0 .
: az2 + bz + = 0, D = b2 - 4ac < 0, .. = i 4ac - b2 .
b i 4ac - b2
4 i 20 - 16 4 2i
=
=
= 2 i.
2a
2
2
- z1 = 2 + i, z2 =
= z1 = 2 - i (. 13.1).
z1,2 =

. 13.1

140

2. z =

2 + 3i 7 19
+
+ i
4 - 5i 41 41

.
: ,
(, . 13.2):
2 + 3i 7 19
(2 + 3i )(4 + 5i ) 7 19
z=
+
+ i=
+
+ i=
4 - 5i 41 41
(4 - 5i )(4 + 5i ) 41 41
2 + 3i )(4 + 5i ) 7 19
8 + 10i + 12i + 15i 2
7 19
(2
+
+
i
=
+
+ i=
2
41 41
16 + 25
41 41
16 - 25i
8 - 15 + i(10 + 12) 7 19
7 22
7 19
41
=
+
+ i=- + i+
+ i = i = i.
41
41 41
41 41
41 41
41
=

3. ,
2 i

: w = (-3 + 3 3i )4 e 5 .
: z = -3 + 3 3i
z = rei, , . 13.3.

z,

OM , r =

= |OM | = 9 + 27 = 6.

z tg = 3 3/(3) = - 3. OM
, = 2/3 (. 13.2). , z = 6e2i/3.
w = z 4 e 2i/5 = 6 4 e 8i/3 e 2i/5 = 1296 e (8/3+2/5)i =
= 1296e46i/15 = 1296 e(2+16/15)i = 1296 e16i/15.

. 13.2

4. w = 4 -16i .
:
z = -16i. r = 0 + (-16)2 = 16, tg / -16i, = 3/2.

141

3i/2

3
i
16e 2

3 2 k
+
i
8
4

= 2e
.
, z = 16e
, w=
w k = 0, 1, 2, 3: w0 = 2e3i/8,
w 1 = 2e i(3/8+/2) = 2e 7i/8 , w 2 = 2e i(3/8+) = 2e 11i/8 , w 3 =
= 2ei(3/8+3/2) = 2e15i/8.
2 (. 13.3).

. 13.3


1) :
z = -3 + 5i, z = 4 - i, z = 3i, z = 3 + i .
2) :
) 4z2 - 2z + 1 = 0; ) 2z2 + 4z + 3 = 0.
3)
:
1
1
+
;
) (1 - i)2(5 + 8i); ) (1 + i 3)3; )
1 + 3i 4 - i
2
i5 + 2
2 + 3i
12
17
;
)
) 19
) i + i ;
.
i + 1
(1 + i )2
4)
:
1
) ei ; ) 4+i/2; ) 6i/3; ) 3-i/4; ) 1+2i/3.
2
5)
:
) -1 + i;
) 3 + i; ) -5i; ) 7;
) - 2 + i 6; ) -tg + i; ) cos(/7) + i sin(/7).
142

6) , :
6

3 3
) + i ; ) (2 + 2i)5; ) (1 - i)3(-2 3 + 2i);
2
2
4
1- i
.
)
3 + i
7)
:
) 3 i ; ) 6 -8; ) 5 -1 + i; ) 4 3 + i.

14. ()

14
14.1. Z.

z = Z
: U(z0) z: | z - z0 | <
: w = f(z), z D Z, w G W D
:

: G: z D w G
W = f(z)
W = f(z): D G f(z)
z = x + iy, w = u + iv w = f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y),
u(x, y) = Re f(z), v(x, y) = Im f (z)
z = rei w = f (z) = u(r, ) + iv(r, )
14.2.
: a = lim f ( z ) > 0 = (): 0 < |z - z0 | <
z z0

| f(z) - a| <
: lim f ( z ) = a
z z0

lim

( x , y )( x0 , y0 )

lim

( x , y )( x0 , y0 )

u( x, y) = a1,

v( x, y) = a2 , a = a1 + ia2 .

: w = f(z) . z0
1) f(z) U(z0);
2) lim f ( z ) = f ( z0 ).
z z0

f(z) . z0
u(x, y), v(x, y) . (x0, y0)
143

14.3. .
: w = f (z) ,
w
f ( z + z ) - f ( z )
= lim
f ( z ) = lim
z 0 z
z 0
z
: f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
u v u
v
=
= - ( )
,
. z = x + iy
x y y
x
u
v v
u u
u v
v
+i
=
-i
=
-i
=
+i
f ( z ) =
x
x y
y x
y y
x
14.4. .

: w = f(z)
. z = z0 f(z) U(z0)
w = z n, n N, z 0, w = ez,
w = sinz, w = cosz Z
2u 2u
: u(x, y), (x, y) D, D 2 , 2 x y
2u 2u
2 + 2 = 0
x
y
: f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) D u(x, y),
v(x, y) D
: u(x, y), v(x, y)

: u(x, y) D v(x, y) , f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
D

. 14
1. :
) ||z z1| - |z - z2|| = 2a;
) 0 < arg z < /4?
: )
, :
|z - z1| = |(x - x1) + i(y - y1)| = ( x - x1 )2 + ( y - y1 )2 , ,
(z), M1(z1), M2(z2), ||MM1| - |MM2|| = 2a.
144

, , M1, M2 ;
) arg z Arg z,
, /4 z = 0, , .
2. : ) sin 2i; ) ln(1 + i).
: )
eiz - e-iz
ei (2i ) - e-i (2i ) e-2 - e2 e2 - e-2
sin z =
sin 2i =
=
=
i;
2i
2i
2i
2
) Lnz = ln |z| +
+ iArgz; Ln(1 + i) = ln|1 + i|| + iArg(1 + i) = ln 2 + iarg(1 + i) +
+ 2k = ln 2 + i(/4 + 2k).
3.
w = sinz.
: z = x + iy
eiz - e-iz eix - y - e-ix + y
sin z =
=
=
2i
2i
e- y (cos x + i sin x ) - e y (cos x - i sin y)
=
=
2i
cos x(e- y - e y ) + i sin x(e- y + e y )
=
=
2i
(e - y - e y )
(e - y + e y )
.
= sin x
- i cos x
2
2
y
-y
e +e
= ch y ,

2
y
-y
e -e
= sh y . Re z = sin x ch y,
2
Im z = cosxshy.
4. , ,
, : ) w = 1/z; ) w = |z |. ?
:
:
1
x - iy
=
,
) w = 1 z =
x + iy x 2 + y 2

145

x
x 2 + y2 - 2x 2
y2 - x 2

=
=
(Re w)x = 2
,
x + y 2 x
( x 2 + y 2 )2
( x 2 + y 2 )2
-2 xy
x

=
(Re w)y = 2
,
x + y 2 y ( x 2 + y 2 )2
2 xy
-y
= 2
(Im w)x = 2
,
2
x + y
( x + y 2 )2
x

- x 2 - y2 + 2 y2
y2 - x 2
-y
=
=
(Im w)y = 2
.
x + y 2 y
( x 2 + y 2 )2
( x 2 + y 2 )2
Re w Im w Re w
Im w
=
,
=. w = 1/z ,
x
y
y
x
z 0 w(1/z) = -1/z2;
Re w w
) w = z = x 2 + y 2 ,
=
=
x
x
Im w
Re w w
x
= 0. .
=
=
,
y
x
x
x 2 + y2
5.
u = x2 - y2 + 2x.
: z 0 w = f (z),
z + z0 z - z0
f ( z ) = 2u
,
- u( x0 , y0 ) + ic, c const. z0 = 0,
2
2i
z 2 z 2
w = 2 - + 2 z + ic = z 2 + 2 z + ic.
2i
2


1) ,
:
: ) |z - z1| + |z - z2| = 2a; ) Imz = 3; ) Re(1/z) =
= 1/2; ) | z| = 1 - Re z;
: ) 1 < |z - 2| < 3; ) 1 < Re z < 2.
2) : ) os(1 + 3i); ) Ln( 3 + i);
) tg5i.
3) z = sinw, z = tg w, :
i
i-z
Arcsin z = -iLn(iz + 1 - z 2 ), Arctg z = - Ln
.
2
i+z
4) :
146

x
x 2 + y2

) w = z3 - 2z2; ) w = e z ; ) w = tgz.
5) , ,
: ) w = z2 - 2iz;
) w = e2iz ; ) w = z .
6) : ) 3x2 y - y3 + 5x; ) x3 + 6x2 y - 3xy2 - 2y3.

1
1. :
i17
2 68
z=
+ (2 + i )(1 + 2i ). : z = - + i.
3 - 2i
13 13
2. :

- i
3 )e 5 . :

22
i
2e 15 .

w = (1 - i
w=
3. w = 5 -32 2k
+
i
2e 5 5 , k

= 0, 4.
. : wk =
4. w = z 3 + 2z z = 1 + i.
: 4i.
2
1. :
2 - 3i
i7
z =
. : -1,7 + 0,1i.
2i - 1 3 - i
2. :

w = (1 + i)9. : w = 16 2e 4 .
3

11 2 k
+
i

8e 18 3 ,

3. w = 4 3 - 4i . : wk =
k = 0, 2.
4. w = z 2 + 2/z z = 1 - i.
: 1 - i.


1. ,
,
.

147

2.
.
3. ,
,
.
4. .

: n ,
n
= [n/4] , =
4
4, .
1.
: ( + 1)2z2 - 2z( +
+ )( + 1) + 22 + 2 + 1 + 2( + 1) = 0.
2.
:
5 - 9 - 4 + i( 2 + 2 - 7 - 3 - 12) - - 1 + i( 2 + + ( + 1)2 )
.
+
- 8 - ( - 4)i
+ 1 + i( + 1)
3. z =

( 2 ) i +

:
1 + i 2 + (-1)
) , ;
i
3 +1

) w = z e , z,
0 arg w < 2.
4. :

+3

( 2 ) +1(i + +1 2 + (-1) +1 + i + ).

5. I (. 14.1), 220 50 ,
R = + (), L = 0,012 +
+ (10( + 1) + ) 10-3 ().
148

. 14.1

. 13, 14
13.
1
3
2
i; ) -1
i; 3) ) 16 10i; ) -8; ) 57/170
2) )
4
4
2
- 41i/170; ) 1 + i; ) 1,5 i; ) 2 + 1,5i; 4) ) -0,5; ) i e4;

3
i
i
e e 3
3 2 3 2
4
i; 5) ) 2e ; ) 2e 6 ;
i; ) - +
) 3 + 3 3i; )
2
2
2
2

3
i
i
i
i
1
e 2 ; ) 2e 7 ; ) 5e 2 ; ) 7i0; ) 2 2e 3 ; )
cos
: re ia = r(cosa + isina); 6) a) 27; ) -128 128i;
i

) 8 2e12 ; )
)

10

2e

3 ,

i +
1
3
3 i
+
i; 7) )
+ , - i; ) 2e 6
8
8
2
2

3 2 k
i +
20 5

, k = 0, 4; ) 2e

k
i +
24 2

k = 0, 5;

, k = 0, 3.

14.
1) ) z1, z2; ) y = 3; )
(x - 1)2 + y2 = 1; ) y 2 = 1 - 2x; )
; )
= 1, x = 2; 2) ) cos 1 ch 3 - i sin 1 sh 3; ) ln 2 +
e-5 - e5
; 4) ) (x3 - 3x 2 y - 2x2 + 2y2) +
+ i(1/6 + 2k); ) -5
i(e - e5 )
2

) e x - y cos(2 xy) + ie x - y sin(2 xy);


+ i ( 3 x 2 y - y 3 - 4 x y ) ;
tg x(1 - th 2 y)
th y(1 - tg2 x )
e y - e- y
+
i
,
th
y
=
; 5) ) w =
)

1 + tg2 x th 2 y
1 + tg2 x th 2 y
e y + e- y
= 2z - 2i; ) w = 2ie2iz; ) ; 6) ) -iz3 + 5z + ic;
) z 3(1 - 2i) + ic.

6


15. (..)

15
15.1. ..
f (x)dx = F (x) + c c ,
F (x) = f(x), c = const
15.2. ..
10. ( f(x)dx) = f(x).
20. dF(x) = F(x) + c.
30. ( f1(x) f2(x))dx = f1(x)dx f2(x)dx.
40. cf (x)dx = c f(x)dx.
50. f[(t)]d(t) = F ((t)) + c
1
f (ax + b) dx = F (ax + b) + c
a
15.3.
x n +1
+ c, n -1;
1) x ndx =
n +1
dx
= ln x + c;
2)
x
3) sin xdx = -cosx + c;
4) cosx dx = sin x + c;
dx
= tg x + c;
5)
cos 2 x
dx
6) 2 = - ctg x + c;
sin x
7) tgx dx = -ln|cosx | + c;
8) ctgxdx = ln|sinx | + c;
ax
+ c;
9) a x dx =
ln a
10) ex dx = ex + c;
dx
= arcsin x + c = - arccos x + c;
11)
1 - x2

150

12)

dx
2

= ln x +

x 2 a 2 + c;

x a
dx
= arctg x + c = - arcctg x + c;
13) 2
x +1
dx
x
= arcsin + c;
14)
2
2
a
a -x
dx
1
x
= arctg + c;
15) 2
a
a + x2 a
dx
1
a+x
16) 2
ln
=
+c
a - x 2 2a a - x
15.4.
1. (30, 40)
2.
x = (t ),
f ( x ) dx = dx = (t )dt = f [(t )](t )dt
3.
u dv = uv - vdu.
:
a x
1) P ( x ) dx, P(x) ,
kx
e
sin kx
P ( x ) cos kx dx, P(x) = u;
arcsin x
arccos x

2) P ( x )log a x dx, P ( x )
dx,
arctg
x

arcctg x
P(x)dx = dv;
sin bx
3) eax
dx
cos bx

151

. 15
1. ( )

30, 40 (,
. 15.2).
:
11x 3 - 13 x x + 2
dx.
1. J =
63 x
x11 3
11
13
1
- x13 6 +
: J = x 8 3dx - x 7 6dx + x -1 3dx =
6
6
3
2
1
+ x 2 3 + c.
2
2. J = ctg2 x dx.
: J =

1 - sin 2 x
dx
sin2 x dx = sin2 x - dx = - ctg x - x + c.

x2
x 2 + 4 dx.
x2 + 4 - 4
x2 + 4
dx
=
dx = 2
dx - 4 2
: J =
2
x +4
x +4
x +4
= x - 2 arctg( x 2) + c.
2 x 3 x + 12 x
dx.
4. J =
6x
x
6
12 x
2x
+ c.
: J = x dx + x dx = x + 2 x dx = x +
ln 2
6
6
3. J =


13 5 x 4 - 7 x 4 x + 4
1 - 3x + 4 x 2
dx; 3) (1 - x )(2 + x )dx;
dx; 2)
x
x
dx
x2 - 3 - x2 + 3
2 x5x
1 - cos 2 x
; 5)
dx; 6) x dx; 7)
4)
dx;
2
4
sin x
e
7 - 3x
x -9
4 + x2 - 3 4 - x2
2 + x2
; 10)
8) tg 2 x dx; 9)
dx.
1 + x2
16 - x 4
1)

152

2.
,

( x ) = t,
(15.1)
f [( x )] ( x )dx = ( x )dx = d( x ) = dt = f (t ) dt,
.
. , (x) = ax + b,
1
(15.2)
f (ax + b) dx = a F (ax + b) + c.
:
1. J = 5 1 - 2 x dx.
: (15.2) ax + b = -2 + 1, a = -2,
1
+1
2 x )5

1 (1 5
+ c = - 5 (1 - 2 x )6 + c.
2 1 +1
12
5
x
2. J = 2
dx.
x + a2
1
: x dx = d( x 2 + a2 ),
2
1 d( x 2 + a2 ) 1
J = 2
= ln x 2 + a2 + c.
2 x + a2
2
(15.1):
1
2
2
x + a = t, x dx = dt, 1 dt 1
J =
2 = = ln t + c =
2
2 x dx = dt
2 t

J =-

1
ln x 2 + a2 + c.
2
dx
.
3. J =
2 3
cos x 3 + 2 tg x
dx
1

3 + 2 tg x = t, cos 2 x = 2 dt, 1
-1 3
: J =
= t dtt =
2
2

dx = dt

cos 2 x
3 3 23
33
= t +c=
3 + 2 tg x + c.
4 2
4
=

153

4. J =

dx

(4 + x )

x = t,

: J =
1 dx = dt
2 x
x
= arctg
+ c.
2
5. J = ecos x sin x dx.

dx

= 2dt,
dt
t
x

= arctg + c =
= 2
2
2
4
t
+

sin x dx = -dt,
cos x = t,
: J =
=
- sin x dx = dt

= - et dt = -et + c = -ecos x + c.


4
2

ln3 x
)dx; 12) e-2 x + 3dx; 13) xe x dx; 14)
dx;
4
x
3 arctg x
x dx
5 x dx
dx
d
x
;
; 16)
17)
18)
15)
;
x ;
3 - 5x
1 + x2
4 - x2
cos(ln x )
e x dx
dx;
;
20)
21)
19) x 2 sin x 3dx;
x
e2 x + 5
1 dx
arcsin x - 3
x dx
;
dx; 24) 4
; 25) cos
22) 1 - sin x cos x dx; 23)
2
x x2
x +9
1- x
2
dx
26) e3 x + ln x dx; 27)
.
x 4 - ln 2 x
3.

11) cos(5 x +

udv = uv - v du

(15.3)
, , , , .
, . 15.4.
:
1. J = ( x 2 - x + 2)e x 3dx.
: 1) . 3 , . 15.4:
154

x 2 - x + 2 = u,
du = (2 x - 1)dx,
J = x3
=
v = e x 3dx = 3e x 3
e dx = dv,

= 3(2 x - x + 2)e x 3 - 3 (2 x - 1)e x 3dx.



. (15.3),
du = 2dx,

2 x - 1 = u,
J = x3
x3
x 3 =
e dx = dv, v = e dx = 3e
= 3( x 2 - x + 2)e x 3 - 9[(2 x - 1)e x 3 - 2 e x 3dx ] =
= 3( x 2 - x + 2)e x 3 - 9(2 x - 1)e x 3 + 54e x 3 + c.
2. J = arctg 4 x dx.
: 2) . 3 , . 15.4:
4

arctg 4 x = u, du = 1 + 16 x 2 dx,
J =
=
dx = dv,
v = dx = x

2
1 + 16 x = t,

x dx
= x arctg 4 x - 4
= dt = 32 x dx, =
2
1 + 16 x
x dx = dt 32

4 dt
1
= x arctg 4 x - = x arctg x - ln t + c =
32 t
8
1
= x arctg 4 x - ln(1 + 16 x 2 ) + c.
8
ln x
3. J = 5 dx.
x
: 2) . 3 , . 15.4:
dx

= du,
4
4
ln x = u,

x
5 5 dx

5 5
J =
x
l
n
x
x
=
=

1
4
x
4
dx = dv, v = x - 5 dx = 5 x 5 4

5 x
4
4

5 5
5 5
25 5
x ln x - x 5 dx = x 5 ln x x + c.
4
4
4
16
155

4. J = e2 x cos 4 x dx.
: 3) . 3 , . 15.4:
e2 x = u,

du = 2e2 x dx,

2x
J = e cos 4 x dx =
=
1
cos 4 x dx = dv, v = cos 4 x dx = sin 4 x

1
1
= sin 4 xe2 x - e2 x sin 4 x dx.
4
2
(15.3),
.
e2 x = u,

du = 2e2 x dx,

J =
=
1
sin 4 x dx = dv, v = sin 4 x dx = - cos 4 x
4

1
1 1
1

= sin 4 xe2 x - - cos 4 xe2 x + e2 x cos 4 x dx ,

4
2 4
2
1
1
1
J = sin 4 xe2 x + cos 4 xe2 x - e2 x cos 4 x dx.
4
8
4
J:
1
1
1
J = sin 4 xe2 x + cos 4 xe2 x - J ,
4
8
4
1
1
J = sin 4 xe2 x + cos 4 xe2 x + c.
5
10

2 8 ) - 1 4 x dx;
3

2 9 ) x ln 2 x dx;
3 0 ) arcsin 2x dx;
x
31) x 2 sin 2 x dx; 32) e2 x sin dx; 33) arctg x dx; 34) x 2e- x dx;
3
arctg e x
dx;
36) ( x 2 + x )ln( x + 1)dx;
37) x tg 2 x dx;
35)
ex
2
38) ln(1 + x 2 )dx; 39) x 3e- x dx; 40) cos(ln x )dx.

156

16.

16
16.1.
,
m n
P ( x ) B0 x + B1 x
+ ... + Bm

O: R( x ) = m
=

n
n -1
Qn ( x )
A0 x + A1 x + ... + An
,
m < n
P (x)
r (x)
= Ll ( x ) + k
, k < n
R( x ) = m
Qn ( x )
Qn ( x )
R(x) = 14 :
A
dx = A ln x - a + c,
1 :
x-a
( x - a)- k +1
A
2 :
dx = A
+ c,
k
-k + 1
( x - a)
1 2
p

t = 2 ( x + px + q ) = x + 2
Mx + N
dx =
3 : 2
,
2
x + px + q

x 2 + px + q = t 2 + q - p

4
Mx + N
dx.
4 : 2
( x + px + q )k
Qn(x) = (x - a1) ... (x - al)(x - b)k(x2 + px + q)
A1
Al
Bk
+ ... +
+
+
R( x ) =
x - a1
x - al ( x - b)k
Bk -1
B1
Mx + N
+
+ ... +
+ 2
k -1
x - b x + px + q
( x - b)
m

m -1

16.2.
1. R(sin x, cosx)dx = R*(t)dt,
tg(x/2) = t, x = 2arctg t, dx =

2t
2dt
,
, sin x =
1 + t2
1 + t2

1 - t2
.
1 + t2
m
n
2. sin x cos x dx, m, n 0,
) m = 2p + 1 cosx = t
n = 2q + 1 sin x = t

cos x =

157

) m = 2p, n = 2q sin2x = (1 - cos2x)/2,


cos2x = (1 + cos2x)/2
3. R(tg x)dx = R*(t)dt,
dt
tg x = t, x = arctgt, dx =
.
1 + t2
16.3.
1. R( x, 1 (ax + b)m1 , ..., l (ax + b)ml )dx = R *(t )dt,
mj
, j = 1, l ,
ax + b = t k, k
nj
1
1
x = (t k - b), dx = kt k -1dt .
a
a
Ax + B
bx c
b
1
dx, t = x 2 +
+ =x+ ,
2.

2
a
a
2
2a
ax + bx + c
n

ax2 + bx + c = at2 + c -

b2
.
4a

3. R( x, a 2 - x 2 )dx, = asint,

R( x ,
R( x ,

a 2 + x 2 )dx, x = atg t,
x 2 - a 2 )dx, = a/cost

. 16.1
:
x3 + x 2 + 5
1. I =
dx.
x2 + 3
:
. :
-

x3 + x 2 + 5 x 2 + 3
x +1
x3 + 3x
x 2 - 3x + 5
x2 + 3
-3 x + 2.

158


-3 x + 2
x2
x dx
dx
=
+ x - 3 2
+ 2 2
=
d
x
2
2
x +3
x +3
x +3
x 2 + 3 = t,

3 dt
1
x

x2
=
arctg
=
dt = 2 + x - 2 t + 2
3
3
2 x dx = dt, x dx =

2
I = ( x + 1)dx +

x2
3
2
x
arctg
+ c.
+ x - ln( x 2 + 3) +
2
2
3
3
x dx
.
2. I = 2
x - 3x + 2
:
, :
x 2 - 3 x + 2 = 0,
2
x - 3 x + 2 = ( x - 1)( x - 2).
x1 = 1, x2 = 2
:
x
A
B
=
+
.
( x - 1)( x - 2) x - 1 x - 2
A B ,

. , x:
A(x - 2) + B(x - 1) = x,
x = 1 -A = 1
A = -1,

B = 2,
x=2 B=2
=

-dx
( x - 2)2
2dx
+
=
ln
x
+
ln
x
+
c
=
ln
+ c.
1
2
2
x -1 x - 2
x -1
2 x 2 - 3x + 3
dx.
3. I = 3
x - 2x2 + x
: x3 - 2x 2 + x = x(x - 1)2
x = 0 x = 1 2,

2 x 2 - 3x + 3 A
B
C
= +
+
A(x - 1)2 + Bx + Cx(x 2
2
x ( x - 1)
x -1
x( x - 1)
- 1) = 2x2 - 3x + 3 x2(A + C) + x(-2A + B - C) - A =
= 2x2 - 3x + 3.
I =

159

x:
x2 A + C = 2

x -2 A + B - C = -3

x0 A = 3

3 + C = 2,

-6 + B - C = -3,
A = 3

C = -1,

B + 1 = 3,
A = 3

A = 3, B = 2, C = -1
-1
3
2
2
I = dx +
dx +
dx = 3 ln x - ln x - 1 + c.
x
x -1
x -1
( x - 1)2
4. I =

(2 x - 3)dx

x 2 + 4 x + 10.

: x2 + 4x + 10 =
= 0: D = 16 - 40 < 0, .
:
x + 2 = t ,
(2 x - 3)dx
(2 x - 3)dx

I = 2
=
= x = t - 2, =
( x + 4 x + 4) + 6
( x + 2)2 + 6

dx = dt
2(t - 2) - 3
2t dt
dt
t 2 + 6 = z,
=
=
=
d
t
7
t 2 + 6 t 2 + 6 2t dtt = dz =
t2 + 6

dz
7
t
7
t
=
= ln(t 2 + 6) +c=
arctg
arctg
z
6
6
6
6
7
x+2
= ln( x 2 + 4 x + 10) arctg
+ c.
6
6
( x 3 + 3)dx
5. I =
.
( x + 1)( x 2 + 1)
: ,
:
x3 + 3
x3 + x 2 + x + 1
3

( x + 3)dx
3
2
1
=
I =
x
+
x
+
x
+
1

=
( x + 1)( x 2 + 1)

-x2 - x + 2

= dx -

160

x2 + x - 2
dx.
( x + 1)( x 2 + 1)


x = -1, (x 2 + 1)
:
x2 + x - 2
A
Mx + N
=
+ 2
A( x 2 + 1) + Mx( x + 1) +
2
x
+
1
( x + 1)( x + 1)
x +1
+ N ( x + 1) = x 2 + x - 2;
x = -1 2 A = -2
A = -1,

2
x
A + M = 1 M = 1 - A = 2,
x
N = 1 - M = -1;
M + N = 1
-1
dx
2x - 1
2 x dx
I = x+
dx + 2
dx = x - ln x + 1 + 2
- 2
=
x +1
x +1
x +1
x +1
= x - ln|x + 1| + ln| x2 + 1| - arctg x + c.


x3 - 2x 2 - 4 x + 7
x3 + 2
2x2 - 1
d
;
x
dx;
d
;
x
2)
3)

x2 + x - 2
x3 - 4 x
x3 - 5x 2 + 6 x
3x 2 + 2 x - 1
(3 x - 1)dx
2x + 1
dx; 5)
;
dx; 6) 2
4)
2
3
( x - 1) ( x + 2)
4 x - 4 x + 17
( x - 2) ( x + 5)
x dx
dx
( x 2 + 1)dx
;
8) 3 ;
9) 2
7)
;
2
x -1
( x + 1)( x 2 + 4)
( x + 2)( x + 4)
dx
.
10)
( x + 1)2 ( x 2 + 1)
1)

. 16.2
:
dx
1. I =
.
5 - 3cos x
:

dx

a cos x + b sin x + c,


(. , . 15.4):
x

2dt
tg = t,
x = 2 arctg t,

2
dx

1 + t2
I =
=
=
=
2
5 - 3 cos x
1 - t2
1-t
2dt
cos x =
, dx =
5 - 3

1 + t 2
1 + t2
1 + t 2
161

1
dt
=
4 t2 + 1
4
1

1
x
= 2 arctg(2t ) + c = 2 arctg 2 tg + c.
2

2
4
=

2dt

dt

5(1 + t 2 ) - 3(1 - t 2 ) = 2 2 + 8t 2

2. I =

sin3 x

3 cos x dx.

: 2) , . 16.2.
sin x ,
cosx = t:

sin x(1 - cos 2 x )dx cos x = t,


(1 - t 2 )
=
I =
=
(-dt ) =

3
3
t
cos x
- sin x dx = dt
= - t

1
3 dt

5
t 3 dt

3t 3 3t 3
3 3 cos 2 x 3 3 cos8 x
=+
+c=+
+ c.
2
8
2
8

3. I = sin 2 x cos 2 x dx.


: 2) , . 16.2. 1 - cos 2 x
,
sin 2 x =
2
1 + cos 2 x
cos 2 x =
:
2
1
1 - cos 2 x 1 + cos 2 x
2
I =
dx = (1 - cos 2 x )dx =

2
2
4
1
1
1 1
1
1 1 + cos 4 x
= dx -
dx = x - x - sin 4 x + c =
4
2
4
8
8 4
4
x 1
= - sin 4 x + c.
8 32
4. I = ctg3 x dx.
: 3 , . 16.2, ctgx = t:
ctg x = t,

I = ctg3 x dx =
dt
dx = - 1 + t 2

162

x = arcctg t,
t3

dt =
= -
1 + t2

t3
t 2 + 1
- 3

t dt
t2 1
= t +t t
= - + ln t 2 + 1 + c =
= - t dt + 2
2 2
t +1

-t

=-

ctg2 x 1
+ ln(ctg2 x + 1) + c.
2
2

5. I = sin 4 x cos 5 x dx.


: 1
sin cos = (sin( + ) + sin( - )):
2
1
1 cos 9 x 1
I = (sin 9 x + sin(- x ))dx = -
+ cos x + c =
2
2
9
2
1
1
= cos x - cos 9 x + c.
2
18


dx
dx
cos3 x
; 12)
; 13) sin5 x dx; 14)
dx;
5 + sin x + 3 cos x
1 - sin x
sin 6 x
dx
;
16) cos6 x dx;
17)
18) tg7 x dx;
15) sin 4 x dx;
1 + tg x
19) cos x cos 3 x dx.
11)

. 16.3
:
x + 3 x2 + 6 x
x(1 + 3 x ) dx.
: 1 , . 16.3:
2 1 1

x+3x+6x
6 , ,
3 6 3 =
I =
dx =
x(1 + 3 x )
x = t 6 , dx = 6t 5dt, t = 6 x

1. I =

t 5 + t 3 + 1 t 2 + 1

t5 + t3 + 1
(t 6 + t 4 + t )
dt = 6 2
dt = t 5 + t 3
= 6 6
=
t3
2
t (1 + t )
t +1

dt
3
3
= 6 t 3dt + 6 2
= t 4 + 6 arctg t + c = 3 x 2 + 6 arctg 6 x + c.
2
t +1 2
163

2. I =

x dx

3 7x + 3 .

: 1 , . 16.3:
1 3

3
7 x + 3 = t , x = 7 (t - 3),
x dx
I =3
=
=
3
7x + 3
dx = t 2dt, t = 3 7 x + 3

7
1 3
3
(t - 3) t 2dt
3
3 t 5 3t 2
7
=7
=
(t 4 - 3t )dt =
+c=

t
49
49 5
2
3 1 3
33

5
=
(7 x + 3)2 + c.
(7 x + 3)
49 5
2
x dx
.
3. I =
1 - 7x - x2
: 2 , . 16.3:
x dx
x dx
=
=
I =
2
2
49 49
53
7

- 1
- x + 7x + - x +

4 4
4
2
7
7
7

- t dt
+
= t , x = t - ,
dt
7
x
2
=
=
2
2
53 2 = - 2 53 2 +
dx = dt

-t
-t
4
4
53 2

t dt
7
2t
1 dz
- t = z,
-
=
+
=4
= - arcsin
2
53 2
53 2 z

-t
-2t dt = dz
4
7
2t
53 2
7
2x + 7
= - arcsin
- t + c = - arcsin
- 1 - 7 x - x 2 + c.
2
4
2
53
53
4. I =

dx
(4 + x 2 )3

: 3 , . 16.3, x = 2 tgt:

164

2dt
4 + t 2 = 4 + 4 tg2 t = 2
x = 2 tg t,

cos t
cos 2 t
I =
= 8 =
dx = 2 dt

cos3 t
cos 2 t
x 2
tg t
1
1
1
1
= cos t dt = sin t + c =
+c=
+c=
4
4
4 1 + tg2 t
4 1 + ( x 2)2
=

x
4 4 + x2

+ c.


x dx
2
2- x
3
;
dx;
22)
2
3x + 2 + 1
x
(2 - x ) 2 + x
3x + 2
dx
5x + 3
dx;
;
dx;
23)
24)
25)
2
2
x +x+2
x - x -1
5 + 4x - x2
x 2dx
dx
; 28)
.
26) a2 - x 2 dx; 27)
2
x -2
x 4 + x2
:
dx
x dx
( x 3 + 2)dx
2 x dx
;
; 30) 2
; 31)
; 32)
29)
3 + cos x
x + 4x + 5
5 + x - x2
4 - 4x
sin 2 x dx
5 x 3 + 9 x 2 - 22 x - 8
; 34) x arctg x dx; 35)
dx;
33)
x3 - 4 x
3 - cos 2 x
dx
cos5 x
; 39) x 2 x 2 - 1dx;
dx; 37) x sin 2 x 2dx; 38)
36)
x-4x
sin x
5x + 3
dx
dx; 41) earctg 3 x
; 42) ( x 2 - 2 x + 3)sin 2 x dx;
40)
2
2
1 + 9x
3- x
log2 x
2
dx; 44) (1 - cos 2 x ) dx.
43)
x2
45) :
20)

dx

3x +

21)

165

x-2
x 3dx
+ c;
; 1) x + ln
2
x+2
x +4
x2
x 5dx
- 2 ln x 2 + 4 + c;
2) 4
; 2)
2
x +4
2
x2
x2
x dx
)
arctg
3
+ c;
3) 2
;
2
2
x -4
x2
( x + 1)dx
- ln x 2 + 4 + c;
4) 2
. 4)
2
x - 4x
1 ( x - 4)5
5) ln
+ c.
4
x

1)


1
dx
. : ln ln x + ln 2 x + 6 + c.
1.
2
x ln x + 6
x dx
2. 2 . : -x ctg x + ln |sinx| + c.
sin x
( x + 1)dx
1
2x + 1
. : - 1 - x - x 2 + arcsin
+ c.
3.
2
2
5
1- x - x
4.

1
1
dx
+ c.
. : ln 1 + tg 2 x - ln tg x 3
2
2 tg 2 x
tg x

5.

x dx
x
1
1
2
. : ln x - 1 - ln x 2 + 2 +
arctg
+ c.
3
6
3
( x + 2)( x - 1)
2
2

2
1. 2

- x3

2- x
x dx. : + c.
3 ln 2
2

2. arccos 3x dx. : x arccos 3 x 3.

166

1
1 - 9 x 2 + c.
3

x 4 dx
x2
.
- 3 x + 9 ln x + 3 + c.
:
2
x3 + 3x 2

x
dx
1 tg 2 + 1
. : ln
4.
+ c.
2 sin x + 3 cos x + 2
3 tg x - 5
2
5.

x +1 +1
dx. : x + 1 + 4 x + 1 + 4 ln
x +1 -1

x + 1 - 1 + c.


1. i ( x ) i ( x )dx, i = 1, 2, 3.
n

1( x )

1 ( x )

2( x)

2(x)

3 ( x )

3( x )

cos3 x

sin-7 x

3x

(5 - 9 x )-1 2

ln(1 + x 2)

ex

(4 + e2x)-1

arcsin-4 x

(1 - x 2 )-1 2

x2 + 3x + 5

ln x

1
arctg x + 4

(1 + x 2)-1

e3x

(7 - e6 x )-1 2

x 2 + 3x - 1

e2x

1
4 - 3 ctg x

sin-2 x

1 + 4 sin 2 x

sin 2x

x3

sin2x

x9

(x10 + 1)-1

sin 2x

x3

ln(x 2 + 1)

5x

(9 + 25x)-1

(1 + x 2)-1

1
1 + arcctg x

arcsinx

(1 + x )-1 2

sin x

cos3x

tg(sin2x)

sin2x

arcsin x

(1 - x )-1 2

arctg3x

(1 + x 2)-1

x -1

3 - log52 x

lgx

x -2

sin 2x

x2

3x

ecos

tg x + 1

cos-2x

5cos

10

2 tg x - 3

cos-2 x

x -2 3

( 3 x - 1)-1

x -1 2

(1 +

ex

+5

11

x2

12

2x

13

sin3 x

cos-7 x

14

2x + 1

ex

+x

x -1

16

sin(lnx)

-1

17

x -1

1 - ln2 x

x2 - 4

x )-1 2

xcos x

sin-3 x

(1 - x 2 )-1 2

5x - 2

e 3x

2x

(9 - 4 x )-1 2

e 3x

cos2 x

x -1

(1 - ln 2 x )-1 2

4x - 2

cos2x

4 + x2

sin2 x

cos(x 2 + 1) arccosx - x

ln3 x + 1

15

e2 cos

sin 2x
4

x - arctg x
cosx

2 -1

(1 + x )

sin -2 3 x

6x - 5

-23 x

167

1( x )

18 sin(arctg x)
-1

1 ( x )
(1 + x )

-1

(2 + lnx)

19

20

arcsinx

21

22

e tg x

2 -1 2

(1 - x )

26

3 -1

2 - 8x

sin3x
e-3x

(1 + x )

2x - 3

cos2x

cos2x

x + x2

cos-2 x

(1 - x 4 )-1 2

1 - 6x

e 2x

tg -2 3 x

cos-2 x

arcsin x

4 -1

x +1

sin 2x

3cos2x

3( x )

(1 + x 2)-1

24 1 - arcsin x (1 - x )
x

(1 + e )

3 ( x )

arctg3 x

2 -1 2

25

2x -1

sin( x 3 + 1)

23 arccosx - x (1 - x 2 )-1 2
3

2(x)

2( x)

2 -1

4 + ln x

-1

arcsin x

(1 + x )

sin 2x

(1 + cos x)

ln x

x -2

x -1 5

cosx

(9 + sin2 x)-1

ln2 x

x -5 2

-1

-2

tgx

27
28

1 + ln x
1 + tg2 x

x
cos-2 x

e
8x 3

cos x
(3 - 2x 4)-1

ln x
(arctgx)2

1
x

29

1 - cos x

sinx

arcsin2 x + 1

(1 - x 2 )-1 2

ln2 x

30

cosx

esinx +3

1 + lnx

x -1

4 - 16x

sin4x

2. sin m x cos k x dx.


n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

m
k
0
5
2
3
3
2
0
4
4
0
5
0
3 -1/2

n
m
k
n
8
0
6 15
9 1/3 3 16
10 3 1/2 17
11 6
0 18
12 3
6 19
13 6
3 20
14 -1/2 3 21

m
8
2
9
1
0
10
6

k
1
9
0
8
9
3
1

x4 + b
dx.
( x - a)( x + d )
x dx
.
4. 2
( x + bx + c)( x - d )
dx
.
5.
a cos x + d sin x + b
( x + d )dx
.
6.
(-1)n x 2 + bx + c
3.

168

n
m
k
n
22
2
7 29
23 -1/2 5 30
24
3
1
25
2
4
26
5
2
27
5 -1/2
28
7
0

m
0
5

k
7
1/2

n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

a
3
-2
2
5
-6
4
-8
4
7
6
-12
10
11
-14
13

b
2
2
4
4
6
6
8
8
10
10
12
12
14
14
16

c
1
4
4
7
9
12
16
18
25
27
36
38
49
51
64

d
3
1
0
3
2
4
5
6
1
6
7
8
11
3
9

n
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

a
12
-18
17
16
-20
19
21
22
-24
23
25
-28
27
29
-30

b
16
18
18
20
20
22
22
24
24
26
26
28
28
30
30

65
81
82
100
101
121
122
144
145
169
170
196
197
225
226

d
12
10
11
16
13
14
15
22
20
21
25
26
27
28
29


1. .
2. ?
3.
.
4. ,
.
5. ?
6.
?
7. ,
?
15, 16
15.
1) ln| x | - 3x + 2x 2 + c; 2) 10 x13 10 - 4 x 7 4 + 8 x1 2 + c; 3) 2x - x2 +

x + x2 + 3
1
3x
2 3 2 5
+ c;
arcsin
+ c; 5) ln
x x + c; 4)
3
5
3
7
x + x2 - 3
169

1
x
10
+ c; 7) -2 cos x + c; 8) tg x - x + c; 9) arcsin - 3 ln x + x
6)
e ln10 - 1
2
x
1

2
arcsin - 3 ln x + x + 4 + c; 10) x + arctg x + c; 11) sin 5 x + + c;
2
5
4
1 -2 x + 3
44 7
1 x2
+ c; 13) e + c; 14)
ln x + c; 15) - 4 - x 2 + c;
12) - e
2
7
2
3
2
1
5 x + c;
1 7 ) - ln 5 x - 3 + c;
18)
1 6 ) 3 arctg 4 x + c;
4
ln 5
5
1
19) - cos x 3 + c; 20) sin(ln x) + c; 21) ln(e x + e2 x + 5 ) + c;
3
2
arcsin 2 x
x2
1
- 3 arcsin x + c; 24) arctg
+ c;
22) - (1 - sin x )3 + c; 23)
3
2
6
3
x
1 2
1
1
ln x
x
4
4x +
+ c; 28) - 1
25) - sin + c; 26) e3 x + c; 27) arcsin

6
x
3
ln 4 3 ln 2 4
2
x
1
1
x2 2
x
4
x
4
+
;
c
29)
ln x - ln x + + c; 30) x arcsin 2x +
- 1
2
3
ln 4 3 ln 4
2
2
1
3
x
1 2
x
1

2
x arcsin 2 x +
1 - 4 x + c; 31) - x cos 2 x + sin 2 x + cos 2 x + c; 32) e2 x 6 sin - c

2
37
3
2
2
4
3 2x
x
x
x
2
e 6 sin - cos + c; 33) - x + (1 + x )arctg x + c; 34) -e (x +

37
3
3
1
+ 2x + 2) + c;
3 5 ) x - ln(1 + e2 x ) - e- x arctg(e x ) + c;
2
1
1 3 1 2 1
x2
3
2
+ ln cos x + c
36) (2 x + 3 x - 1)ln x + 1 - x - x + x + c; 37) x tg x 6
9
12
6
2
x2
x 2 + 1 - x2
x tg x + ln cos x + c; 38) xln(x 2 + 1) - 2x + 2arctgx + c; 39) e
+ c;
2
2
x
+ c; 40) (cos(ln x ) + sin(ln x )).
2
16.
1
x2
1
7
17
- 3 x + ln ( x + 2)( x - 1) + c; 2) - ln x - ln x - 2 + ln x - 3 + c;
2
3
6
2
13
4
20
1
3
5
+
ln x - 1
4) + c;
3 ) x - ln x - ln x + 2 + ln x - 2 + c;
3( x - 1) 9
2
4
4
x+5
9
9
5
4
20
7
ln
+ c;
+ ln x - 1 + ln x + 2 + c; 5)
343 x - 2 49( x - 2) 14( x - 2)2
3( x - 1) 9
9
5
3
3
1
2 x - 1
6 ) ln 4 x 2 - 4 x + 17 + arctg
7 ) ln x + 2 + ln( x 2 +
+ c;

8
16
8
6
4
1)

170

x -1
1
1
2x + 1
x
5
3
3
+
+ c;
arctg
ln x + 2 + ln( x 2 + 4) - arctg + c; 8) ln
2
3
8
16
8
2
3
3
x + x +1
1
1
x
1
1
1
+ c;
9) arctg x - arctg + c; 10) ln x + 1 - ln( x 2 + 1) 3
6
2
2
4
2( x + 1)
2
2
1 + 2 tg( x 2)
arctg
11)
+ c; 12) - tg( x 2) - 1 + c; 13) -cos x +

15
15
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
+ c; 15) x - sin 2 x + sin 4 x +
- cos x + cos3 x - cos5 x + c; 14)
3
5
3
5
8
4
32
3 sin x 5 sin x
5
1
3
1
1
1
3
x + sin 2 x +
sin 4 x - sin 2 x + c;
x - sin 2 x + sin 4 x + c;
16)
16
4
64
48
4
32
1
1 6
1 4
1 2
1
17) ( x + ln sin x + cos x ) + c; 18) tg x - tg x + tg x - ln(1 + tg 2 x ) + c;
2
6
4
2
2
3

1
1
x
x
+ tg2 x) + c; 19) sin 4 x + sin 2 x + c; 20) 6
+ 6 x - ln(1 + 6 x ) + c;

8
4
3
2

2
1
2
2
+ 6 x - ln(1 + 6 x ) + c; 21)
(3 x + 2)3 - (3 x + 2) 3 x + 2 + ln 3 x + 2 + 1 + c;

27
9
9
9
2

3 3 2 + x
1
2 3 ) ln x - + x 2 - x - 1 + c;

+ c;
4 2- x
2
1
1
x
24) 3 x 2 + x + 2 + ln x + + x 2 + x + 2 + c; 25) -5 6 + 4 x - x 2 + 13 arcsin
2
2
x 2
a2
x
x-2
x 2
2
+ c; 27)
a - x 2 + arcsin
6 + 4 x - x + 13 arcsin
+ c; 26)
x - 2 + ln x + x 2
2
2
2a
3
2
2
1
2x
+
x
1
4
2
x 2
+ c; 29) - 5 + x - x 2 + arcsin
x - 2 + ln x + x 2 - 2 + c; 28) ln
2
x
2
2
2
11
x
1
2
x
1
- 4 x + ln x 2 + 4 x + 5 + c;
5 + x - x 2 + arcsin
+ c;
3 0 )
2
2
2
21

1
2
2
x
arcsin 2 x -1 + c; 32)
31)
arctg
tg + c; 33) 2 3 - cos 2 x + c;
2 2
ln 2
2
x2 + 1
x
arctg x - + c; 35) 5x + ln x 2 (x + 2) 4 | x - 2| 3 + c;
34)
2
2
x 2 sin 2 x 2
4 sin5 x 2 sin 9 x
+ c;
+
+ c;
37)
3 6 ) 2 sin x 4
8
5
9

x 4
1
1
3 9 ) - ln( x + x 2 - 1) + x(2 x 2 - 1
3 8 ) 4
+ x + ln 4 x - 1 + c;

2
8
8
x
1
1 arctg 3 x
2
2
2
2
+ c; 41) e
+ x - 1) + x(2 x - 1) x - 1 + c; 40) -5 3 - x + 3 arcsin
+ c;
8
3
3
ln 3 x + 2 + 1 + c;

22)

171

1
1
1
1
1
1
+ 32)cos
x - 12)sin
+ 2 cos
4 2 ) - ( x-2 -( x22x -+ 23x)cos
x + 2 x( x+ - 1()sin
x + 2 xcos
x + 2c;x + c;
2
2
4
2
2
4
- log2 x
1
3
1
+ c; 44) x - sin 2 x + sin 4 x + c.
x
x ln 2
2
8

4 3 )

17. (..)

17
17.1. , . ..
b

: f ( x )dx =
a

f (i )xi ,
max x 0
lim
i

i =1

i = xi - xi-1, i [xi-1, xi], i = 1, n.


b

SD =

A=

f ( x )dx

f ( x )dx

F = f (x),

, [a, b]
17.2. ..
b

10. ( f ( x ) ( x ))dx =
a
b

a
b

a
a

a
a

f ( x )dx ( x )dx.

2 . kf ( x )dx = k f ( x )dx, k = const.


0

30. f ( x )dx = - f ( x )dx.


4 . f ( x )dx = 0.
0

b
b

5 . f ( x )dx =
0

f ( x )dx + f ( x )dx.
c


( f(x) > 0)
S = S1 + S2

172

60. ( x ) ( x ) x [a, b] ( x )dx ( x )dx.


70.
f(x) C[a,b] [a, b]:
b

f ( x )dx =

f ()(b - a)


SD = S

17.3.
b

f ( x )dx = F (b) - F (a).

F ( x ) = f ( x )

17.4. ..
1) :
b

x = (t )

f ( x )dx = dx = (t )dt = f [(t )](t )dt

2) :
b

udv = uv a - v du
a

173

17.5. (..)
1. ..

: f ( x )dx = lim f ( x )dx ,


b

lim , ;
, lim
/
b

f ( x )dx

f ( x )dx = lim

a -

f ( x )dx =

f ( x )dx +

f ( x )dx
c

2. ..
b

: f ( x )dx = lim

c b -0

f ( x )dx,
a

f (x) C[a,b] 2- = b
b

f ( x )dx = lim

c a +0

f ( x )dx,
c

f (x) C[a,b] 2- = a

. 17.117.3
, :
2

x3
1. x dx =
3
-1

-1

23 (-1)3
= 3.
3
3

4
3
4
-
1+ x
2
1
-2
2
dx = x + x dx = - 2.
=
x
x2
x1

1
1
4

2
7
1
= - - (-1 - 2) = 4 .
4

3.

174

cos x dx =

1 + cos 2 x
1
dx =
2
2

(1 + cos 2 x )dx =
0

1
1
1
1
4 1 1

= x + sin 2 x
= + sin - 0 + sin 0 =
2

4
2
4
4
2
2
4
0
=
1

4.
0

1
+ .
8 4
31

1
1
2
2 + 3 x dx = (2 + 3 x ) 2 d(2 + 3 x ) = (2 + 3 x ) 2
30
9

=
0

2
(5 5 - 2 2 ).
9
5. K() K(x) = 3x 2 + 3x + 1,
, x 0 4 . ,
.
: f() f (x) [a, b] (. , . 17.2)
b
1
f () =
f ( x )dx, (a, b).
b - a a
=

K ( ) =

1
1
3

(2 x 2 + 3 x + 1)dx = x 3 + x 2 + x =

40
4
2

1
(64 + 24 + 4) = 23 ( . .).
4
, 3x 2 + 3x + 1 = 23 3x 2 +
+ 3x - 22 = 0.
-3 + 273
= x =
(. ).
6
=


:
3

1) e2 x dx; 2)
8

5) ( 2 x +
0
16

9)

dy
2
9 + y 2 ; 3) ( x - 2 x + 3)dx; 4)
0
1
3

x
x )dx; 6) sin 2 dx; 7)
3
0
4

2
0

dx

x 2 + 4 x + 5;

(1 - cos x ) dx; 8)
2

3 x + 4dx;

-1

1+ t
dz
x+3
dt; 11) 2
; 10)
dx.
t
z+9- z
x +4
1
0
175

12) ,
5 , 1 1 . :
F x :
F = kx.
13) ,
,
2
f (t ) =
+ 3 (t ).
3t + 4
: f(t)
t, V t1 t t2
V =

t2

f (t )dt.

t1

. 17.4
1)
:
-

1.

cos3 x
dx.
3
sin x

: f (x) =
= sinm x cos n x (. , . 16.2). sin x = t
:

sin x = t,
cos x dx = dt,

4
4


cos3 x
(1 - sin 2 x )cos x dx
- =
dx = x 3 sin x dx =
3
2
4
sin x

2
2

t -1 2

2
2

-1

=
176

(1 - t 2 )dt
=
3
t

2
2 -1
t 3

-1

5
t 3 dt

2
2 - 2
3t 3

3 1 4
33 1
- 1 - 3 - 1 = -0, 083.

8 2

2 2

-1

2
8 - 2
3t 3

-1

x dx
.
5 + 4x
5
: f (x) =
2.

= R x, m (ax + b)n (. , . 16.3):


1 2

2
5 + 4 x = t , x = 4 (t - 5)
x dx

=
x 5 1 =
5 + 4 x dx 1 t dt

,
=
t 5 3

1 2
1
(t - 5) t dt
4
2
=

t
5
3

125
17
1 2
1 t3
1

+ 25 = - .
(t - 5)dt = - 5t = 9 - 15
5 8

3
6
85
8 3
1

3.

3
2

1 - x2
dx.
x2

: f (x) =
= R( x, a2 - x 2 ) (. , . 16.3):
x = sin t,
dx = cos t dt

3
2

1- x

x
1
dx =
=
2
2
2
2
x
1 - x = 1 - sin t = cos t,

t
3 2

3
2

cos 2 t dt 2 1 - sin 2 t
=
=
dt =
2
2
sin t
sin t
= - ctg

2
dt
sin2 t dt = - ctg t

-t


+ ctg - + =
- .
2
3 2 3
3
6

2)

2a

4.

du = dx
x + 3 = u,

(
x
+
3
)sin
ax
d
x
=

=
1

sin ax dx = dv, v = sin ax dx = - a cos ax


0

177

2a
-x + 3
1 2a
3 sin ax 2a 3 1 1 + 3a
=
cos ax + cos ax dx = +
= + 2 =
.
a
a 0
a
a a
a2 0
a2
0


:
2

e x dx
14 ) 2 ;
x
1

15)

e3

dx
x 1 - (ln x )2

21)

ln 2
2

25)

1
1

29)

16)

x
1

dx
;
1 + ln x

x
dx
dx
dx;
; 20)
; 19)
3
+
cos
2
x
x
-1
1
x
1
+
+
4
-1
0

17) cos5 x sin 2 x dx; 18)


0
ln 4

dx
x

e -1

; 22)

0
1

dx
3 + 2x - x

; 23) 4 - x 2 dx; 24)


0

dx
(1 + x 2 )3

x2 - 1
dx; 26) xe-2 x dx; 27) ln( x + 3)dx; 28) ( x - )2 cos 3 x dx;
x
-
0
0
3

arcsin x dx; 30)

x arctg x dx; 31)


0

x sin x
dx; 32)
cos3 x

e2

ln x dx
.
x2

. 17.5
1. 1- ( ):

+
dx
dx
; ) 2
.
)
x
ln
x
x
+
2x + 2
5
-
: ) :
b

dx
d(ln x )
b
lim
ln ln x 5 = lim(ln ln b - ln ln 5) =
=
x ln x b ln x = blim
b

5
5

.. .
lim F (b) = F (+), ,
b +

f ( x )dx = F (+) - F (a), F ( x ) =


a

178

f ( x ):

d(ln x )

= ln ln x 5 = ln ln() - ln ln 5 = ;
ln x
5

dx
=
x ln x

dx
=
) 2
x + 2x + 2
-

dx
( x + 1)2 + 1 +
-

dx

( x + 1)2 + 1 =
0

dx
dx
0
+ lim
= lim arctg( x + 1) +
2
2

-
b
a
( x + 1) + 1
( x + 1) + 1
a
0
a

= lim
a

+ lim arctg( x + 1) =
b


+ = .
2 2

2. 2- (
):
1

)
0

dx
dx
; )
.
2
x
0 1- x
1

x

: ) f ( x ) =
x = 0:
1

1
dx
dx
= lim
= lim 2 x = lim(2 - 2 e ) = 2;
e0
x e0 e x e0
e
1

dx

1- x

c 1- 0

= lim

dx
1- x

(
c 1- 0

= lim (aarcsin c - arcsin 0) =


c 1- 0

= lim arcsin x 0 =

.
2

33)

x
2

dx
3

ln x
1

; 34)

x dx
; 35)
x2 - 1
-1

dx
; 36)
3x + 5

dx
;
x + 4x + 9
-

dx
dx
x dx
x ln2 x ; 39) 3 ( x + 2)2 ; 40) 1 + x .
1
-3
-1
41) :
dx
; 38)
x
0

37)

1)
0

2 x dx
16 + x 2

1) 1;

2) 2;

3) 3;

4) 2,5;

179

2) ln 2 x dx;

2) e-1

3) e - 2

4) 1 + e;

1) p2/8; 2) 1;

3) ;

4) p;

1) 1;

3) 0,5;

4) -1;

1) e;

arctg x dx
;
1 + x2
0

3)

4)

sin x dx

(1 - cos x )2 ;

2) 1,5;

dx
. 1) (ln3)/2; 2) (ln(3/4))/2; 3) (ln(5/4))/2; 4) ln(1/4).
x
x
+
6
+
8
2

5)

18.

18
18.1. (SD)
1. SD
y = f ( x ),
x = a,

SD =
) D:
x = b,
y = 0
y
y

) D:
x
y

180

f ( x ) dx;

= f1( x ),
= f2 ( x ),
= a,
=b

S D = ( f2 ( x ) - f1( x ))dx, f1( x ) f2 ( x )


a

2.
x = x(t ), y = y(t ), x() = a, x() = b
D:
x = a, x = b (a < b), y = 0

S D = y(t ) xt dt

3.
D: r = r(),

SD =

1
[r ()]2 d
2

18.2.
1.
S(x) OX,
b

a x b VD = S ( x )dx
a

2.
D, D: y = y(x), x = a, x = b (a < b),
y = 0, S(x) = [y(x)] 2 ,
b

V x = [ y( x )]2 dx
a

D,
D: x = x(y), y = c, y = d (c < d ), x = 0,
Y
181

S ( y) = [ x( y)]2 , V y = [ x( y)]2 dy
c

18.3. L
1.
b

L: y = y(x), x [a, b], y (x) C[a,b] l =

1 + ( y ( x ))2 dx

2. L
L: x = x(t), y = y(t), t [, ], x (t), y (t) C[,]

l =

( x (t ))2 + ( y (t ))2 dt

3.
L: r = r(), [, ], r() C[, ]
l =

r 2 () + (r ())2 d

. 18.1
1. D: y = x 2, x = -1, x = 2, y = 0. SD.
: D (D) y = x2, x = -1,
x = 2 OX (. 18.1). ,
2

x3
S D = x dx =
3
-1

. 18.1

-1

= 3.

2. D: y = -x, y = 2x - x 2.

S D.
: y = 2x - x 2
y = -x:
2x - x 2 = -x x 2 - 3x = 0 x1 = 0, x2 = 3 A(0, 0),
B(3, -3).
182

D (. 18.2) :
3

3x 2 x3
9
S D = [(2 x - x ) - (- x )]dx = (3 x - x )dx =
- = .
0 2
2
3
0
0
2

. 18.2

3. D: y = x, y = 1, y = 2, x = 0. SD.
: ,
OY (. 18.3):
2

1
7
y3
S D = y dy =
= (8 - 1) = .
3 1 3
3
1
2

. 18.3

4. D: y = a(1 - cos t), x = a(t - sin t), y = 0,


0 x 2pa. SD.
: D
OX (. 18.4).
:
x = a(t - sin t ),
y = a(1 - cos t ),
2 a

x 0 2a =
S D = y dx =
dx = a(1 - cos t )dt,
0
t 0 2

183

a2 (1 - cos t )2 dt = a2 (1 - 2 cos t + cos 2 t )dt =


0

= a2 dt - 2a2 cos t dt + a2
2

= a2t 0 - 2a2 sin t 0 +

1 + cos 2t
dt =
2

a 2 a2
2
t 0 + sin 2t 0 = 3a2 .
2
4

. 18.4

5. D: (x 2 + y 2) = a 2(x 2 - y 2). SD.


:
. :
x = rcos j, y = r sinj r 4 = a 2r 2(cos2 j - sin2 j)
r 2 = a 2cos2 j.

. 18.5

(. 18.5) : rmax = a

cos2j = 1, .. j0 = 0, j1 = p; rmin = 0 cos 2j = 0, .. 0 = ,


4
3
7
5
1 =
, 2 =
. :
, 3 =
4
4
4

4
a2
a2
1
1
S = a2 cos 2 d =
sin 2 =
S = a2 .
4
20
4
4
0

184


SD :
1) D: y = x 2 + 1, x = 3, x = 0, y = 0;
2) D: y = x 2, y = 2x + 3; 3) D: y = 3 - 2x - x 2, y = 0;
4) D: y = x 2 + 4x, y = x + 4; 5) D: y = 4 - x 2, y = x 2 - 2x;
6) D: xy = 1, x = 2, y = x; 7) D: y 2 = 2x + 4, x = 0;
x
8) D: y 2 = -x + 1, y 2 = - + 1;
4
9) D: y 2 = 2x + 1, x - y - 1 = 0;
10) D: x = 3cost, y = 2 sint; 11) D: x = a cos3 t, y = a sin3 t;
12) D: r = a(1 + cosj); 13) D: r = 4 sin2 j;
14) D: x 2 + y 2 = 1, x 2 + y 2 = 4, y = x, y = x 3 (y > 0);
15) D: x 2 + y 2 - 2x = 0, y = x (y > 0).

. 18.2
1. D: y 2 = x 3, x = 1, y = 0. : ) Vx; ) Vy (
, D OX OY ).
: ) D
OX ,
. 18.6,
1

x4
V x = x dx =
4
0

=
0

;
4

) OY
(.
18.7) V y1
. 18.6
V y2 ,

D*: x = 3 y 2 , y = 1, x = 0.

V y = V y1 - V y2 = dy - ( 3 y 2 )2 dy =

=-

7 1
3y3

4
.
7

. 18.7

185

2. D: y = ex, x = 0, y = 0 (x < 0). Vx.


: (. 18.8). 1- , . 18.2,
0

V x = e2 x dx =
-

2x
e
2

0
-

(e - e- ) = .
2
2

. 18.8


16) D: y = x 3, y = 0, x = 2. : ) Vx; ) Vy.
17) D: y = 2x - x 2, y = 0. Vx.
18) D: x 2 - y 2 = 4, y = 2. Vy.
19) D: y = 1 - x 2, x + y = 1. Vy.
20) D: x = a cos3 t, y = a sin3 t. Vy.

. 18.3
1. AB: y = x 3 ; A(0, 0), B(4, 8). l
AB.
: .

l =

1 + x 2 dx =

9 2

2 1 + x
4

4 4 = 8 ( 103 - 1).
=
3
9 0 27
186

3 1
1 + x 2 dx =
2

1+

9
x dx =
4

2. L: x = acos3 t, y = a sin3 t. l.
: (. 18.9),
:
1
l =
4

3
3
((a cos t ) ) + ((a sin t ) ) dt =
2

= a (3 cos 2 t sin t )2 + (3 sin 2 t cos t )2 dt =


0

= 3a cos 2 t sin 2 t (cos2 t + sin 2 t )dt = 3a sin t cos t dt =


3a
3a cos 2t
=
sin 2t dt = 2 0
2 2

=-

3
3a
(cos - cos 0) = a l = 6a.
2
4

. 18.9

3. L: r = a(1 - cos j). l.


: (. 18.10), :

1
l = (a(1 - cos ))2 + (a(1 - cos ) )2 d =
2
0

a (1 - cos )2 + sin 2 d = a 1 - 2 cos + cos 2 + sin 2 d =

187

a 2(1 - cos )d = 2a sin d = 2a 2 - cos = 4a l = 8a.

2
2 0
0
0

. 18.10


:
2
x
1
3
x ; 22) L: x =
21) L: y = ln sin ,

2
2
2
t3
2
1 y 2; 23) x = - t, y = t + 2, 0 t 3;
3
= a(t - sin t), y = a(1 - cos t), 0 t 2p; 25)
0 j 2p.

1 2 1
y - ln y,
4
2
24) L: x =
L: r = aj,

1.

cos

0
1

x dx. :

2. xe- x dx. :
0

5 2
.
2

e-2
.
e

64
.
3

4. D: xy = 1, x = 2, x = 3, y = 0. Vx = ? : .
6

t2
x = ,
19

2
0 t 5. l = ? : .
5. L:
3
6
y = t ,

6
3. D: y = x 2, y = 8 - x 2. SD = ? :

188

1.

sin

x cos 2 x dx. :

0
e

2. x ln x dx. :
1

2
.
15

e2 1
+ .
4 4

2
3. D: y = -x 2 + 4, y = 0. SD = ? : 10 .
3

4. D: y = x, y = 2x, y = 1. Vy = ?. : .
4
1 3

x = 3 t ,
7
0 t 3. l = ? : .
5. L:
3
y = 1 t 2,

2
3
3

1.

x arctg x dx. : 3 -

3
.
2

2. sin 2 x cos 2 x dx. : .


8
0
1
3. D: y = ex, y = e2x, x = 1. SD = ? : (e - 1)2 .
2
406
.
4. D: x = -y 2 + 1, x = 0. Vy = ? :
15
x = t 2,
2

5. L:
2 3 0 t 1. l = ? : 3 (2 2 - 1).
y = t ,
3


y = r1(),

1. SD? D = y = r2 () (r1() < r2 ()),


= , = .

y = f1( x ),

2. Vx? D = y = f2 ( x ) (0 < f1( x ) < f2 ( x )),


x = a, x = b (a < b).

189


1. :
l

) x m ((-1)n x 2 + c) 2 dx;
a

190

N
1
2

m
2
4

n
1
2

l
-1
-7

a
0
0

b
1
1

c
4
1

-7

-1

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

4
2
2
2
2
0
2
2

1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2

-7
-5
-5
1
-5
-3
-5
-7

0
1
2
0
0
2
0
0

1
3

6 6

2
3
-2
1
4
-3
4
2

12

-3

-3

13

14

-5

15

-2

-3

2 3

-3

2 2
1
2
2 3
1

16

-3

17
18
19

-2
-4
-2

2
2
1

-3
1
-3

1
1
1

3
2

3
-1
4

20

-2

-1

21

-6

6
2

22
23
24
25
26

-2
-4
-4
-8
-4

1
1
2
2
1

1
1
1
5
-1

3
1

3
2

2
2

6
4
2

27

-6

28

-8

2
3
1

3
2

2
-2
12
4
6
-4
8
3
-1

N
29

m
-4

n
2

l
-1

a
1

30

-6

c
3

3
2

-3

) (C1 x 2 + C2 x + C3 ) f ( x )dx.
a

N
1

a
3

4
5
6

b
4

C1
0

C2
2

C3
-4

-1

sin4x

0
0
4

4
p
1
5

0
0
3

2
2
2

3
5
0

-3

cos2x

10
11
12

0
5
0

0
3
3

2
1
2

3
0
0

13

2
1
6
1

cos3x
e2x
ln(x - 3)
x
arctg
2
sinx

-3

14

e3x
ln(x - 4)
arctgx
x
sin
2
x
cos
3

15

-4

e4

16

-3

17

ln(x - 1)
x
arctg
2

18

-2

sinx

19

cos4x

20
21

0
3

4
1
4

0
1

3
0

-1
-2

22

e-x
ln(x - 2)
x
arctg
3

f(x)
ln(x - 2)
x
arctg
3

191

C1

C2

C3

f(x)

23

-2

e2

24

25

26

27

cos x

28

2
1

ln(x - 3)
x
arctg
2
sinx

29

-3

30

-1

e-x
x
sin
4
ln(x + 2)

2.
, :
) y = ax 2 + bx + c, bx - 2y + 2c = 0;

192

-4

16

-11

-3

-3

17

-4

18

-5

14

-5

19

-2

-1

20

-5

-8

-3

-10

21

-2

-7

-6

22

-4

-11

-2

-4

23

-1

-3

14

15

24

-3

-1

10

-1

-3

10

25

10

11

-2

26

12

-9

27

-2

-6

13

-8

-4

28

-10

14

-4

29

-13

15

-9

30

) x2 + y2 + ax + by = 0, y = cx,
y + x + (-1)ny + (-1)n+1x = 0.
N
1
2

a
1
-2

b
2
1

c
1
-1

N
16
17

a
5
-1

b
-1
5

- 3
-1

18

-4

- 3 3

-4

-3

19

5
6

1
3

-2
2

-1

-1
3

3
1

-1

3 3

20
21

-3

- 3

22

3 3
1

-1

-1

23

9
10

2
-5

5
2

24
25

3
5

-5
-2

-1
- 3 3

11

-2

26

-3

- 3 3

12

-1

13

-3

14

-3

15

-4

-1

- 3
-1

- 3
-1

27

-1

- 3

28

-2

-1

- 3 3
1

29

-3

3 3
-1

30

-2

- 3

3.
, D
:
) y = 0, x = b, x = c, y = (-1)N(Aeax + B); OX;
A, B ;
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

a
-1
-2
3
-4
5
2
-3
-4
-5
3

b
-1
0
1
-2
-3
-4
-1
0
-1
-2

c
1
2
3
1
0
-2
2
4
3
2

N
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

a
4
5
4
-5
-1
2
-3
-4
5
2

b
2
1
-4
-3
3
2
-3
2
-3
0

c
3
5
0
1
5
5
3
4
2
5

N
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

a
-3
-4
-5
3
4
-5
4
5
-1
-2

b
-5
-4
-3
-2
-4
0
-1
-4
-3
-1

c
0
3
5
-1
1
5
1
4
-2
5
193

x = a cos t,

t ; OY.
) y = b sin t + c,
y = b sin + c, y = b sin + c,

N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

a
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
3

b
2
3
4
5
3
4
5
4
5
4
5
4
6
6
6

a
p/4
p/3
p/2
0
0
p/2
-p/3
0
p/3
p/6
p/2
-p/6
p/2
p/4
0

c
-1
1
2
1
-1
-2
2
3
-3
1
1
-1
3
3
4

b
0
0
p/6
-p/3
-p/4
0
-p/2
-p/3
p/4
0
p/4
-p/3
-p/2
p/6
-p/2

N
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

a
4
5
3
4
5
6
4
5
5
6
6
6
4
2
4

b
6
6
2
3
4
5
2
3
2
4
3
2
4
4
5

a
-p/6
p/3
-p/6
p/2
-p/4
-p/4
p/4
p/2
0
-p/3
p/2
p/3
-p/4
p/3
0

c
-4
2
-2
1
1
-1
1
2
-1
3
1
-1
3
2
-2

b
-p/2
p/6
-p/4
p/3
-p/2
-p/3
0
p/6
-p/2
-p/2
-p/2
p/6
-p/2
0
-p/3

4.

x = at 3,
5
b
m, m = .
0t

2
3
a
y = bt + c,
N
1

a
4

b
2

c
1

N
11

a
-2

b
2

c
-3

N
21

a
19

b
1

c
4

19

-2

12

22

19

13

23

- 19
2
2
1
1
-1
-1

14

24

-4

2
3
3
6
3
6

5
-1
3
-4
-5
0

15
16
17
18
19
20

-2
-2
4
1
-4
-1

1
3
6
2
6
2

-1
3
-2
1
3
-3

25
26
27
28
29
30

2 19
2
-2

4
3
3
1
1
6

-7
-8
0
1
2
-3

5
6
7
8
9
10

194

3 19
3
-3


1. .
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
. 17, 18
17.
1
1
3

7
1) (e6 - 1); 2) ; 3) ; 4) arctg 3 - arctg 2; 5) 33 ; 6) ; 7) 3p;
2
3
2
12
3
3
ln 2
248
2
2 10
; 12) 0,125 ; 13) ln + 3 .;
; 9) 12; 10) 6 ; 11) +
8)
8
2
9
3
3 7

2
3
; 19) (ln 4 - 1);
14) e - e ; 15) /6; 16) 2; 17) ; 18)
7
2
3 3
3
2

3
; 25) 3 - ;
; 24)
20) 7 + 2 ln 2; 21) ; 22) ; 23) +
2
2
6
6
3
3
2

3
2
3
e2 - 3
2
+
- 1; 30)
;
; 27) 3(ln 12 - 1); 28) - ; 29)
26)
12
2
3
2
3
4e 2
1
2
3
; 34) ; 35) ;
31) - ; 32) 1 - 2 ; 33)
4 2
ln 2
e
5
; 37) ; 38) ; 39) 6; 40) .
36)
5
18.
5
16
32
2
16
3
1) 12; 2) 10 ; 3) ; 4) 20 ; 5) 9; 6) - ln 2; 7) ; 8) 4; 9) ;
6
3
3
3
3
2
3a2
1
128
3a2

; 13) 6p; 14) ; 15) - ; 16) )


;
; 12)
10) 6p; 11)
2
4 2
7
8
8
64
64

16
32 3
4
3 4

; 19) ; 20)
; 17)
; 18)
a ; 21) ln tg
- ln tg ;
)
3
5
6
15
105

8
8
a
3 1
2
2
22) + ln 2; 23) 12; 24) 8a; 25) (2 1 + 4 + ln(2 + 1 + 4 )).
2
4 2

195

19.

19
19.1. .
R = (-, +), R
: M(m) () a M (a m) a A
M* = sup A (m* = infA) ()
= [a, b] (a, b) [a, b) (a, b]
: {} R A : c
: () = b - a
: , [a, b] *(A) = inf (k ).
k A

*(A) = (b - a) - *(A), A = [a, b]\A


: (A) *(A) =
= *(A) = (A)
19.2. .
: f (x), x A, R
( f(x) > c)
. (): f (x)
[a, b] > 0 (x) C[a,b]: A ( f (x) (x)) <
: f ( x )d =
E

i (Ei ) , f(x) max y 0


lim
i

i =1

, m = inf f ( x ), M = sup f ( x ), [m, M] x E

x E

[yi-1, yi), i = 1, n, yi = yi - yi-1, i [yi - yi-1),


Ei = E (yi-1 f(x) < yi)
b

: f ( x )dx = J () f ( x )d = J .
19.3. ().

: f(x), x [a, b], > 0: n (a = x0 < x1 < ... < xn =
n

= b) f ( xk ) - f ( xk -1 ) c; Vab[ f ] = sup f ( xk ) - f ( xk -1 ).
n k =1

k =1

: f ( x )dg ( x ) =
a

lim

max xi 0

f (i )[ g( xi ) - g( xi -1)] i =1

, f (x) C[a,b], g(x) [a, b], [a, b]


[xi-1, xi], i = 1, n, xi = xi - xi-1, i [xi - xi-1]
196

. 19.3
, :
b

1) ( f1( x ) + f2 ( x ))dg ( x ) =
a
b

2) f ( x )d( g1( x ) + g2 ( x )) =

a
b

a
b

a
b

f1( x )dg ( x ) + f2 ( x )dg ( x );


a

f ( x )dg1( x ) + f ( x )dg2 ( x );

3) k1 f ( x )d(k2 g ( x )) = k1k2 f ( x )dg ( x ).


20.
I

20
20.1.
F (x, y, y , ..., y(n)) = 0 n-
y = (x) F(x, (x), (x), ..., (n)(x)) 0
20.2. I
F(x, y, y ) = 0 I
y = f (x, y) ,
P(x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0
: y = f(x, y), y(x0) = y0
: f(x, y), f y(x, y) . 0(x0, y0)
! . 0
f(x, y), f y(x, y) D
y = (x, c), c = const, :
1) y = (x, c) ;
2) y(x0) = y0 ! c = c0: y = (x, c0) ,
(0, 0) D
20.3.
, f2(y)dy = f1(x)dx
dy
f (x)
f (x)
) y = 1

= 1 ( f 2(y)dx, )
dx
f2 ( x )
f2 ( y )
f2 ( y)dy = f1( x )dx + c;
) P1(x)P2(y)dx + Q1(x)Q2(y)dy = 0
(:P2(y)Q1(x), )
P1( x )
Q ( y)
dx = - 2
dy + c

Q1( x )
P2 ( y)
20.4. I
: f(x, y) n-
f(x, y) = n f(x, y)

198

y = f (x, y) f(x, y) = f(x, y)


f(x, y) = f *(y/x)
y/x = u, y = xu u + xu = f *(u)
du
dx
=
.

f *(u) - u
x
20.5. I
y + p(x)y = q(x). y = uv: y = uv + uv
u v + uv + p(x)uv = q(x) uv + u(v + p(x)v) = q(x)
1) v + p(x)v = 0 ,
v = v(x)
2) u v = q(x) ,

. 20.120.3
I :
1. y(1 + x 2) = xy.
: y =

xy
.
1 + x2
(. , . 20.3)). :
dy
x
dy
x dx
dx
,
=
y
=
2
y
dx 1 + x
y
1 + x2
dy
x dx
1

=
+ c* ln y = ln(1 + x 2 ) + ln c
2
y
2
1+ x
y = c 1 + x 2 .

2. sin y cosx dy = cosy sinx dx; y(0) = .


4
: (. , . 20.2, 20.3 )). :
sin y dy sin x dx
d cos y
d cos x
=

=
+ c*
cos y
cos x
cos y
cos x

199

ln|cos y | = ln|cos x | + ln c cos y = c cos x .

cos

4 =
, y(0) = , c0 =
4
cos 0
1
cos x
cos x
=
. cos y =
y = arccos

2
2
2
, .. , .
3. B, t N
X . , B .
N

. X(t ) (

).
:
dX
dt = kX ( N - X ),
dX
, :
V =
dt
X t =0 = N ,

k > 0 .
1- .
dt
dX
1 dX
dX

= k dt + c*
+
=
kX ( N - X )
X (N - X )
N X
N -X
X
X
= Nkt + c
= Ae Nkt , A = e c .
N-X
N-X
N
= A
,
(N - N )
N
1
e Nkt
X
A=
=
, ..
=
N ( - 1) - 1
-1
N-X
N
.
X =
1 + ( - 1)e- Nkt
4. m = 1 F, t,
t = 0,
v. , t = 10 v = 0,5 /,
= kt + c* ln

200

F = 4 10-5 . v .
dv
: F = m . dt
t
, F = k v
dv
t
= k , m = 10-3 ,
m
dt
v
k v(10) = 0,5; F(10) =
Fv 4 10 -5 0,5
=
= 2 10 -6 = 4 10-5: k =
t
10
dv
t
: 10 -3
= 2 10 -6 v dv = 2 10-3tdt
dt
v
v2
-3 2

= 10 t + c. t = 10, v = 0,5, c:
2
0, 25
= 10-3 102 + c c = 0,025 v 2 = 0,002t 2 + 0,05 v(60) =
2
= 0, 002 3600 + 0, 05 = 7, 25 2, 7 /.


:
1) 1 - x 2 y = y; 2) y dx + x 2dy = 0; 3) y = e x+y; 4) x 1 - y 2 dx +
+ 1 - x 2 dy = 0, y(0) = 1; 5) xy = tgy; 6) (1 + y 2 )dx = xy dy, y(2) = 1;

7) y sinx = yln y, y = e.
2
8) A B 10 20
C. , , A
B C,
X C t, 20 6 .
9) .

,
. p
, p , q s : q = 4p - 2p + 29, s =
201

= 5p + 8p - 71. p t, p(0) =
= 1 (. .).

. 20.4
I :
y y
1. y = ln , y(1) = 1.
x x
: I . u = y/x, y = ux, y = xu + u,
:
du
du
du
dx
du
u = x du = u ln u x du = u ln u - u
= dx
u = x dx = u ln u x dx = u ln u - u u ln u - u = x
u ln u - u
x
dx
dx
d(ln u - 1)
dx
d(ln u - 1) = dx ln ln u - 1 = ln x + ln c
ln u - 1 = x ln ln u - 1 = ln x + ln c
x
ln u - 1
y
+1
ln u - 1 = cx ln y = cx + 1 y = xecx
.
ln u - 1 = cx ln x = cx + 1 y = xecx +1
x
, 1 = c+1 c = -1,
.. y = xe-x+1 .
2. (x + y)dx + x dy = 0.
: I , dy
x+y
lx, ly x, y .
=dx
x
y
= u:
x
du
du
u+x
= -(1 + u) x du = -(1 - 2u)dx
=
dx
1 + 2u
c
dx
1
= -
+ c* ln 1 + 2u = - ln x + ln c 1 + 2u =
x
x
2
2
2

2y c
1 c
1+
= 2 y = - x .

2 x
x
x


:
y
y x
10) y = 1 + ; 11) (y 2 + x 2)dx - xy dy = 0; 12) y = + ;
x
x y
13) y 2 + x 2 y = 0,
202

y(1) = 1;

14) y +

x 2 + y 2 - xy = 0;

15) xy = y + xe x ; 16) xy = x sin


+ 2xy dx = 0, y(0) = 1.

+ y, y(1) = ; 17) (y 2 - 3x 2)dy +


x
2

. 20.5
I :
2

1. y + 2 xy = xe- x .
: 1- ,
y = uv, y = uv + vu. 2

uv + uv + 2uvx = xe- x uv + u(v + 2vx ) = xe- x .


v(x) :
2
1) v + 2vx = 0, u(x) 2) uv = xe- x .
. .
2
dv
dv
= -2vx
= - 2 x dx ln v = - x 2 v = e- x .
1)
dx
v
v :
2
2
du
x2
2) ue- x = xe- x
= x du = x dx + c u =
+ c.
2
dx
2

2 x
+ c .
: y = e- x

2
3y
= x.
x
: I .

. (
):
dy 3 y
dy
3y
3dx
=0
=

y x
x
y
x
dx
2. y -

ln y = 3 ln x + ln c y = cx 3 .
, y = c(x)x 3, y = c (x)x3 +
+ 3x 2c(x). y y,
3c( x ) x 3
1
c ( x ) x 3 + 3 x 2c( x ) = x c ( x ) x 3 = x c ( x ) = 2
x
x
203

c( x ) =
.

dx

x2

=-

+ c y = c
x

1 3
3
2
x y = cx - x
x

18) y - 3 x 2 y = x 2e x ; 19) y + 2y = e-2x, y(0) = 0; 20) xy =


= 2x ln x - y; 21) y cos x - y sin x = sin 2x; 22) xy + 2y = x + 3;
y
= x, y(1) = 0;
23) xy + y - e x = 0, y(a) = b; 24) xy x
+1
2
25) x y = 2xy - 3, y(-1) = 1;
26)
:
1) (x2 + 1)-1 y - y/x = 0;
1) y = x3/2 + x ln| x | + cx;
2) y - y/x = x2 + 1;
2

3) y - y/x = x /y ;

2) y = x 3 3 ln cx ;
x2
cxe 2 ;

3) y =
4) y = x3 + ln | cx |.

21.
II

21
21.1. II
: F (x, y, y , y ) = 0 2- ,
y = f (x, y, y ) , y
: y = f(x, y, ), y x = x = y0 , y x = x = y0
0

II y = (x, c1, 2),


c1, 2 = const, :
1) y = (x, c1, 2) 1, 2;
2) y x = x = y0 , y x = x = y0 ,!10, !20: y = (x, c10, 20) 0
0
, (0, 0, y 0) D !
21.2. II ,
y = f(x, )
: = p(x), = p p = f (x, p) I .
p = (x, c1) = (x, c1)

204

y = f(y, y ) x
dp dy

= p p; pp = f(y, p) 1-
: y = p(y), y =
dy dx
. p = j(y, c1) y = j(y, c1)

21.3. II
1. II
(*)
a0(x)y + a1(x)y + a2(x)y = 0
(*) y = c1y1 + c2 y2; y1(x), y2(x) y y2
(*), .. W ( x ) = 1
0 (a, b)
y1 y2
2. II
y + py + qy = 0, p, q = const
: k2 + pk + q = 0
k1 = z, k2 = z,
z C,
z = + i
y = ekx(c1 + c2 x) y = ex(c1cos x +
+ c2 sinx)

k1 k2( R) k1 = k2 = k
k2 + pk + q = 0
( R)
y = c1ek1x +
y + py + qy = + c2ek2 x
= 0, p, q = const

3. II
a0(x)y + a1(x)y + a2(x)y = b(x)
(**)
(**) y = y* + y, y* (*),
y (**).
4. y II
y + py + qy = f(x)
f (x) Pn(x) = a0xn +
+ a1xn-1 + ... + an
y y = x rQn(x) =
= x r(A0 xn +
+ A1x n-1 + ... +
+ An),
0, k1,2 0,
r =
1, k1 = 0

Pn(x)emx
y = x rQn(x)emx,
0, k1,2 m,

r = 1, k1 = m,
2, k = m
1,2

Mcos mx +
+ Nsinmx
y = x r(A cosmx +
+ Bsinmx),
0, k1 m,
r =
1, k1 = m

205

5. y
y* = c1y1 + c2y2 y = c1()y1 + c2()y2, c1(), c2() c 1 y1 + c 2 y2 = 0, c 1 y 1 + c 2 y2 = b(x)

. 21.121.2
II :
1. y = y + x.
: II y = f (x, y ),
y = p, p = p(x), y = p. 1- : p = p + x p = uv
dv
1) dx - v = 0,
dv
du
dv
u
+v
- uv = x
1)
= dx
u
d
dx
dx
v
2)
v = x,
dx
lnv = x v = ex;
du x
e = x du = xe- x dx + c1 u = - xe- x - e- x + c1
2)
dx
p = c1e x - x - 1 = y dy = (c1e x - x - 1)dx
y = c1e x -

x2
- x + c2 .
2

2. yy = (y )2 - 3y.
: II y = f ( y, y ),
dp
y = p, p = p(y), y = p . dy
dp
2
yp
= p - 3 p dy
dp
dy
=
ln| p - 3| = ln| y | + ln c1
( p 0)
p-3
y
ln c1 y + 3
dy
dy
= c1 y + 3
= dx
= x + c2
p = c1 + 3
dx
c1 y + 3
c1
.
dy
p = 0:
= 0 y = c dx
.

206


1)
f (t) = 6t - 2.
, t = 0
v = 1 /, s = 0.
II :
2) y = cos 2x; 3) xy = y ; 4) xy = 1 + x 2; 5) y x ln x = y ,
y x = e = 1, y x = e = 1; 6) y (x 2 + 1) = 2xy , y x = 0 = 3, y x = 0 = 1;
7) yy - y 2 = 0; 8) y y = e3y, y x = 0 = 1, y x = 0 = 0; 9) y y 3 = 1;
4 y 2
= 0; 11) y tg y = 2( y )2; 12) yy = ( y )2 - ( y )3,
10) y y-2
y x =1 = -1, y x =1 = 1.

. 21.3
II
():
1. y - y - 2y = 0.
: II . k2 - k - 2 = 0.
k1 = -1, k2 = 2 y = c1e-x + c2e2x .
2. y - 4y + 4y = 0.
: k2 - 4k + 4 = 0 k1 = k2 = 2 y = e2x(c1 + c2x).
3. y + 2y + 2y = 0, y(0) = 1, y (0) = 1.
: II (, . 21.1).
k 2 + 2k + 2 = 0 k 1,2 = -1 i y = e -x (c 1 cos x +
+ c2 sin x) . y = e-x(-c1 cos x - c2 sin x - c1 sinx + c2 cosx).
y y, c1, c2:
0
c1 = 1,
e (c1 cos 0 + c2 sin 0) = 1,

0
-c1 + c2 = 1,
e (-c1 cos 0 - c2 sin 0 - c1 sin 0 + c2 cos 0) = 1,
c1 = 1,

y = e-x(cos x + 2 sinx) .
c2 = 2,
207


13) y - 5y - 6y = 0; 14) 4y + 4y + y = 0; 15) y + 4y = 0,
y(0) = 3, y (0) = 0; 16) y + 4y = 0, y(0) = 3, y (0) = 1;
17) 2y + 4y + 3y = 0.
2-
():
4. y - 6y + 9y = e3x.
: II . y = y* + y:
) y* y - 6y + 9y = 0, k2 - 6k + 9 = 0, .. k1 = k2 = 3
y* = e3x(c1 + c2x);
) y y - 6y + 9y = e3x. f (x) = e3x, ,
. 21.3, . 4: y = Ax2e3x. k1,2 = 3 = m, r = 2
y = Ax2e3x. y = 2Axe3x + 3Ax2e3x = e3x(2Ax + 3Ax2); y =
= 3e3x(2Ax + 3Ax2) + e3x(2A + 6Ax) = e3x(2A + 12Ax + 9Ax2).

e3x(2A + 12Ax + 9Ax2 - 12Ax - 18Ax2 + 9Ax2) = e3x
2Ae3x = e3x 2A = 1 A = 0,5 y = e3x(c1 + c2 x) +
+ 0,5x2e3x.
5. y - 4y = 8x3.
: y = y* + y:
) y* y - 4y = 0, k2 - 4 = 0, .. k1,2 = 2 y* = c1e2x + c2e-2x;
) y y - 4y = 8x3,
y = Ax3 + Bx2 + Cx + D,
k1,2 0. y = 3Ax2 +
+ 2Bx + C, y = 6Ax + 2B. y : 6Ax +
+ 2B - 4Ax3 - 4Bx2 - 4Cx - 4D = 8x3 -4A = 8, -4B = 0,
-4C + 6A = 0, -4D + 2B A = -2, B = D = 0, C = -3 y =
= c1e2x + c2e-2x - 2x3 - 3x.
6. y + 9y = -cos 3x.
: y = y* + y:
) y* y + 9y = 0, k2 + 9 = 0, .. k1,2 = 3i y* = c1 cos 3x +
+ c2 sin3x;
208

) y = x(Acos 3x + Bsin 3x), k = 3i . y, y y :


y = Acos3x + B sin 3x + x(-3A sin 3x + 3B cos 3x),
y = -3Asin3x + 3Bcos 3x - 3Asin 3x + 3B cos 3x - 9x
(Acos3x + Bsin 3x) = -6A sin 3x + 6B cos 3x - 9y -9y - 6A sin3x + 6B cos 3x + 9y = -cos 3x -6A sin 3x +
+ 6B cos3x = -cos 3x -6A = 0, 6B = -1 A = 0,
1
1
B = - y = c1 cos 3x + c2 sin 3x - x sin 3x.
6
6
-2 x
e
7. y + 4 y + 4 y = 3 .
x
: II (. , . 21.3, . 5). y = y* + y:
) y* y + 4y + 4y = 0.
k2 + 4k + 4 = 0, k1,2 = -2
y* = e-2x(c1 + c2x);
c1( x )e-2 x + c2 ( x )xe-2 x = 0,

-2 x
-2 x
) y = c1( x )e + c2 ( x )xe
e-2 x
-2 x
-2 x
-2 x
-2c1( x )e + c2 ( x )(e - 2 xe ) = 3 ,
x

e-2 x

=-

-2e

-2 x

xe-2 x
e

-2 x

- 2 xe

-2 x

= e-4 x , 1 = e-2 x
x3

xe-2 x
e-2 x - 2 xe-2 x

e-4 x
,
x2
e-2 x

e-4 x
1
1

= 3 , c1( x ) = 1 = - 2 ; c2 ( x ) = 2 = 3 ;
e
-2 x

x
x
x
-2e
x3
dx 1
dx
1
c1( x ) = - 2 = ; c2 ( x ) = 3 = - 2
x
x
x
2x
2 =

-2 x

y = e-2 x (c1 + c2 x ) +
.

e-2 x xe-2 x
1

= e-2 x c1 + c2 x +

2

x
2x
2x

209


18) 4y - y = x3 - 24x; 19) y - 3y + 2y = ex; 20) y - 7y +
+ 6y = sinx + 2cosx; 21) y + 4y + 5y = 3x - 2; 22) 3y - 4y =
= 5; 23) y + y = -sin 2x, y(p) = y (p) = 1; 24) y - 2y + y =
1
, y(0) = 1,
= e3x(2x + 1); 25) y + 4y = 12cos2x; 26) y - y =
1 + ex
e- x
e2 x
; 28) y - 4 y + 5 y =
;
y ( 0 ) = 2 ; 27) y + 2 y + y =
x
cos x
29) y + y = tg2x; 30) y + 4y + 4y = e-2x ln x.
31) d 2l
dl
2 + k + Ll + M = 0, M
dt
dt
, k L
dl
l V = .
dt
l(t), .
32)

d2 x
dx
+ (k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 )
+ (k1k3 + k2 k4 + k1k5 ) x = k2 k4 ,
2
dt
dt
ki = const, i = 1, 5. x
t.
33) m, , ( x = 0).
, V0.
, C.

210

22.

22
22.1. n-
: a0(x)y(n) + a1(x)y(n-1) + ... + an(x)y = b(x)
n- (b(x) = 0):
y = c1y1 + c2 y2 + + cn yn,
y1(x), y2(x), , yn(x)
(*):
y = y* + y (. , . 21.3, . 3)

(*)

22.2.
: y i = fi(x, y1, ..., yn), i = 1, n.

fi fi f i
, ,

x y z
D (t0, x0, y0, z0) ! x = x(t), y = y(t), z = z(t)
y i = fi(t, x, y, z), i = 1, 2, 3, x t = t0 = x0 , y t = t0 = y0 ,
z t = t0 = z 0
. : fi(t, x, y, z), i = 1, 2, 3,

22.3.
dy
= f ( x, y), x [a, b], y(x0) = y0
dx
b - x0
, yk = yk-1 + f(xk-1, yk-1)h
: h =
n
:
1
yi +1 = yi + yi , yi = (k1(i ) + 2k2(i ) + 2k3(i ) + k4(i ) ),
6
k (i )
h
k1(i ) = f ( xi , yi )h, k2(i ) = f ( xi + , yi + 1 )h,
2
2
(i )
k
h
k3(i ) = f ( xi + , yi + 2 )h, k4(i ) = f ( xi + h, yi + k3(i ) )h
2
2

211

. 22
x = -5 x + 2 y + et ,
1.
-2t
y = x - 6 y + e .
: , II . t: x = -5x + 2y + et. y
: x = -5x + 2x - 12y + 2e-2t + et, y
x + 5 x - et
-2t
t
: x = -5 x + 2 x - 12
+ 2e + e

2
+ 2e-2t + et x + 11x + 28x = 7et + 2e-2t II .
x = x* + x. k2 + 11k + 28 = 0, k1 = -4, k2 = -7 x* = c1e-4t + c2e-7t.
x = Aet + Be-2t, x = Aet - 2Be-2t, x = Aet +
+ 4Be-2t x + 11x + 28x = 7et + 2e-2t,
Aet + 4Be-2t + 11(Aet - 2Be-2t) + 28(Aet + Be-2t) = 7et + 2e-2t
(A + 11A + 28A)et + (4B - 22B + 28B)e-2t = 7et + 2e-2t
7
1
, B = x = c1e-4t + c2e-7t +
40A = 7, 10B = 2 A =
40
5
7 t 1 -2t
+ e + e ,
40
5
7 t 2 -2t
x + 5 x - et
x = -4c1e-4t - 7c2e-7t +
e - e y=
.
40
5
2
1 t
3
c
e + e-2t .
y = 1 e-4t - c2e-7t +
2
40
10
2. , y = -xy [0; 1] y(0) = 1.
: n = 10, h = 0,1. :
k
0
1
2
3
4
5
212

k
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5

yk
1
1
0,99
0,9702
0,9411
0,9035

f(xk, yk)
0
-0,1
-0,198
-0,2911
-0,3764
-0,4518

k
6
7
8
9
10

k
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0

f(xk, yk)
-0,5150
-0,5648
-0,6002
-0,7213

yk
0,8583
0,8068
0,7503
0,6903
0,6182

3. [0; 1]: y = x - 3y, y(0) = 1.


: n = 5, h = 0,2. :
x
0,000
0,200
0,400
0,600
0,800
1

y
1,000
0,622
0,577
0,614
0,712
0,857

x + h/2
0,100
0,300
0,500
0,700
0,900

k1
-0,600
-0,333
-0,266
-0,248
-0,267

y + k1/2
0,700
0,455
0,444
0,489
0,579

k2
-0,400
-0,213
-0,166
-0,154
-0,167

y + k2/2
0,800
0,515
0,494
0,537
0,629

k3
-0,220
0,558
0,747
0,968
1,214

y + k3
0,780
1,180
1,323
1,5818
1,9265

k4
-0,428
-0,628
-0,674
-0,789
-0,956


x - x + 3 y = 0,
x = x - y,
1) y + 9y = 0; 2)
3)
;
y = y - 4 x; y - 3 x - y = 0;
x = x - y + et ,
x - y = 0,
4)
;
5)

t
-t
3t
y = y - 4 x + e .
y - x = e - e ;
6)
x
y = - [-1; 1] y(-1) = 0,2
y
h = 0,2.
7) h = 0,2
[0; 1]: y = 2x + 3y, y(0) = 1.

213

c2e-5 x 2 +


1
1. ex(1 + ey) + ye y(1 + ex) = 0, y(0) = 0. : y = ln
2. (x + y)dy + ydx = 0. : y 2 + 2xy = c.
ex
3. y + y = ex. : y = ce- x + .
2
x
1
2
2
4. x y = y . : y = - 2 ln c1 x + 1 + c2 , c1 0.
c1 c1
5. 2y + 5y = 5x2 - 2x - 1. : y = c1 + c2e-5 x 2 +

3 - ex
.
1 + ex

1 3 3 2 7
x - x +
x.
3
5
25

1 3 3 2 7
x - x +
x.
3
5
25
2
1.

y 2 + 1dx - xy dy = 0, y(1) = 0. : ln x =

x
+ ln y = c.
y

x2
+ c e-2 x .
3. y + 2y = e-2xx. : y =

2
4. y = 2yy , y > 0. : y = c1 tg (c1(x - c2)).
5. y - 3y + 2y = 2 sinx.
3
1
: y = c1e x + c2e2 x + cos x + sin x.
5
5
2. y ( x - 2 xy ) = y. :

3
2

1. y + x = x y, y(0) = 2. : y = 1 +
2

x
y

x3
ce 3 .

2. yx = y(x - y). : x = ce .
x2 + c
y
2x
.
=
. : y =
3. y +
x+3
x+3 x+3
1
4. x3y = 1 - x2y. : y = + c1 ln x + c2 .
x
5. y + 2y + 5y = 7e4x.
: y = e- x (c1 cos 2 x + c2 sin 2 x ) +
214

7 4x
e .
29

y 2 + 1 - 1.


, :
1) p(x)dy + ydx = q(x)dx;
2) y + p(y)y = 0;
3) y + py + qy = x 2.

1. :
) y + p(x)y = q(x); ) y = F(x, y, y ).
n

p(x)

q(x)
2 xe

- x2

2x

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

-tgx
-cos x
-3x-1
-(x - 1)-1
2
tgx
tgx
x -1
-tgx
2

12

2 ctg 2x

13
14
15
16
17

(1 + x2)-1
x -1
x -1
-ctgx
-x -1

(1 + x2)-1arctg x
2lnx + 1
ex(1 + x -1)
2x sinx
x cosx

18

x -1

ex(2 - x -1)

19
20
21
22
23
24

-1
-x -1
1 - x -1
-4x
-2
-(x + 1)-1

e x x -1
x lnx
-x
4x3
ex - x
(x + 1)ex

cos x
-sin2x
x
x-1
-2x3
(cosx)-1
2tg x
3x2 + 1
2cosx
e3x
ecos

F(x, y, y)
(y )2x-2
-y(ex + 1)-1
2yy
y (lnx + 1)(xlnx)-1
sin2x - ytgx
(1 - xy)x-2
yx -1 + xex
-yx -1 + 1
[(y)2 + 1](2y)-1
(1 + x - y)x -1
x(y)2
(y )2(1 - y)-1
y x -1 + sin(yx -1)
2(y)2(1 + y)-1
(y)2(2y + 1)-1
2y(y )2(1 + y 2)-1
-y(1 + ex)-1
x + y x -1
y -0,5
-y(x - 1)-1
-y -3
2xy(1 - x2)-1
2( y)2 tgy
2(y )2y -1
215

n
25
26
27
28
29
30

p(x)
-2(x + 1)-1
3x -1
(cosx)-2
-ctgx
-x -1
2x(1 + x2)-1

q(x)
e (x + 1)2
2x -3
tg x (cosx)-2
sin3x
-2x -1 lnx
(1 + x 2)-2
x

F(x, y, y)
-(y)2y -1
2
(y ) (1 + lny)( yln y)-1
y cosx(1 + sinx)-1
yx -1 + x -5
y(x - 1)-1 + x(x - 1)
(y )2(2y + 1)(y 2 + y)-1

2. :
1
) y + ( p + (-1)n p) y + ( p2 + (-1)n +1 p2 ) y = Ax 2 + Bx + l ,
2
n
y(0) = (-1) , y (0) = (-1)n+1;
) y - 2py + q1y = (Ax + B)e(m+1)x;
) y + 2py + q2 y = Acos(m + 1)x + Bsin(m + 1)x.
: l (m + 1)2
n
((-1) j +1 + (-1)n ),
; m = n 4, q j = p2 +
2
4
+ (-1)n), j = 1, 2.
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

p
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5

A
1
0
1
2
0
2
1
2
-1
0

B
1
1
0
2
2
0
2
1
1
-1

n
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

p
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10

A
-1
-2
-2
0
3
3
0
1
3
2

B
0
2
0
-2
3
0
3
3
1
3

n
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

p
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15

A
3
-3
-3
0
-2
3
4
1
4
0

B
2
3
0
-3
3
-2
1
4
2
4

3.
y + py + qy = f(x).
n
1
2
3
216

p
0
0
3

q
1
4
2

f(x)
(sinx)-1
(sin x)-2
(ex + 1)-1

n p
4 -2
5 -2
6 0

q
1
1
1

f(x)
ex(1 - x2)-0,5
ex(1 + x2)-1
tgx

n p q
f(x)
7 0 1
ctgx
8 0 -1 ex(ex + 1)-1
9 -2 1 ex(1 - x 2)-1

n p
10 0
11 2
12 0

q
f(x)
4
(cos x)-2
x
1 e (4 - x2)-0,5
1
(cos x)-1

13 -2 1

ex x + 1

n p
17 -2
18 -2
19 6

q
2
2
9

f(x)
n
e sinx
24
ex cosx
25
e-3x(1 + x2)-1 26

p
0
4
6

q
-4
4
9

20 -6

xe3x(1 + x)-1 27

9 3(cos3x)-1

f(x)
e cos2x
e-2x ln2x
e-3xx -3
2x

e-x lnx

21

(cos2x)-1

28

1 3e- x x + 1

15 0 -1
16 0 -1

ex sinx
ex cosx

22
23

0
0

4
-4

(sin2x)-1
e2xsin2x

29
30

0
4

1
0

14 2

2xsinx
(sinx)-2

4. :
x = ax + by + (t ),

y = cx + dy + (t ).
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

a
1
2
2
1
4
1
1
2
-2
1
2
1
-1
-2
2
2
4
1
-1
-2
2
1
2

b
1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
3
3
-1
-4
-1
-3
1
-1
-5
2
1
1
3
3
1
2
1

c
3
3
5
-4
1
3
1
1
5
-1
1
1
3
3
1
3
-1
-3
1
-1
-5
3
-1

d
-1
-2
-2
1
2
1
-1
-2
2
1
4
1
1
2
-2
1
2
1
1
2
-2
2
4

j(t)
sint
cost
sint
-e-t
0
0
e2t
et
0
0
0
0
t
e-t
0
0
-e3t
0
2e-2t
t2
1
e4t
-cos3t

(t)
-cost
sint
cost
te-t
tet
0
te2t
2tet
t2 + 1
e3t
te3t
et
t2
-e-t
e2t
0
0
et cos2t
5e-2t
0
t
0
sin3t
217

n
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

a
1
1
2
-3
1
0
-5

b
3
3
3
-1
-2
1
-1

c
-1
2
1
1
1
2
1

d
1
2
4
-1
4
1
-3

j(t)
1
0
0
0
et
-5cos t
et

(t)
2t
-2e-t
0
0
0
0
0

5.
, n
.


, b . v1 /
v2 /,
.
?
,
+ n

+ n
+ 2 ,
+ 1 , b = 10
a = 100
5

4
+ + n
+ + n

+ 2 , v2 = 10
v1 = 10
+ 1 .

3
3


l C b C. C. d C?
(
.)
,
+ n

+ n

+ n
+ 10, a = 10
l =
+ 6 , b = 10
+ 4 ,

3
5
5

+ n
+ n

+ 1 , d =
c = 10
+ 35 .

3
4

218


v0 /.
, k = m/r, m .
i
?
,
+ + n
+ + n
+ + n
, v0 = 20 +
r = 50 +
,i =
+ 1.

3
4
5


1. ,
, ?
2. 1- ?
3. 2- ?
4. 2- ?
5. 2- ?
. 2022
20. I
1) y = cearcsinx; 2) 2 y = c + 1 x ; 3) y = -ln(c - ex); 4) arcsiny =
x
tg

2
2
2
2
= - 1 + 1 - x ; 5) sin y = cx; 6) x = 2(1 + y ); 7) y = e ;
2
3t
2 3t
1 2
8) x = 15 1 - 1 - . :
3
4 3
dx
2x
x

= k 10 - 20 - , x(0) = 0,

3
3
dt
1
k x = 6; 9) p = -9e-10t + 10.
3
: : s = q,
y
2
2
dp
p =
; 10) x = ce x ; 11) x = ce y 2 x ; 12) y = 2ln cx ; 13) x + y =
dt
219

y
x 2 + y 2 = cx 2 ; 15) ln cx = -e- y x ; 16) tg
2x
3

3 x
+ c ; 19) y = xe-2x; 20) y =
17) y 3 = y 2 - x 2; 18) y = e x

3
c
cos
2
x
x 3
c
x
; 22) y = + + 2 ; 23)
+ x ln x - ; 21) y =
2 cos x
3 2 x
2
e x + ab - ea
1
x( x + ln x - 1)
=
; 24) y =
; 25) y = 2 x 2 + .
x
x
x +1
= 2xy; 14) y +

= x;
c
+
x
y =

21. II
1) stt = 6t - 2, s(t) = t 3 - t 2 + t; 2) y =

1
cos 2 x + c1 x + c2 ; 3) y =
4

x3
+ x ln x + c1 x + c2 ; 5) y = x(ln x - 1) + 1;
6
6) y = x 3 + 3x + 1; 7) y = c2ec1x ; 8) y = -ln|1 - x |; 9) c1y 2 = 1 +
1
; 11) ctg y = c 1 x + c 2 ;
+ (c 1 x + c 2 ) 2 ; 10) y = 2 3 3(c x + c )
1
2
= c1x 2 + c2; 4) y =

1
- x

12) y - x = 2 ln| y |; 13) y = c1e-x + c2e6x; 14) y = e 2 (c1 x + c2 );


1 1
15) y = c 1 cos 2x + c 2 sin 2x; 16) y = 3 - e-4 x ; 17) y =
4 4

2
2
y = e- x c1 cos
x + c2 sin
x ; 18) y = c1e x 2 + c2e- x 2 - x 3; 19) y =

2
2
9
17
cos x;
= c 1 e 2x + c 2 e x - xe x ; 20) y = c1e x + c2e6 x - sin x +
74
74
4
x
3
22
5
21) y = e-2 x (c1 cos x + c2 sin x ) + x - ; 22) y = c1 + c2e 3 - x;
5
25
4
1
1
1
1

23) y = - cos x - sin x + sin 2 x; 24) y = e x (c1 + c2 x ) + e3 x x - ;

2
4
3
3
x
25) y = c 1 cos 2x + c 2 sin 2x + 3x sin 2x; 26) y = (1 + e )ln(1 +
+ ex) + ex(3 - ln 2 - x) - (2 + ln 2 + x); 27) y = (c1 + c2x)e-x +
+ xe-x(1 + ln| x |); 28) y = e 2x(c1 cos x + c2 sin x + cos x ln|cos x | +
x
+ x sin x); 29) y = -2 + c1 cos x + c2 sin x + sin x ln tg + ; 30) y =
2 4
2
2

x ln x 3 x
M
kt
kt
= e-2 x c1 + c2 x +
; k 1, k 2
; 31) l = c1e 1 + c2e 2
2
4
L
.
k L , 220

; 32) x = c1er1t + c2er2t +

k2 k4
V
; 33) x = 0 sin t, w2 =
k1k3 + k2 k4 + k1k5

C
. : mx = -Cx, ..
m
: x + w2x = 0, x(0) = 0, x(0) = v0.

22.
1) y = c 1 cos 3x + c 2 sin 3x + c 3 ; 2) x = c 1 e -t + c 2 e 3t , y =
= 2c1e-t - 2c2e3t; 3) x = et(c1 cos 3t + c2 sin 3t), y = et(-c2cos 3t +
+ c1 sin3t); 4) x = c1et + c2e-t + t sht, y = c1et - c2et + t ch t + sh t;
1 - 4t 3t
1
e , y = 2c1e-t - 2c2e3t + (1 + 4t )e3t + et ;
5) x = c1e-t + c2e3t + et +
16
8
6)
k
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

xk
-1
-0,8
-0,6
-0,4
-0,2
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1

f(xk, yk)
5,000
0,6667
0,4500
0,2810
0,1352
0,0000
-0,1328
-0,2703
-0,4208
-0,5962
-0,81794

yk
0,2000
1,2000
1,33333
1,42333
1,47954
1,50657
1,50657
1,4800
1,42597
1,34182
1,22258

7)
x
0,00
0,20
0,40
0,60
0,80
1

y
1,00
1,223
1,573
2,073
2,750
3,637

x + h/2
0,100
0,300
0,500
0,700
0,900

k1 y + k1/2
0,200 1,100
0,325 1,385
0,475 1,810
0,655 2,400
0,870 3,185

k2 y + k2/2
0,260 1,130
0,397 1,421
0,562 1,854
0,760 2,453
0,997 3,249

k3
0,153
0,262
0,385
0,525
0,685

y + k3
1,153
1,4849
1,958
2,5982
3,4353

k4
0,311
0,457
0,632
0,840
1,087

8


23.

23
23.1.
D Di, i = 1, n,
si, Di Dj = 0, i j,
Mi(i, i) Di

f ( x, y)ds = lim f (i , i )si ,


0

i =1

l = max diam DDi


: f(x, y) . D
: z = f (x, y), z = 0, F(x, y) = 0
V =

f ( x, y)ds
D

23.2.
10. [ f ( x, y) + ( x, y)]ds =
D

f ( x, y)ds + ( x, y)ds.
D

20. cf ( x, y)ds = c f ( x, y)ds, c = const.


D

30. D = D1 + D2 f ( x, y)ds =
D

f ( x, y)ds + f ( x, y)ds.
D1

D2

4 . ds = S D.
0

50. (x, y) (x, y) D ( x, y)ds


D

222

( x, y)ds.
D

60. : f(x, y) . D M(, ) D:

f ( x, y)ds =

f (, )S .

23.3.
D: y = 1(x), y = 2(x) (1(x) < 2(x)), x = a, x = b (a < b)

2 ( x )

1 ( x )

f ( x, y)ds = ds

f ( x, y)dy,

D: x = 1(y), x = 2(y) (1(y) < 2(y)), y = c, y = d (c < d)

2( x)

1 ( x )

f ( x, y)ds = dy

f ( x, y)dx

23.4.
x = x(u, v),
D f ( x, y)ds =
D*

y = y(u, v),
D
xu
J =
yu

xv

yv

f *(u, v) J du dv
D*

D: r = r1(),
r = r2(),
(r1() < r2())
= , = ( < )

f ( x, y)ds = f (r cos , r sin )r dr d =


D

r2 ( )

r1 ( )

= d

f (r cos , r sin )r dr

223

23.5.
1.
(. . 23.2)
(. . 23.1)
G:
=

z
z
1 + + ds.
x
y

2.
D:
x =

yr( x, y)ds, y = xr( x, y)ds,


D


D:
y

xc =
, yc = x , m = r( x, y)ds
m
m
D
D

. 23.123.4
:
1. I =

( x - y)dx dy, D: y = x 2 + x - 2, y = x + 2.
D

: ) D. (-1/2; -9/4),
(-2; 0), (1; 0).
. , :
2 + x - 2 = + 2 x 2 4 = 0
x = 2 (-2; 0), (2; 4)
(. 23.1).
D , ,
,
224

. 23.1

, D
;
) 2 2.
= 2 + x - 2, = + 2.
b

2 ( x )

1( x )

f ( x, y)ds = dx
D

x +2

-2

x2 + x -2

I =

dx

f ( x, y)dy,

( x - y)dy.

2( x)

1( x )

f ( x, y)ds = dy

f ( x, y)dx

D D1 D2
D1 D2 :
1
9
1
9
D1: x = - - y + (), x = - + y + (),
2
4
2
4
-9/4 0;
D2: x = y - 2 (), x = 1
9
- + y+
2
4

I =

dy

-9 4

1
9
- - y+
2
4

1
+
2

y+

9
(), 0 4.
4

1
9
- + y+
2
4

y -2

( x - y)dx + dy

( x - y)dx.

;
) ( ):
x +2

x2 + x -2

x +2

y2
( x - y)dy = ( xy - )
= 0,5 x 4 - 2 x 2 - 4 x - 4
2 x2 + x -2
2

2
I = (0,5xx - 2 x - 4 x - 4)dx = (0,1x - x 3 - 2 x 2 - 4 x ) =
3
-2
-2
= -20

4
.
15

225

2. I =

2 dx dy, D: x = 2 + siny, x = 0, y = 0, y = 2p.


D

: ) D (. 23.2);

. 23.2

) D OX,
,
, . 23.3:
2

I =
=
+

1
4
1
4

dy

0
2

2 + sin y

x
dx =
2

x2
dy
4

2 + sin y

=
0

2
(4 + 2 sin y + sin y)dy =

0
2

1
4

(2 + sin y) dy =
2

1
1
4 y - cos y +
4
4
0
0

1
1 1
9
1 - cos 2 y
2 dy = 2 + 8 y 0 - 8 2 sin 2 y 0 = 4 .
0

3. x dx dy, D: x 2 + y 2 < 2x, y > 0.


D

: ) D. (x - 1)2 +
+ y 2 = 1 (. 23.3),
.
x = rcosj, y = rsinj, D: r = 2cosj,
j = 0 (0 j p/2).
(. , . 23.4): I = r cos r dr d = r 2 cos dr d.;
D

) (, . 23.3):
226

. 23.3

I = d

2 cos

r3
r 2 cos dr = cos d
3
0
2

2 cos
0

82
= cos 4 d =
30

8 1 + cos 2
8 1 cos 2 1 + cos 4
+

d = +
d =
3 0
2
30 4
2
8

2
2

2 2 2
1 2
1
= + sin 2 + + sin 4 = .
3 0 3
3 0 12
2
0
0


:
1) ( y + e x )dx dy, D D: A(2; 1), B(3; 1),
D

C(2; 4), D(3; 4).


2) ( x - 2)dx dy: ) D: y = x, y = 3x, x = 1; ) D: y = x,
D

y = 3x, y = 1.
x
y

3) ) e dx dy, D: x = y 2, x = 0, y = 1; ) cos( x + y)dx dy,


D

D: x = 0, y = x, y = p.
4) ) ( x + 2 y)dx dy, D: y = x 2, y = 5x - 6; ) (2x - y)dx dy,
D

D: y 2 = 4 - x, y 2 = x.
x2
5) 2 dx dy, D: yx = 1, y = x, x = 2.
y
D
227

6) 2xy dx dy, D ABC A(1; 1),


D

B(3; 3), C(2; -2).


7) ( x - y)dx dy, D: x 2 + y 2 < 9, x > 0, y > 0.
D

8) 1 - x 2 - y 2 dx dy, D: x2 + y 2 < 1, x < y, x > -y.


D

9) x dx dy, D: x 2 + y 2 = 4y.
D

10)
D

dx dy
, D: y = 1 - x 2 , y = 0.
2
x + y +1
2

11) y dx dy, D: x 2 + y 2 = -2x, x 2 + y 2 = -4x, y = 0 (y 0).


D

12)

sin x 2 + y 2
x 2 + y2

dx dy, D: x 2 + y 2 =

2 2
, x + y 2 = p2.
9

13) x dx dy, D: x 2 + y 2 = 2x, x 2 + y 2 = 2y.


D

:
1

x2

8x

x3
0

14) dx f ( x, y)dy; 15) dx f ( x, y)dy; 16)


-1

17)

dy

-2
2

f ( x, y )dx +

2 - y2

dy
1

f ( x, y)dx +

- 2+ y

-1

- -y

dy
-1

f ( x, y )dx; 19)

- 2

4- x2

-2
1

dx

f ( x, y)dx; 18) dy
0

dx

f ( x, y)dy +

- 2- x2

f ( x, y)dy;

f ( x, y )dx +

- y

-1

dx f ( x, y)dy.

. 23.5
1. D: y = x 2 - 1, y = 2. SD.
: ) D (. 23.4);
) (. , . 23.2, 40)
1
S = dx dy, S.
2
D
:
228

2 - y2

dy
1

. 23.4

1
S =
2

dx
0

dy =

x -1

dx y
0

x 2 -1

x3
=
= (3 - x )dx = 3 x -

30
0
2

= 3 3 - 3 = 2 3.
2. W: y + z = 2, y = x 2, z = 0. VW.
: z = 2 - y
y = x2
(. 23.5, ) D z = 0, .. D: y = x 2, y = 2 (. 23.5, ).
, . 23.1
2

y2
V = (2 - y)dx dy = dx (2 - y)dy = dx 2 y -

2
2
D
- 2
- 2
x

2
x2

. 23.5

229

x4
2
x5
= 4 - 2 - 2 x 2 + dx = 2 x - x 3 +

2
3
10 - 2

=
2

4
1
32 2
= 4 2 - ( 2 )3 + ( 2 )5 =
.
3
5
15
3. W: z = 4 - x 2 - y 2, z = 0. VW.
: W
z = 4 - x 2 - y 2 (. 23.6, ), D z = 0
D: x 2 + y 2 = 4 (. 23.6, ).
V = (4 - x 2 - y 2 )dx dy ,
D

D: r = 2:
V =

(4 - r

)r dr d =

r4
d (4 - r )r dr = 2r 2 - d =

4
0
0
2

= 4 d = 8.
0

. 23.6

4. s G: z = x 2 + y 2,
0 z 9.
: zx = 2x, zy = 2y, , . 23.5,
. 1, = 1 + 4 x 2 + 4 y 2 dx dy (. 23.7, ). D D

G XOY x 2 + y 2 = 9 (. 23.7,
). ,
230

1 + 4r 2 r dr d =

d 8 (1 +
0

1
4r 2 ) 2 d(11 +

d 1 + 4r 2 r dr =
0

4r 2 ) =

(1 +

3 3
2 2
4r )

12

=
(37) 2 - 1 = (37 37 - 1).
12
6
0

. 23.7

5. D r(x, y) = 1, D: y = cos x,

y = 0, x = 0, x = .
2
: , . 23.5, . 2,
1
1
xc = x dx dy, yc = y dx dy, m = dx dy,
mD
mD
D
D , . 23.8.

m = dx

cos x

dy = cos x dx = 1;

cos x

xc = dx

2
0

x dy =

x cos x dx = x sin x
0

2
0

- sin x dx =
0

- 1;
2
231

. 23.8

cos x

yc = dx

y dy =

1
1

cos 2 x dx = (1 + cos 2 x )dx = .

20
40
8

, .


SD D :
20) D: y 2 = 10x + 25, y 2 = -6x + 9; 21) D: xy = 4,
x + y = 5.
VW W :
22) W: z = x 2 + y 2, x + y = 4, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0.
x2
, z = 0.
23) W: z = 4 - y 2, y =
2
24) W: z = x + y + 1, y = -x, x = y , y = 2, z = 0.
25) W: y = 1 - z 2, x + 2z = 4, x = -1, y = 0.
: YOZ.
26) W: z = my, x 2 + y 2 = a 2, z = 0.
4
, x 2 + y 2 = 1, x 2 + y 2 = 4, z = 0.
27) W: z = 2
x + y2
28) W: x 2 + y 2 = a2, x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4a2 ( ).
29) W: z = x 2 + y 2, x 2 + y2 = x, x2 + y 2 = 2x, x + y = 0,
x - y = 0, z = 0.
G:
z
30) G: 2x = z 2, < y < 2 z, 0 < z < 2 2.
2
31) G: z + y = 2x 2, 0 < x < 3, 0 < y < 4x.
32) G: x 2 + y 2 = z 2, x 2 + y 2 = 4.
33) G: x 2 + z 2 = 2y, x 2 + z 2 = 4.
232

D:
34) D: y > x 3, y < 4x, x > 0.
35) D: x 2 + y 2 < -2y, x > 0.
36) D: y < 2 - x 2, x > 0, y > x.

37) D: 0 < y < sin 2x, 0 < x < .


8
24. n-

24
24.1.
i, i = 1, n, Vi,
i j = , i j,
n

Mi(i, i, i) i f ( x, y, z )dv = lim f (i , i , i )vi ,


0

i =1

maxdiam i
: f (x, y, z) .
(x, y, z)
. (x, y, z) m = rdv

24.2.
10. ( f ( x, y, z ) + ( x, y, z ))dv =

f dv + dv.

20. cf dv = c f dv, c = const.

30. = 1 + 2 f dv =

f dv + f dv.
1

4 . dv = V .
0

50. (x, y, z) (x, y, z) dv

dv.

233

60. :
f (x, y, z) . M(, , ) :

f ( x, y, z )dv =

f (, , )V

24.3.
: , D XOY,
y = 1( x ), y = 2 ( x ),

D: (1( x ) 2 ( x )),
f ( x, y, z )dx dy dz =
x = a, x = b (a < b),

dx dy
D

z2 ( x , y )

z1 ( x , y )

f ( x, y, z )dz = dx
a

2 ( x )

1 ( x )

z2 ( x , y )

dy

f ( x, y, z )dz

z1 ( x , y )

:
r = r1(),
x = r cos ,
r = r ()

2
y = r sin , D:
z = z,
(r1 < r2 ),

= , =

r = OM , = (OM , OX ).
z2*

f ( x, y, z )dv = r dr d

r2

z2*

r1

z1*

f *(r , , z )dz =

z1*

= d r dr f *(r , , z )dz, zi* (r , ) = zi* = zi (r cos , r sin ),


i = 1, 2, f *(r, j, z) = f(r cosj, rsin j, z)

234

r = OM ,

= (ON ; OX ),

= (OM ; OZ ),
f ( x, y, z )dv = f *(r , , )r 2 sin dr d d

x = r cos sin ,

y = r sin sin ,
z = r cos ,

24.4.
1. (. 24.2, 40)
2. :
) :
xy =

zr( x, y, z )dv, yz = rx dv, xz = ry dv;

) :
yz
xy

xc =
, yc = xz , zc =
,
m
m
m
, m

. 24.124.3
1.

( x + 2 y)dx dy dz

W: y = x 2, y + z = 4, z = 0.
: (. 24.1), , OZ, , OX,
XOY. z = 4 - y,
z = 0, XOY
D: y = x 2, y = x.
, . 24.3,

( x + 2 y)dx dy dz =

dx

-2

4- y

-2

x2

dx dy

4- y

x2

dy( xz + 2 yz )
0

-2

x2

( x + 2 y)dz =

2
dx (4 x - xy + 8 y - 2 y )dy =

235

1 2
2 3

2
dx 4 xy - 2 xy + 4 y - 3 y
-2
2

16 x - 8 x + 64 -

-2

4
x2

2
2048
128
1
.
- 4 x 3 + x 5 - 4 x 4 + x 6 dx =
3
35
3
2

. 24.1

2.

x dx dy dz, W:

x 2 + y 2 = z, z = 2 - x 2 - y 2.
: x 2 + y 2 = z z = 2 - x 2 - y 2 (. 24.2). : 2 - x 2 - y 2 = x 2 + y 2 x 2 + y 2 = 1. , W XOY D 1.
(. ,
. 24.3):
z = 2 - x 2 - y 2 = 2 - (r cosj)2 - (r sin j)2 = 2 - r 2,
z = x 2 + y 2 = (r sin j)2 + (r cos j)2 = r 2, D: r = 1.

. 24.2

236

2- r 2

x dx dy dz = r cos r dr d dz = d r dr

cos d r

r cos dz =

(1 - r 2 - r 2 )dr = 0.

3. z dx dy dz

W: x 2 + y 2 + z 2 < 1, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0.


: ,
(. 24.3),
(. , . 24.3).

0 , 0 ,
2
2
0 r 1,

z dx dy dz = r cos r

sin dr d d =

cos sin d r 3dr =


0

.
12

. 24.3


:
1) z dx dy dz, W: x + y = 2, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, z = 2;

2)

z2
dx dy dz, W: 0 < y < x < 1, -1 < z < exy;
1 + e3 xy
237

3)

( x + 2 y + 3z )dx dy dz, W: x > 0, y > 0, z > 0, x + y +

+ z < 3;
4)

y cos xyz dx dy dz, W : - 1 < x < 1 , 0 < y < 1 ,


2

-1 < z < 1;
1
dx dy dz, W: x > 0, y > 0, z > 0, 2x +
4
z
2
xz
yz

+ y + z < 4;
5)

6)

xz dx dy dz, W: x 2 + y 2 = 4, y = 0, z = 0, z = 2

(y 0);

7)

z
dx dy dz, W: x 2 + y 2 < 4, x - y < z < 4;
16 - ( x - y)2

8)

x 2 + y2
dx dy dz, W: 0 < z < 1 - x 2 - y 2;
( z + 1)ln(2 - x 2 - y 2 )

9) x 2 + y 2 dx dy dz, W: x 2 + y 2 < 4, 1 < z < 2 + x 2 + y2;

10) ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3 dx dy dz, W: x 2 + y 2 + z 2 < 4, y 0.

. 24.4
1.
x 2 + y 2 = 1, x 2 + y 2 + z 2 < 2.
: ( 24.4)
, .

. 24.4

238

W z = 0, z = 2 - x 2 - y 2 , XOY D D: x 2 + y 2 = 2, x = 0, y = 0.
1
V = dx dy dz (. , . 24.2).
8
D
:
V =

2- r 2

dx dy dz = 8 d r dr
D

dz = -4 (2 - r 2 )3 2 =
3
0

4
(2 2 - 1).
3

2. W: x 2 + y 2 +
+ z 2 < 9, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0, r(x, y, z) = 1.
:
3, (.
. 24.3). , . 24.4, :
m=

dx dy dz =
D

sin d r 2dr =

0
2

1
2
xc = x dx dy dz =
m
9

cos d

9
,
2
3

sin 2 d r 3dr =
0

2 81 9

= .
8
9 16

9
yc = zc = .
8


W :
11) W: z = x, z = 2x, y = x 2, y 2 = x; 12) W: z = x 2, z = 1,
y = 0, y = 1; 13) W: x 2 + y 2 = 2z, x 2 + y 2 = z 2.
(r = 1)
W:
14) W: z > x 2 + y 2, z < 8 - x 2 - y 2; 15) W: x + 2y + 3z < 1,
x > 0, y > 0, z > 0; 16) W: 1 < x 2 + y 2 + z 2 < 2, y > 0; 17) W:
x 2 + y 2 < z 2 < 2, x > 0; 18) W: x2 + y 2 < 4, x + z < 2, z > 0.

239


1
1. ( )
D, D: 0 < x < siny, 0 < y < p/2. :

1, , 1 .
8
2. sin( x + y)dx dy, D: y = 0,
D

y = x, x + y = p. : 1/2.
3. W, : ) W: z = 4 - x 2 - y 2, z = 0;
) W: z = x 2 , z = 4 - x 2 , y = 2, y = 4. : ) 8p;
) 32 2 3.
2

3x

x2

4. dx f ( x, y)dy. :
4

y 3

dy

f ( x, y)dx + dy
4

f ( x, y)dx.

y 3

2
1. ( )
D, D: x > y 2, x + 5y + 6 < 0. :
1/6, ((6,8; -2,5)).
2. ( x - 2 y)dx dy, D:
D

x 2 + y 2 = -2x. : -p.
3. W, : ) W: z = x 2 + y 2, y = x,
y = 2x, z = 0, y = 2; ) W: z = x 2 + y 2, z = 6 - x 2 - y 2. : ) 19/6; ) 9p.
4.
4

-2

x2

dx f ( x, y)dy. :

dy
0

f ( x, y)dx.

- y

3
1. ( )
D, D: x 2 + y 2 > 2x, x 2 + y 2 < 4x. :
3p, ((7/3; 0)).
240

2. ( x + 5 y)dx dy, D: x = y 2,
D

x + 7y + 12 = 0. : -0,85.
3. W, : ) W: z = 4 - x 2 - y 2, z = 0,
2
x + y 2 = 1; ) W: x = z 2, x = 4 - z 2, y = 0, y = 6. :
) 9p/2; ) 32 2.
1

4.

dy

-2
1

dx
0

- x

f ( x, y)dy + dx
1

2- y

f ( x, y)dx. :

2- x

f ( x, y)dy.

- x


n ,
,
n + +
n +
n + 3
n +
+ 1; l =
+ 1; =
;
+ 1; =
=

5
4

5
4
n + 3
.
k=
2
]...[ , [...] .
1.

(( + (-1)

) x + ( + (-1)n +1 ) y)dx dy,

D : (0; 0),
n
n

A 2 sin ; 2v cos ,

2
2
n
n
(n + 1)
(n + 1)
B sin
+ cos ; cos
+ sin
.


2
2
2
2
2. ( x 2 + y 2 ) dx dy,
D

x + y ,

n
n

y cos ,
D: x sin
2
2

(-1)l y (-1)n x.

241

3. VW:
n
n

2
z = l - x cos 2 - y sin 2 ,

1 + (-1)n +1
: 1 + (-1)n
n
n
2
+
x
+ y 2 cos ,
y = x sin

2
2
2
2

z = 0.
4. D,

x-
n
n

2
2
y = sin l sin 2 + ( x - (2 + l ) x + + l )cos 2 ,

n
2( x - )
n l ( x - )
D:
y=
sin
cos ,

2
2
2
l

k
(-1) x > 0.
1 + (-1)n 2
1 + (-1)n +1 2
+
x
z
5.
y z dx dy dz,

2
2

z = , z = + 3,

n
n

: ( x + y)sin
+ ( x - y)cos
= ,
2
2

x = 0, y = 0.
6. W: x 2 + y 2 z 2n2 - x 2 - y 2,
r = (m + (-1)nm)x 2 + (l + (-1)n+1l)y 2.

. 23, 24

23.
15
+ 3(e3 - e 2 ); 2) ) -4/3; ) -14/27; 3) ) 1/2; ) -2;
1)
2
51
64 2

; 5) 9/4; 6) 12; 7) 0; 8) ; 9) 0; 10) ln 2; 11) 0;


4) ) ; )
20
3
2
6
3y
y
1
3
24
3
1
12) 3; 13) - ; 14) dy f ( x, y)dx; 15) dy f ( x, y)dx + dy f ( x
4 2
0
0
y 8
3
y 8
y

f ( x, y)dx +

24

y 8

dy

242

f ( x, y)dx; 16) dy
0

4- y

- 4- y

f ( x, y)dx; 17)

- x2

-1

x2 -2

dx

f ( x, y)dy;

18)

dx

-1

2- x2

x2

f ( x, y)dy; 19)

dy

-1

- 2 - y2

f ( x, y)dx; 20)

16 15
; 21) 7,5 3

20
2a3m
2
4
44
13
;
2 + ; 25) ; 26)
- 8 ln 2; 22) 42 ; 23) 12 ; 24)
3
3
3
21
15
3
45
15
+ ; 30) 13; 31) (73 146 - 2 ) 6;
27) 8 ln 2; 28) 4 3a3; 29)
64
8
4

16 64
5 38
32) 4 2; 33) 2(5 5 - 1) 3; 34) ; ; 35) ; -1 ; 36) ; ;
3

15 21
14 35
- 2 + 4 2

-2
;
.
37)
8(2 - 2 ) 8(2 - 2 )
24. n-
81
272

32 16
;
1) 2; 2) 1/6; 3) ; 4) - 3 + 2 ; 5) 8; 6) 0; 7) 2p; 8) ; 9)
4
15
2

64
4
3
1 1 1
; 11) ; 12) 4/3; 13)
; 14) (0; 0; 4); 15) ; ; ;
10)
12 24 36
3
3
20
2
3
5
3

1
; 0 ; 17)
; 0;
; 18) - ; 0; .
16) 0;


2
4
(2 3 - 1)
2 2

9

25.
(I )

25
25.1. I
: f(x, y) . D,

AB D, AB Ai -1 Ai
Dli,
i = 1, n, Mi(i, i) Dli

f ( x, y)dl =

f (i , i )li
max l 0
lim
i

AB

i =1

r(x, y) AB

m=

f ( x, y)dl AB

AB

25.2. I
10.

( f1( x, y) +

f2 ( x, y))dl =

AB

20.

f1 dl +

AB

f2 dl .

AB

cf ( x, y)dl = c f ( x, y)dl , c = const.

AB

AB

3 . L = L1 + L2

f ( x, y)dl =
L

L1

f dl +

f dl .

L2

40. dl = l L.
L

50.

f ( x, y)dl =

AB

f ( x, y)dl

BA

25.3. I

) AB : = (t), y = y(t) . . [, ]

AB

244

f ( x, y)dl =

f ( x(t ), y(t ))

x 2 + y 2 dt;

) AB: = () . . [, b]

f ( x, y)dl =

f ( x, y( x ))

1 + ( y ( x ))2 dx

AB

. 25
1. J =
( x 2 - 3) ye y dl
J =
, L = 3 - 9,
2
L 27 x + 9 xy + 82
, -3 -2
.
: d d =
dl = 1 + ( y ( x ))2 dx. = 32 - 9, 1 + (())2 = 1 + (32 - 9)2 = 94 - 542 + 82. d, (. , . 25.3)

J =

-2

-2

-9 x

27 x + 9 x( x - 9 x ) + 82

( x 2 - 3)( x 3 - 9 x )e x

-3

( x 2 - 3)( x 3 - 9 x )e x

-9 x

9 x - 54 x + 82

2
3
x
( x - 3)( x - 9 x )e

-9 x

-3

9 x 4 - 54 x 2 + 82 dx =

9 x 4 - 54 x 2 + 82 dx =

x 3 - 9 x = t, x
dx =
2
(3 x - 9)dx = dt, t

-3 -2
=
0 10

10

10
1
1
1
1
tet dt = (tet - et ) 0 = (10e10 - e10 + e 0 ) = (9e10 + 1).

30
3
3
3

2. ( x + y)dl , L
L

(1; 0), (0; 1), (0; 0).


: , ,
= 1 , 0 1, = 0,
0 1, = 0, 0 1.

245

( x + y)dl = ( x + y)dl + ( x + y)dl + ( x + y)dl =

AB

BO

2 dx + y dy + x dx =

OA

2 + 1.

3. 2y dl , L
L

= (t - sint), y = a(1 - cost), 0 t .


:
dl = a2 (1 - cos t )2 + a2 sin 2 t dt = a2 (2 - 2 cos t )dt = a 2(1 - cos t )dt .
dl:

2 y dl =

2a(1 - cos t )a 2(1 - cos t )dt = 2a a (1 - cos t )dt =


0

= 2a a (t - sin t ) 0 = 2a a .


:
x dl
, L y 2 = 2x (1; 2),
1)
y
L
(2; 2);
dl
, L y = x + 2,
2)
x+y
L
(2; 4), (1; 3);
3) xy dl , L , L

x = 0, y = 0, x = 4, y = 2;
4) x dl , L , (0; 0)
L

(1; 2);
5) y 3dl , L = (t - sin t), y =
L

= a(1 - cost);
6) xy dl , L
L

;
246

x 2 y2
+
= 1, a2 b2

7) x = acos3 t, y = a sin3 t.
8) m x = cos t, y = sin t
(0 t ), (, ) .

26.
( II )

26
26.1. II.

a = {P(x, y), Q(x, y)}

P(x, y), Q(x, y) . D, AB D

AB Ai -1 Ai , i = 1, n,

Ai -1 Ai = {xi , yi }, M (i , i ) Ai -1 Ai ,

a dr

P (i , i )xi + Q(i , i )yi


P dx + Q dy = max lim
x ,y 0
i

AB

AB

P dx + Q dy =

W =

AB

(i )

F dr F = {P(, y),

AB

Q(x, y)} AB, dr = {dx, dy}


26.2. II

P dx + Q dy = - P dx + Q dy.

10.

AB

BA

20. AB = AC + CB

P dx + Q dy = P dx + Q dy + P dx + Q dy.

AB

AC

CB

30. D = D1 + D2, D1 = L1, D2 = L2, D = L

P dx + Q dy = +
L

L1

L2

26.3. II

1) AB: x = x(t), y = y(t) . . [, ]

AB

P dx + Q dy = (P ( x(t ), y(t )) x (t ) + Q( x(t ), y(t )) y (t ))dt

247

2) AB: y = y(x) . . [a, b]


b

P dx + Q dy = (P ( x, y( x )) + Q( x, y( x )) y( x ))dx

AB

26.4. I II

LM AB . ,

= (L
M , OX ), = ( LM , OY ), = ( LM , OZ )

P ( x, y, z )dx + Q( x, y, z )dy + R( x, y, z )dz =

AB

(P cos + Q cos + R cos )dl

AB

26.5.

P Q
,
,
y x
Q P
L = D
P dx + Q dy = x - y dx dy
L
D
P(x, y), Q(x, y) . D

248

26.6. II
1.

P dx + Q dy = 0L* D

L*

2.

P dx + Q dy AB D

AB

3. P dx + Q dy = du, u = u(x, y), (x, y) D


P Q
D
4.
=
y
x
26.7.

( x, y )

P dx + Q dy = du u( x, y) =

P dx + Q dy + c =

( x0 , y0 )

x0

y0

+ + c = P ( x, y0 )dx + Q( x, y)dy + c

AC

CB

26.8.
P(x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0,
y
x
P Q
=
P ( x, y0 )dx + Q( x, y)dy = c
y
x
x
y
0

. 26.126.3
1. xy dx + ( x + y)dy,
L
L:
) , (0; 0) (1; 1);
) = 2, ;
) ONA: O(0; 0), N(1; 0), A(1; 1) (. 26.1).
249

. 26.1

: ) L = ,
1

x3
+ x2
, dx = d (. , . 26.3) I = ( x + 2 x )dx =

3
1
0
3

x
4
x 2 + 2 x )dx =
+ x2 = ;
0 3
3
) = 2.
1
17
d = 2 dx I = ( x 3 + ( x + x 2 ) 2 x )dx = ;
12
0
2

) L .
ON y = 0, dy = 0; NA x = 1, dx = 0. I =
1

(1 + y)2
I = (1 + y)dy =
2
0

=
0

3
.
2

2. y dx - x dy, L
L

= 2(t - sint), = 2(1 - cost), 0 t 2.


: dx = 2(1 - cos t)dt, dy = 2 sint dt, (. OK,
. 26.3)
I =

2
[4(1 - cos t ) - 4(t - sin t )sin t ]dt = 4 (2 - 2 cos t - t sin t )dt =
0

= 4[(2t - 2 sin t ) 0 -

t sin t dt ].
0

,
2

I = 16 - 4 (-t cos t + sin t ) 0 = 24.

250


:
1) ( xy - y 2 )dx + x dy, L: = 22 . (0; 0) . (1; 2);
L

2) 2 xy dx + x 2dy, L: ) ; ) y = x2;
L

) x = y2; ) y = x3 (0; 0), (1; 1);


3) (3 x 2 + y)dx + ( x - 2 y 2 )dy, L: : (0; 0),
L

(1; 0), (0; 1);


4) xy dx, L y = sin x = 0 = ;
L

5) y dx + z dy + x dz, : ) L : (0; 0; 0),


L

(1; 0; 0), (1; 1; 0), (1; 1; 1); ) L ;


6) e x + y dx + y dy, L : (0; 0), (4; 0),
L

(0; 2);
7) x 2dx + xy dy, L x = cos t, y = sin t,
L

0 t /2;
x 2dy - y 2dx
, L = cos3 t, y = a sin3 t,
8) 5 3
x + y5 3
0 t /2;
9) ( y - z )dx + ( z - x )dy + ( x - y)dz, L L

x = 2cost, y = 2 sin t, z = 3t, 0 t 2.


10) , F{y, -x}
x = a cost, y = b sint, 0 t 2.

. 26.5
1. ,

(x

- 2 y + x 2 sin( x 3 + y 3 ))dx + (2 xy + y 2 sin( x 3 + y 3 ))dy,

L 2 + 2 = 2,
.
251

:
2 + 2 = 2 ( - 1)2 + 2 = 1. , (1; 0),
1 (. 26.2).
(, ) = 3 - 2 + 2sin(x3 + y3), Q(x, y) = 2xy +
+ y2 sin(x3 + y3),

P
Q
= -2 + x 2 cos( x 3 + y 3 ) 3 y 2 ,
= 2 y + y 2 cos( x 3 + y 3 ) 3 x 2 ,
y
x
Q P
= 2 y + 2.
,
x y

Q P
I =
dx dy = (2 x + 2)dx dy.
x y
D
D
D , :
= rcos j, = r sinj, dxdy = r dr dj. r = 2 cosj.
2 cos

I =

- 2

r3
r2
(2r sin + 2)r dr = d [2 sin + 2 ]
3
2 0
- 2

2 coss

16
16
3
2
3
( 3 cos sin + 4 cos )d = - 3 cos d cos +
- 2
- 2
2

16 cos 4
2
2
+ 2 - 2 + sin 2 - 2 = 2.
+ 2 (1 + cos 2)d = 3
4

2
- 2

. 26.2

252

2.

(2

cos x

+ xy)dx + (2cos y - xy)dy,

L (0; 0), (2; 2),


(5; 2), (3; 0), (. 26.3).

. 26.3

:
,
Q P
P ( x, y)dx + Q( x, y)dy = - x - y dx dy.
L
D

(, ) = 2cos x + xy, Q = 2cos y - xy. P


Q
,
= x,
= - y I = - (- x - y)dx dy = ( x + y)dx dy.
y
x
D
D

, x - x1
y - y1
x-2 y-2
; OA:
=
:
=
x
x2 - x1 y2 - y1
0-2 0-2
x -5 y-2
x-2 y-2
=
x = y + 3.
=
x = y; CB:
3-5 0-2
0-2 0-2
y +3
2
2

( y + 3)2 y 2
+ 3 y dy = 21.
I = dy ( x + y)dx =

2
2
0


:
2
2
11)
xy dy - x y dx, L x2 + y2 = a2;
L

2
12)
(2 xy - 2 x )dx + x dy, L ,
L

= 22, = 4;
2
2
13)
y dx + ( x + y) dy, L L

(2; 0), (2; 2), (0; 2);


253

2 3
3 2
14)
( x y + x )dx + ( x y + xy)dy, L , L

y = x2, y = 1, x = 0, ;
-x
15)
e

+ y2

(cos(2 xy) dx + sin(2 xy) dy), L: 2 + 2 = R2.

. 26.626.8
( 2;1)

1.

2 xy dx + x 2dy.

( 0;0 )

P Q
=
= 2 x,
:
y
x
. ,
(0; 0) (2; 1), ONM
(. 26.4).
ON: = 0, d = 0, 0 2; NM: = 2, d = 0, 0 1.
,
( 2;1)

( 0;0 )

2 xy dx + x 2dy = 0 + 22 dy = 4
0

( N ).

. 26.4

2. U(, ), dU =
= ( + ln( + 1))dx + ( + 1 - )d.
: (, ) = + ln( + 1), Q(, ) = + 1 - ,
P Q
=
= 1.
y
x
0 = 0, 0 = 0 L MN
(. 26.5).
254

. 26.5

U ( x, y) = ln( x + 1)dx + ( x + 1 - e y )dy + c = ( x ln( x + 1) - x +


+ ln( x

x
+ 1)) 0
y

+ ( xy + y - e y ) 0 + c = ( x + 1)ln( x + 1) - x + xy +

+ y - e + 1 + c.
x
1 1
2
3. U(, ), dU = + dx + - 2 dy.
x y
y y
1 1
2
x
: P ( x, y) = + , Q( x, y) = - 2 ,
x y
y y
P
1
Q
.
=- 2 =
y
x
y
( 0, 0) , ,
. (1; 1).
y
x
x
x
1

2
U ( x, y) = + 1 dx + - 2 dy + c = ln x + 2 ln y + - 1 + c.
x

y
y y
1
1
4. (433 - 32 + 8)d + (342 - 6 - 1)d = 0.
: (, ) = 433 - 32 + 8, Q(, ) = 342 - 6 - 1,
P Q
=
= 12 x 3 y 2 - 6 y.
y
x
, d + Q d = dU. , dU = 0
U = c. (0, 0) = (0; 0).
x

U = 8dx + (3 x 4 y 2 - 6 xy - 1)dy = c,
.. 8x + x 4y 3 - 3xy 2 - y = c.

255


:
( 2,3)

16)

( -1,2)
( 2, )

(6,8)

(1,2)

x dy + y dx;

17)

y dx - x dy
;

2
x
( 2,1)

y2
y
y y
y

19) 1 - 2 cos dx + sin + cos dy;

x
x x
x
x
(1, )

18)

(1,0 )

x dx + y dy
x 2 + y2
( 2,1)

20)

e2 y dx + (2 xe2 y + 1)

(1,0 )

+ (2xe2y + 1)dy.
u(, )
:
21) (4x 3y 3 - 3y 2 + 5)d + (3 4y 2 - 6x - 4) d; 22) (3 2y x
y3
1
- )d + (x 3 - x2)d; 23) (3 2y + )d + (x2 - 2 )d.
3
y
y
u(x, y) :
24) du = (e 2y - 5y 3 e x )dx + (2xe 2y - 15y 2 e x )dy; 25) du =
1
2x

= 12 x 2 y + 2 dx + 4 x 3 - 3 dy; 26) du = (ex+y + cos(x - y))dx +

y
y
+ (ex+y - cos(x - y) + 2)dy.
:
2

27) (3x 2 y + 1)dx + (x 3 - 1)dy = 0; 28) (2 xye x + ln y)dx +


2 x

+ e x + + e y dy = 0; 29) (x + y + 1)(ex - e y)dx + (ex - (x + y +

y
y
+ 1)e )dy = 0.

256

27.

27
27.1. R3
G: z = z(x, y), (x, y) R2, z(x, y), z x, z y
D G , .

n = {cos a, cos b, cos g}, = (n, i ),



b = (n, j ), = (n, k ), n(M) .

27.2. I
1. I
f (x, y, z) W, G W, Gi Gj = , G =
Dsi DGi,
M i (i , i , i ) Gi

Gi ,
i =1

( f (i , i , i )i ),
f ( x, y, z )d = lim
0
G

i =1

l = max diam DGi, m(M ) G m =


= ( x, y, z )d G
G

2. I
G: z = z(x, y), (x, y) D

f ( x, y, z )d = f ( x, y, z( x, y))
G

1 + ( z x )2 + ( z y )2 d

27.3. II
1. II
P(x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z) W R 3,
G W , DDixy =
= XOY DGi, DDixz = XOZ DGi, DDiyz = YOZ DGi, i = 1, n; DSixy, DSiyz,
DSixz () DDixy, DDiyz, DDixz; Mi(i, i, i) DGi
257

P dy dz + Q dx dz + R dy dx =
G

= lim P ( M i )Siyz + Q( M i )Sixz + R( M i )Siyx .


0

i =1

I II:

P dy dz + Q dx dz + R dy dx = (P cos + Q cos + R cos )d


G

v(x, y, z) = {P, Q, R} , G

G = P dy dz + Q dx dz + R dy dx = v n d
G

2. II
Dxy = XOY G, Dxz = XOZ G, Dyz = YOZ G,
G: z = z(x, y) y = y(x, z) x = x(y, z)

P dy dz + Q dx dz + R dx dy = P ( x( y, z ), y, z )dy dz
G

Dyz

Q( x, y( x, z ), z )dx dz R( x, y, z( x, y))dx dy,

Dxz

Dxy

(+) (n, i ), (n, j ), (n, k ),; (-)


27.4.
P(M), Q(M), R(M) W, W = G

P dy dz + Q dx dz + R dx dy =

258

Q R
dx dy dz
+
y
z

27.5.
P(M), Q(M), R(M) G, L = G

Q P
P dx + Q dy + R dz = x - y dx dy +
L
G
P R
R Q
dy dz +
+
dx dz
z
y
x
z

. 27
1. J =
(x 0, y 0, z 0).

z + 2 x + 3 y d, G: 2 + 3 + 4 = 1
G

x y
4

: z = 4 1 - - , zx = -2, z y = - ,

2 3
3
, . 27.2, . 2,
2

J =


x y
4
4
2
4 1 - 2 - 3 + 2 x + 3 y 1 + (-2) + - 3 dx dy =
D

4 61
dx dy.
3
D
D G XOY
x y
D: x = 0, y = 0, + = 1 (. 27.1).
2 3
:
=

4 61
J =
dx
3 0

3
3- x
2

4 61
3

dy =
dx 3 - x = 4 61.

3 0
2

,
1
= S D = 2 3 = 3.
2
2. I =

dx dy =
D

x dy dz + y dx dz + z dx dy,

, x = 0, y = 0,
z = 0, x = 1, y = 1, z = 1.
259

. 27.1

: 1- . , I
:
I = I1(x = 0) + I2(y = 0) + I3(z = 0) + I4(x = 1) + I5(y = 1) +
+ I6(z = 1).
, , . 27.3, . 2:
I1 =

G1( x = 0 )

x dy dz + y dx dz + z dx dy = - 0 dy dz - 0 - 0 = 0,
Dyz

, x = 0
X ( ) y dxdz
zdxdy , = 0
(. 27.2).

. 27.2

I2 = I3 = 0.
I 4 ( x = 1) =

G4( x =1)

x dy dz + y dx dz + z dx dy = + 1 dy dz + 0 + 0,
Dyz

Dyz YOZ , x = 1 OX.


260

dy dz Dyz, ..

Dyz

, 1, I4 = 1. I5 = I6 = 1. I = 3.
2- . (, . 27.4)

I =

3dx dy dz = dx dy dz = 3.

3. I =

xdy dz, G
G

x = y 2 + z 2, x = 2.
: , . 27.3, . 2,
I =

( y

+ z 2 )dy dz,

Dyz

Dyz: y 2 + z 2 = 2 (. 27.3).
:
I =

2
r r dr d =

Dyz

d r 3dr =
0

2d = 4.
0

. 27.3


I :
1) xyz d, G: x + y + z = 1 (x 0, y 0, z 0);
G

2) x d, G: x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 (x 0, y 0, z 0);
G

3) y d, G: z =

R2 - x 2 - y2 .

261

II :
4) x 2 y 2 z dx dy, G: x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R2 (z 0, );

5) x dy dz + y dx dz + z dx dy, G: x + y + z = ( G

I );
6)
z dx dy, G:
G

x 2 y2 z 2
+
+
= 1 ( );
a2 b2 c 2

7)
xz dx dy + xy dy dz + yz dx dz, G: x = y = z = 0, x + y + z =
G

= 1( );
8)
yz dx dy + xz dy dz + xy dx dz, G: x = y = z = 0, z = H, x 2 +
G

+ y 2 = R2 ( I , ).
28.

28
28.1. ()
1. .
u(M ), M(x, y) D R2 M(x, y, z) W R3
u(x, y) = c, c = const ,
u(x, y, z) = c
2.
l = {cos , cos , cos } || L, . , M1 L
u
u( M1 ) - u( M ) u
u
u
cos +
cos +
cos
= lim
=
l M1 M
MM1
x
y
z
3.
u u u
: grad u =
i +
j +
k = u
x
y
z

u
:
= grad u l , (grad u)M 0 l
u(x, y, z) = c

262

28.2. ()
1. .

: v ( M ) = {vx ( M ), v y ( M ), vz ( M )},
M W R2 M W R3

v ( M ), M W L:

L . v ( M ),
dx dy dz
=
=
vx
vy
vz
2.

: v ( M ), M W:

G = v ( M ) n( M )d
G

: v ( M ), M W:

div v ( M ) = lim G , M W* W,
V 0 V
G = W*, V W*
v y v z

v
+
= v ( M )
: div v ( M ) = x +
x
y
z
:

v (M ) n(M )d = div v (M )dv

3.

: v ( M ), M W, L:

L =
v (M )dr = vx dx + v y dy + vz dz
L

O: v ( M ), M W:

rot v ( M ) = v ( M ) =
x
vx

y
vy

z
vz

v (M ) dr = rot v (M ) n(M )d

L =

263

4.

) O: v ( M ),

M : div v ( M ) = 0;

) O: () v ( M ),

M , u( M ): v ( M ) = grad u( M );

) O: v ( M ),

M : rot v ( M ) = 0, div v ( M ) = 0
u(M): Du = 0,
2
2
2
= 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z

. 28.1

u
M0(1; -1; 2) l :
l

a = {2; -1; 0}, u = 2x 3yz + x 2 + y 3 + z 3.


: , . 28.1, . 2.
u
= (6 x 2 yz + 2 x )M 0 = -12 + 2 = -10,

x M 0
1.

u
= (2 x 3 z + 3 y 2 )M 0 = 4 + 3 = 7,
y
M
0

u
= (2 x 3 y + 3z 2 )M 0 = -2 + 12 = 10.

z M
0

a:
ay
a
a
-1
2
2
cos = x =
=
; cos = =
; cos = z = 0.
a
a
a
5
5
22 + (-1)2 + 0
,
u
2
27 5
1
= -10
+ 7 - + 10 0 = .

l
5
5
5

2. 0(1; 1; 2) u = x2y 2z - ln(z - 1).


264

u
= grad u l (, . 28.1, . 3),
l

u
= grad u . (grad u)M 0 (, . 28.1,

l
u
u
= (2 xy 2 z )M 0 = 4,
= (2 x 2 y 2 z )M 0 = 4,
. 2.
x M

y
M0
0


(grad u)M 0 = 4i + 4 j ,
= 0.
= x 2 y2


z - 1 M 0
z M 0
u
= 16 + 16 = 4 2.

l

u
0 l :
l

y
1) ) u = arctg , M0(1; 3), l : a = 3i + 4 j ; ) u = xy 2 + z 2 - xyz,
x
M0(1; -1; 2), l : a = {-2; 4; -1}.

u
0 M 0 M1:

y
l
2) ) u = ln( x 2 + 3 yx + 2 ); M0(1; -1; 2), 1(2; 1; 1); ) u =
z

= e 3 ( xy 2 + 2 z ); M0(0; 1; 1), M1(1; 1; 2).


gradu 0:
3) ) u = 4 + x 2 + y 2 , M0(2; 1); ) u = sin2(xy - 2xz + 3yz),

M 0 1; ; 0 .
4
4) u(x, y, z)
1
1 1
, v = x 2 + 9y 2 + 6z 2, M 1; ;
.
v(x, y, z) : u =
3 6
xyz
e
5) = r
e, , r
M(x, y, z) e.
6) u = x 2yz 2 - 4y.
. (3; 0; 4).

265

. 28.2

1.

v
=
2
xi
yj
+
zk
.

v = 2 xi - yj + zk .
: , . 28.2, . 1, dx
dy dz
==
:

2x
y
z
d
x
d
y
d
x
d
y

2 x = - y ,
2 x = - y + ln c1,

dx = dz ,
dx = dz + ln c .
2
2 x
2 x z
z
, :
c1

c1

y = x ,
ln
ln
,
x
=

ln x = ln c z,
z = x .
2

c2

2. v = {0; 0; z}
z = x, x = 0, y = 0,

x + y = 1, n OZ
.
: , . 28.2, . 2, , . 27.2, . 2, = z dx dy = x dx dy, Dxy:
G

x = 0, y = 0, x + y = 1 (. 28.1).

Dxy

. 28.1

:
1

1- x

= dx

x dy = x dx

1 1 1
= - = .
2 3 6
266

1- x
y0

x 2 x3
= x(1 - x )dx =
- =
2
30
0

2
2
3. v = (3 x - y )i + xz j + z k
G: z = x 2 + y 2, z = 0, x 2 + y 2 = 4.

: div v = (3 x - y 2 )x + ( xz )y + (4 z 2 )z = 3 + 8z
:

= div v dV =

x 2 + y2

(3 + 8z )dx dy dz = dx dy

(3 + 8z )dz =

x 2 + y2

8z 2
dx dy 3z + 2 0
D

(3( x

+ y 2 ) + 4( x 2 + y 2 )2 )dx dy.

D: x 2 + y 2 = 4 (. 28.2), :
=

2
4
(3r + 4r )r dr d =
D

3r

d
0

4r
=
6 0

12 +
0

d (3r 3 + 4r 5 )dr =
0

128
164
328
2 =
.
d =
3
3
3

. 28.2

4.

v = {xy, xz, -yz}.


( xy) ( xz ) (- yz )
+
+
= y + 0 - y = 0.
: div v =
x
y
z

i
j
k
(- yz ) ( xz ) (- yz ) ( xy)

rot v =
=i
- j
+
x
y
x y z
z
z
xy xz - yz
( xz ) ( xy)

+k
= i (- z - x ) - j (-0 - 0) + k ( z - x ) =

x
y

= -( x + z )i + ( z - x )k .
267


, v (, . 28.2,
. 4):

5. v = {y; -x; z}
x = Rcost, y = Rsint, z = 1 (0 t 2p).
: (. ,
. 28.2, . 3):
x = R cos t, dx = - R sin t dt,

=
y dx - x dy + z dz = y = R sin t, dy = R cos t dt, =

z =1
L
dz = 0,

2
2
2
(R sin t(-R sin t ) - R cos t R cos t )dt = -R dt = -R t 0 = -2R .

6. , v = ( y + z )i + ( x + z ) j + ( x + y)k
, .
:

i
j
k

rot v =
= i (1 - 1) - j (1 - 1) + k (1 - 1) = 0.
x
y
z
y+z x+z x+y

, v . div v = 0 v
.

u(M ) grad u(M ) = v(M ),


u
u
u
= y + z,
= x + z,
= x + y, du = (y + z)dx + (x + z)dy +
..
x
y
z

. 28.3

268

( x , y, z )

+ (x + y)dz, u =

( y + z )dx + ( x + z )dy + ( x + y)dz. -

( 0,0,0 )

, , . 28.3:
x

u = 0 dx + x dy + ( x + y)dz + c = xy + ( x + y)z + c.

7) v ( M ) = xyj - 2 x( x - 1) j .

v G:

8) v = {0; 0; -z}, G: z = y, x = 0, y = 0, x + y = 2

(n, OZ ) ;

9) v = ( x - 2 z )i + (3z - 4 x ) j + (5 x + y )k , G
A(1; 0; 0), B(0; 1; 0), C(0; 0; 1);

10) v = {x, y, z}, G: x 2 + y 2 = R 2, z = x, z = 0 (z 0)


;

11) v = (1 + 2 x )i + yj + zk , G: x 2 + y 2 = z 2, z = 4 (z 0) ;

12) v = {0; 0; z 2}, G: x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1.


:

13) v = (8 x - 5 yz )i + (8 y - 5 xz ) j + (8z - 5 xy)k ;

14) v = ( y 2 + z 2 )i + ( z 2 + x 2 ) j + ( x 2 + y 2 )k ;

15) v = grad(x 2 + y 2 + z 2).

16) v = (y - x 2 )i + (z - y) j +
1

+ x + k . grad div v(M0), M0(1; 1; 1).

z
17) u = x 2yz 3. divgrad u(M0),
M0(-1; 1; 1).
, :

18) v = (x + y2)i - (x 2 +
y 3) j + z(3y 2 + 1)k;

19) v = ex siny i + ex cosy j + k.


L:

x 2 + y 2 = 4,

20) v = z i + x j + yk, L:
z = 0;
269


21) v = {x + y, x - z, y + z}, L ABC, A(1; 0; 0),
B(0; 1; 0), C(0; 0; -1);

z = x 2 + y 2 ,
22) v = yi - x j + (x + y)k, L:
z = 1.
, , :

23) v = (yz + 1)i + xz j + xyk;

24) v = (2xy + z)i + (x 2 - 2y) j + xk.



1
1. ( x + y)dx + ( x - 3 y)dy,
L

L : (1; 2), (2; 4), (3; 0). : 8.


2. ( x - 2 y)dx + x dy,
L

L = 2 cos t, = 4 sin t, 0 t /2. :


6 - 2.
3. u(x, y) du = (x 2 - 2xy 2 + 3)dx + (y 2 - 2x 2y + 3)dy. :
u = x 3/3 + y 3/3 - x 2y 2 + 3x + 3y + c.
x
4. ,
(2 xye

+ sin x )dx +

+ ( x 2e x y - y 2 + x 2 )dy, L
(0; 0), (1; 1), (1; 0), .
: -2/3.
2

5. u = xe x yz .
M(0; 1; 1). : 1.

6. v = xi + yj + zk x 2 + y 2 = 4 - z, z = 0 (z 0). : 8p.
2
1.

( x - 3 y) d + ( L

- 2)d, L : (1; 0), (2; 1), (3; 3). :


-12.
270

2. ( x - y)dx + y dy,
L

L = (t - sint), = (1 - cost), 0 t 2.
: 2(2 - 1).
(11
,)

3.

1
( x - y)dx - ( x - y)dy. : - .
2
( 0,-1)

4. ,
y
x

2
2
x 2 + y 2 + 1 - yx dx + x 2 + y 2 + 1 + xy dy,

L
2
2
L + = 4,
. : 24.

2
2 2
2
5.
:
=
(2xy
+
z
)

+
(2y
z

+
x
)
v
i

j +

2
+ (2xz
+ y )k. grad div v(M0), M0(1; -1; 1). : 2i +
+ 6 j - 2k.

6. v = {0, 0, z} G: z = y + 2, x = 0, y = 2, y = x,

20
, OZ ) . : .
(n
3
3

1. F = y 2i + x 2 j , (0; 0), (1; 0), (1; 1). : 1.


x = 3t,
2. ( x + y)dx + ( y - x )dy, L
2
y = 3t ,
L
(0; 0) (-3; 3). : 12.
3. (3x 2 + 2y)dx + (2x - y)dy = 0. : x 3 + 2xy - y 2/2 = c.
2
3
4. ,
x y dx + x dy, L
L

, 2 = 2 = ,
6
. : .
35

5. v = x 2i + y 2 j + 6 z 2 k . , ?
: .

271

6. v = yzi + yj + yzk z = 0, z = x,

G: x = 1, x = 2, : 15/4.
y = 1, y = 2.


n , n +
n +
n + +
+ 2; =
+ 2; =
, =

+ 2;
4
5
3

n
+ + +
, l = (]...[ , [...]
k=

4
5

).

1. )

, F =

F
= (x + 2ly)i + (2bx + z) j + (2nz + y)k, (1; 1; ), (; 1; 1).
) ( x + 2y 2 )dx +
L

+ (2mxy + 4my 3)dy, L x = y 2 + y (0; 0)


(1 + ; 1).
)

(e

( +1) y

+ y xy + y +1 )dx + ( x + ( + 1) y ) xy + y +1 dy,

L A(m; 3), B(m; 3 + 2m),


C(2m; 3 + 2m), .
2. )
B

cos y +
A

+1
+1

x ((-1)n + 1) dx - x sin y y ((-1)n +1 + 1) dy,

2
2


A ; , B + 1; .
6
4
)

((1 + (-1)n )x -1 y e x + (1 + (-1)n +1 )x -1 ln( y + ))dx +

x
+ e y dy = 0.
+ (1 + (-1)n )y -1 y e x + (1 + (-1)n +1 )

y+


u
3. grad u(M)
l : a =
l

n
= (-1) i + (k + 1) j + (l + 1)k , u(M ) = j[(M)], j(t), (M ) :
272

n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

j(t)
ln4t
3t
log33 t
sin2t
tg2t
cos2t
ctg2t

(M)
xy - 3z

ln tgt

2xy - z

4x 2 - y z
3y + 2xz
2yz - 3x
4z 2 - 5xy
8xy - 5z 2
2x 2 - 9yz
tgt xy - 5z

10

ctgt

yz - 3x

n j(t)
(M)
11 lnctgt
5x - 2yz
12 esint
4y - 9xz
13 lnsint
yx + 9z 2
cos t
14 e
2x 3 - 9yz
15 ln t 2xy 2 - cosz
16 esint
9y 2 - 11xz
t
17
e
3yz 2 - sinx
18 sin t
7x 2z - 2y

n
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

j(t)
cos t
sint
et
lncost
ln t
log3 t
rctgt
et

(M)
7xln z - 3y 2
xarctgy - z3
yarcsinz - x 3
3xz - 7y
arcsinx + 2yz
-arccosy + 3xz
xln z - y 2
zarctgy - x 2

x siny - z 2

29

arcsin t

xz + 2y

30

arccost

3xy - 2z

19
20

ln t
t

27cosy - 3x

4. v(M) = {vx, vy, vz} ( ).

) div v(M ), rot v(M ).


?
) ( ).
n

vx

vy

vz

vx

vy

vz

vx

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

xy
-yx
yz
-yz
xz
-xz
2xy
xy
yz
-yz

xz
-xz
xy
-xy
-yz
zy
xz
-xz
2xy
xy

-yz
yz
-xz
xz
xy
-xy
-yz
-2yz
-xz
-2xz

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

2xz
xz
2y
-5y
-7x
9x
4z
-2z
xy
yz

-yz
-2yz
2x
-5x
3z
-8z
-y
3y
xz
xy

-xy
xy
-3z
4z
3y
-8y
-4x
-2x
yz
xz

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

xz
xy
-yz
xz
-yx
-zy
-yx
-zy
6z
-xy

vy

vz

yz
xy
-xz
yz
xy
zx
yz
-xy
-zx
xy
-yx
zx
xz
2zy
-2yx zx
-5y -6x
zx
-zy

5. v(M) = {vx, vy, vz} G,


) G: z 2 = x 2 + y 2, z = l + 1 (z 0);
) G: x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = (l + 1)2, z = 0 (z 0);
) G: z = x 2 + y 2, z = l + 1
) G: z = l + 1 - x 2 - y 2, z = 0;
) G: x + y + z = l + 1, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0
:
273

vx

vy
2

1 x + xy
2
x
3
xy
4
x-y
5
3x
6
x+y
7
x
8
3x
9
-x
10
2x 2
11
xy
12 x + 2xz
13
2x
14 z - y
15
3x

vz

y + yx -2z + 3
y + 2yz -z 2
-3y
3z
x+y
z2
2
4y
-3z
y - 2x
z2
y + yz -2z
-y
2z
z
x+y
3y
-3z
-x 2
3
-2y
z
-yx
-2z
y
y - 2x
-3y
2xz

a)
)
)
)
)
a)
)
)
)
)
a)
)
)
)
)

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

vx
xz
x+z
x2
z
2xy
xz
5x + y
x+y
x 2 + 3y
4x
xz + y
z-x
y
2z + y 2
6x + y

vy

vz

yz
z -1
y
z-x
z
x+y
x
y + 2z
-5y
5z
x+y
y-z
3xy
-3xz
y2
x-z
5y
y - 5z
-5xy
-4z
zy - x
z2 - 2
2y
x+z
x-y z+x z
y - 4x 3z - 2
2y - xy
-8z

a)
)
)
)
)
a)
)
)
)
)
a)
)
)
)
)

6. v = {vx, vy, vz}


, ,
(k + 1; 0; 0), (0; l + 1; 0), C(0; 0; (- 1)n) :
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

vx
2x + yz
2xz + y 2
2
x + y2 + z2
3x2 + 3yz
3x2 + 3y2
2xy + z2
2xy + z2
2xy + 4
2xz - y2
2xz + y
2xz + y2
-2x + 2y
-2x + yz
x2 + y2 + z2
x2 + y2 - z2

vy

vz
2

2xz - 3y
3y 2 + 2xz
2xz - y
z+x
-z - 2x2
x2 - z2
x2 + 2xz
-3y2 + 3z2
-3y2 + z2
-3y2 + 2z
-3y2 + 2xz
y2 + xz
y2 + 2xz
-2y + 2z
2x - y2

n
2

2x + y
-3x2 + y2
3x - 1
y + 4x2
y - 2x2
-3z2 + x2
-3z2 + 2x2
x2 + 2y2
x2 - 2xy
x2 + 2y
x2 + 2y2
z2 - x2
2
x + y2 + z2
z2 + xy
x2 - z2

vx
2

16
x - yz
17
3x 2 - y 2
18
x+y
19
x+y-z
20 zx + y - 1
21 yz + 2x + 1
22
yz - 1
23 x + y2 - z
24 x2 - y2 -z/2
25 -2xz - 2y + x
26
y2 + 2xy
27 3x2 -z + x
28 x + 2y2 + z
29
3x - 3y
30 x + y2 - z

vy
2

y - xz
y + 2z
x2 - y2
3x2 - 2y
2y2 - 3x2
y - 3 + zx
zx - 1
2x2 - 2y2
(x2 - y2)/3
x2 - y2 - z2
(x - y)z
3yz + 4x2
x2 - 2z2 + y
xz2 - yx2
3(x2 - y2)

vz
2

z - xy
x +y+z
(x + y)2
zx - 3y2
x + 3y - z
x+y-z
xy - 1
zxy - 1
xz - yx
x+y-1
y2 + zx
y-x+z
z2 + 2x
z + 3y
y2 + zx
2

7. v =
= {vx, vy} L, ) L: x 2 + y 2 = 2(l +
274

+ 1)x; ) L: x 2 + y 2 = 2(l + 1)y; ) L: x2 + y 2 = (l + 1)2


:
n

vx

vy

L
2

2x + x 9 - x + y + 2 y

ex + x 5 + x 2 + y2 + 2 y2

x + y 5 + x 2 + y2

x 8 + x 2 + y 2 + xy

y 8 + x 2 + y2 + x 2

e2 x + x 2e x + y
y
+ y2
xy + 2

4
5

xy - y 9 - x + y

3 xy + y 2e x + y
x
+ 8x
xy + 2

)
)

x 5 - x 2 - y 2 - yx 2

xy 2 + y 5 - x 2 - y 2

2x - x 9 + x 2 + y2 + 2 y

xy - y 9 + x 2 + y 2 + 4 x

x 2 x2 y
e + e y + 2x
2

xye x

+ xy 2

y x - y2

x y + sin y

10

y
x
cos( xy 2 ) + + 3 y
2
2

4xy + xycos(xy 2)

11

ex - x 2y

ey + y2x

2 x 3 + y3

12

x e

+ 2y + e

2 x 3 + y3

+ 4x

y e

)
2

13

x +x 4+x + y + y

5 xy + y 4 + x + y

14

x 2 + x 9 - x 2 + y2 - y2

xy - y 9 - x 2 + y 2

15

x 2e x

16

+ y3

ye

5xy

+ 2 y + ex
- 2xy

+y

xe

5xy

y 2e x

+ 4 x + 3e y
y

+ 4x + e

)
)
)
)

17

y
cos( xy 2 ) - 2 x 2 y
2

xycos(xy2) + 2y2x

18

x cos(x2 + y2) + xy

ycos(x 2 + y 2) + x 2y

19
20
21
22

xe

x +y

- xy

e x + 3x 2 y
xy + xe x
2

x y+

+ y +3

y x

ye

x 2 + y2

+e

e y - 3 xy 2 + y
y 2 + ye x
2

y x+

)
)

+ y +3

x y

)
275

vx

vy

23

e5 x + x 7 + x 2 + y 2 + 3 y 2

y 7 + x 2 + y 2 - e5 y

24

2xyarcsin(x 2y + 1) - x 2y

x2 arcsin(x 2y + 1) + xy

25

xy cos (x 2y) + 3x - y 2

x2
cos( x 2 y) + xy
y

26
27

x 2x

-2 xe x

+ y2
2

+y

y 2x

+ 2 xy
2

+ y2

-2 ye x

+ 2y

+ x 2 - y2
+y

+ 3x

28

x 2 y + 3 - x x 2 - y2

y + y x 2 - y2

29
30

xy

xy

)
)

y 3 - 4y
x2 arcsin(x 3 + y 3) - xy

x 3 + 2x
y2 arcsin(x 3 + y 3) + y

. 2528
25.
1) (5 5 - 3 3 ) 6; 2) ( 2 ln 2) 2; 3) 24;
6)

ab(a2 + ab + b2 )
; 7) 6a; 8) 2.
3(a + b)

4)

3
256 3
; 5)
a;
2
15

26.
31
1) ; 2) ) 1; ) 1; ) 1; ) 1; 3) 0; 4) ; 5) a) 1,5; ) 1;
30
4
a4
3
; 12) 0;
6) 22 - 4 + 1; 7) 0; 8) a 3 ; 9) -20p; 10) -2pab; 11)
2
16
13) 16/3; 14) 1; 15) 0; 16) 8; 17) -3/2; 18) 9; 19) + 1; 20) 2e2;
x
xy 3
+ c; 23) x 2 y + + c;
21) x 4y 3 - 3xy 2 + 5x - 4y + c; 22) x 3 y y
3
x
24) xe2y - 5y 3e x + c; 25) 4 x 3 y + 2 + c; 26) ex+y + sin(x - y) + 2y +
y
2

+ c; 27) x 3y + x - y = c; 28) ye x + x ln y + e y = c; 29) (x + y)


(e x - e y) + c.
27.
a3
2R 7
R 3
; 5) ; 6) 4pabc/3; 7) 1/8;
; 3) 0; 4) 1) 3 120; 2)
2
105
4
2R H
2
+
8) R H
.
3
8
276

28.

11
17
2 1
; 3) ) i + j ;
; )
3
3
3 2
9 6

e
3
11

( xi + yj +
- 2 k ; 4) cos = ; 5) ) i + j +

4
4
2 34
( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3
2

y
e
= c; 8) 4/3; 9) 5/3;
( xi + yj + zk ); 6) 140 j ; 140; 7) ( x - 1)2 +
2
2 3
2
+y +z )

10) 0; 11)256p/3; 12) 0; 13) 24;


0; 14) 0; 2((y - z)i + (z - x) j +
+ (x - y)k); 15) 6; 0; 16) -2i + 2k; 17) 8; 18) ;
19) ; 20) 4; 21) -1; 22) -2; 23) x + xyz + c;
24) x 2y - y 2 + xz + c.
1) ) -0,1; ) -27

21; 2) )

10

29.

29
29.1. ..

: un = u1 + u2 + ... + un + ...
n=1

Sn = u1 + u2 + ... + un n-
lim Sn = S .. , S ,
n

limSn = / ..
: 1.

, q < 1,
aq n-1 , q 1
n =1

2. (p > 0)

1 , p > 1,
n p , p 1

n=1
29.2. ..

n=1

n= k

10. un un .
2 . un , S
0

n=1

= const), cS .

cun (c =
n=1

n=1

n=1

n =1

30. un , vn , S, (un + vn ) , S +
29.3. ..

un = 0
un nlim

n=1

: lim un 0
n

278

un
n =1

29.4.
..
1.

n =1

n =1

. 1: un , vn , 0 un vn , n, :

1) vn un ;
n=1

n=1

2) un vn
n=1

n =1

n =1

n=1

. 2: un , vn , un 0, vn 0, n,
u
lim n = A 0 ..
n vn
2.

un +1
=l
un, un > 0, n, nlim
un
n =1
< 1 .. ,

l > 1 .. ,
= 1

3.

un, un > 0, f(x) > 0: f(n) = u(n), , [1, ),


n=1

.. ,

f ( x )dx ..
1

29.5. ..

: (-1)n -1 un = u1 - u2 + u3 - u4 + ... + (-1)n-1un + ...


n =1

: (-1)n -1 un , un > 0, n,
n =1

1) u1 > u2 > ... > un > ...

2) lim un = 0
n

.. ,

S , 0 < S u1

279

29.6. .

: un , un
n =1

>
<

: ( )

un un
n=1

n=1

: un un ;

n=1

n=1

un un ,
n=1

n=1

un
n=1

. 29.129.4
1. :

n3
3n
n
-1
; )
; )
; )
.
) 3
2
n =1 n + 3
n =1 (2n + 1)!
n =1 (n + 3)(n + 5)
n = 2 n ln n
: :
1)
(, . 29.3). lim un 0, ,
n

; lim un = 0 n

;
2) (,
. 29.4):
n3
1

) lim un = lim 3
= = lim
= 1 ;
n
n n + 3
n 1 + 3
n3
n
3
) un =
3n
(2n + 1)!
( ),

(, . 29.4) . 1) .
280

3n +1
3n +1
=
,
(2(n + 1) + 1)! (2n + 3)!
u
(2n + 1)!
3n +1 (2n + 1)!
=
lim n +1 = lim
= 3 lim
n
n un
n (2n + 3)!
n

1
)!(
2n + 2)(2n + 3)
(
+
2
n
3
1
1
= 3 lim
= = 0 < 1 ;
n (2n + 2)(2n + 3)

1
) 1) , -
n = 2 n ln n
1
1
= = 0.
un > 0: lim un = lim
n
n n ln n

2)
(, . 29.4): f(x) = 1/(xlnx) [2, +),

dx
=
.
x ln x
2

dx
d ln x

=
x ln x ln x = ln ln x 2 = .
2
2
2) un +1 =

n
1 n2

=
=
lim
= 0.

n
n (n + 3)(n2 + 5)
n (1 + 3 n)(1 + 5 n2 )
2) un , (, . 29.4).
, n

n
1
: 3 = 2
n =1 n
n =1 n
(, . 29.1), .
u
1
n
n3
:
=
lim
=
lim n = lim
n vn
n (n + 3)(n2 + 5) n2
n (n + 3)(n2 + 5)
1
= lim
= 1 0 .
n (1 + 3 n)(1 + 5 n2 )
) 1) lim un = lim

-3n2
n + 2 n2 + 1
n+3
;
; ) 3
; )
1) )
2
3
3 + 7n
n =1 (2n + 1)(n + 3)
n =1
n =1 n - 5n + 1

24 246 2468
3n
- ...;
; ) -2 2) ) n
3!
5!
7!
n =1 2 (2n + 3)

281

d ln x
=l
ln x
2

; )

;
3
ln n
n =1 (3n + 2)
n 2
1
1
1
2 n
+
+
+ ...; 5) n ;
4)
2 -1
3 -1
4 -1
n =1 5

1 1 2 1 2 3
1
+ ...; 7)
;
6) 1 + + 2 +
3
3
5 5
5
n = 2 n ln n
1
1
1
102 103 104
8) 10 +
+ 2
+ 2
+ ...;
+
+
+ ...; 9) 2
2
3
4
1 +3 2 +3 3 +3

n
.
10)
3
3
n =1 2n + 3
3) )

n=2 n

. 29.5, 29.6
1.
:

(-1)n -1 ln n
(-1)n n2
(-1)n
(-1)n
; )
; )
;
)
)
n .
n
3
4
n =3
n =1 (2n + 1)(n + 3)
n =1 n 2
n =1 (3n + 4)
:

(-1)n -1 un :
n =1

1) .
lim un 0, , ; n

lim un = 0 ;
n

2)

un
n=1

,
,

(, . 29.6). un ,

(-1)
n =1

n -1

n=1

un ; un , n=1

;
3) (, . 26.5).
1
n2

) 1) lim un = lim
= = lim
=
n
n (2n + 1)(n + 3)
n

2
1
1 + 3 n)

(
+
n
)(

1
= 0 ;
2
282

1
= = 0;

(3n + 4)

1
.
2) :
3
4
n =1 (3n + 4)

1
(, . 29.4, . 2). : 3
) 1) lim un = lim
n

n 4

n=1

, .
3

n4

un
n

1
1
= lim 4
= 4
= = lim 4

3
n vn
n
3n + 4
n 3 + 4 n
0 ;
3) .
1

n; lim un = 0.
n
4
(3n + 4)3
, , , ;
) un , . 1) ;

1
2)

2n
n

n =1
u
1
n 2n
1
; un +1 =
=
; lim n +1 = lim
: un =
n
n +1 n
n (n + 1)2n +1
un
n2
(n + 1)2
1
1
1
= = lim
= < 1 n

+
2
1
1
2
n

, .. ;
ln n
(ln n)
1 1
) 1) lim
= = lim
= lim = = 0;
n n
n n
n (n)

ln n
,
2)
n= 3 n
ln x
: f ( x ) =

x
1 - ln x

[3; +). : f ( x ) =
x2
f (x) < 0 > e f (x) [3; +).
lim

n 2n
(n + 1)2n +1

283

1
= li
2 n

f ( x ) < 0

ln x
ln 2 x
=
= d
x
x
2 3
3
;
3) , . 1), 2) . ,

ln n
.
10 (, . 29.2) (-1)n -1
n
n =1

(-1)n -1
2n + 1
(-1)n -1(n - n )
; )
; )
;
11) ) (-1)n -1 3
2
5
n+3
2n3 + 1
n =1 (2n + 1)
n =1
n =1

(-1)n -1 n4
(-1)n -1
(-1)n -1 4 n
;
;
;

1
3
)

4
n3
n =1 (2n + 3)!
n =1 (n + 1) ln(n + 1)
n =1

1 2 3 4
(-1)n
; 16) 1 - 1 + 1 - 1 + +
14) - + - + ...; 15)
5
3 5 7 9
n = 2 n ln n
+ (-1)n+1

12) )

30.

30
30.1. .

: un ( x ) ,

n =1

an ( x - x0 )n (x - x0),

(1)

an x n ,

(2)

n =1

n=1

(0, n R), (2) (1)


. : (2) . = 1 (2) : |x| < |x1|.
(2) . = 1 (2) : |x| > |x1|

284

30.2. ..
an
, n an +1
(-R, R), (1) (0 - R, 0 + R)
(2) R = lim

30.3. ..
.. ,
30.4.
f ( x0 )
f ( n ) ( x0 )
f ( x ) = f ( x0 ) +
( x - x0 ) + ... +
( x - x0 )n + ... =
1!
n!

f ( n ) ( x0 )
=
( x - x0 )n , (0! = 1)
n!
n= 0
f ( x ) = f (0) +

f (0)
f ( n)(0) n
x + ... +
x + ... =
1!
n!

n= 0

f ( n)(0) n
x
n!

30.5.

f ( x0 )
f ( n ) ( x0 )
S n ( x ) = f ( x0 ) +
( x - x0 ) + ... +
( x - x0 )n
1!
n!
: Rn(x) = f(x) - Sn(x)
: f (x)
f ( n +1)()
lim Rn ( x ) = 0, Rn ( x ) =
( x - x0 )n +1
n
(n + 1)!
( 0 )
30.6.

x x2
xn
ex = 1 + +
+ ... +
+ ..., x (-, )
1! 2 !
n!
3
x x
x 2 n -1
sin x = + ... + (-1)n -1
+ ..., x (-, )
(2n - 1)!
1! 3 !
x2 x4
x 2n
+
+ ... + (-1)n
+ ..., x (-, )
2! 4 !
(2n)!
m
m(m - 1) 2
m(m - 1)...(m - n + 1) n
(1 + x )m = 1 + x +
x + ... +
x + ...,
1!
2!
n!
x (-1, 1), ,
cos x = 1 -

285

x 2 x3
xn
+
- ... + (-1)n -1
+ ..., x (-1, 1),
2
3
n
x3 x5
x 2 n -1
arctg x = x +
- ... + (-1)n -1
+ ..., x (-1, 1)
3
5
2n - 1
ln(1 + x ) = x -

30.7.
1.

f ( n ) ( x0 )
f (x) =
( x - x0 )n, (x0 - R, x0 + R) n
!
n= 0

x1 (x0 - R, x0 + R) f (x1) Sn(x1), = |Rn(x1)|
2.
x

f ( x )dx Sn ( x )dx.
a

3.
:
y = f (x, y, y), y x = y0 , y x = y0
0

y(x)
y ( x0 )
y ( x0 )
y = y( x0 ) +
( x - x0 ) +
( x - x0 )2 + ...;
1!
2!
y(x0) = y0, y (x0) = y0, y (x0) = f(x0, y0, y 0 ),
f
f
f

y ( x0 ) = + y +
y , ...
x x

y
y x
x
0
0

. 30.130.6
1. :

n
xn
n -1 ( x + 2)
;
)
)
(
1
)
.

n
n3 + 3
n =1 n 2
n =1
: ) , (. , . 30.2):
an
1
n + 1 2n +1
1
an =
,
a
=

R
=
=
=
lim
lim
n
+
1
n an +1
n
n 2n
n + 1 2n +1
n 2n
286

n + 1 2 n +1
1
= = 2 lim 1 + = 2
n
n
n
n 2

(-2; 2).
:

2n
1
(-2)n
(-1)n
(**).
=
=
(*);

x
=
2,
x = -2,

n
n
n
n =1 n 2
n =1 n
n =1 n 2
n =1
(**) (, . 29.1),
, (*) , (**)
. (*) . :
1
1
= 0 (*) n; 2) lim
1)
n n
n
.
,
[-2; 2);
n

x+2
) : 3
n =1 n + 3
:
n +1

un =
lim

u
x+2
x+2
, un +1 =
lim n +1 =
3
3
n un
n +3
(n + 1) + 3
n +1

1 + 3 n3

=
=
x
+
2
lim
=

n
n (1 + 1 n)3 + 3 n3
x + 2 ((n + 1)3 + 3)
x+2

n3 + 3)
(n

x + 2 < 1.
-1 < x + 2 < 1 -3 < x - 1 (-3; -1).
:

1
(-1)n
(**).
(*); = -1, 3
= -3, 3
n =1 n + 3
n =1 n + 3
(*) , (**)

1
. (**) 3
n=1 n
(**) , (*)
. ,
[-3, -1].
2. (x - a): ) sin2 x,
a = 0; ) x 4 + 3x, a = 1.
287

: (, . 30.4) (, . 30.6):
) sin2 x = (1 - cos 2x)/2,
cosx,
(2 x )2 (2 x )4
(-1)n (2 x )2 n
cos 2 x = 1 +
- ... +
+ ...
2!
4!
(2n)!

(-1)n +1 22 n x 2 n
1 22 x 2 24 x 4
+ ... .
+
...
+

2 2!
4!
(2n)!
(-, +) ;
) f(x) ,
f (n) (1):
f(x) = x4 + 3x, f(1) = 4; f (x) = 4x3 + 3, f (1) = 7; f (x) = 12x 2,
f (1) = 12; f (x) = 24x, f (1) = 24; f IV(x) = 24; f IV(1) = 24;
f V(x) = 0, , f (n)(x) = 0, n > 4.
12
24
24
f ( x ) = x 4 + 3 x = 4 + 7( x - 1) + ( x - 1)2 + ( x - 1)3 + ( x - 1)4 =
2!
3!
4!
= 4 + 7(x - 1) + 6(x - 1)2 + 4(x - 1)3 + (x - 1)4.
sin 2 2 x =

nx n
xn
1) n ; 2) x + 2!x 2 + 3!x 3 + ; 3) (-1)n -1 ; 4) 1 +
n!
n =1 2
n =1

n
x
x - 1 ( x - 1)2 ( x - 1)3
+ 5x + 5 2 x 2 + + 5 n x n ; 5) n 2 ; 6)
+
+
+.
1 2
3 22
5 23
n =1 4 n

(2 x - 3)n
x2
x4
x6
x8
1 ( x - 1)2 ( x - 1)3
;
+
+ ...;
7)
8)
+
+
+
...;
n
3 32 2 33 3 34 4
3 22
5 23
n =1

x 2 n -1
5 52 53
; 10) + 2 + 3 + ....
9) (-1)n -1
2n - 1
x x
x
n =1
(x - a):
x

11) x 4 - 4x 2 , a = -2; 12) ) e 3x , a = 0; ) e 3 , a = 3;


1
, a = 0; 15) 2 , a = 0;
13) ln(1 - 2x), a = 0; 14)
2
1+ x
1
x
, a = -2.
, a = 0; 17) ln(2x - 3), a = 3; 18)
16)
2
x -5
-2 x + x + 1
288

. 30.7
1. 3 10 0,001.
: 3 10 = 3 8 + 2 = 2 3 1 + 1 4, (, . 30.6)
m = 1/3:
3

10 = 2 1 +

13

1 1 1 2 1
1 25 1

= 2 1 + - 2 2 + 3

3 4 3 2! 4
3 ! 43
3

1 258 1

4 + ... .
4

!
4
3
4

1 2 1

< 0, 001,
32 2 ! 42
1 2 5 1

> 0, 001, 333 ! 44


:
1 1 1 2 1 155

3
.
10 2 1 + - 2 2 =

3 4 3 2! 4
72
,

2. , : y + xy +
+ 4y - x = 0, y(0) = 1, y (0) = 2.
: :
y (0) 2 y (0) 3
y( x ) = y(0) + y (0) x +
x +
x + ..., y(0) = 1, y(0) = 2.
2!
3!
y (0) = (-xy 2 - 4y + x)x=0 = -4, y (0) = (-xy 2 - 4y + x)x=0 = (-y2 - 2xyy - 4y + 1)x=0 = -11.
11
, y( x ) 1 + 2 x - 2 x 2 - x 3 .
6


:
19) sin18 0,0001; 20) 3 e 0,01;
1

sin x
0,01;
x
0

21) 3 30 0,01; 22)


1

23) e- x dx 0,001; 24)


0

0,5

cos

x dx

0,001;
289

0,2

25)

1 + x 3 dx 0,0001; 26) ln 1,04

0,0001;
, , :
27) y + 2y + 2xy = 0, y(0) = y(0) = 1;
28) y - ycos x - x = 0, y(0) = 1, y(0) = 0.

31.

31
31.1.

a
f ( x ) = 0 + an cos nx + bn sin nx,
2 n =1

(1)

f(x) 2

a
: 0 + an + bn
2
n =1
(1) R
31.2. .
2
(1) ,

1
1
1
a0 = f ( x )dx, an = f ( x )cos nx dx, bn = f ( x )sin nx dx
-
-
-
31.3. f (x)
2
: f (x)
[a, b], :
1) f(x) C[a,b], I ;
2) f (x) - [a, b]
. (): f (x) 2 [a, b] R . . f (x) R, f(x) = S(x)
,
S() = ( f( - 0) + f( + 0))/2 =

290

31.4.

a
f(x) 2 f ( x ) = 0 + an cos nx,
2 n =1
a0 =

2
2
f ( x )dx, an = f ( x )cos nx dx;

0
0

f(x) 2 f ( x ) =

bn sin nx,
n =1

2
bn = f ( x )sin nx dx
0
31.5. f(x) 2l

a
n
n
f ( x ) = 0 + an cos x + bn sin
x,
2 n =1
l
l
l

a0 =

1
1
n
f ( x )dx, an = f ( x )cos x dx,
l -l
l -l
l

bn =

1
n
f ( x )sin
x dx

l -l
l

. 31
1. f (x) 2
(. 31.1),
0, x (- , 0),
f ( x) =
x, x [0, ).

. 31.1

: (,
. 31.3), (, . 31.2).
291

1
1 x2
a0 = 0 dx + x dx =
-
2
0
an =

=
0

;
2

u = x, du = dx,

x
cos
nx
d
x
=

=
1
0
d
v
=
cos
nx
d
x
,
v
=
cos
nx
d
x
=
sin
nx

1 x sin nx

bn =

(-1)n - 1
1
nx
x
sin
d
;
=
n 0
n2

1
1 x cos nx
x sin nx dx =
0

(-1)n
1
cos nx dx =
.

n0
n

f (x) =

2 cos x cos 3 x cos 5 x


sin 2 x

+
- 2 +
+
+ ... + sin x 2
2

4 1
2
3
5

sin 3 x
+ ...
3
xn = (2n - 1)
f ( xn - 0) + f ( xn + 0) + 0
=
= .
2
2
2

-1, x (- , 0),
2. f ( x ) =
1, x [0, )
2.
: f (x) (. 31.2), (,
. 31.4)
4

2
2 cos nx
, n = 2k - 1,
a0 = an = 0; bn = sin nx dx = = n
0
n 0
0, n = 2k.

. 31.2

292

, f ( x ) =

4 sin nx
, x 0, 1, 2,....

n =1 n

3.
x, x [0, 1],
4.
f (x) =
2, x (1, 2]
: f (x)
[-2, 0] (. 31.3). f(x)

a
nx
.
f ( x ) = 0 + an cos
2 n =1
2

. 31.3

0, an a0 =
l

an =

2
f ( x )dx,
l 0

nx
2
f ( x )cos
dx , . 31.4,
l 0
l

31.5.
,
1
1
2
x2
2
1
2
a0 = x dx + 2dx =
+ 2x 1 = 2 ;
20
2 0
2

1
an =

1
2
nx
nx
2
dx + 2 cos
dx =
x sin
20
2
2

x = u,
du = dx,

1
nx

2x
=
sin
+
nx =
nx
2
2 0
cos 2 dxx = dv, v = n sin 2 n
+

nx
22
cos
2
(n)2

+
0

4
nx
2
n
4
sin
= - sin
- 2 2.
n
2 1
n
2
n
293


(2n - 1)x
5 (-1)n 2
f ( x) = +
cos
(2n - 1)
2
2
n =1

nx
4
.
cos
2
n
2 2


2:
x
- 4 - 2 , x [- , 0),
- x, x [- , 0),
1) f ( x ) =
2) f ( x ) =
2 x, x [0, ];
- x , x [0, ];
4 2
0

,
(
,
),
x

3) f ( x ) =
x , x [- , - 2] [ 2, ];
4) f(x) = -x/2, x [-; 0], ;
5) f(x) = sinx, x [-p, p];
6) f(x) (. 31.4);

. 31.4

, x (- , 0),
7) f ( x ) =
- x, x [0, ].
2l:
1, x [-1, 0),
x
l = 1; 9) f ( x ) = 1 - , x [-2, 2], l = 2;
8) f ( x ) =
0
1
x
,
x

[
,
],
2

10) f (x) = x 2, x [-1, 1], l = 1.

(-1)n
3n
.
; )
n =1 n (n + 3)!
n =1 4 n + 5
: ) ; ) .

1. : )

294

2. :

(- x )n
( x - 2)n n !
; )
)
.
3
n
n2
n =1 n 2
n =1
: ) [-2; 2]; ) = 2.
3. f (x) = ln(10 + x).

xn
: ln10 + (-1)n +1
.
n 10 n
n =1
1, x (- , 0],
4. f ( x ) =
3, x (0, ).
: 2 +

4 sin(2n + 1) x
.

n =1 2n + 1

2
1. :

n2
(-1)n
;
)
)
6 5 .
2
n =1 (3n + 1)(n + 3)
n = 2 n ln n
: ) ; ) .
2. :

xn
nx 2 n
; ) n . : ) (-; +); ) (-2; 2).
)
n =1 (2n + 3)!
n =1 4
3. ( - 3)

( x - 3)n -1
.
f(x) = 1/x. : (-1)n +1
3n
n =1
x
4. f ( x ) = - ,
4 2
2 cos n(2n + 1) x
.
x (0, p). :
n =1 (2n + 1)2


N
N , p = ,
5
+ + +
, q =
+ 1.
5

295

1
:

n=1

n =1

) an ; ) (-1)n -1 un , :
N - 5p + 1

an

un
1

p +1

n
qn p +1 + 3

(qn + 5)2 p +1

( p + n)q
(( p + 1)n + 2)!

(n + 1) (ln(n + 1))2 p +1

1
6

(n + 1) 5 (ln(n + 1))2( p +1)

n3 + p
(n + 1)(n p + 3 + q )

n2 + 3
n(n + q )(n p +1 + 4)

n(n2 + p)
qn3 + p + 1

(3n + q )2( p +1)


qn
(3n + p)!

2

:

n=1

n =1

) an x n ; ) bn ( x - p - 1)n , :
N - 5p + 1
1

296

an
1
p+1
n (q + 2)

bn
n p+q
(2n)!
n!
( p + 2)n

1
n + p +1

( p + 2)n

1
qn + p + 1

n p+ 3
(n + p + q )!

1
nq ( p + 2)2 n

(n + p)!
( p + 3)n

( p + 2)2 n
( p + 1)n + q

3
f (x) = x 6 + x p + qx N-5p+1
(x + (-1)N(p + 1)).
4
1


= 10-3, :

f ( x )dx

N - 5p + 1

f(x)

p +3

1 + x2

p+2

x cos x

ln(1 +
sin

4
5

p+2

p+2

p+2

x)

5

: ay + by + cy = f(x), y(0) = y (0) = 1,
:
N - 5p + 1
1
2
3
4
5

a
1
y
1
x+p+1
p+1

b
x p+1
p+1
y p+1
q
(sin x) p+1

c
(-1)Nq
0
0
x p+1
(-1)N

f(x)
p+1
cosx
qe x
p+3
q

. 2931
29.
1) ) .; ) .; ) .; 2) ) .; ) .; 3) ) .;
) .; 4) .; 5) .; 6) .; 7) .; 8) .; 9) .;
10) .; 11) ) .; ) . .; ) . .; 12) ) .;
) . .; 13) . .; 14) .; 15) . .; 16) .
297

30.

1) (-2; 2); 2) . = 0; 3) (-; ); 4) (-1/5; 1/5);


5) [-4; 4]; 6) [-1; 3); 7) (1; 2]; 8) [- 3; 3 ]; 9) [-1; 1];
10) (-; -1/5) (1/5; +); 11) (x + 2)4 - 8(x + 2)3 + 20(x +
3
3n n
x + ...; (-; );
+ 2) 2 - 16(x + 2); 12) a) 1 + x + ... +
1!
n!

( x - 3)
( x - 3)n
22 2 23 3
2n n
+ ... +
+
...
;
2
x
x
x
...
x (-;
);
13)
) e 1 +

3 1!
2
3
n
3n n !

23
2n n
(-1)n 1 3 5 ... (2n - 1) x 2 n
x 2 - x 3 - ... x - ...; (-1/2; 1/2); 14) 1 +
;
3
n
2n n !
n =1
ln 2
(ln 2)2 2
(ln 2)n n
x+
x + ... +
x + ...; (-; );
(-1; 1); 15) 1 +
1!
2!
n!

2n ( x - 3)n
1
1
1
;
16) (1 - (-2)n ) x n ; - < x < ; 17) ln 3 + (-1)n -1
3 n =1
2
2
n 3n
n =1
1 ( x + 2)n
; (-9; 5); 19) 0,3091; 20) 1,39; 21) 3,12;
(3/2; 9/2); 18) -
7 n = 0 7n
22) 0,94; 23) 0,748; 24) 0,440; 25) 0,2002; 26) 0,392; 27) 1 + x 1
1
x 2 x3 x5 5x 6
- x 2 + x 3 - x 4 ; 28) 1 +
+
+
.
3
4
2 ! 3! 5!
6!
31.

sin 2nx
3 6 cos(2n - 1) x
n -1 sin nx
;
-
+
(
1
)
;
2)
1)

2
2n
4 n =1 (2n - 1)
n
n=1
n =1
3
1
1
2

3)
cos(2n - 1) x +
cos 2nx ;
+ (-1)n 2 cos nx +
8 n =1
2n - 1
n

(2n)2

sin
nx
sin(
n
)
x
4
2
1

4
cos(
2
n
1
)
x
; 5)
; 6) +
4) (-1)n
;
n
n =1 2n - 1
2 n =1 (2n - 1)2
n =1
sin nx 2 cos(2n - 1) x
3
;
- (-1)n -1
+
7)
4 n =1
n
n =1 (2n - 1)2

3 ((-1)n - 1)
1
n
2
cos
sin
;
n

x
n

x
1
+
(-1)n sin x;
9)
8) +

2
4 n =1 (n)
n
n
2
n =1
1 4
n
x
cos

.
10) + 2 (-1)n
3 n =1
n2

11

32.

32
32.1.
2u
2u
(1)
1. 2 = a 2 2 , a = const
t
x
2. ( )
u
2u
= a2 2 , a = const
(2)
t
x
2u 2u
(3)
3. 2 + 2 = 0 
x
y
,

32.2.
II
2u
2u
2u
u
u
a11 2 + 2a12
(*)
+ a22 2 + b1
+ b2
+ cu = F ( x, y ),
x y
x
y
x
y
a11, a12, a22, b1, b2, c const
a11(dy)2 + 2a12 dydx + a22(dx)2 = 0
2
dy -a12 a12 - a11a22
=
= 1,2 y = 1,2 x + c1,2
dx
a11

2
1) = a12
- a11a22 > 0 ,

2u
u u
2u 2u

= F , , u, ,
= F;


2 2

2) = 0

2u
= F;
2

2u 2u
+
=F
2 2
(1) 1- , (2) 2- , (3) 3-

3) < 0

299

:
1) 1-, 2- ;
2) 2- ;
3) 1-, 2- (
)


:
2u
2u
2 u u u
+ 2 +
+
+ 2u - x 2 y = 0;
1) 2 + 4
x
y
x
y

x
y
2u
2u
2u
u
u
+ 2 +2
+2
- u = 0;
2) 2 2 + 2
x y y
x
y
x
2u
2u
2 u u u
3) 2 + 2
+ 2 +
+
+ 3u - xy 2 = 0.
x y y
x y
x

33.

33
33.1.
(*) (.
, . 32.2)
= y - 1x, = y - 2x. :
2
2u

2 u
, t > 0, x R,
2 =a
2

t
x

u( x, 0) = ( x ), u
= ( x ),

t t = 0
x + at
1
u( x, t ) = [( x - at ) + ( x + at )] 2 +
( x )dx
2a x -at
33.2.
(*)
u(x, y) = X(x)Y (y).
300

1. :
2
2u
2 u
, t > 0, 0 < x < l ,
2 =a
x 2
t

u( x, 0) = u(l , t ) = 0, t 0,

u
u( x, 0) = f ( x ),
= ( x ), 0 x l
t t = 0

an
an
n

u( x, t ) = Cn cos
t + Dn sin
t sin
x,

l
l
l
n =1

l
l
2
2
n
n
( x )sin
x dx, Dn =
x dx
Cn = f ( x )sin

l
an 0
l
l0
2. :
an

-
t
u
n
2u
u( x, t ) = Bne l sin
x,
= a2 2 , t > 0, 0 < x < l ;

l
t
x
n =1

l
u(0, t ) = u(l , t ) = 0, t 0,
2
n
( x ) sin
x dx
=
B
u( x, 0) = ( x ), 0 x l ,
n

l
l
0

3. :
2u 2u
+
= 0; D: x 2 + y 2 < R 2 ; u D = f ( x, y)
x 2 y 2
:
2u
u 2u
r2 2 + r
+
= 0, u r = R = F()
r 2
r
u=

A0
+ ( An cos n + Bn sin n)r n ,
2 n=1

A0 =

1
1
F(t )dt, An =
F(t )cos nt dt,
-
R
n -

Bn =

1
F(t )sin nt dt
R n -

301

. 33
1.
:
2u( x, y )
2u( x, y)
0
;
=
)
)
= x 2 - y.
x y
x 2
u
: )
= 0.
x x
u
,
,
x
u
= 1( y).
.
x
u
= 1( y), :
x
u( x, y) = 1( y)dx = x1( y) + 2 ( y), j1(y), j2(y) ;

u
2
= x - y y x
u
y2
= ( x 2 - y)dy = x 2 y + 1( x ). ,
2
x
,

y2
x3 y y2 x
u( x, y) = x 2 y + 1( x ) dx =
+ 1( x )dx + 2 ( y).
2
3
2

2. :
2u
2u
4
, t > 0, x R,
=
2
t
x 2

u( x, 0) = x 2 , u
= x, - < x < .

t t = 0
: u(x, y) ,
(. , . 33.1),
= 2, = 2, = :
u( x, t ) = [( x - 2t )2 + ( x + 2t )2 ] 2 +
x + 2t

x + 2t

1
x dx =
4 x -2t

1
1
= x 2 + 4t 2 + xt .
= (2 x 2 + 8t 2 ) + x 2
2
8 x - 2t
u(x, t) = x 2 + 4t 2 + xt.
302

3. ,
2u
2u
u
9
, t = /6, u t = 0 = sin x,
=
= 1.
2
2
t t = 0
t
x
: = 3, = sinx, = 1,
, . 33.1, u(x, t) = [sin(x - 3t) +
x + 3t
1 x + 3t
1
dx, .. u = sin x cos 3t + x x - 3t =
+ sin(x + 3t)]/2 +
6
6 x -3t
= sinx cos3t + t. t = /6, u = /6, ..
.

4.
l:
2u
2u
2 = 4 2 , t > 0, 0 < x < l ,
x
t
u(0, t ) = u(l , t ) = 0, t 0,

u
2x
u( x, 0) = 0,
= sin
, 0 x l.
t

t =0
: u(x, t) , (, . 33.2, . 1), = 2, f(x) = 0,

n
2n
t sin x. Dn
(x) = sin(2/l )x: u( x, t ) = Dn sin
l
l
n =1

l

Dn =

n
1
2
sin
x sin x dx = {n 2} =
n 0
l
l
l

cos (2 - n) x - cos (2 + n) x dx =
l
l
2n 0
l

1
l
(2 - n)
l
(2 + n)
=
sin
xsin
x =

0
2n (2 - n)
l
(2 + n)
l
l 1
1

sin (2 - n) sin(2 - n) = 0;
2

2+n
2n 2 - n
4x
l
l 1 - cos
1
1
2 2
l dx =
sin
D2 =
x dx =
l
2 0
2 0
2
=

303

1 l
1 l
4x
x0
sin
l
4
4 4

l
.

4
0
l
4
2
sin t sin
x.
u( x, t ) =
4
l
l

5. x 2 + y 2 R 2 1
u x 2 + y 2 = R 2 = x 2 - y 2 + y. 2
, , .
: (,
. 33.2, . 3): u(r, ),
F() = R 2 cos2 - R 2 sin2 +
+ (Rsin)/2 = R 2 cos 2 + (Rsin )/2.

A
1
u(r , ) = 0 + ( An cos n + Bn sin n)r n , A0 = F(t )dt,
2 n =1
-

1
1
An =
F(t )cos nt dt, Bn =
F(t )sin nt dt.
n
R -
R n -

A
1
u(R, ) = R 2 cos 2 + R sin = 0 + ( An cos n + Bn sin n)R n .
2
2 n =1
, cos 2 sin,
R2 = R2 A2, R/2 = RB1.
, A2 = 1, B1 = 1/2.
. u(r, ),
1
1
u(r , ) = r 2 cos 2 + r sin = r 2 (cos 2 - sin 2 ) + r sin =
2
2
1
= x 2 - y 2 + y.
2
u(x, y) = x 2 - y 2 + y/2.


:
2u( x, y)
2u( x, y)
2u( x, y)
= 2 x; 3)
= 6 x; 2)
1)
= ex + y .
2
2
x
y

x
y
:
304

2u 2u
2u
2u
,
t
0
,
x
R
,
16
, t > 0, x R,
=
>

=
2
2
t
t
x 2
x 2
4)
5)
u( x, 0) = x 2 , u
u( x, 0) = 0, u
= 0;
= cos x;

t t = 0
t t = 0
2u 2u
2 = 2 , t > 0, x R,
t
x
6)
u( x, 0) = x, u
= - x.

t t = 0
:
7) l, , , u = 2 sin( x/l ).
. .
8) l = l/3 h .
u(x, t) .
2u
2u
9) , 2 = 9 2 ,
t
x
u
= cos x.
t = , u t = 0 = sin x,
t t = 0
10) 100 , . u(x, t), x, 0 x 50;
u( x, 0) =
100 - x, 50 < x 100.
u 2 u
, =
y x 2
u(0, y) = u(, y) = 0
u(x, 0) = 3sin2x.
12) R
, :
3x
; ) u r = R = 3 - 5 y; ) u r = R = 3R(2 - ).
) u r = R =
R
11)

305


n , + + n
+ + n
+ 2, l =
, a =

+ 2, b =

+ + n
b=
+ 3.
5

1
:
2
2u
2 u
a
, t > 0, x R,
=
2
x 2
t
u( x, 0) = (-1)n x 2 + (-1)n +1 x 3 + x 2 + x 3,

u
= a cos x + b sin x + (-1)n a cos x + (-1)n +1 b sin x, - < x < .
t t = 0
2
:
2
2u
2 u
, t > 0, 0 < x < l ,
2 =a
x 2
t
u(0, t ) = u(l , t ) = 0, t 0,

n
n +1
u( x, 0) = b sin l x + a cos l x + (-1) b sin l x + (-1) a cos l x,

u
n
2
n +1
2
t t = 0 = ax + bx + l + (-1) ax + (-1) (bx + l ), 0 x l .

3
:
2
2u
2 u
a
, t > 0, 0 < x < l ,
=
2
x 2
t
u(0, t ) = u(l , t ) = 0, t 0,

u( x, 0) = ax + l + bx 2 + (-1)n (ax + l ) + (-1)n +1 bx 2 .

306

4
:
2u 2u
2 + 2 = 0, 0 < x < a, 0 < y < b,
y
x
u(0, y) = (ly + 3) + ((l + 1) y + 2) + (-1)n (ly + 3) + (-1)n +1((l + 1) y + 2),

u( x, 0) = b cos x + a sin x + (-1)n b cos x + (-1)n +1 a sin x.

l
l
l
l
: , :

n(a - x )
nx
ny
1
u( x, y) =
+ gn sh
sin
+
n sh

n
a

b
b
b
n =1 sh
b
n(b - y)
ny
nx
1
+
f sh
+ n sh
sin a ,
nb n
a
a
sh
a
b
b
n
2
n
2
y dy,
y dy, g n = g( y)sin
n = ( y)sin
b0
b
b0
b
a

fn =

n
n
2
2
f ( x )sin x dx, n = ( y)sin x dx,

a0
a
a0
a

u(0, y) = (y), u(a, y) = g(y), 0 y b; u(x, 0) = f (x),

e x - e- x
u(x, b) = (x), 0 x a sh x =
.

2
. 32, 33
32.
1) ; 2) ; 3) .
33.

1) u = x 3 + x1(y) + 2(y); 2) u = yx 2 + 1(y) + 2(x); 3) u =


= ex+y + y1(x) + 2(x); 4) u = x 2 + t 2; 5) u = (cos x sin 4t)/4;
at
x
n
na
9h 1
sin ; 8) u( x, t ) = 2 2 sin
6) u = x(1 - t); 7) u = 2cos
cos
t sin
l
l
l
3
n =1 n
307

a2n2t

n
na
nx
1
n - 2
4l 1
nx
sin

cos
t
sin
;
u
=
sin e l sin
;
9)
u()
=
-sin
x;
10)
n2 2 32
2 2
l
l
l
2
n

a n t
=1
n
=
1
n - 2
nx
n e l sin
,; l = 100; 11) u = 3e-4y sin 2x; 12) ) u = 3x/R; ) u =
l
2

1
= 3 - 5y; ) u(r , ) = 2R 2 - 12 2 n r n cos n.
n =1 n R

12


34.

34
34.1.
(..).
: = {} ,

: .. . ,
:
n!
Pn = n! n , Anm =

(n - m)!
n!

n m, Cnm =
(n - m)! m !
n m
34.2. ..
A B = {: A B}
AB = {: A B}
A\B = {: A B}
A = \A A
A, B AB = A B = A + B
: S = {Ai}, Ai , i N
Ai =
i

34.4.
: AB = P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B)
AB P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(AB)
A + A = P(A) = 1 - P(A)
: P(A/B) ( ,
). , P(A/B) = P(A),
P(B/A) = P(B)
: P(AB) = P(A/B)P(B); , P(AB) =
= ()()
n

i =1

i =1

: S = {Hi}: H i = P(A) = P ( H i )P(A/Hi), A


309

34.3.
1.
= {1, 2, ..., n, ...}
: (i) (i) R:
1) (i) 0 i, 2) P ( i ) = 1;
i

P(wi) i
: P ( A) = P ( i ),
i

() = 1, () = 0, 0 < () < 1
:
= (1, 2, ..., n), i, i = 1, n, , m . i () = m/n
2.
: *, Rn, * , . a * () = (*)/(E ), (E )
3.
: () *() = m/n ; m
n
34.5.
c.. n m
:
Pn(m) = Cnm pmqn-m, P(A) = p, P(A) = 1 - p = q

. 34.1, 34.2
1. 10 6 .
?
: 410 , 10
, , .. . , 46 ,
64 . ,
10 ! 6 ! 10 !
4
A64 =
=
.
A10
6! 2!
2!
310

2. . .
,
.
: r , p . : (r, r, r), (r, r, p), (r, p, r),
(p, r, r), (r, p, p), (p, r, p), (p, p, r), (p, p, p), ..
. (r, p, p), (p, r, p), (p, p, r), .. .
3. 5 6 .
4 . ,
. , ,
.
: i,
11, n =
11!
4
= C 11
=
= 330. i, 4 !7 !
. , 2 2 .
26 , 25 . 6 ! 5!
6554
m = C 26 C 25 =
=
= 150 2 ! 4 ! 2 !3 !
2 2
.
4. . ,
.
?
: , , .. ,
. ,
, .. ,
.
, ,
.
311


1) 10 8 ,
2 3 . ?
2) 36 , 4 .
6 , 2 ?
3) 10 , ?
4) 6 ?
5)7)
,
.
5) .
.
6) 4 .
.
7) 10 3 . 5 . .
8)
, . + , ?
9) 5, .
\, B?
10) . , .
, ?

. 34.3
1. 4 6 .
. , .
:
10 i (
). , ..
4 . () : () = m/n, m = 4,
n = 10. () = 4/10 = 2/5.
312

2. ,
, , , .
, .
: i = (ni, mi), ni, mi 0, 1, 2, , 9 , ni mi.
N 10 2, .. ,
. 34.1, N = 10!/8! = 90. ; , () =
= 1/90.
3. 10 .
,
.
: i ( ), N 10 5, .. N =
10 !
5
= 10
=
= 252. i,
5 !5 !
. M
,
7 3 ( 7 3, 37), , 5 - 3 = 2
10 - 7 = 3 (
7 ! 3!
3 2, 23). , M = C 37 C 23 =
= 105.
4 !3 ! 2 !1!
, () = M/N = 105/252 = 5/12.
.
n k .
, m (m < n) l
. P
: l m
C l C m-l
P ( A) = k mn - k . l = m :
Cn
Ckm
P ( A) = m .
Cn
4. ,
.
. ,
.
313

: {i}, {i}
. N 10 , 10 . , . 34.1, N = 10!
. 2 ,
, 2 , , .
M = 2!3!2! ,
. () = M/N =
2 !3 ! 2 !
= 1/151200.
=
10 !
5. , . ,
. .
: i = (ni, mi), ni, mi 0, 1, 2, , 6 .
(1, 1) (1, 2) (1, 3) ... (1, 6)
(2, 1) (2, 2) (2, 3) ... (2, 6)
.
=
...
... ... ...
...
(6, 1) (6, 2) (6, 3) ... (6, 6)
, N N = 36.
, ni > mi,
: = 15.
() = /N = 15/36 = 5/12.
6. 20 CD 10 . , CD.
: , () = LAB /LCD =
= 10/20 = 1/ 2.


11) , , 1000 , 314

. ,
.
12) .
() ?
13) . . ,
.
14) (52 ) .
, , , ?
15) .
6 1 6. , . , .
16) . , .
17) . ,
6.
18) . , . , . ,
.
19) 5 10 . ,

.

. 34.4
1. - 1000
120 80 . - .
: i, i- ,
i 1, 1000.
, ,
. = +
( = , .. ). () = ( + ) = () + (). () =
315

= 120/1000 = 0,12, () = 80/1000 = 0,08, ( ) = 0,12 +


+ 0,08 = 0,2.
2. 1 = 0,75 2 = 0,8.
, :
) ;
) ,
;
)
;
) .
: , .
) : 1 1-
, 2 2-
, A1, A2 , 1
2, ,
B .
(1) = 1 = 0,75 (2) = 2 = 0,8, (. ,
. 34.4) ( A1) = 1 - (1) = 1 - 0,75 = 0,25, ( A2 ) = 1 - 0,8 =
= 0,2. A1, A2 , B = A1 A2 .
(B) = ( A1 A2 ) = ( A1)
( A2 ) = 0,25 0,2 = 0,05.
)
, D . = , D = () =
= ()() = 0,8 0,75 = 0,6; (D) = (( ))3 = (0,6)3 = 0,216.
) B, () = 1 - (B) = 1 - 0,05 = 0,95
( (B) )).
, , = , ( ) = () + () - () = 0,75 + 0,8 - 0,6 = 0,95.
)
= B + A,
() = (B) + (A) = ()(B) + (A)() =
= 0,8 0,25 + 0,2 0,75 = 0,35.
316

3.
= 0,2. , 2%
?
:
, , . = ,
(/) = = 0,2, (B) = 0,02, () = 1 - (B) = 0,98. , ( ) = () = ()() = 0,98 0,2 = 0,196.
4. 19 , 3 . , ,
0,81,
0,46. ,
, , .
: : 1
, 2 , . 1 2 , 1 + 2 = , .. 1 2 ,
(1) = 3/19, (2) = 16/19.
(/1) = 0,81, (2) = 0,46. : () = (1)
(/1) + (2) (/2) = (3/19) 0,81 + (16/19) 0,46 =
= 0,515.


20)
1 = 0,3, 2 = 0,4. .
21) 1-
1 = 0,7, 2 = 0,8. , . ,
.
22) 1 = 0,8,
2 = 0,7, 3 = 0,9.
, : )
, ) .
23) 20 25 . ,
.
317

24) N
. 34.1. t
i:

A1
0,5

A2
0,5

B1
0,4

B2
0,7

B3
0,9

t.

. 34.1

25) 94% ,
90%, 85%,
.
, , 5 , 3 3
.

. 34.5
1. 20 10 .
4 , . , ?
: ,
10 1
20 2
= ,
= , (A) = q =
() = =
30 3
30 3
. (. , . 34.5) 4(2) =
4! 4 1
8
=
.
= 422q 2 = C42(2/3)2(1/3)2 =
2 ! 2 ! 9 9 27
2. , . .
318

: ,
() = = 1/2, (A) = q = 1/2.
, n = 5, m = 3, .. 5(3) =
5! 1 1
5
= .
= 53(1/2)3(1/2)2 =
3 ! 2 ! 8 4 16


26)
0,9. , .
27) ( ):
?
28) 10 ,
0,4
.
.
: m n ,
, = [(n + 1)p] .

35.

35
35.1. .
: = (), , R.
= (x1, x2, ..., xn). (a, b)
:

x2
p2

x1
p1

...
...

xn
pn

pi = 1
i

: : F(x) = ( < x), x R


: . (): F (x) = (x).
F (x) =

(t )dt,

( x )dx = 1.

319

P ( x1 x2 ) =

x2

( x )dx

x1

35.2.
:
= (x1, x2, ..., xn), ( = i) = pi M () =

xi pi
i =1

. (x) M () =

x( x )dx

D() = M(( - M())2). () = D()


35.3.
:
= (x1, x2, ..., xn) ( = i) = 1/n, i = 1, n
1 n
1 n
1 n
M () = xi , D() = xi2 - xi
n i =1
n i =1
n i =1

:
= (1, 2, ..., n) P( = i) = Cni piq n-i,
i = 1, n; p, q . 34.5 () = np, D() = npq
: = (1, 2, ..., n) P( = i) =
= (i/i!)e-, = np; p . 34.5 M() = D() =
: [a, b]
(x) = c, c = const, x [a, b] = 1/(b - a),
M() = (a + b)/2, D() = (b - a)2/12
:
1
e
( x ) =
2

m = M(), =

( x - m)2
22

, (-, +);

D()

35.4.
: = () = (1(), 2(), ..., n()),
Rn,
: = (, )
F(x, y) = P( < x, < y)
x

F ( x, y ) =

(t1, t2 )dt1dt2, (x, y) ,

- -

320

( x, y)dx dy = 1, P ( D) = ( x, y)dx dy.

- -

M() = (M(), M()), M () =


M ( ) =

x( x, y)dx dy,

- -

y( x, y)dx dy

- -

: , (, )
= (, ): (, ) = ()()
: 2 2 =

i2, i,
i =1

i = 1, n,
m = 0, = 1. : M( ) = M() M().
M ( ) - M () M ( )
: R(, ) =

() ( )

. (): i, i = 1, n, m, s;
n =

1
n

i lim P (n < x ) = F( x ), F( x ) =
i =1

x2

1
e 2 dx
2 0

. 35.1
1. , 100 ,
10 , 5 . , , .
.
:
= {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. ( = k)
, k ,
(. 3 . 34.3)
C k C 5- k
Pk = P ( = k ) = 10 510 , k = 0, 5.
C100
321

0,001

pi

0
0,583

1
0,340

2
0,070

3
0,007

4
0

5
0

= 1. F(x) =

i =0

= P( < x), ..
0, x 0,
0,583, 0 x 1,

F ( x ) = 0, 923, 1 x 2,
0, 993, 2 x 3,

1, x > 3.
. 35.1 ,
. 35.2 .

. 35.1

. 35.2

2.
a sin x, 0 x ,
: ( x ) =
x < 0 x > .
0,
) ; ) F(x); ) (x), F(x); )
0
/4 ((0 /4)).
: )

( x )dx = 1,

322

.. a sin x dx = 1 a(- cos x 0 ) = 1 a = 0,5;


0

) F ( x ) =

(t )dt

0, x 0,
x
0, x 0,
1 sin x dx, 0 x < ,
1 1

F ( x ) = - cos x, 0 x < ,
F ( x) = 2 0

2 2
1
sin x dx, x ,
1, x ;
2
0
) (x), F(x) . 35.3 35.4 ;

. 35.3

. 35.4

) (0 /4)
P (0 4) =

1
2

x 4

(t )dt =

1
2

sin x dx = - 2 cos x 0

1 2
=-
- 1 0,15.

2 2
(0 /4) F(/4) =
= 1/2 - os(/4) = 0,15.


1) .
,
, .
2) 4 .
0,5 ,
323

.
, .
3)
0, x < 0,
( x ) = 2 - kx
ax e , 0 x < .
: ) ; ) ; ) (0; 1/k).
4) -

0, x - a,
1 1
x

F ( x ) = + arcsin , -a x < a,
2

1, x a.
: )
(-/2; /2); ) (x).

. 35.2
1.

3
0,14

5
0,20

7
0,49

11
0,17

(), D(),
s().
: ()
M () =

xi pi

= 3 0,14 +

i =1

+ 5 0,20 + 7 0,49 + 11 0,17 = 6,72.

D() = M(x2) - (M(x))2 = 9 14 + 25 0,20 + 49 0,49 +


+ 121 0,17 - (6,72)2 5,682.
: () = D() = 5, 682.
2. (),
D() s()
2 . 35.1.
324

: ()

1
M () = x( x )dx = x sin x dx =
20
-
x = u,
du = dx,

=
=
sin x dx = dv, v = sin x dx = - cos x

= - x cos x 0 + cos x dx = + sin x 0 = .


2
2
2
0
D()

2
1
D() = M (2 ) - ( M ())2 = x 2 sin x dx =
20
4

x 2 = u,
du = 2 x dx,
=
=
sin x dx = dv, v = sin x dx = - cos x

du = dx,
x = u,
1
2

= - x 2 cos x 0 + x cos x dx =
=
2
4
cos x dx = dv, v = sin x
0

2
2 2

+ x sin x 0 + cos x 0 =
- 2.
2
4
4

() =

2
- 2.
4


5) (), D() s() :
) 1 . 35.1; ) 1)
. 35.1.
6) :
0, x -a,
2
0, x < 0,
x
() F ( x ) = , 0 x 2, ) F ( x ) =
- x
1 - e , x 0
4
1, x > 2;

).
(), D().
325

7) (), D() 3)
. 35.1.

. 35.3
1. .
= 0,4. ,
(), D() s().
: : =
= {0, 1, 2, 3}, ( = i) = 3i (0,4)i (0,6)3-i, ..

0
0,216

1
0,432

2
0,288

3
0,064

, () =
= np = 3 0,4 = 1,2, D() = npq = 3 0,4 0,6 = 0,72 s() =
= 0, 72 = 0,85.
2. 1000 .

0,001 .
?
:
.
i
pi = p( = i ) = e- , = np = 1000 0, 001 = 1.
i!
: p2 =
1
= p( = 2) =
0,184.
2e

1000
2
p( 2) = pi = 1 - p0 - p1 = 1 - 0, 264.
e
i =2
3. s
,
326

. (m = 0), 0,8 20().


: , (| x| 20) = 0,8. , ( ) =
- m
- m
, (u) =
- F
= F

u2

1
e 2 du
2 0
, ( 1).
20
20
20
(|x| 20) = F - F - = 2F = 0,8,



, 20/ = 1,90, .. = 10,5 ().


8) 5 , 0,6
.
, (), D() s().
9) , , 0,01.
300 . , 4 ?
10)
(2, 8). :
) (3, 5); ) (), D().
11)
50 (m = 50).
= 100 . ,
150 .
12) () = 40 D() =
= 200.
(20, 80).

. 35.4
1. = (, ) A
.
( x, y) = 2
2
(16 + x )(25 + y 2 )
327

: ) ; )
F(x, y).
: ) ,

A
dx
dy
d
x
d
y

(
x
,
y
)
=
1

=

2
2
16
25

+
x
+ y2
-
-
-
-

A 1
x
1
y
A
arctg
= 2 arctg
+ + =
=

4 - 5
5 -
4
20 2 2 2 2 2
A
= 1 A = 20;
=
20
)
y
y
x
x
20dx
20dy
F ( x, y) = dx dy ( x , y ) = 2
=
2 2
(16 + x ) - (25 + y 2 )
-
-
-

x
y
x 1 1
y 1
20 1
x
1
y 1

arctg
arctg

= arctg + arctg + .
2
4 2
5 2
4 - 5
5 -

2. (, ) F(x, y) = sin x sin y, 0 x /2,


0 y /2.
: ) ; ) ; ) D * D *: {y = x,
y = 0, x = /2}.
: )
2 F F
2 F
( x, y) =
;
= cos x sin y,
= cos x cos y;
x y x
x y
) M() = (M(), M()),
2

M ( ) =

dx dy x cos x cos y = dx x cos x sin y


0

2
0

dx x cos x = x sin x 0
0

=
0
2

dx sin x = 2 + cos x 0
0

- 1;
2

- 1;
2
) D* (. 35.5)

M ( ) = M () =

328

P ( D *) =

dx dy cos x cos y =
D*

dx cos x dy cos y =
0

1 1

dx cos x sin x = 2 dx sin 2 x = - 2 2 cos 2 x 0


0

1
1
(1 + 1) = .
4
2

. 35.5


13)
1
.
(, ) ( x, y) = 2
(1 + x 2 )(1 + y 2 )
D*:
{0 x 1,1/ 3 y 3}.
14) (, )
c(R 2 - x 2 + y 2 ), x 2 + y 2 R 2 ,
( x, y) =
0, x 2 + y 2 > R 2 .
: ) c; ) D*: {x 2 + y 2 2 < R 2}.
15)
2
(, ), ( x, y) =
.
2
( x + y 2 + 1)2
16) (, )
(x, y) = cos x cosy, 0 x /2, 0 y /2.
D() = (D(), D()) .
17)
(1, 2, 3) : F(x, y, z) =
= (1 - e-ax)(1 - e-by)(1 - e-cz), x, y, z 0.
329

36.

36
36.1.
: (1, 2, ..., n) ,
n
: :
x
P*

x*1
p1*

x2*
p2*

...
...

xl*
pl*

xi* (1, 2, ..., n), x*i-1 < xi*, i = 1, l ,


pi* = mi /n ,
mi xi
: :
x
P*

(a0, a1)
p1*

(a1, a2)
p2*

...
...

(al-1, al)
pl*

mi , (ai-1, ai).
:

: :
0, x a1;
k

F *( x ) = pi*, ak -1 < x ak , k = 1, l ;
i =1
1, x > a .
n

36.2.
: *, D* :
1 n
1 n
M * = xi , D * = ( xi - M *)2 ;
n i =1
n i =1
. :
330

M* =

i =1

i =1

xi pi*, D* = ( xi - M *)2 pi*;

(), D()
(1, 2, ..., n) () *, D() D *
:
(* , * + ) (| - *| ) = ,
*
F(x, ) ,
m,
m M * P(m* - m m * + ) = 2( n/). = (, ) ((x1, y1), (x2, y2), ..., (xn, yn))
M *( ) - M *() M *( )
R*(, ) =
,
D *() D *( )
1 n
M *( ) = xi yi
n i =1
36.3.
:
H0: M(x) = M(h); H1: M(x) > M(h), x, h , n l
mx*, mh*, D *(x), D *(h), n 30,
l 30.
Z = m * - m * D *() n + D *( ) l ,
P(Z > Z.) = a,
a (
1 - 2
.
H 0 ), Z . = F -1
2
Z > Z. H0 H1.
0 F(x) =
= P( < x) (1, 2, ..., n) (ai-1, ai), i = 1, l
mi npi (pi ):
l
(m - npi )2
.
*2 = i
npi
i =1
x

. (): P (*2 < x ) k ( x )dx,


n

k(x) 2 k = l - 1
331

:
1) , ,
0 ;
2)
P (2 > 2 ) =

k ( x )dx =

2 ( 2 );
3) *2 > 2 0 , *2 2
0

. 36
1. 270 .
6690 .
2 , mi (. ):

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
d, 6668 6870 7072 7274 7476 7678 7880 8082 8284 8486 8688 8890
mi
4
12
24
41
50
53
39
26
13
5
2
1

.
: i* =
= mi /m, :
d,
6668
6870
7072
7274
7476
7678

*
0,015
0,045
0,090
0,152
0,185
0,196

12

d,
7880
8082
8284
8486
8688
8890

*
0,144
0,096
0,048
0,019
0,007
0,003

pi* = 1. F(x) i =1

, . 36.1:
332

0,
0, 015,

0, 060,

0,150,
0,302
2,

0, 487,

F ( x ) = 0, 683,
0,827,

0, 923,
0, 971,

0, 990,

0, 997,
1,

x 68,
68 x 70,
70 x 72,
72 x 74,
74 x 76,
76 x 78,
78 x 80,
80 x 82,
82 x 84,
84 x 86,
86 x 88,
88 x 90,
x > 90.

. 36.1 . 36.2 .

. 36.1

333

. 36.2

2. 1 ,

. .
:
( x - m)2

1
2
( x ) =
e 2 .
2
, . 36.2, :

m M* =
2 D* =

12

xi*pi*;
i =1
12

12

i =1

i =1

( xi* - M *)2 pi* = xi*2pi* - (M *)2 .

xi* ,
m = 67 0,015 + 69 0,045 + 71 0,090 + 73 0,152 +
+ 75 0,185 + 77 0,186 + 79 0,144 + 81 0,096 +
+ 83 0,048 + 85 0,019 + 87 0,007 + 89 0,003 = 76,21;
2 = (67)2 0,015 + (69)2 0,045 + ... + (89)2 0,003 - (76,21)2 = 16,47, 2 16, 47 = 4, 06.
3. , , 2250 .
= 40 .
. 95%
.
:
, , . 36.2:
334

p(m* - m m* + ) = 2F( n ),
(x) ; ; m*
m. , m* = 2250, n = 4,
2( n/) = 0,95. 1 ( n/) =
= 1,96, .. = 1,96 40/2 = 39,2 (), m* - = 2250 - 39,2 =
= 2210,8 (), m* + = 2250 + 39,2 = 2289,2 ().
(2210,82289,2) 0,95.
4. n = 30
m* = 130 , ;
l = 40 m* = 125 , , . : D() = 60 2, D() = 80 2. 0,05 0: M() = M().
: Z (,
. 36.3):
|m * - m *|
130 - 125 5
Z =
=
= = 2,5.
2
D() n + D( ) l
60 80
+
30 40
(-Z, Z).
Z (-Z, Z) 0.
Z = -1((1 - 0,05)/2) = 1,96 ().
Z > Z, 0 1.
5. , 12 ,
(500 ).
2
= 0,05.
: 1) : [0, 12].
2) [0, 12] 12
:
(0, 1) (1, 2) (2, 3) (3, 4) (4, 5) (5, 6) (6, 7) (7, 8) (8, 9) (9, 10) (10, 11) (11, 12)
m 41
34
54
39
49
45
41
33
37
41
47
49
335

3) *2 , . 36.3:
12
(m - npi )2
*2 = i
,
npi
i =1
n = 500, pi = 1/12
. * 2 = [(41 - 500/12)2 + (34 - 500/12)2 + ... + (49 - 500/12)2] 10.
4) k = 12 - 1 = 11 *2 ( 2) = 0,05
2 = 19,67.
5) *2 < 2, .
6.
. .
: 3, 4, 5, 3, 3; : 2, 4, 4, 3, 4.
.
: (x, h) = ((3, 2), (4, 4), (5, 4),
(3, 3), (3, 4)):
3+4+5+3+3
2+4+2+3+4
M *() =
= 3, 6; M *( ) =
= 3, 4;
5
5
32 + 42 + 52 + 32 + 32
*() =
- (3, 6)2 = 0, 64;
5
22 + 42 + 42 + 32 + 42
- (3, 4)2 = 0, 64 .
5
, , . 36.2, M*(x, h)
R*(x, h):
32 + 44 + 54 + 33 + 34
M *( ) =
= 12, 6;
5
12, 6 - 3, 6 3, 4
9
R*(, ) =
=
0, 6.
16
0, 64 0, 64

*()
x - M *() = R *(, )
( y - M *( )),
*( )
.. x - 3,6 = 0,6( y - 3,4);
*( )
y - M *( ) = R *(, )
( x - M *()),
*()
.. y - 3,4 = 0,6(x - 3,6).
*( ) =

336


1) 100 ,
:

mi

80110 110140 140170 170200 200230 230260 260290 290320


2
5
16
24
28
18
6
1

) ; ) ,
.
2) 25 ,
, = 10 .

= 0,95, * = 100 .
3) 200 .
1 .
:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
(-20, -15) (-15, -10) (-10, -5) (-5, 0) (0, 5) (5, 10) (10, 15) (15, 20) (20, 25) (25, 30)
mi
7
11
15
24
49
41
26
17
7
3
p*i 0,035 0,055 0,075 0,120 0,245 0,205 0,130 0,085 0,035 0,015

2
= 0,05.
4) n = 40, l = 50, , m* = 130,
m * = 140. D() = 80,
D() = 100. 0,001
0: M() = M()
1: M() M().

337


5) 4 6 .
3 . , : )
; ) .
6) 1, 2, 3 (. 36.3).
: (1) = 0,6, (2) = 0,8, (3) = 0,7.
.

. 36.3

7) .
20%, 45%, 35%
. ,
3%, 2%, 4%.
,
.
8) , . 36.4. (2 + 3), D(2 + 3).

. 36.4

9)
, . 36.5.
(2 + 1), D(2 + 1), .
338

. 36.5

10) x h:
h
p

0
0,3

1
0,3

( + ).

2
0,4

x
p

-1
0,2

0
0,3

1
0,1

2
0,4
( x -1)2

1
11) =
e 8 .
2 2
(3 + 2), D(3 + 2).
12) 100
x 37,
0,
0, 04, 37 < x 38,

0,14, 38 < x 39,

0, 29, 39 < x 40,


F100 ( x ) =
0,52, 40 < x 41,
0, 78, 41 < x 42,

0, 92, 42 < x 43,


1,
x > 43.
. 39 ?
13) m, ,
35, 15, 5, 25, 5. m.
14)
. 15,
5, 25, 35 .
15) :

339

x
h

9
6

1
4

12
7

5
3

.
16) 100 . 10 .
, .
17) ,
.
. ,
t (t < T). , ,
.
18) 4 8 , 3 5 .
, . , .
19) 20 10 . 3 3 . ,
.
20) :
x 0;
0,

3
x

( x ) = x - , 0 < x 2;
4

,
x > 2.
0

.
21) , 2/3 , . .
.
22) :
x 2;
0,

2
F ( x ) = ( x - 2) , 2 < x 3;
1,
x < 3.

(3 + 2).

340

23)
0,
2
ax ,
( x ) =
2
a(2 x - x ),
0,

x 0;
0 < x 1;
1 < x 2;
x > 2.

()
(0, 2)?
().
24) :

-5
0,4

2
0,3

3
0,1

4
p4

4, ,
.
25) :

4
5

7
2

8
3

12
10

, , , , .
26) : 16, 17, 9, 13, 21, 11, 7, 7, 19, 5, 17, 5, 20, 18, 11, 4,
6, 22, 21, 15, 15, 23, 19, 25, 1. , (0, 25) 5
. .
27) , , : 5, 4, 4, 3,
2, 2, 4, 3, 3, 5, 3, 3, 4, 2, 3. ,
, ( ), ,
.
28)
m = 130, = 40 n = 64
m* = 136,5.
0,01 0: m* = m
: ) m m*; ) m* > m.
341

m - m* n
.)

29) ,
m = 0,5 , , = 0,11 .
121 m* = 0,53 .
0,01 0: m = m*
1: m* > m.
30) = 40
. m* = 2000 .

= 0,95.
(: u =

1. . . : 3/8.
2. 20 , 4 , 6 . 0,9,
0,8, 0,75. , 2
1
2
. : p = 0, 9 + 0,8 +
3
5
15
2
1
2
p = 0, 9 + 0,8 + 0, 75.
3
5
15
3. :
x < 0;
0,

F ( x ) = 2 x - x 2 , 0 x 1;
1,
x 1.

(x),
(), D(). : () = 1/3; D() = 1/18.
4. (n = 15)
:

342


p*

2
1/5

4
2/5

6
1/15

8
m/15

2
m, F*(x), M*(2 + 3). : m = 5; M*(2 + 3) = 13 .
15
2
1. 4 5 . ,
.
C 2C 1
5
: 4 3 5 = .
14
C9
2. 2/3. , .
0,5. .
: 0,75.
3.
. , .
,
0,9. . : pi =
= P(x = i) = 0,1 (0,9)i-1, i = 1, 4, p5 = (0,9)4.
4. m = 10 :
0, x 1;
0, 2, 1 < x 2;

F ( x ) = 0,5, 2 < x 3;
0,8, 3 < x 4;

x > 4.
1,
. 3? (3 + 5). : 3 ; (3 + 5) = 12,5.

343

. 34, 35, 36
34.
1) C38 C210; 2) C 432 C42; 3) A210; 4) 6 = 6!; 5) n = 6, m = 3;
5
, m = C32 C73; 8) A + B = , AB = 0;
6) n = 16, m = 6; 7) n = C10
9) 5; 10)
384
48
1
=
; 12) P ( A) = . : =
; 11) P ( A) =
1000 125
2
1
= {(r, r), (r, p), (p, r), (p, p)}; 13) P ( A) = . : m = C32,
5
n = C 62 ; 14) P(A) = 0,0029. : m = 4 3 , n = C 352 ;
1
2
15) P ( A) = 5 ; 16) P ( A) = . : m = 8 7! 2!, n = 9!;
9
6
5
. : m = 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 10, n = 6 6 6;
17) P ( A) =
108
1
18) P ( A) = ; 19) P(A) = 0,75; 20) P(A) = 0,7; 21) P(A) = 0,25;
5
22) a) p = 0,994; ) p = 0,092; 23) P( ) = 19/30. : =
= , ,
, () = 20/25, (/) = 19/24; 24) () = 0,81. :
= , , ; 25) = 0,91. : , = 1 + 2 + 3,
i , i- ; 26) 6(4) = 0,0984;
27) . : 4(3) 8(5)
1/4 > 7/32; 28) = 4, 10(4) = 0,251.
35.
1)

0
p 0,125

2)
1
0,375

2
3
0,375 0,125

0
0,5

1
2
3
4
0,25 0,125 0,0625 0,0625

: i = 0,5 (0,5)i-1, i = 1, 4; p5 = 0,54;


k 2 x 2 + 2kx + 2
; ) 0,086;
3) ) = k 2 /2; ) F ( x ) = 1 - e- kx
2
1
4) ) 1/3; ) ( x ) =
, x (-a, a); 5) ) M() = 0,501,
2
(a - x 2 )
D() = 0,077; ) M() = 1,5, D() = 0,75; 6) () = 4/3; D() =
= 2/9; 7) () = 0; D() = a 2/2; 8) P( = i) = C 5i (0,6)i(0,4)5-i;
344

34 e-3
= 0,17;
4!
10) a) P(3 < < 5) = 1/3; ) ( ) = 5; D( ) = 3;
11) P(|| < 150) = 0,819; 12) = 0,758; 13) P( D*) = 1/24;
3
3a2
2a
;
P
=
1)
14) a) C =
; 15) () = (0, 0); 16) D() =
3
3

3R
R
R
= D() = - 3; R(, ) = 0; 17) j(x, y, z) = abce-(ax+by+cz). 3 F
.
: ( x, y, z ) =
x y z
() = 3;

D() = 1,2;

9 ) P( = 4) =

36.
1) ) * = 201; D* = 1754. ;
2) (94,9 , 105,1 ); 3) k = 6; *2 = 7,09. .
: ; 4) 1; 5) ) 1/6; ) 1/4; 6) 0,844; 7) 6/29; 8) M = 7; D = 4/3;
9) M = 1; D = 16/3; 10) 3,2; 11) 5; 36; 12) 15; 13) 17; 14) 1/17;
t (2T - t )
15) 0,806; 16) 0,1; 17)
; 18) 15/26; 19) 4/9;
t2
x 0;
0,
2
4
x
x
20) F ( x ) = - , 0 < x 2; 21) 2/9; 22) 10; 23) a = 1, M() =
2 16
x > 2;
1,

1
= 1 ; 24) p4 = 0,2, () = 3,9; 25) M *() = 8,9; D *() = 18,475;
6
x 4;
0,
0, 25, 4 < x 7;

F *( x ) = 0,35, 7 < x 8; ;
0,5, 8 < x 12;

x > 12;
1,
26)

p*

(0,5)
0,12

[5,10)
0,2

[10,15)
0,16

[15,20)
0,32

[20,25)
0,2

27) M *() = 10/3; *() = 2 2/3; m * = 3; 28) ) u =


= 1,3; u = 2,57; 0; ) u = 2,33; 0.
29) u = 3; 1; 30) 1964,94; 2035,06.

345


n ,
; - 1 = ](n + +d)/5[, b - 1 = ](n + )/4[, k - 1 =
= ](n + )/3[, d = ]n/2[.
1. 12 + + b 6 + b + k . , 5 + b + d 4 + d .
2. 2 + d . , 3 + k + b +
+ (-1)n+1.
3. C 2 + a + b + k . . , ,
, (2 + ) .
4. b + 1 . 0, b. ,
+ 1 : ) ; )
; )
?
5. 3 + d ,
b 10% ,
.
%, k%. ,
.
6. 2 + k . ( + 2)/10. . F(x),
M(), D(), ().
7.
2 + b . , .
,
(k + 4)/10.
F(x), M(), D(), ().
8.
1
, a < x < a + b + k;
( x ) = c
0, x < a, x > a + b + k.
, F(x), M(), D().
346

9.
x < 0;
0,
F ( x) =
-( a + b ) x
, x 0.
1 - e
M(), D(), P(0 < < b).
10.
-( x - b )2

1
2
( x ) =
e 2k .
k 2
M(a + b + k), D(a + b + k).
11. :

k + 1
b + 2

k + 3
a

k + 5
b + 1

k + 7
a + 3

, , , ,
, .
12.
:

k + 1
k + 2

b + 1
b

a + 2
a + 4

k + 3
k + 5

a + 3
a + 2

13

37.

41
37.1.
= {0, 1}
:
1. :
1, a = 1, b = 1,
c =ab=
0,
2. :
0, a = 0, b = 0,
c =ab=
1,
3. :
0, a = 1, b = 0,
c=ab=
1,
4. :
0, a = 1,
b=a =
1, a = 0
5. :
1, a = b = 1 a = b = 0,
c=ab=
0,
q = F (p1, p2, ..., pn) n
37.2.
1. a = a.
2. b = b a, a b = b a.
3. (a b) c = a (b c), (a b) c = a (b c).
4. a (b c) = (a b) (a c); a (b c) =
= (a b) (a c).
5. a b = a b , a b = a b .
6. a a = a, a a = a.
7. a 1 = a, a 1 = 1.
348

8. a 0 = 0, a 0 = a.
9. a a = 0, a a = 1.
10. a b = a b.
11. a b = b a.
12. a b = (a b) (b a) = (a b) (a b )
: n
(
i, ai)
37.3.
: P(x1, x2, ..., xn) : xi M, i = 1, n,
P = {0, 1}
P(x1, x2, ..., xn) , xi = i M, i = 1, n, P(a1, a2, ..., an) = 1
:
) :
xP(x) P(x) = 1;
) :
P(x) , () = 1;
xiP(x1, x2, ..., xn) = Q(x1, ..., xi-1, xi+1, ..., xn)
37.4. ,
: V = {a1, a2, ..., an}, ai (, ,
)
() , k
G = <V, W, J, R>, V
; W ,
V W = ; J (); R ; , V W
L(G) V, J

. 37
1. q =
= p1 p2 p3.
: q* = p1 p2, , . 37.1:
1

p2

q* = p1 p2

1
1

1
0

0
1

1
1
349

p2

q* = p1 p2

0
0

1
0

0
1

0
1

, , q :
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

2
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

3
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

q
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0

2.
. ,
,
:
1) , ;
2) , .
q
, 1), 2) .
: 1 , 2 , p3 ;
q = f(p1, p2, p3) :
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
350

2
1
0
1
0
1
0

3
1
1
0
0
1
1

q
1
0
0
0
1
1

1
0
0

2
1
0

3
0
0

q
1
1

, q = 1:
q = (p1 p2 p3) ( p1 p2 p3) ( p1 p2 p3)
( p1 p2 p3) ( p1 p2 p3).
, 24, 7, 9 ,
. 37.2:
q = (p1 p2 p3) [ p1 ((p2 p3) ( p2 p3)
(p2 p3) ( p2 p3))] = (p1 p2 p3) [ p1 (p3
(p2 p2)) ( p3 (p2 p2))] = (p1 p2 p3)
[ p1 (p3 p3))] = ( p1 p2 p3) p1 = (p1 p1)
((p2 p3) p1) = p1 (p2 p3).
,
: ) )
.
3. ,
, , , .
i, 1,
0.
: (a1, a2, a3),
:
a1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

a2
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1

a3
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1

(a1, a2, a3)


1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1

(a1, a2, a3)

(a1, a2, a3) = (a1 a2 a3) (a1 a2 a3)


(a1 a2 a3) (a1 a2 a3).
351

4. ,
, R:
) ( 2 > x x > 1 x < 0); ) x, y ( 2 2y 2).
: ) 2 - > 0 x(x - 1) > 0
:

.. x (-, 0) (1, +), ;


) 2 = 22 = 2, ..
(, ), 2 = 0, 2 2 2, .. .


1) :
) (1 2) a3; ) (1 a2) (2 3); ) (a1 2)
(2 1); ) (1 2) (1 (2 1).
2) :
) , . 37.2; ) ( b) = ; ( b) = .
3) , , . 37.2:
) ( b) ( b ); ) ( b) ( b );
) 2 (1 p2 3); ) (1 p2 3) ( p2 3 p1);
) (1 2) p2.
4) F1( p1, p2, p3), F2( p1, p2, p3), F3( p1, p2, p3)
.
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
352

p2
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

3
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

F1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

F2
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

F3
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0

5) , , R:
) = ( + = 3); ) P = yx( + y = 3);
) P = x, y( > y > 0 x + y = 0);
) P = x, y( < y) z(x < z < y);
) P = x( > 2 x > 3 2 < x 3).

38.

38
38.1.
: G = {V, E}, V = {a1, a2, ..., an} ,
= {(ai, aj)}, i, j = 1, n , lij = (ai, aj) ai, aj
G , (ai, aj), i, j = 1, n, V
: ,
: G ,
(ij) n- , ij , ai aj
38.2. ,
: G = {V, E} = {lij},
, .
, , , ,
,
,
: G ,

: ,
,
: . ..,

38.3.
: ,

353

.
: G = {V, E} H = {V, E*},
E* E
: G = {V, E} V = V1 + V2, V1, V2
38.4. ,
: S = {A, Q, V, , },
A = {a1, a2, ..., am} ,
V = {v1, v2, ..., vl} ,
Q = {q1, q2, ..., qn} ,
qk = (qi, aj) ,
vr = (qi, aj)
( )

. 38
1. (a, b),
(a, c), (b, c), (c, d), (d, e). . ,
, .
: , , , . 38.1.

. 38.1

(ij),
(ij) , ai, aj:
0 1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 .
0 0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1 0
354

, : acbcde, : abca.
2. :
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
.

0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
?
: a, b, c, d.
ij


ai
aj,
: (a, b), (a, c), (b, b), (b, c), (c, d ), (d , c)
. (. 38.2).

. 38.2

: Sa = 2, Sb = 3, Sc = 4, Sd = 2.
3. ,
, , , . 38.1. ,
.
: G6, ,
.
()
, () .
.
.
66-2 = 1296 ,
. W,
. Q W , G, n, m,
355

. 38.3

k G6: = m - n + k = 15 - 6 + 1 = 10, Q =
= m - = 15 - 10 = 5 ().
W. :
1) l(, ) = 1;
2) : l(, ) = 2;
3) ,
: l(, ) = 3;
4) l(, ) = 6,
;
5) . 4 l(, ) = 6.
. 38.3 W .
, L = 1 + 2 + 3 + 6 + 6 = 18.


1)
(. 38.4):

. 38.4

2) :
356

1
0

) 0
1

1
1
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
1

0
1
1
1
0

1
0
0

1
1 ; )
0

0
1
0

0 1 0
0
1 0 0

1
; ) 0 0 0
1
1 0 1

0
1 1 1
3) , . 38.5,
.
0
1
)
1
0

1
0
1
1

1
1
0
1

0
1
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
1
0

1
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
1

1
0
0
0
1
1

1
0

0
;
0
1

1
1

1 .
0
0

. 38.5

4) n 2 ,
.
, ,
?
5)
, (. 38.6).
S R ,
.

. 38.6

357

6) 5 ,
. ? .
7) ,
.
8) 18 , .
:
1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, .
, , , ?
9)
: , , , , .
, , , . ?

1
1. q = ( p1 p2 ) p3 .
2. . 1 :
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

2
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

3
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

F(p1, p2, p3)


0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0

: F = p2 ( p1 p3 ).
3. .
4. (a b) c a b a = 0?
: .
2
1. (a b) c = a (b c) .
358

2. . 2 :
2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

2
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

3
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

F(p1, p2, p3)


0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0

: p1 p2.
3. ,
:

. 38.7

4. (a b) c a (b ) b
b = 1? : c a.
. 37, 38
37.
3) ) ; ) ; ) 2 ( 1 3 ); ) p2 3 ; ) 1 2 ;
4) ) 2 3; ) 3 ( p2 p1); ) 1 p3; 5) )
( = 1); ) 0; ) 0; ) 1; ) 1.
38.
0
0
1) )
1
0

0
0
1
1

1
1
0
1

1
0
0

1
; ) 0
1
0

0
0

1
0
1
0
0

1
1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0 ; )
0
1
0

2
2
0
0

0
1
1
1

0
0
;
1
0
359

2)

4) n . : ; 5) SCADHFBR;
6)

8) 16; 9) 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
. : : y.

12

1
x

F( x ) =
x
0,00
0,05
0,10
0,15
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,35
0,40
0,45
0,50
0,55
0,60
0,65
0,70
0,75
0,8

(x)
0,00000
0,01994
0,03983
0,05962
0,07926
0,09871
0,11791
0,13683
0,15542
0,17364
0,19146
0,20884
0,22575
0,24215
0,25804
0,27337
0,28

x
0,85
0,90
0,95
1,00
1,05
1,10
1,15
1,20
1,25
1,30
1,35
1,40
1,45
1,50
1,55
1,60
1,65

(x)
0,30234
0,31594
0,32894
0,34134
0,35314
0,36433
0,37493
0,38493
0,39435
0,40320
0,41149
0,41924
0,42647
0,43319
0,43943
0,44520
0,45053

1
e 2 dx.

2 0

x
1,70
1,75
1,80
1,85
1,90
1,95
2,00
2,05
2,10
2,15
2,20
2,25
2,30
2,35
2,40
2,45
2,50

(x)
0,45543
0,45994
0,46407
0,46784
0,47128
0,47441
0,47725
0,47982
0,48214
0,48422
0,48610
0,48778
0,48928
0,49061
0,49180
0,49286
0,49379

x
2,55
2,60
2,65
2,70
2,75
2,80
2,85
2,90
2,95
3,00
3,20
3,40
3,60
3,80
4,00
4,50
5,00

(x)
0.49461
0,49534
0,49598
0,49653
0,49702
0,49744
0,49781
0,49813
0,49841
0,49865
0,49931
0,49966
0,499841
0,4999963
0,4999997
0,4999999
0,5000000

361

2
2 . 2 P (2 > 2 ) =

k ( x )dx =

a
k
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

362

0,99

0,98

0,95

0,90

0,80

0,20

0,10

0,05

0,02

0,01

0,0002
0,0201
0,115
0,297
0,554
0,872
1,239
1,646
2,088
2,558
3,053
3,571
4,107
4,660
5,229
5,812
6,408
7,015
7,633
8,260
8,897
9,542
10,196
10,856
11,524
12,198
12,879
13,565
14,256
14,953

0,0063
0,0404
0,185
0,429
0,752
1,134
1,564
2,032
2,532
3,059
3,609
4,178
4,765
5,368
5,985
6,614
7,255
7,909
8,567
9,237
9,915
10,600
11,293
11,998
12,697
13,409
14,125
14,847
15,574
16,306

0,393
0,103
0,357
0,711
1,145
1,635
2,167
2,733
3,325
3,940
4,575
5,226
5,892
6,571
7,261
7,962
8,672
9,390
10,117
10,851
11,591
12,338
13,091
13,848
14,611
15,379
16,151
16,928
17,708
18,493

0,0158
0,211
0,584
1,064
1,610
2,204
2,833
3,490
4,168
4,865
5,578
6,304
7,042
7,790
8,547
9,312
10,085
10,865
11,651
12,443
13,240
14,041
14,848
15,659
16,473
17,292
18,114
18,939
19,768
20,599

0,0642
0,446
1,005
1,649
2,343
3,070
3,822
4,594
5,380
6,179
6,989
7,807
8,634
9,467
10,307
11,152
12,002
12,857
13,716
14,578
15,445
16,314
17,187
18,062
18,940
19,820
20,703
21,588
22,475
23,364

1,642
3,219
4,642
5,989
7,289
8,558
9,803
11,030
12,242
13,442
14,631
15,812
16,985
18,151
19,311
20,465
21,615
22,760
23,900
25,038
26,171
27,301
28,429
29,553
30,675
31,795
32,912
34,029
35,139
36,250

2,706
4,605
6,251
7,779
9,236
10,645
12,017
13,362
14,684
15,987
17,275
18,549
19,812
21,064
22,307
23,542
24,769
25,989
27,204
28,412
29,615
30,813
32,007
33,196
34,382
35,563
36,741
37,916
39,087
40,256

3,841
5,991
7,815
9,488
11,070
12,592
14,067
15,507
16,919
18,307
19,675
21,026
22,362
23,685
24,996
26,296
27,587
28,869
30,144
31,410
32,671
33,924
35,172
36,415
37,652
38,885
40,112
41,337
42,557
43,773

5,412
7,824
9,837
11,608
13,388
15,033
16,622
18,168
19,679
21,161
22,618
24,054
25,472
26,873
28,259
29,633
30,995
32,346
33,687
35,020
36,343
37,659
38,968
40,270
41,566
42,856
44,140
45,419
46,693
47,962

6,635
9,210
11,341
13,277
15,086
16,812
18,475
20,090
21,666
13,209
24,725
26,217
27,688
29,141
30,578
32,000
33,409
34,805
36,191
37,566
38,932
40,289
41,638
42,980
44,314
45,642
46,963
48,278
49,588
50,892


1. .. / .. . .: .
, 2001.
2. .. /
.. . .: , 2003.
3. .. /
.. , .. . /: , 1997.
4. .. / .. . .:
. , 2003.
5. .. / .. , .. , .. . .: , 2003.
6. .. . 2 .
. II / .. , .. , .. . .: .
, 1999.
7. /
.. . .: , 2002.
8. / .. . .: -, 2006.
9. / .. . : - . .
. -, 2007.
10. / ..
. : - . . . -, 2007.
11. / .. . .: ,
1981.
12. .. / .. . .: . , 2003.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
. 1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
. 1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
. 1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
. 2.1, 2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
. 2.3, 2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
. 2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
. 2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
. 2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
. 2.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
. 2.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
. 1, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3.
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
364

. 3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52
54
54
55
55
56

4. :
II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

5. :
II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 3, 4, 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62
64
65
65
68
70
70
70
71

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
6. . . . . 73
6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 6.2, 6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 7.1, 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 7.37.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. () . . . . .
8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 6, 7, 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73
75
75
75
76
77
77
79
80
80
84
86
86
87
88
89
89
365

3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
9. . . . . . . . . 91
9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
. 9.19.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
. 9.79.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
10. . . . . . . . 100
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
. 10.1, 10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
. 10.310.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
. 9, 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
11.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 11.1, 11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 11.311.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 11.6, 11.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119
121
123
124
127
127
129

12.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 11, 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

130
132
134
135
136

5. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
13. (..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
366

13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14. () . . . . . . . . . .
14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 13, 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

139
140
142
143
143
144
146
147
147
147
148
149

6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
15. (..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 16.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 16.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15, 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17. (..) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 17.117.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 17.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 17.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

150
152
152
154
156
157
157
158
161
161
163
163
165
166
167
169
169
172
172
174
175
176
178
178
179
367

18.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 18.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 18.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 18.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 17, 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180
182
185
185
186
186
188
188
190
195
195

19.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
. 19.3 . . . . . . . 197

7. . . . . . . . . . 198
20.
I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 20.120.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 20.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 20.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

198
199
201
202
202
203
204

21.
II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 21.121.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 21.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

204
206
207
207
208
210

22.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
368

211
212
213
214


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2022 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

215
215
218
218
219
219
219
221

8. . . . . . 222
23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 23.123.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 23.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24. n- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 24.124.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 24.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 23, 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

222
224
227
228
232
233
233
235
237
238
239
240
241
242

9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
25. (I ) . . . . . . 244
25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
. 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

26.
( II ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 26.126.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 26.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 26.626.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

247
249
251
251
253
254
256
257
369

27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 28.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 28.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2528 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

257
259
261
262
262
264
265
266
269
270
272
276

10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 29.129.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 29.5, 29.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 30.130.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 30.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2931 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

278
280
281
282
284
284
284
286
288
289
289
290
290
291
294
294
295
297

11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
32. . . . 299
32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

33.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
. 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
370

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
32, 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

12.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 34.1, 34.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 34.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 34.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 34.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 35.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 35.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 35.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 35.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 34, 35, 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

309
310
312
312
314
315
317
318
319
319
319
321
323
324
325
326
327
327
329
330
330
332
337
338
342
344
346

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

348
349
352
353
353
371

. 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 37, 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

354
356
358
359
361
361
362

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363


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20.07.2008.
6090/16. . .
Newton. . . . 24,0. .. . 23,8.
2000 .

127282, , . , . 31
.: (495) 3800540, 380-05-43. : (495) 3639212.
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