Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 448

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LATEX
3- ,

2003

. . , 1995,2003


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1.1.
TEX LATEX . . . . . . . . .
1.2.
. . . . . . .
1.3.
TEX . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.
LATEX
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.
. . . .
2.4.
. . . . . .
2.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.
. . . . . . . .
2.7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.
. . .
2.9.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11. . .
3.
. . . .
3.1.
. . . . . . . . . .
3.2.
. . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.
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3.7.
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4.
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5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.
? . . . . . . . . . . .

1.

11

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13
13
13
14
15
16
17
17
18
19
20
21
23
24
25
25
26
27
29
29
29
30
31
32
32
33
33
35
43

4
II


45
. . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1.1.
, . . . . . . . . 46
1.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1.4.
amssymb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
1.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.9.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.2.
. . . . . . . . 80
4.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
5.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
5.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.5.
96
5.6.
. . . . . . . 96
1.

III


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1.1.
, . . .
1.2.
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1.3.
. . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.
,
1.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.
. . . .
2.
, . . . . . . . .
1.

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98
98
98
99
100
100
100
102
103


3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

8.
9.

10.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.
. . . . . . . . .
3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . .
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5.1.
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5.2.
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5.3.
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.
Overfull underfull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.
\sloppy \emergencystretch .
6.4.
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6.5.
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6.6.
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7.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.
, . . .
7.3.
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7.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.
(verbatim, verb) . . .
7.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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9.1.
TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.7.

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10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2. TEX . . . . .
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
103
103
104
105
106
108
108
111
114
114
115
117
119
121
123
123
128
128
129
130
131
136
137
140
141
141
142
143
145
148
149
150
151
151
152
153

6
IV


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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.
\section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.
. . . . . . . .
5.3.
. . . . . . . .
5.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.
.
6.
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.
makeindex . . . . . . . . .
7.5.
makeindex . . . . . . . . . .
8.
. . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.

9.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. () . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
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2.
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3.
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4.
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5.
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6.

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155
155
159
161
162
162
164
165
165
167
168
169
169
170
171
171
173
173
175
176
178
180
182
185
185
185
188
190
191
191
192
193
194

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196
196
199
199
201
202
204


VI


. . . . . . .
1.1.
. .
1.2.
.
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
. . . .
2.2.
. .
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.
. .
4.1.
array . . . . . . . .
4.2.
. . . .
4.3.
,

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206
206
206
208
212
212
215
218
226
226
229
230

VII
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
\newcommand . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.

3.2.
. . . . .
3.3.
. . . . . . . . .
3.4.
, . . . . . . . . .
3.5.
. . . . . . . . .
4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.
: . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.
amsthm . . . .

234
234
234
240
242
244
244
247
250
254
255
256
260
260
262
265

VIII
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
LATEX . . .
2.1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.
; . .
2.4.

3.
\hbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
. . . . . . . .
3.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

267
267
268
268
271
273
274
276
277
279
281

1.

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4.
5.
IX

3.4.

3.5.
. .
\vbox . . . . . . . . .
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1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
. . . . .
2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.
\alph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.
. . . . . . . . .
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
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3.2.
, . . .
4.
, . . . . . .
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.
. . . . . . . . .
5.3.
list trivlist . . . . . . . . . . .
6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.
. . . . . .
7.2.

8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.
, . . . . . . . . .
8.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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283
285
286
288

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291
292
293
293
294
295
296
298
298
298
304
312
312
314
315
317
327
327
328
332
332
334
336
337

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340
340
341
343
343

TEX LATEX
1.
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2.
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3.
TEX . . . . . . .
4.
dvi- . . .

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PostScript TEX
346
1.
PostScript? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
2.
dvips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
3.
Ghostscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353


4.
5.
6.

PostScript- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
PostScript- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

LATEX
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
LATEX ? . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.
. . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.
METAFONT-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.
PostScript-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.
. : T1. .
6.2.
. . . . . . .
6.3.
fd-. . . . . .

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MS

360
360
361
362
364
366
367
372
375
375
377
380
385

XY-pic
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
. .
2.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.
. . . . . . . .
2.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.
.

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387
387
389
389
390
390
391
391

LATEX
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
:
: babel . . . . . . .
: babel . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
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.
.
.

.
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.
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.

.
.
.
.
.
.

393
393
394
396
396
398
400

TEX?
UNIX- . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.
LATEX . . .
1.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.
LATEX
1.4.
dvi- . . .

.
.
.
.
.

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.
.

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402
402
402
403
404
404

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.

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.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

10

2.

3.
4.

1.5.
PostScript- . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.
PostScript- . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.
PostScript- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
1.9.
TEX UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.
MiKTEX . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.
PostScript-
2.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.
LATEX . . . . . . . .
2.5.
dvi- . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.
PostScript- . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.
PostScript- . . . . . . . .
DOS- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CTAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.

405
405
406
406
408
411
412
414
415
416
416
417
417
418
419
420

422

447


. . . .
www.anekdot.ru

: LATEX , Linux
( ), , ,
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14

I.

,
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15

: LATEX
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16

I.

LATEX [4],
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17

, TEX; (
TEX ) . TEX Unix
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18

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19

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20

I.

\slshapeand a partridge...,
TEX ( )
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I.2.

21

book . (
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22

I.

. 2.3, , \upshape .
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III.5.

I.2.

23

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24

I.

12 10, 7 ,
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7
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I.2.

25

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26

I.

I.1. TEX
pt
pc
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= 10 mm
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27

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28


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I.

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I.3.

29

3.
3.1.
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( ).

,
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30

I.

x4357 + y 4357 = z 4357



.

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I.3.

31

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32

I.

3.5.
\sqrt, ; \sqrt (
). :

3
x3 = x, x2 = |x|.

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1 + 2 + + 100 = 5050;
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1, 2, . . . , 100.

33

~ .-.~ ,

$$
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34

I.

, , , \begin{document} \end{document} \input, ,


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I.5.

35

\includeonly , ( ) . , ,
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5.
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36

I.

log- ,
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I.5.

37

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38

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39

TEX , ), \left TEX ; , , TEX, \right \left, (. . II.2.5).


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40

I.


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I.5.

41

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42

I.

,
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43

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44

I.

, , . VIII TEX, ;
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II



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46

II.

1.1. ,
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II.1.

47

, TEX
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TEX ( ,
). ,
, TEX ; ,
, .
<
:
6=


k

<
:
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\supset

'

.
=

=
\ge
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\equiv
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\subset
\supseteq

48

II.



w
a
|

\succ
\preceq
\sqsupseteq
\dashv
\mid


|=
^
./

\prec
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\models
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v
`
_

\succeq
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\mid , ; , (, ). , \mid , :
M = {x A | x > 0}

$M=\{\,x\in A\mid x>0\,\}$

| \mid ,
. \, , ( .
. II.5).
, , \colon :
f: X Y

$f\colon X\to Y$

,
.
latexsym, , ,
:


1

\lhd
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@

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A

\rhd
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=
7

\to
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,
7

\longrightarrow
\hookrightarrow
\longmapsto
\longleftarrow

\hookleftarrow
\longleftrightarrow
\Longleftrightarrow
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\Rightarrow

\Leftarrow

II.1.
%
.
(
+

\nearrow
\swarrow
\leftharpoonup
\rightharpoondown

&
*

49

\searrow
\nwarrow
)
\leftharpoondown
\rightharpoonup
\rightleftharpoons

latexsym ; ( \leadsto).


> 6, , ;
, ,
(\kappa). ,
amssymb. , ,
\varkappa, 6
> \leqslant \geqslant.

1.2.
sin, log
. ., ,
. /
(. . 33).
log
arg
hom
sin
arccos
cot
sinh
coth

\log
\arg
\hom
\sin
\arccos
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\sinh
\coth

lg
ker
deg
arcsin
tan
sec
cosh

\lg
\ker
\deg
\arcsin
\tan
\sec
\cosh

ln
dim
exp
cos
arctan
csc
tanh

\ln
\dim
\exp
\cos
\arctan
\csc
\tanh

tan, arctan . . ,
, . . , , tg, ctg . . TEX LATEX
, , , . : amsmath,
:
\DeclareMathOperator{\tg}{tg}
\DeclareMathOperator (, ), ,

50

II.

. , , - (),
* , ( ,
, ). , \DeclareMathOperator
\usepackage{amsmath}.
amsmath,
.

\newcommand{\tg}{\mathop{\mathrm{tg}}\nolimits}
\tg tg .
, tg (, arctg), .
, , \Re
\Im ; LATEX , Re Im, <
= (. . 53), ( ). , \Re \Im ,
\renewcommand \newcommand:
\renewcommand{\Im}{\mathop{\mathrm{Im}}\nolimits}
amsmath \DeclareMathOperator
, . . .

LATEX () (. . VII).
, ,
mod, .
, (. ); \pmod,
:
, 231993
(mod 11).

,
$23^{1993}\equiv 1\pmod{11}$.

, mod 11 ; , \equiv
\pmod.
amsmath, \mod
\pod, , \mod, :

II.1.
ap1 1 mod p
ap1 1 (p)

51

$a^{p-1}\equiv 1\mod p$
$a^{p-1}\equiv 1\pod p$

mod ,
, :
f (x) = f (x) mod G

$f_*(x)=f(x)\bmod G$

, \bmod.
, , ,
n
X
i=1

n2 =

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6

c .
,
TEX (- limits).
, ; ,
\sum, , :
$$
\sum_{i=1}^n n^2=\frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}
$$
, ; ,
:
P
, ni=1 (2n 1) = n2 ,
,

$\sum_{i=1}^n (2n-1)=n^2$,
.

.
( ,
. ). , ,
\sum:
P
Q
S
\sum
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T
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N
J
W
\bigotimes
\bigodot
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V
U
F
\bigwedge
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lim
\lim
lim sup\limsup
lim inf \liminf
max \max
min \min
sup
\sup
inf
\inf
det
\det
Pr
\Pr
gcd
\gcd

52

II.

amsmath, :
lim
\varlimsup
inj lim
\injlim
lim
\varinjlim

:
limn an = inf n supmn am
Fx = limU 3x F(U )

lim
proj lim
lim

\varliminf
\projlim
\varprojlim

$\varlimsup_{n\to\infty}
a_n=\inf_n\sup_{m\ge n}a_m$
$\mathcal F_x=
\varinjlim_{U\ni x}\mathcal F(U)$

(. . 62 \mathcal).
, amsmath
.
\DeclareMathOperator*; ,
\DeclareMathOperator (. . 49), ,
, ,
lim.
, A
,
R . L TEX \int H
\oint ; amsmath, \iint, \iiint
\iiiint , ( \int , ).
, ,
, (
):
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1
2

x dx = 1/3
0

$$
\int_0^1x^2 dx=1/3
$$

, , ,
, \int \limits,
:
Z1
0

x2 dx = 1/3

$$
\int\limits_0^1 x^2 dx=1/3
$$

II.1.

53

\limits , ,

, .
, , , - ,
, \nolimits, :
Yn
i=1

$$
\prod\nolimits_{i=1}^ni=n!
$$

i = n!

1.3.
, LATEX ( , amssymb . . 1.4
). ( . 2.5), ( ), .
.

\partial
\infty
\emptyset
\prime
\imath
\surd
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\wp
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\ddag

[
>
<
k

\triangle
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\hbar
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\top
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\|
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\P

`
]

\angle
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( )
, .
latexsym, :
f

\mho

\Box

\Diamond

(\emptyset) , , .

54

II.

: . \varnothing ,
amssymb.
\parallel \|.
k, (
) . \parallel
, \|
:

,
AB k CD.
, kAk =
sup(|Ax|/|x|).



,
$AB\parallel CD$.

,
$\|A\|=\sup(|Ax|/|x|)$.

, \imath \jmath, i j (
. 2.8).
\nabla \bigtriangledown ,
. , \prime. ,
, ;
x x^\prime .
. , :

6
=

[
]
{
}

*
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]
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\ast
\neq
\leq
\geq
\lbrack
\rbrack
\lbrace
\rbrace
\rightarrow
\leftarrow
\owns
\land
\lor
\lnot
\|

II.1.

55

1.4. amssymb
LATEX , . amssymb,
,
( AMS American Mathematical Society).
; .
. amssymb , :

Z
e
h
|

m
r

\boxdot
\centerdot
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[
f
i
}
>
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\boxplus
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Y
d
g
u
~
l
o

\boxtimes
\veebar
\Cup
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\dotplus
\circledast
\lessdot
\rtimes






%
'

+
/
1
3
5

;
=

\rightleftharpoons
\Vdash
\vDash
\downharpoonright
\downharpoonleft
\Rsh
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\gtrapprox
\therefore
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$
&
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,
.
0
2
4
6
:
<
>
@

\leftrightharpoons
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56
A
C
E
I
M
Q
S

a
c
k
m

v







$
&
(
h
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v


II.
\sqsupset
\vartriangleleft
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B
D
G
J
P
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T
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t
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u
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: 6 > , @ A, latexsym. C,
E, B D, \vartriangleleft, \trianglelefteq,
\vartriangleright \trianglerighteq, latexsym, : \lhd, \unlhd,
\rhd \unrhd .

. ( )

II.1.

57

, \not (.
. 2.6), .

( . . . ). :




#

/
2
5
8
;

\nleq
\ngtr
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*
0
3
6
9
<

\ngeq
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\nLeftrightarrow




"
+
.
1
4
7
:
=

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(
TEX, , , , ).






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V
8
:
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!
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9
;
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y

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latexsym,
\leadsto.
\rightleftharpoons,
LATEX; . TEX AMS:
LATEX , ,
,

58

II.

. amssymb
, AMS,
(\rightleftharpoons) , , ~ (\hbar)
.

, amssymb:


8
H
O
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s


`
f
i
k

\square
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F
N

^
{

@
a

z
k
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f,
latexsym, . 
latexsym, \Box \Diamond .
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).
, amsfonts,
. :
99K
+
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e

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,
amsfonts amssymb. :

II.2.
U
r
99K
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C
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\yen
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59
X
z
L99
A
B
D

\checkmark
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amssymb , amsfonts.

1.5.
,
log sin. ,
. -,
( ). . 2.5. -,
, , TEX ,
. , . 2.3.
, (
, ).

2.
2.1.
; LATEX
, (. . I.2.11).
. .
, , equation ( $$ !).
.
, : \begin{equation} \end{equation} \label,
\ref (. . 27;
, LATEXa).
:

60

II.

,
7 9 = 63.

(1)

...................................
(1) ,
63/9 = 7.

,
\begin{equation}
\label{trivial}
7\times9=63.
\end{equation}
.........................
~(\ref{trivial})
, $63/9=7$.

~ ,
(. . 103). ,
, \ref, . amsmath, \eqref, \ref
, .
\pageref \ref
, ,
.
, , (. . 20, 155): , article () , book ()
, , , 5
3, equation, (3.5). , , ,
.
, , .
, TEX \eqno.
, :

7 9 = 63

(3.2)


$$
7\times9=63\eqno (3.2)
$$
.

, \eqno,
$$;
, \eqno $$;
TEX ,
( , , , . .). \eqno \leqno,
, .

II.2.

61

, \eqno \leqno, TEX ,


.

2.2.
TEX . , 1 (. . 47) , (. . 47),
, , . ,
, TEX , . , ,
, : ,
.
:
Overfull
\hbox (. . III.6).


\binoppenalty=10000
/
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, ,
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.
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TEX ).
( ,
). \binoppenalty
700, \relpenalty 500.
, . 10000
.
1

TEX .

62

II.

, TEX
(. . III.6).
, , .
\newcommand*{\hm}[1]{#1\nobreak\discretionary{}%
{\hbox{$\mathsurround=0pt #1$}}{}}
, $a\hm+b\hm+c\hm+d$, a + b +
+ c + d + .

, , TEX
. ,
Overfull \hbox ( . III.6 , ),
. ,
. 4.2.

2.3.
.
, ?
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, .
, , P,
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Pn

$\mathbf P^n$

P ( ) ,
. ,
, VII.
, :
x+y
x+y
x+y
x+y
TX
+y

$\mathbf x+y$
$\mathrm x+y$
$\mathtt x+y$
$\mathsf x+y$
$\mathcal T_X$
$\mathit\Gamma+y$

\mathcal , ,
.

II.2.

63

\mathit ( , )
. ,
amsmath, \mathit
( , ).

, var:

\varGamma
\varLambda
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\varDelta
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\varTheta
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, \mathrm
. , , ,
:
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$X$
$X_{\mathrm{sing}}$.

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. 23, : , ,
, ,
. \mathbf{x} \mathbf x,
, . . . 107.

amsfonts amssymb, :
(R, C, Q,. . . ) (S, p, g,. . . ). ; \mathbb (
, ,
, \mathbb;
, ). \mathfrak;
( ,
):
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$\mathfrak{sl}_2(\mathbb
C)$
.

64

II.

eufrak, ( \mathfrak),
.
, , :
A B C D E F. . .
euscript; , , \EuScript.
, , , LATEX , tg, - \mathrm{tg}x. , , ,
:
tgx x
. sin x .

$\mathrm{tg} x$
$x$
.
$\sin x$ .

, . 50.
, , . 5.4.
- , \mathrm : ,
, , TEX ,
, , :

x3 = xx.

$$
\sqrt{x^3}=x \mathrm{ } x.
$$

, . 2.4.

, , , , ( ,
\alpha, \beta . .).
( ) , LATEX (
LATEX 2.09) , .
:
\mathrm x+y
\mathbf x+y

:
{\rm x}+y
{\bf x}+y

:
x+y
x+y

II.2.

\mathsf x+y
\mathtt x+y
\mathcal T_X

65

{\sf x}+y
{\tt x}+y
{\cal T}_X

x+y
x+y
TX

2.4.

LATEX \mbox. , ; \qquad, 2em (.
. 26 , TEX); , , . . 5.1;
, , . . III.3.3.

x3

=x

x.

$$
\sqrt{x^3}=x\qquad
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$$

\mbox TEX :
, , , ( ; ,
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\mbox, .
, ( ,
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). \qquad .
:
$$
\sqrt{x^3}=x\qquad\mbox{ $x$.}
$$
\mbox ,
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. , , , ,

66

II.

, \frac, , . , \mbox,
, .
, amsmath \text \mbox :
,
\text , , ,
,
\mbox.
\text .
\mbox ,
;
VIII.

2.5.

( , ),
, . TEX
.
.



1 n
e = lim 1 +
n
n
1 + n1 ;
\left \right :
$$
e=\lim_{n\to\infty}
\left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right)^n
$$
\left, \right,
, \left
\right.
\left \right . , \left \right
. TEX (- delimiters).

II.2.
(
]
b
e
|
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67
)
{
c
h
k

(
]
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\rceil
|
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)
\{
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[
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\left \right . 48.
amssymb,
:
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q \urcorner

x \llcorner

y \lrcorner

\left
\right, TEX
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left right, \left)...\right(
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\left \right . ,
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Zb

M (f ) =

,
f (x) dx

(b a)

$$
M(f)=\left.\left(
\int\limits_a^b
f(x)\,dx
\right)
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$$

\, , f (x) dx
, TEX , .

68

II.

, . 5.1.
:

Zb
a


1
1 b
3/2
(1 + x)
dx =
2
1 + x a

$$
\int\limits_a^b\frac12
(1+x)^{-3/2}dx=
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\right|_a^b
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xk

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\right)^2
$$

. TEX \bigl, \Bigl, \biggl


\Biggl \bigr, \Bigr, \biggr \Biggr
.
. ,
:

II.2.


|x + 1| |x 1|

69
$\bigl| |x+1|-|x-1|\bigr|$

- ,
:
n
X

xk

2

k=1

$$
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2.6.
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(x2 +y 2 )

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R2

dx dy =

$$\boxed{
\iint_{\mathbb R^2}
e^{-(x^2+y^2)}\,dx\,dy=\pi
}$$

70

II.

, amsfonts
amssymb.

2.8.

: , , . . TEX
.
-, \overline,
:

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. 53):
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II.2.
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71
$\widehat{f*g}=
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.


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2.9.

TEX , LATEX . , ,
,
\( ( ) \) ( ):

72

II.

22=4

\(2\times2=4\)

, LATEX, \begin{math}
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LATEX
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, LATEX .
TEX ( ), : LATEX,
TEX , ,
, (. . 159).

3.
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, , pmatrix. :
$$\begin{pmatrix}
a_{11}-\lambda & a_{12}&a_{13}\\
a11
a12
a13
a_{21}& a_{22}-\lambda &a_{23}\\
a21
a22
a23
a_{31}& a_{32}&a_{33}-\lambda
a31
a32
a33
\end{pmatrix}$$

\\ (
\\ ),
, ,
&. ,
, TEX ;
TEX , . , matrix TEX .

II.3.

73

; , bmatrix,
vmatrix Vmatrix, pmatrix ,
[ ], | | k k.
matrix, , . matrix
,
.
,
, :
\setcounter{MaxMatrixCols}{20}
( ; TEX
MaxMatrixCols; . VII).
, ,
; ,
.
matrix
:
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
4
6
4
1
1
5
10
10
5
1
:
$$
\setcounter{MaxMatrixCols}{20}
\begin{matrix}
&&&& 1 && 1\\
&&& 1 && 2 && 1\\
&& 1 && 3 && 3 && 1\\
& 1 && 4 && 6 && 4 && 1\\
1 && 5 && 10 && 10 && 5 && 1
\end{matrix}
$$
( ,
, &

74

II.

). MaxMatrixCols, .
, , \hdotsfor; , . &
, \hdotsfor:


0 0 . . . .
a1

1 0 . . . .
a2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . . . 1 0 an1


0 . . . . 1 an

$$\begin{vmatrix}
0 & 0&\hdotsfor{2} &a_1\\
1 & 0&\hdotsfor{2} &a_2\\
\hdotsfor{5}\\
\hdotsfor{2} &1 &0 &a_{n-1}\\
0 & \hdotsfor{2} &1 &a_n
\end{vmatrix}$$

, \hdotsfor: ( ) . \hdotsfor[1.5]{5} \hdotsfor{5},


.
,
.
\vdots \ddots:

a11 a12 . . . a1n


a21 a22 . . . a2n

..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
an1 an2 . . . ann

$$
\begin{pmatrix}
a_{11}& a_{12} &\ldots
a_{21}& a_{22} &\ldots
\vdots& \vdots &\ddots
a_{n1}& a_{n2} &\ldots
\end{pmatrix}
$$

&
&
&
&

a_{1n}\\
a_{2n}\\
\vdots\\
a_{nn}

\vdots \ddots ,
.
, , . , ,
. smallmatrix (
amsmath). :

0
[X, Y ] = 10 1
$[X,Y]=\bigl(\begin{smallmatrix}
1 & 0\\0 & -1
\end{smallmatrix}\bigr)$

II.4.

75

,
.
smallmatrix .
, , , , .
LATEX array.
. 72:

a11
a21
a31

a12
a22
a32

a13
a23
a33

$$\left(\begin{array}{ccc}
a_{11}-\lambda & a_{12}&a_{13}\\
a_{21}& a_{22}-\lambda &a_{23}\\
a_{31}& a_{32}&a_{33}-\lambda
\end{array}\right)
$$

, pmatrix, :
1) , array, .
2) \begin{array}, , (
, array) , ,
.
ccc. , 3 ( ),

(c centered). ( c, l, ,
(left), r, ,
(right).)
, pmatrix . \ldots, \vdots \ddots - ,
\hdotsfor , . MaxMatrixCols array
( ). smallmatrix LATEX ( ) .

4.
,
. . 1.2
: ,
- . .

4.1.

:

76

II.
1) , ( , \frac,
, , ).
2) , .
3) ,
.

.
\frac , . , \frac, ,
, . , , amsmath, \dfrac : .
, \tfrac
(- ;
amsmath). :
2
2
$\frac23$ $\dfrac23$
3 3
3
3
25 25
$2^{\frac35}$ $2^{\tfrac35}$
, , ,
. ( , ) : amsmath .
amsmath,
smallmatrix:

kij ijk .
~$\Gamma^k_{ij}$
~$\left\{
\begin{smallmatrix}ij\\k
\end{smallmatrix}\right\}$.
, ,
: smallmatrix ( VII,
).
, ,
amsmath \binom, \frac :

II.4.
12
7

= 792

77
$\binom{12}7=792$

\binom \dbinom \tbinom ,


, \dfrac \tfrac \frac.
amsmath ,
, \frac \binom. , , :
, ( ,
), . , ,
(. 67); (
).
\genfrac .
, , :


x


yz
$\genfrac{(}{]}{1pt}{0}{x}{y-z}$
.
.
\genfrac ; (
, ); :
, {} {0}, TEX
; 0 , ,
\dfrac ( . 5.2 , TEX
displaystyle), 1 , \tfrac ( textstyle), 2 3
; , .
, {} , ,
( 0.4 ).
, (, , , ). , \dfrac{x}{y}
,
\genfrac{}{}{}{0}{x}{y}
,
$\genfrac{\{}{\}}{0pt}{}{ij}{k}$
, \genfrac , , .

, , amsmath.
TEX \atop:

78

II.

kij 
ij
k .

~$\Gamma^k_{ij}$
~$\left\{ij\atop k\right\}$.

\left \right
.
TEX \choose :
 
n
n!
$$
=
k
k!(n k)!
{n\choose k}=\frac{n!}{k!(n-k)!}
$$
, n\choose k: \choose \choose, \choose
. ,
n!
k!(nk)!
.
\atop , , ,
, \choose. \atop
,
\left \right.
amsmath \atop \choose .

:
1
7
=
1
25
3+
1
1+
1
1+
3
:
7
1
=
25
3 + 1+ 1 1

1+ 1
3

$$
\frac{7}{25}=
\frac{1}{
3+\frac{1}{
1+\frac{1}{
1+\frac{1}{3}}}}
$$

. . 5 ,
,
amsmath :

II.4.

7
=
25

79

1
1

3+

1+

1+

1
3

$$\frac{7}{25}=
\cfrac{1}{
3+\cfrac{1}{
1+\cfrac{1}{
1+\cfrac{1}{3}}}}
$$

, -
, , \cfrac \cfrac[l] \cfrac[r] .
,
, ,
. , amsmath, \substack :
X

aij

i[0;n]
j[0;m]

$$
\sum_{\substack{i\in[0;n]\\
j\in[0;m]}} a_{ij}
$$

\substack ,
( ,
); \\ (
, ).
, . ,
LATEX \stackrel. : , , , :
f

A B

$A\stackrel{f}{\longrightarrow}B$

, , ,
\stackrel . , amsmath, \xleftarrow
\xrightarrow ,
.
, ( , , ).
, :
f

f +gh

A
B C
z

$$ A\xleftarrow[z]{f}B
\xrightarrow{f+g-h}C $$

80

II.

,
( , , ),
\underbrace.
, ;
, , . ,

1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + . . . + (2n 1) = n2
{z
}
|
n
:
$$
\underbrace{1+3+5+7+
\ldots+(2n-1)}_{\mbox{$n$ }}=n^2
$$
amsmath, \text \mbox.

\overbrace,
. , :

36

z
}|
{
a
+
b
+
.
.
.
+
z
+1
+
.
.
.
+
10
|
{z
}
26

$$
\overbrace{\underbrace{
a+b+\ldots+z
}_{26}+1+
\ldots+10}^{36}
$$

. ,
, , (. 93).

4.2.
TEX , , ,
. ,
,
$$...$$
.
,

II.4.

81

. , .
, (
) , amsmath; , , .
, amsmath. multline :
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ...
+ 46 + 47 + 48 + . . .
+ 99 + 100 = 5050 (2)

\begin{multline}
1+2+3+4+\ldots\\
+46+47+48+\ldots\\
+99+100=5050
\end{multline}

, , .
equation, multline $$.
, ,
multline, . ,
multline*.
, , \multlinegap.
, -
\multlinegap=.5in
(. . 25).
- , , \shoveleft, , ,
\shoveleft{+46+47+48+\ldots}\\
+46+47+48+\ldots\\. \shoveright.

, $$ equation, gather:
22=4

(3)

9 9 = 81

(4)

\begin{gather}
2\times 2=4\\
9\times 9=81
\end{gather}

82

II.

gather
$$. , gather,
.
( ?), , \\ \label (. . 2.1;
. IV.9 ).
- , \\ \notag.
,
gather*.
,
.
split :

1999 = 1000 + 900 +


+ 90 + 9

(5)

\begin{equation}
\begin{split}
1999&=1000+900+{}\\
&+90+9
\end{split}
\end{equation}

- \\ ,
& , . TEX , split, $$ ( equation). , equation .
, \notag \end{equation}, equation*, .
, split, gather align ( ),
.


. align :
7 9 = 63

63 : 9 = 7

(6)

9 10 = 90

90 : 10 = 9

(7)

\begin{align}
7\times 9& =63 & 63:9& =7\\
9\times 10& =90 & 90:10& =9
\end{align}

(
), , &

II.4.

83

. &
, &
, &, ,
, . . - $$,
, , \notag \\, - align*, .
align
&. , n ,
n 1 &, , n , (n 1) + n = 2n 1.

align , . , .
align:
3 5 + 7 5 = (3 + 7) 5 ()
= 50

()

\begin{align*}
3\cdot 5+7\cdot 5&=(3+7)
\cdot5 &&\text{()}\\
&=50&&\text{()}
\end{align*}

,
(. ). ,
, multline gather, , align, .
. , -
. \intertext , :
3 5 + 7 5 = (3 + 7) 5 ()
= 50

15 + 35 = 50

(),

\begin{align*}
3\cdot 5+7\cdot 5&=(3+7)
\cdot5 &&\text{()}\\
&=50&&\text{(),}\\
\intertext{}
15+35 &=50
\end{align*}

align, , aligned,
.
:

84

II.

x2 + y 2 = 7
x + y = 3.

$$
\left\{
\begin{aligned}
x^2+y^2&=7\\
x+y & = 3.\\
\end{aligned}
\right.
$$

, , \left \right, \right


(. . 2.5).
, , . amsmath cases. :

x > 0;
x,
|x| = 0,
x = 0;

x, x < 0.

$$
|x|=\begin{cases}
x,&\text{ $x>0$;}\\
0,&\text{ $x=0$;}\\
-x,&\text{ $x<0$.}
\end{cases}
$$

amsmath cases \lbrace \{.


,
amsmath, ,
.
array
:


x2 + y 2
x+y

=
=

7
3.

$$
\left\{
\begin{array}{rcl}
x^2+y^2&=&7\\
x+y & = &3.\\
\end{array}
\right.
$$

,
. , ( r ),

II.4.

85

(l ),
( c).
, () , ( aligned amsmath). ,
; , amsmath.
, , eqnarray. ,
array rcl ,
( ,
,
equation . . 2.1). -
\label, \ref \pageref. :

23 = 6
2+3 = 5

(8)
(9)

. 85 9.

\begin{eqnarray}
2\times3&=&6\\
2+3&=&5\label{silly}
\end{eqnarray}
.~\pageref{silly}

~\ref{silly}.

, , , eqnarray . ~ .
\pageref , . (. . 103);
.
eqnarray $$ (
, equation).
, ,
, \nonumber ( \\):

ex dx =

576 =

24

(10)

\begin{eqnarray}
\int_{-\infty}^\infty
e^{-x^2}dx & = &
\sqrt{\pi}\nonumber\\
\sqrt{576} & = & 24
\end{eqnarray}

, , eqnarray*.
array ,
, . eqnarray eqnarray* .
,
eqnarray eqnarray*:

86

x20

II.

(x 1)20 + 20(x 1)19 + . . . +


+ 20(x 1) + 1

\begin{eqnarray*}
x^{20}&=&(x-1)^{20}+
20(x-1)^{19}+\ldots+\\
&&{}+20(x-1)+1
\end{eqnarray*}

, + ;
, +
,
(
). . 5;
amsmath ( ,
).

4.3.
LATEX ,
amscd. . CD. ,
AMS-TEX, :
\begin{CD} \end{CD} ,
AMS-TEX \CD \endCD (.
[5, . 19]). . :
f

0 E 0

p
y
f

q
y

E 00 0

r
y

0 F 0 F F 00 0
amscd :
$$
\begin{CD}
0 @>>> E @>f>> E @>g>> E @>>> 0\\
@.
@VVpV
@VVqV
@VVrV
@.\\
0 @>>> F @>f>> F @>g>> F @>>> 0
\end{CD}
$$
.
, , @>>> (
@<<<);
- (, ), ;

II.4.

87

,
.
. @VVV , ; , V (
, , , V). ,
, @AAA ( A );
( ).
@. (
); , LATEX , , .
CD . CD , .
,
.
. , , ,
, , {}. . -
, @. ( ).
.
, . - ,
@. ( ).
, ( ,
, @VVV), V, () TEX ,
V , . , ,
, A ( , , > <,
).
, :

88

II.

B
x

V1 y

D E F
g

$$
\begin{CD}
A @=
B
@>>>
@V{V_1}VV @AfAA
D @<<g< E
@<<<
\end{CD}
$$

C \\
@| \\
F

, @=
() @| (). ,
V .
\pretend . . . \haswidth AMSTEX (. [5])
LATEX .

, :
, , . . . amscd
;
, XY-pic
(. ).
( ) LATEX
. , amscd, XY-pic,
:
$$
\begin{array}{ccccccccc}
0&\longrightarrow & E &
\stackrel{f}{\longrightarrow}& E &
\stackrel{g}{\longrightarrow} &
E & \longrightarrow & 0\\
&&\downarrow\lefteqn{p}&&\downarrow
\lefteqn{q}&&\downarrow\lefteqn{r}\\
0&\longrightarrow & F &
\stackrel{f}{\longrightarrow}& F &
\stackrel{g}{\longrightarrow} & F
& \longrightarrow & 0
\end{array}
$$
, (, , \stackrel ). ,
, \lefteqn. ,
.
\lefteqn ( p \lefteqn{p} . .),
, .

II.5.

89

, . TEX
, . TEX , .
, \lefteqn , ,
TEX, . , TEX ,
, ,
, ,
, \lefteqn. TEX
TEX
(dirty tricks). , TEX .

4.4.
- , , , , , : , , .
. 5.2 5.3 VII;
,
. IV.5, .

5.
,
. ,
,
( ).

5.1.
, , TEX , .
, . :
\quad
\qquad
\,
\:
\;
\!

1em:
2em:
, :
:
:

\! ,
\, .

90

II.

, .

f
(x)
dx,

RR
f dx dy 3 x.



,
~$\int f(x)\,dx$,
$\int\!\!\int f\,dx\,dy$
~$\sqrt{3}\,x$.

\qquad , ,
(. . 65).
\quad, 1em. \int\!\!\int
, , amsmath \iint.

5.2.
,
: TEX
, , ,
\frac, . . , , , . ,
TEX
.
TEX
:
displaystyle
textstyle
scriptstyle
scriptscriptstyle

, (,
, ,
;
, . . 1.2).
, (
).
: , ; , -
\frac ( \atop),
TEX ;
( TEX
), ;

II.5.

91

, . ,

7
7
y 2 + 3 z x y
x+
1 + cos2 x
TEX x + , 7
7
y 2 + 3 z x y 1 + cos2 x, x7 y7
,
. scriptscriptscriptstyle ,
, (
, ).
, TEX ,
(\displaystyle. . . \scriptscriptstyle).
, . , . . 78 , ,
. , TEX: ,
, , ,
, , . . \cfrac amsmath,
:
$$
\frac{7}{25}=
\frac{1}{\displaystyle
3+\frac{1}{\displaystyle
1+\frac{1}{\displaystyle
1+\frac{1}{3}}}}
$$
\displaystyle ,
, ,
.

5.3.
. 89 \lefteqn, TEX, ( ) .
: , ,
. .
\sqrt , ,
. , ,
:

92

II.

a + d .

$\sqrt{a}+
\sqrt{d}$
.

, , , a d .
, TEX : , , a d,
. , ,
(
). TEX \mathstrut:
p
p
a + d $\sqrt{\mathstrut a}
.
+\sqrt{\mathstrut d}$

.
, \mathstrut ,
( .
, \mathstrut,
TEX . ,
\phantom{- }
, - TEX,
. :
,
.
:

,

:~$\sqrt{\phantom{x}}$.

, (
, , ).
\vphantom. , \mathstrut \vphantom{(} . , , ,
, ,
. \hphantom:

.


$\hphantom{\sin^2\alpha}$
.

, \smash. \lefteqn, ,
TEX, . ( \lefteqn)
. \phantom \lefteqn:

II.5.

z }| {
1+2+3+4
| {z }

93

$$
\lefteqn{\overbrace{
\phantom{1+2+3}}}
1+\underbrace{2+3+4}
$$

, , . , \overbrace,
1 + 2 + 3, . \overbrace . , ,
, \lefteqn, TEX ,
. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 | {z }
, 1 + 2 + 3; 1 + 2 + 3
! , ,
(. . 89).
, ,
. , \lefteqn
\displaystyle, ,
, . ,
\lefteqn \textstyle.

5.4.
, TEX .
, LATEX. ,
, , (,
, . 90)
.
TEX :



, \alpha
. . 47
. . 47
. . 49, 51
, {x^2}
, ; \colon \ldotp

,
. \colon , (, , TEX
), \ldotp ,
(, , ). ( TEX) -

94

II.

(. 48) , \stackrel. TEX


, :
(,
\:), (, , \;);
, (. ) ;
, . .2 (. . , ) TEX ,
:
2 + 3 2+3:
, .

$2+3$ $2{+}3$:

,
.

, ( ,
) . 31,
, TEX .
( [2]).
, TEX
,
: \mathbin, \mathrel \mathop
. , .
,
. , , \hat{\otimes},
:

, E F
, E F .

,
$E\hat{\otimes}F$
,
$E\otimes F$.

,
TEX
, :
F ,
E
E F .


$E\mathbin{\hat{\otimes}}F$
,
$E\otimes F$.

,
23 .
2

{}, ;
. 82.

II.5.

95

( . VII , ).
\mathop
, (. . 50, tg).
, , LATEX
(. 49), ; , ,
, Ext1 (E, F ),
$\mathop{\mathrm{Ext}}\nolimits^1(E,F)$
\mathop , Ext1 (E, F ) ,
:
sin x sinx.

$\sin x$ $\mathrm{sin}x$.

\nolimits, ,
(, . . 5.2) ,
, (. . 53).
amsmath \DeclareMathOperator.
, TEX ,
.
X0

f (x).

, .
:
0
X

f (x).

$$
\sum_{x\in\Gamma}f(x).
$$

, . 54 ,
:
$$
\sum^\prime_{x\in\Gamma}f(x).
$$
. ,
, , :
$$
\mathop{{\sum}}_{x\in\Gamma}f(x).
$$

96

II.

, .
, \sum : , \sum, TEX ,
, , . {\sum}
\mathop,
(
) , .
,
.

5.5.
, TEX
, TEX :
\abovedisplayskip
\belowdisplayskip

\abovedisplayshortskip
\belowdisplayshortskip

( )
( )

, , (
).
, , 30%,
\abovedisplayskip=.7\abovedisplayskip
( ).

, , . . , ,
, TEX ( TEX , ),
, ; . . 147 ( . VIII.3.3)
, .

5.6.
,
,
3 . TEX \mathsurround
(. . I.2.9 TEX ). ,
(
3

.
,
, .

II.5.

97

, , ,
). LATEX ,
,
. , , \mathsurround
. , \mathsurround=2pt ( ) 2
.

- , ,
\mathsurround, ( , ).
(, pt).

III


1.
(, , . .) : , , .
, .

1.1. ,
. , TEX,
- (- hyphen), (en-dash), (em-dash) ( ,
).
, ,
, - .
, 23
( 2--3 ;
).
( ) ;
. . . 1.5 .
, , , , ,
- (. . I.3).
, ,
- ,
, , . : TEX ,

III.1.

99


( ,
).
, fi: , f i (fi).
,
, , :
( )
(
, ).

1.2.
,
( ").
, .
The definitions are translations rather than explanations.

The definitions are translations


rather than explanations.

TEX ; LATEX ,
.
, ,
,
: ,
, , ; , , ,
. ,

. LATEX
\, . ( LATEX, , (
!) \ \, \glqq

\grqq):
,

? .

\\,\glqq \grqq{}
\glqq \grqq,
?\~-- .

100

III.

~ , , (.
. 103 ).

1.3.
(
). :
\ldots \dots.
... : , -
. . .

... :
, - \ldots

( , \dots ,

, \cdots, , \ldots.)
amsmath (
) , \dots \ldots. , amsmath, ,
( !) \dots
\ldots \textellipsis , .

1.4. ,
\S, \copyright; , $ & \$ \&, (. . I.2.2);
\pounds \textsterling. , textcomp (. . 1.5 ),
\textnumero . (
.) ,
, :
TEX.

$\heartsuit$ \TeX.

1.5.
LATEX textcomp, .
( \usepackage{textcomp}), :

III.1.
\textquotestraightbase
\texttwelveudash 
\textleftarrow
\textblank
\textasteriskcentered
\textfractionsolidus
\textoneoldstyle
\textthreeoldstyle
\textfiveoldstyle
\textsevenoldstyle
\textnineoldstyle
\textminus
\textmho
\textohm
\textrbrackdbl
\textdownarrow
\textborn b
\textdivorced c
\textleaf l
\texttildelow ~
\textasciibreve
\textgravedbl
\textdagger
\textperthousand %
\textbardbl
\textcelsius
\textdollar $
\textcent
\textflorin
\textnaira
\textpeso
\textdong
\textsterling
\textrecipe
\textinterrobangdown
\textpilcrow
\textdiscount
\textopenbullet
\textlquill
\textbrokenbar
\textasciidieresis
\textordfeminine

101

\textquotestraightdblbase
\textthreequartersemdash
\textrightarrow
\textquotesingle '
\textdblhyphen \textzerooldstyle
\texttwooldstyle
\textfouroldstyle
\textsixoldstyle
\texteightoldstyle
\textlangle
\textrangle
\textbigcircle
\textlbrackdbl
\textuparrow
\textasciigrave `
\textmarried m
\textdied d
\textmusicalnote
\textdblhyphenchar 
\textasciicaron
\textacutedbl
\textdaggerdbl
\textpertenthousand %
\textbullet
\textcolonmonetary
\textdollaroldstyle
\textcentoldstyle
\textwon
\textguarani
\textlira
\textbaht
\textyen
\textinterrobang
\texttrademark
\textnumero
\textestimated
\textservicemark
\textrquill
\textsection
\textcopyright
\textcopyleft

102

III.

\textlnot
\textregistered
\textpm
\textthreesuperior
\textmu
\textperiodcentered
\textonesuperior
\textthreequarters
\textdiv
\textordmasculine
\texteuro
\textasciimacron

\textcircledP
\textdegree
\texttwosuperior
\textasciiacute
\textparagraph
\textreferencemark
\textonehalf
\texttimes
\textsurd
\textonequarter
\textcurrency

,
textcomp (, $*$
\textasteriskcentered ; *,
, ),
(, ,
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III.2. ,

103

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104

III.


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III.3.

105

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This research was supported by the
NSF. The author is grateful to
Prof. Smith.

If $n$ is even (resp.\ odd),


then $(-1)^n$ equals one
(resp.\ minus one).
This research was supported by
the NSF\@. The author is
grateful to Prof.~Smith.

, : ~, ,
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3.3.
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106

III.

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107
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108

III.

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. 99).

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III.5.

109

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( )}.

110

III.

III.1. .

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112

III.

(upshape), (itshape),
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III.5.

113

III.2. : .

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114

III.

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115

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116

III.

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III.6.

117

:
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118

III.

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babel EC-
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III.6.

119

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120

III.

-, , ,
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III.6.

121

6.4.
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122

III.

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III.6.

123

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6.6.
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124

III.

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III.6.

125

r, 100r3 badness. , 100r3 > 10000, badness


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126

III.

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III.6.

127

,
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\tolerance, !

128

III.

: ,
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7.1.
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III.7.
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129

,
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130

III.

, , , ().
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7.3.
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III.7.

131

LATEX , verse
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7.4.
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132

III.

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III.7.

133

LATEX ; - , - , ).
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134

III.

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135

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136

III.

7.5. (verbatim, verb)


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III.7.

137

. ,
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138

III.

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139

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140

III.

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III.9.

141

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142

III.
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III.9.

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144

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146

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III.9.

147

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148

III.

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III.9.

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150

III.

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III.10.

151

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152

III.

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III.10.

153

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154

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156

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157

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158

IV.

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IV.2.

159

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\documentclass[11pt]{letter}
\address{I.\,Ivanov,\\
IUM, Moscow, Russia}
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\date{December 31, 2002}
\begin{document}
\begin{letter}{Prof.\ Jonas Jonas Huckabuck,\\
University of Rootabaga,\\
Cream Puffs, 80116, RO, USA}
\opening{Dear Prof.\ Huckabuck,}
Enclosed please find two copies of my paper.
\closing{Sincerely yours,}
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. IV.1.
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160

IV.
I. Ivanov,
IUM, Moscow, Russia
December 31, 2002

Prof. Jonas Jonas Huckabuck,


University of Rootabaga,
Cream Puffs, 80116, RO, USA
Dear Prof. Huckabuck,
Enclosed please find two copies of my paper.
Sincerely yours,

I. Ivanov
. IV.2. . IV.1
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IV.3.

161

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162

IV.

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IV.4. ,

163

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164

IV.

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IV.5.

165

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166

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IV.5.

167

5.1. \section
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168

IV.

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5.4.
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170

IV.

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171

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172

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173

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6.3.
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174

IV.

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IV.7.

175

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176

IV.
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IV.7.

177

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178

IV.

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IV.7.

179

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180

IV.

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IV.7.

181

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182

IV.

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IV.7.

183

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184

IV.

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IV.8.

185

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8.
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186

IV.

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IV.8.

187

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188

IV.

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IV.8.

189

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190

IV.

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IV.9.

191

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9.
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192

IV.
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IV.9.

193

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194

IV.

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IV.10. ()

195

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V.1.

197

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198

V.

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V.2.

199

2.
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3. ,
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200

V.

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201




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4.
picture
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202

V.

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5.

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V.5.

203

TEX 10 .
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% :
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\put(20,0){\vector(0,1){40}}
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204

V.

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\put(140,0){\line(0,1){70}}
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\put(0,0){\line(0,1){70}}
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6.
, \unitlength.
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V.6.

205

picture, , , ).
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2.5 , , .

VI

, , : . ( , TEX) , , (
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1.
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VI.1.

207
\begin{tabbing}
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208

VI.

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VI.1.

209

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210

VI.

,
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one two three four


viens divi trs cetri

\begin{tabbing}
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links
pa kreisi

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links\>rechts\\\
pa kreisi\>pa labi\
\end{tabbing}

VI.1.

211

,
a \a \ (. . 208).
\ tabbing , , ; , , ,
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( ), :

`a gauche
links
pa kreisi

`a droite
rechts
pa labi

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212

VI.

tabbing , LATEX
tabular. .

2.
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, : TEX , ( ). LATEX
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, , ,
, . . . II array; , tabular;
, , array, .

2.1.
tabular . . ,
\begin{tabular}, , , ,
( ).
:
l , ;
r , ;
c .
\begin{tabular} ( ) \end{tabular} .
\\ , &, , (
). .
. II.4.2, , array.

VI.2.

213

, tabular , array .
:

itemize
enumerate
description

\begin{tabular}{lc}
& \\[5pt]
\ttfamily itemize & \\
\ttfamily enumerate & \\
\ttfamily description & \\
\end{tabular}

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. :

214

VI.

\begin{tabular}{rr}
& \\ &
\end{tabular}

tabular b: , tabular,
; t
:

\begin{tabular}{rr}
& \\ &
\end{tabular}
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\begin{tabular}[b]{rr}
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, .

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( . . III.10). \hline.
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l, c r, . ,
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VI.2.

215

( . .) .
:

zilonis
nilzirgs
lauva

\begin{tabular}{||l|l||}
\hline
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& nilzirgs\\
& lauva\\
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-
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-
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\begin{tabular}{|c|c|}
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, .

2.2.
, . ,
\multicolumn. :
1) , .
2) .
l, r c ( ,
), , | ,
, .
3) , .

216

VI.

VI.1.

15

14

VI.1.
( ,
\multicolumn
c, , . 217):
\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|l|}
\hline
\multicolumn{4}{|c|}{\textbf{ }}\\
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VI.2.

217


:
, , ,
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:
, ,
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?
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? :
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218

VI.

( , ); ? .
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VI.3.

219

VI.2.


le mien, la mienne

les miens, les miennes



le tien, la tienne

les tiens, les tiennes



le sien, la sienne
, ,
les siens, les siennes

, 1
1

le n
otre, la notre, les notres
le v
otre, la votre, les votres
le leur, la leur, les leurs


mon, ma, mes
ton, ta, tes
son, sa, ses
notre, nos
votre, vos
leur, leurs

3- .

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\multicolumn{2}{c}{ }
& \\[\smallskipamount]
& $\left\{ \begin{tabular}{l}
le mien, la mienne\\les miens, les miennes\\
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le tien, la tienne\\les tiens, les tiennes\\
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, . cll, , ,

220

VI.

. , .
\multicolumn; \\, , ; ,
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, ( \multicolumn). \footnotesize ,
(. . III.5). ,
, \cline. , , 1
. $^1$ :
$^1$\rule{0pt}{11pt}
. III.10, \rule
, 11 .
:
1.
( ).

VI.3.

221

VI.3.

830 15
1219
1017
917
1116
814

1112

1516
1230 1315

1213

1112

(. VI.3) . :
\begin{tabular}{lr@{--}l@{\qquad \quad}r@{--}l}
& $8^{30}$ & 15 & 11 & 12 \\

& 12 & 19 & 15 & 16 \\

& 10 & 17 & $12^{30}$ & $13^{15}$ \\

& 9 & 17 & 12 & 13 \\

& 11 & 16 & &\\

& 8 & 14 & 11 & 12\\


\end{tabular}
, . , .
,
l, c, r p{...} , |, . , , .
( )
at-1 : @,
-
, , TEX .
(,
, - \multicolumn). at- :
. \qquad \quad ? ,
, at-, , LATEX ,
1
, @ at;
, .

222

VI.

tabular array:

. , ,
, ,
at-, \quad .
at- @{}: ,
, , . @{} ,
, , , ,
( ,
).
, tabular array, (
). . \tabcolsep tabular
\arraycolsep array (. . I.2.9 ). \tabcolsep ( \arraycolsep). ,

.
( \arrayrulewidth;
array, tabular),
\doublerulesep,
array tabular.
,
.
:
x2 + 2x 12 x + 5
x2 + 5x
x3
3x 12
3x 15
3
LATEX :
$$
\arraycolsep=0.05em
\begin{array}{rrr@{\,}r|r}

VI.3.

223

x^2&{}+2x&{}-12&&\,x+5\\
\cline{5-5}
x^2&{}+5x&&&\,x-3\\
\cline{1-2}
&{}-3x&{}-12\\
&{}-3x&{}-15\\
\cline{2-3}
&&3
\end{array}
$$
, \arraycolsep:
. .
rrr@{\,}r|r. , x2 , + 2x 12;
(x+5 x3),
r, ,
. ,
: &
.
, , :
rrr|r
( . 218),
,
.
, , , ,
, \arraycolsep .
tabular
, . 215:
, ,
\hline ? ,
, , , , 2 ; ,
2 , . , ,
:

224

VI.

\begin{tabular}{|c|c|}
\hline
- & -\\
\hline \rule{0pt}{2pt}&\\
\hline
- & -\\
\hline
\end{tabular}

, , ,
LATEX .
, tabular array, , .
, , (,
, \strut). - ,
2 LATEX : \strut
! , LATEX
\strut . , ( tabular
array!) :
\renewcommand{\arraystretch}{0}
\renewcommand, . VII, . , ,
-, ,
, , -, , \strut,

\renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1}
;
\strut ,
. ,
-
-

-
-

:
{\renewcommand{\arraystretch}{0}%
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|}

VI.3.

225

\hline \strut - & -\\


\hline \rule{0pt}{2pt}&\\
\hline \strut - & -\\
\hline
\end{tabular}%
}
,
( ).
, \renewcommand.
, , ,
\strut.
at-. :
{\renewcommand{\arraystretch}{0}%
\begin{tabular}{|@{\strut\hspace{\tabcolsep}}c|c|}
\hline
- & -\\
\hline
\multicolumn{1}{|c|}{\rule{0pt}{2pt}}&\\
\hline
- & -\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
}
at- \tabcolsep, ( at- ); ,
, \strut at-, \multicolumn, \strut
, .
.
hhline, , \arraystretch.
\strut
, . , ,
( ) 3.7 , :
\renewcommand{\arraystretch}{3.7}
( ).

226

VI.

4.
, LATEX ( ).
, LATEX, .

4.1. array
( ) ,
array.
, , . ?
\hline
(
). LATEX

\renewcommand{\arraystretch}...
. array : \extrarowheight. ,
. , (. . 26);
,
23 .
tabular t,
, , ,
:

\begin{tabular}[t]{rr}
& \\ &
\end{tabular}
\begin{tabular}[t]{|rr|}
\hline & \\ & \\
\hline
\end{tabular}

, , \firsthline, \hline,

VI.4.

227
\begin{tabular}[t]{rrrr}
& & & \\
& & &
\end{tabular}
\begin{tabular}[t]{|rrrr|}
\hline & & & \\
& & & \\ \hline
\end{tabular}\\[1in]
\begin{tabular}[t]{rrrr}
& & & \\
& & &
\end{tabular}
\begin{tabular}[t]{|rrrr|}
\firsthline & & & \\
& & & \\ \hline
\end{tabular}

. VI.1.
. VI.1. , tabular
b
, , \lasthline, \hline.
, tabular ( array)
l, r, c p{...},
, at-.
array - .
-, , p{...}, m{...} b{...}.
p{...}, , , . ,
b{...}, , , m{...} , ,
p{...}, . .
. VI.2.
at-, array
!-. , ,
, , at-,
!{...}, - TEX / . ,
at-, , at-,

228

VI.

,
, !

,
, !

,
, !

\begin{tabular}{p{.9in}m{.9in}b{.9in}}
, , ! &
, , ! &
, , !\\
\end{tabular}
. VI.2.
. !-
:
{rc!{\hspace{2pt}}cl}

.
!-
, , ,
. , , , - 1pt, \arrayrulewidth,
|, , !{\vrule width 1pt\relax} (. . 153 \vrule).
, , array, TEX
/ . ,
l, c, r, t, m b, ,

>{}

. ,
:
II
III
IV

15191559
15511589
15531610

\begin{tabular}{|>{ }l|>{\slshape}l|}
\hline
II & 1519--1559\\III & 1551--1589\\
IV & 1553--1610\\ \hline
\end{tabular}

VI.4.

229

, ,
p-, m-, b-,
<{}
. , - , tabular,

. :

(x + y)2
\begin{tabular}{l>{$}l<{$}}
(x y)2
& (x+y)^2\\

x3 + y 3
& (x-y)^2\\
& x^3+y^3
\end{tabular}

4.2.
array
,
(. . 215). hhline,
.
, , .
, \hline \cline, \hhline, , . :

\begin{tabular}{|c|cc|c|}
\hline & & & \\

\hhline{|=|~~|-|}
& & & \\ \hline
\end{tabular}
\hhline . -,
,
( =),
( ~ ),
( -). n
, \hhline n -,
= ~, , .
, , , . |; , :, #, t b.

230

VI.

, :
-|

, ,
-|-

|=

=|

, ,
=|=

:=

=:

, ,
=:=

||-

-||

-||-


\hhline

|:=

=:|

=::=

#=

=#

, ,
=#=


\hhline

|t:=

|b:=

=:t|

=:b|

=:t:=

=:b:=


\hhline

|-


\hhline

, \hhline:
1
5

2
6

3
7

4
8

\begin{tabular}{||cc||cc||}
\hhline{|t:==:t:==:t|}
1 &2 &3 &4\\5 &6 &7 &8\\
\hhline{#==::==||}
& & & \\
\hhline{||--||~~}
& & & \\
\hhline{|b:==:b:==:b|}
\end{tabular}

, \hhline
, .
, \hhline ,
.

4.3. ,
, array tabular
LATEX , . , , ,
, .
longtable
longtable. tabular,
( ,
tabular);
, tabular ( , \hline, \cline \multicolumn). array
,
.

VI.4.

231

longtable, .
-, LATEX , longtable, (
, LATEX ,
, ). , LATEX - (
, ).
-, ,
,
.
(/ \hline),
\\, \endhead. ,
, , . ,
\endfirsthead. , ,
, \\,
, \endfoot.
,
. \endfoot \endlastfoot. , \endhead,
\endfirsthead, \endfoot \endlastfoot,
longtable. :

1
2
3
4

. .


.
.


. .

. .

.

.

232

VI.
1

4
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
. .

:
\begin{longtable}{|l|l|l|l|}
\multicolumn{4}{c}{ }\\
\hline
& & & \\
\hline
1&2&3&4\\
\hline\endfirsthead
\hline
1 & 2 & 3 & 4\\
\hline\endhead
\hline
\multicolumn{4}{c}{\textit{ }}
\endfoot
\hline\endlastfoot
& & & .\\
...
& & & . .\\
\end{longtable}
, longtable, \newpage ( \pagebreak
\nopagebreak).
\\ ( ).
longtable
, longtable.
\caption, table picture, -:
\\, \endhead \endfirsthead
( \endfoot,. . . ).
-

VI.4.

233

\label (
\ref), :
,
( );
\label .
4 . , \LTcapwidth.
tabular, longtable
, , .
, longtable
r ( , \begin{longtable} ); l , .

VII


LATEX, ,
. , , (, , ),
TEX . , .

1.
1.1.
. , def
= ( ).
, . II, , :
\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}
.
LATEX , , \eqdef,
def
= ! , ,
. :
\newcommand{\eqdef}{\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}}
TEX , , \eqdef, ,
def
\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}. , x2 = x x :

VII.1.

235

x^2\eqdef x\cdot x
TEX, , ( : , , ). LATEX.
\newcommand.
. ,
. , TEX (.
. I.2.3): backslash -, backslash
.
\newcommand, ,
TEX :
( , ).
\newcommand
( , LATEX ).
\newcommand ( , )
1 ,

\newcommand{\nachatkursiv}{{\itshape}
\newcommand{\konchitkursiv}{}}
( ). , ,
[2], ; , LATEX, .
, TEX
.
: end.
, \verb verbatim.

\newcommand , TEX .
, , , TEX .
,
.
1

, \{ \}, .

236

VII.

. ,
4,
\bigtriangleup. , (, \btu),
\newcommand{\btu}{\bigtriangleup}

(A 4 B) C = (A C) 4 (B C)

$(A\btu B)\cap C=
(A\cap C)\btu (B\cap C)$

. 50 , ,
. ,
( ,
\mathop , . II.5.4).
. II ,
.
. ,
,
Pn
,

\newcommand{\Pn}{$\mathbf P^n$}
, , :
... ~\Pn{} --- ...
x Pn $x\in\Pn$ :
, ^ \mathbf
. : TEX \Pn ,
\newcommand. \Pn $x\in\Pn$
$x\in $\mathbf P^n$$,
, ^ . Pn
, :
\newcommand{\Pn}{\mathbf{P}^n}

VII.1.

237

, , \Pn , Pn ,
.
, , :
\Pn
\newcommand{\Pn}{\ensuremath{\mathbf{P}^n}}
( ) \Pn , :
\Pn~--- $n$- ,
$X\subset \Pn$~--- ...
( ~ ,
. 103). \ensuremath
, ,
.
. ,
. , ,
( ). (),
. , ,
- ; ,
. ,
, ,
\z. - :
\newcommand{\z}{\bfseries }
, :
.
.
?

\z.
.

?

,
? : TEX \z
, :
\bfseries . ...

238

VII.

\bfseries , . ,
, , \newcommand, .
:
\newcommand{\z}{{\bfseries }}
\z {\bfseries }, (
, \newcommand, !). (, , ) :
\newcommand{\z}{\textbf{}}
, \z . -, , ,
, . ,
, ,
\z ...
. . , ,

\z{} ...
:
\newcommand{\z}{\textbf{. }}
\z ... , . ,
, . - ,
, .
, . ,
\par (. 142):
\newcommand{\z}{\par\textbf{. }}
\z - ,
\par (. . 142 ), ,
\par .

VII.1.

239

- , . , ,
,
\z:
\newcommand{\z}{\par\noindent\textbf{. }}
,
\noindent. , LATEX , \z ,
.
,
\newcommand . , , . . IV: ,
, Chapter,
- \chaptername.
\renewcommand.
, \newcommand, , ;
\newcommand : ,
. ,
\renewcommand{\alpha}{-}
\alpha , (
, ), -.
\renewcommand ,
. \renewcommand
, .
\renewcommand . , LATEX LATEX,
.
,
- ,
, . \renewcommand ,
.

240

VII.

,
:
TEX . , LATEX,
,
; , \newcommand,
TEX , . , ,
(, \stackrel,
\eqdef, ) ,
TEX. ,
, : \left, \right,
\noindent .

1.2.
, . , LATEX ,
. , ,
 , : al .
( , ) :
\left(\frac{a}{l}\right)
\smb ,

a
\smb{a}{l} l . ,
LATEX . \newcommand,
2 . , \smb:
\newcommand{\smb}[2]{\left(\frac{#1}{#2}\right)}
, . ( 2). ,
#1 #2 .
\smb. ,

\smb{a+b}{c}
2

( ) \newcommand* ( ). . . 242 .

VII.1.

241


a+b
c .
. \newcommand,
, , ().
9. ,
, #1
, #2 . .
(
). ,
, , \newcommand,
(
LATEX ).
, #1
, #2 . .
. \shuffle :
\newcommand{\shuffle}[4]{#4#2#1}
, , :
.

\shuffle{}{}{}{}
.

, \shuffle , ,
, ; ,
, , ,
.
LATEX (
), \newcommand
( ) ( \{ \}).
, ,
\renewcommand . ,
#1, #2 . . ,
\newcommand.

242

VII.

. , \pageref. , -
\label{units}, :
.~\pageref{units}, ...

.
\newcommand{\str}[1]{.~\pageref{#1}}
:

\str{units}, ...
( , ., ., , \str !)

2. \newcommand
\newcommand \renewcommand (. . 25), \newcommand* \renewcommand*.
, , : \newcommand*
\renewcommand*, \par3 . \newcommand \renewcommand , .
. , ,
,
\par, (
, , \newcommand \renewcommand
). . , ,
(
3


( \newcommand*) .

VII.2. \newcommand

243

!), ( ; \smb
. 240):
$\smb{a{l}$, $a$ ~$l$,
~$1$, $a$
~$l$, ~$-1$ .
, $\smb{a}{l}$ $l$
~$a$, .
.-.\,...
\smb (
, \smb \newcommand ,
. 240), TEX , ,
,
\smb. TEX ,
, ,
, , .
\smb \newcommand*,
\newcommand*{\smb}[2]{\left(\frac{#1}{#2}\right)}
: TEX , ,

:
Runaway argument?
{a{l}$, $a$ ~$l$, \ETC.
! Paragraph ended before \smb was complete.
<to be read again>
\par
l.8
?
, . ,
( TEX . . . ).
\newcommand* \renewcommand* : () .

244

VII.

\newcommand* \renewcommand*. , ,
.

3.
, , LATEX
, , . .
. ,
. , ,
.
, .

3.1.
LATEX
( \ ).
;
,
. ,
\newcounter,
, . ,
\newcounter{abcd}
abcd. , , ( , \newcounter : LATEX
), LATEX

.
LATEX , :
, LATEX
. \newcounter
\newcommand \renewcommand.
? -,
( : ). -

VII.3.

245

0; - , \setcounter, : , , . , ,
\setcounter{abcd}{1998}
, TEX , abcd
1998. , ,
, .

- . \addtocounter.
:
, , . ,

\setcounter{abcd}{100}
\addtocounter{abcd}{-27}
abcd 73.
, , :
, .
:
. () . \arabic:
40 .

\setcounter{abcd}{40}
~--\arabic{abcd}
.

: , , 2003, \arabic{abcd} TEX


, 2003.
, \Roman ( ,
) \roman ( ):
XIV .

\setcounter{abcd}{14}
~\Roman{abcd}
-.

246

VII.

, .
, , , .
\alph ( ) \Alph ( ):
, ! : g.

\setcounter{abcd}{7}
,

!
:~\alph{abcd}.


, LATEX
.
LATEX ,
, . TEX
; . . IX.2.3 , .

, ,
( ). \fnsymbol, :

: , , ,
.

\setcounter{abcd}{0}

:
$\addtocounter{abcd}{1}\fnsymbol{abcd}$,
$\addtocounter{abcd}{1}\fnsymbol{abcd}$,
$\addtocounter{abcd}{1}\fnsymbol{abcd}$,
.

, .
,
\value. ,
\newcounter{efgh}
\setcounter{abcd}{10}
\setcounter{efgh}{100}
\addtocounter{efgh}{-\value{abcd}}
efgh 90. , ,

VII.3.

247

\setcounter{efgh}{1000}
\tolerance=\value{efgh}
, , .

. . 239
\z,
, , ,

\z ...
\z ...
\z ...
, LATEX . . -, ,
; -, \z ,
, .
zadacha:
\newcounter{zadacha}
(, zadacha
0). \z
:
\newcommand{\z}{\par\addtocounter{zadacha}{1}%
\textbf{ \arabic{zadacha}.} }
, \par ,
; , \z .
, , .
\z zadacha
1 1., 2 2. . . . . ., !

3.2.
\z, ,
, .
, , ,

248

VII.

, 3
3.6, 4
4.1. , .
, LATEX . , , . , : chapter (
), section, subsection . .
, , \section section 1,
. ,
\z
\arabic{section}.\arabic{zadacha}.

.
- ,
? , ,
zadacha 0 \setcounter,
( ?).
zadacha :
\newcounter{zadacha}[section]
zadacha section:
, section \section, zadacha ,
. \z

\newcommand{\z}{\par\addtocounter{zadacha}{1}%
\textbf{ \arabic{section}.\arabic{zadacha}.} }
,
3.2.
,
. : \newcounter
( ) , . ,
\newcounter , ,
.

VII.3.

249

, . , slave master;
\addtocounter{master}{1}
slave:
, . ,
\refstepcounter: ,
. , ,
:
\newcounter{master}
\newcounter{slave}[master]

\setcounter{master}{10}
\setcounter{slave}{10}
10,
\addtocounter{master}{1}
master 11 slave
,
\refstepcounter{master}
master 12, slave .
\refstepcounter , ,
. \stepcounter;
, , ,
(. ),
.

250

VII.

LATEX . , book :
\newcounter{part}
\newcounter{chapter}
\newcounter{section}[chapter]
\newcounter{subsection}[section]
\newcounter{subsubsection}[subsection]
\newcounter{paragraph}[subsubsection]
\newcounter{subparagraph}[paragraph]
, (
, ),
.

3.3.
\z.
, , \label
\ref ( , \pageref,
, ). ,
: zadacha \addtocounter,
, \refstepcounter, .
\z :
\newcommand{\z}{\par\refstepcounter{zadacha}%
\textbf{ \arabic{section}.\arabic{zadacha}.} }
, , :
\z ...
\z ...\label{prove}
\z ...

:
\ref{prove} ...

VII.3.

251

( , LATEX
). , :
3, 3.2,
, \ref,
2 . . .
3.2.
, , \ref.
, ,
LATEX , .
, LATEX \arabic, \roman . . , ,
, ,
,
, \label \ref. , the
. , \thesection,
\thechapter, slave master \theslave \themaster.
the-.
, , , abcd
\theabcd :
\newcommand{\theabcd}{\arabic{abcd}}
:
XIV .

\renewcommand{\theabcd}%
{\Roman{abcd}}
\setcounter{abcd}{14}
~\theabcd{}
-.

, , , , \thezadacha :
\renewcommand{\thezadacha}{\thesection.\arabic{zadacha}}
, \z
.

252

VII.

\thezadacha \thesection, . , ,
, , ,
-: article, , \thesection
, \arabic{section} ( , , \ref, ), report
\ref ,
, . \thesection,
.

() ,
, , . ,
,
\chapter, \section . . LATEX .
, , ,
. ,
, , , . , 1cm
(, , ). , , .
\glava \razdel; , .
,
, .
glava, razdel
( ). ,
,
:
\newcounter{glava}
\newcounter{razdel}[glava]
\glava:
\newcommand*{\glava}[1]{\clearpage %
\vspace*{4cm}%
\refstepcounter{glava}%
{\LARGE\rmfamily\bfseries\upshape %
\theglava. #1%

VII.3.

253

\par %
\vspace{5mm plus 1mm minus .5mm}%
%
}% ,
}%
\refstepcounter,
,
\label \ref.

, ,
( , , \upshape, , \itshape,
, ).
\theglava. , ,
: ,
-. , ,
, \glava,
\theglava. ,
, TEX
(. . 147).
\razdel , , :
\newcommand{\razdel}[1]{\par %
\pagebreak[2]\vspace{1cm plus 3mm minus .5mm} % .
\refstepcounter{razdel}%
{\Large\rmfamily\bfseries\upshape %
\therazdel{} #1%
\par %
}% ,
\nopagebreak %
%
\vspace{2mm plus 1mm}%
%
}%
\pagebreak[2].
, . , \pagebreak[2] TEX
(. III.9.3);
, , \vspace, ,

254

VII.

; - ,
(
).
,
. ,
\theglava \therazdel (
, ,
, \theglava \therazdel , ). , ,
, IV2.
:
\renewcommand{\theglava}{\Roman{glava}}
\renewcommand{\therazdel}{\theglava--\arabic{razdel}}
: \glava, \theglava,
: \theglava
\Roman{glava}.

\ref{metka} ...

IV.
.
, LATEX, :
, ,
. . IX,
.

3.4. ,
, LATEX . , ,
. 250. , page,
, footnote, .
, figure table. . IX.2

VII.3.

255

,
( ).
the-
. , ,
:
\renewcommand{\thechapter}{\Roman{chapter}}
, ,
, :
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\alph{footnote}}

3.5.
.
(. III.7) ,
, itemize enumerate; ,
, .
itemize. ,
, \labelitemi. ,
, ,

, ,
\renewcommand{\labelitemi}{$\surd$}
( \surd . . 53). itemize itemize, . 131,
, ,
: \labelitemii; itemize
\labelitemiii \labelitemiv;
.
itemize . , \labelitemi :
\renewcommand{\labelitemi}{$\mathsurround=0pt \surd$}
, , -
\mathsurround.
, \mathsurround . , .

256

VII.

enumerate. , , LATEX .
: enumi. enumerate
, enumii, enumiii enumiv
, . , , , \labelenumi, \labelenumii,
\labelenumiii \labelenumiv . , \labelenumi :
\newcommand{\labelenumi}{\theenumi.}
the-, enumi
,
\newcommand{\theenumi}{\arabic{enumi}}
, ,
enumerate ( enumerate) . , ,
, ( ),

\renewcommand{\labelenumi}{\theenumi)}
,
, :
\renewcommand{\theenumi}{\Roman{enumi}}
.
(, , ,
, , , ), . IX.

4.
,
, . , , \razdel,
.

VII.4.

257

- , \razdel. ,
, , \otstup,
\razdel
\vspace{\otstup}
, ,
\otstup=1cm plus 3mm minus .5mm
, TEX LATEX \otstup , ,
. \newlength:
\newlength{\otstup}
, (, ) ,
; \vspace
.
. \newlength , .
TEX (backslash, , ). , LATEX
. , \newlength, :
, TEX .
\newlength .
, TEX LATEX (\parindent, \textwidth ). ,
.
-, . , . I.2.9
\parindent: , ,
. TEX
( , ,
). , TEX (. . I.2.10). , -

258

VII.

(, 0pt). , LATEX \setlength, :


, , . ,
\parindent=1.5em

\setlength{\parindent}{1.5em}
. , , , .
. , , \setlength,
( ) plus minus, TEX, ,
, , , , plus- minus- (. . 147;
).
, ,
, : ,
.
, \setlength, . .
\hrule \vrule . III.10.

,
LATEX . , ,
\newlength{\primer}
:
9
8
9

9
8

\primer=10mm
9\hspace{\primer}9

9
{\primer=20mm
8\hspace{\primer}8}
9\hspace{\primer}9

, ,
,
, .
( , ).

VII.4.

259

, \primer 10 ,
\hspace{2.71\primer} 27.1 .
(, )
( \setlength):
\primer=1.45\parindent
\setlength{\primer}{.45\tabcolsep}
: \abcd x,
\addtolength{\abcd}{y}
y , \abcd x+y. y
(, 1.2in), (,
). , LATEX
\settowidth{}{}
, .
:

\settowidth{\primer}{\Large
}
{\Large }
\hspace{\primer}

( , tabbing tabular).
\settoheight \settodepth, \settowidth. \settoheight , ,
(, . VIII.1). \settodepth
, ,
.
. III.9.4 ,
TEX
. , \newlength,
, plus- / minus-. , , , \primer
2 , 4 ,
:
\setlength{\primer}{2cm plus 4mm minus 1pt}

260

VII.

5.
5.1. :
,
. ,

- , LATEX . ,
.
, 7 .
:
\begin{tabular}{|p{7cm}|}
\hline
. ,
, ,
.\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
:
.
, , , .
,
, , , ramka,
,
\begin{ramka}
...
... .
\end{ramka}
:
\newenvironment{ramka}{\begin{tabular}{|p{7cm}|}
\hline}{\\\hline\end{tabular}}
\newenvironment :
\newenvironment{}{_}{_}

VII.5.

261

, _
/ , \begin
, _ / , \end .
, \newenvironment, : _, . ,

\newcommand{\nachalo}{\begin{tabular}{|p{7cm}|}\hline}
\newcommand{\konec}{\\\hline\end{tabular}}
:
\nachalo
...
\konec

, : \begin{ramka}
\end{ramka}, LATEX , ; \konec,
. ,
, \begin \end, ,
: , ,
.
, . , , .
ramka , . :
\newenvironment{ramka}[1]{\begin{tabular}{|p{#1}|}
\hline}{\\\hline\end{tabular}}
, ,
\begin{ramka}{6cm}
...
\end{ramka}

262

VII.

\begin{ramka}{.85\textwidth}
...
\end{ramka}
. ,
\newenvironment c . ; \newcommand, , ,
; , ,
- #1,. . . ,#9, (. .
\newenvironment)
\newenvironment ( , LATEX
). , \renewenvironment, , \newenvironment, ,
.
() : \newenvironment* \renewenvironment*.
,
\par.

5.2.
, , ,
.
. , ,
, ,
() . . , TEX ,
,
, , , (-
, \z). ,
, , ( , )
,
LATEX.

VII.5.

263

, LATEX
, . , ,
, (, , , , ,. . . ), LATEX
,
, . , .
. predl , , ,

1. .
. .
.

\begin{predl}
.
\end{predl}
\textbf{.}
. .

\newtheorem:
\newtheorem{predl}{}
, \newtheorem :
, ,
.
, , \newtheorem (
). -, , , . -,
, , , \end
, ( , quote, itemize . .). -,
( ,
). , ,
.
,
:
2 ().
.

\begin{predl}[]

.
\end{predl}

264

VII.

,
,
. . .


, .
( predl); ,
the-. , ,
, :
\renewcommand{\thepredl}{\Alph{predl}}
, ,
. , . ,
, , . \newtheorem .
, . , ,
, ( ), , .
:
\newtheorem{theorem}{}[section]
, , :
5.1. 180 .

\begin{theorem}

$180^{\circ}$.
\end{theorem}

, , (
, ),
:
\newtheorem{xyz}[abcd]
( xyz abcd) \thexyz

\theabcd.\arabic{xyz}

VII.5.

265

( ,
, - the-).
, LATEX
. ,
, ,
: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 . . , , theorem
, , lemma :
\newtheorem{lemma}[theorem]{}
\newtheorem ; , .
\newtheorem , , .

5.3. amsthm
LATEX ,
newtheorem, ,
. amsthm, ,
. , , . ,
LATEX, ?
-, \newtheorem. ,
\newtheorem* \newtheorem,
.
-,
\theoremstyle , () plain, definition remark.
, , \newtheorem
\theoremstyle, ; , ,
\theoremstyle ( , ), \newtheorem. plain , , definition
, remark 4 .
\theoremstyle, plain.
4

plain ,
, definition ,

266

VII.

-, amsthm proof,
. Proof
. ,
-,
\renewcommand \proofname (. . 169). (, -
,
), \qed.
proof : , ,
\begin{Proof}[ ]
Proof ,
.

, remark ,
.

VIII


1.
, TEX , , ,
.
.
TEX, ( : box), . . ; , , ( : baseline).
: , . . , , .
6


?r

6
?

( ), , , ,
. ,
:

268

VIII.

, ,
. ,
,

:
,
,
, , = , ,
. . . . . . -

,
TEX ; ,
. ,
LATEX,
TEX , .

2. LATEX
2.1.

: \mbox. , . TEX :
,
, . . .

,
\mbox{, }
\ldots

TEX :
TEX ,
,
. TEX
.
, , TEX , , picture, tabular array , TEX
.
\mbox ,
:
, -
, (, \mbox,
picture array) . .

VIII.2. LATEX

269

\mbox \par, , ,
(, itemize center), \\ ,
. \mbox
, - ,
, , \mbox,
( \setcounter
).
, \mbox, , , .
,
. \makebox. , ,
\mbox, , ,
, :

\makebox[5em]{} .

, ;
, , -
TEX , ,
(. . VII.4). ,
\makebox,
, .
\makebox , , ; ,
TEX , , , , , ,
,
. , , \makebox[1.5em]{123456}, TEX
:

123456

.

:

123456

\makebox[1.5em]{123456}

270

VIII.

,
, (
: ). \makebox
l ,
, r , (
c , ,
). :

\parindent=0pt
\makebox[10em][r]{}\\
\makebox[10em][r]{}\\
\makebox[10em][r]{}\\
\makebox[10em][c]{}\\
\makebox[10em][l]{}

, ,
, . , ,
, tabbing tabular.
\makebox . l,
,
(, , ,
); r,
( ):
???

???

\makebox[0pt][l]{???}\\
\makebox[0pt][r]{???}\\

r ( ), l ( ) c (), \makebox s, stretched () shrunk (). ,


, . , Underfull \hbox, ,
, Overfull
\hbox. \makebox s, . , .
\mbox .
, ,

VIII.2. LATEX

271

. \width. , , ,
, \makebox,
30% :

\makebox{}\\[2pt]
\makebox[1.3\width][r]{}

\width \makebox ( \framebox . ).



.

2.2.
,
TEX , \parbox.
:
, . ,

,
TEX
.

:
\qquad
\parbox{4cm}{
,
\TeX .
}\qquad
.
, , \parbox, . \parbox
. ,
Z
a

f 0 (x) dx = f (b) f (a)

f ,

272

VIII.

$$
\int_a^b f(x)\,dx=f(b)-f(a)\qquad
\parbox{4cm}{ $f$,

}
$$
\parbox , -:

( t) ( b);
c ,
, . .
\parbox,
, , ,
\vspace,
, , . . , \parbox,
\sloppy. - ,
\parbox , \tolerance . . (. . III.6
).
LATEX , ,
\parbox. ,
. , \height, ,
\totalheight ( ).
, \parbox ,
.
, . t, b, c s. t ,
b , c .
, , .
s, , ,
. , , Overfull Underfull.
, \parbox, ( \fbox):

VIII.2. LATEX

,
,

.

,
,

.

273

\fbox{%
\parbox[b][1.3\height]{2cm}{%
, ,
.}}\qquad
\fbox{%
\parbox[t][1.3\height]{2cm}{%
, ,
.}}

\height \totalheight, \depth, \parbox (


\framebox \makebox).
\parbox, .
, minipage (),
, ; , minipage
( , \parbox); : t, b c, - , \parbox. minipage \parbox ,
\footnote,
, , minipage.
, ,
.

2.3. ;
. III \fbox,
, . \framebox, , \makebox
\mbox: , (
c),
( r l).

\framebox , \makebox.
, \framebox
, , .
\fboxsep; \fboxrule.
(. . VII.4).

, LATEX ,
TEX , ,

274

VIII.

, . , ,
6 ,
:
TEX ,
, , .
,
, .
\fbox ,
, \fbox,
\mbox, , , .
\parbox (. . )
\fbox:
\fbox{%
\parbox{6cm}{%
\TeX ...
... , .}%
}
,
. ,
, , TEX , \fbox , \parbox.
. . 18 .

2.4.
\makebox \mbox TEX
( , , ,
; ,
, , \mbox), ,
( , ). , ,
. LATEX \raisebox. .

VIII.2. LATEX

275

, , . :
.

\raisebox{2pt}{}
.

, , , \mbox: TEX ,
, , \par, \\
, ( , , ,
, , , \parbox,
, ). \raisebox , , ,
, . , , \TeX,
TEX:
\newcommand{\TeX}{T\nolinebreak\hspace{-.1667em}\raisebox
{-.5ex}{E}\nolinebreak\hspace{-.125em}X}
, . \nolinebreak ,
.
\TeX ,
, TEX.
TEX LATEX.

, \raisebox : TEX, , , ,
, , . , ,
, . ,
, TEX, . ,
, , TEX, . :
.

.\\

\raisebox{7pt}[1pt][10pt]{}\\
.

276

VIII.

, 7 ,
, \raisebox
TEX , , , ( ,
, ), TEX
. , , \raisebox
TEX , ,
, , TEX , !
\raisebox
, , (
TEX) / , . . IX
.

3. \hbox
, LATEX , ,
.
, TEX
Plain TEX. TEX
( [2] ),
,
LATEX , . ,
TEX LATEX
.
(. 141), TEX : ( ), (
), ( ); LATEX
( \mbox, \makebox,
\fbox, \framebox, array, tabular picture, \rule1 ) TEX .
TEX 1

\hrule \vrule: TEX, LATEX.

VIII.3. \hbox

277

\hbox.
LATEX \mbox, :
\hbox ,
(. . )
. ( ) \hbox , \mbox. :

. ,
, TEX .

\hbox{}
.
,
, \TeX{}
.
\hbox{} \hbox{ }

, LATEX \mbox \hbox:


. ,
, TEX .

.


. ,
, \TeX{}
.
\mbox{ }
.

3.1.
,
TEX \hbox LATEX \mbox. , TEX .
\hbox ,
, . ,
.

\hbox to hi {}
hi TEX : , , 20pt, 2.3cm, , , 0.12\textwidth (,
) . to ,

278

VIII.

TEX 2 . ,
backslash to : ,
TEX ( plus minus, , width height,
, ).
\hbox:

\hbox to 3cm { }

, ,

Underfull \hbox
, , ;
, ,
, Underfull,
. III.6.6.
, , TEX
. , ,
\hfil:


\hbox
\hbox
\hbox
\hbox
\hbox

{ }
{ \hfil }
to 2cm { \hfil }
to 3cm { \hfil }
to 4cm { \hfil }

, TEX , \hfil
; ,
, \hfil.
\hbox \hfil,
, ,
\hfil :
5 , \hbox \hfil,
2,5 . \hfil:
2

, , .

VIII.3. \hbox

279
\hbox to 4cm{ \hfil \hfil }

, \hfil ,
, \hfil , ;
\hfil , ,
\hfil :

\hbox to 0.7\textwidth
{\hfil}
\hbox to 0.7\textwidth
{\hfil }
\hbox to 0.7\textwidth
{\hfil \hfil}

, \hfil ; , ,
.
\hfil \hfill, ,
, , \hfil.
\hbox \hfil \hfill , \hfill:

\hbox to 4cm{\hfil \hfil}


\hbox to 4cm{\hfill \hfil}
\hbox to 4cm{\hfil \hfill}

3.2.
( ) .
LATEX \dotfill. , \hfill, , ,
, :
..............

\hbox to 3cm{\dotfill }

, LATEX \hrulefill, \hfill :

280
1

VIII.
2

\hbox to 5cm{1\hrulefill
2\hrulefill 3}

TEX
(leaders).
, . .
. :
1 2

\hbox to 5cm{1\leaders
\hbox{}\hfil 2}

, , ,
, \hbox{} :
\hbox to 2em{\hfil \hfil}
\leaders :
\leaders h i h\hfil \hfilli
hi TEX , , \hbox, , \vbox \copy,
. LATEX (\mbox, \makebox, \parbox
. .) ; , , , \hbox,
, ,
\hbox{\makebox[3em][r]{...}}
\hfil \hfill
(, ). \leaders : , ,
\hfil \hfill,
hi ,
( , ).
\leaders , . , \hrulefill
\leaders\hrule\hfill
, ,
\leaders\hrule height 1pt \hfill
1 , 0.4 . \hfil \hfill, .

VIII.3. \hbox

281

3.3.
\hfil \hfill,
.
, LATEX
\hspace , plus- minus- (
. III.9.4 ,
). ,
\hspace{x plus y minus z}
x, y z , ,
x, y z ( , ,
x < z, , , y z
, , TEX
).3 plus minus , ,
TEX, to, width height. , \hspace
x; \hbox TEX , ,
. TEX
( , ,
, , , ). y z,
plus minus, plus- minus . x .
\hfil
.
,
\hbox to ... , plus- minus-
( , \hfil \hfill;
). TEX
,
, , \hbox
to. ,
. , TEX , ,
3

, ,
Underfull \hbox Overfull \hbox; . .

282

VIII.

plus .
. ,
\hbox to a {\hspace{0pt plus 2em}%
\hspace{1cm plus 1em minus 2mm}}
a 13 , ,
2 , 11 , plus- , plus ( ,
).
, minus-.
TEX ,
, plus-.

\hspace; \hbox
, , ,
. 124, ,
.
,
, plus- ,
log- Underfull \hbox;
, , , minus- ,
Overfull \hbox.
, \hbox .
(, \hfil) , plus- :
(
\hspace plus), \hfil.
Underfull ,
. ,
, Overfull.
\hbox \hfil \hfill
,
\hfill, -

VIII.3. \hbox

283

\hfil (
):


\hbox to 4cm{\hfil \hfil}


\hbox to 4cm{\hfil \hfill}
\hbox to 4cm{\hfill \hfill}

. 148 , \vspace
( plus- / minus-) \fill (, ). ,
\vspace .
, \vspace{\fill} , \hfill, \vspace{0.3\fill} ,
30% \hfill ( ,
,
\hfil plus-).

3.4.
.
, .
, . \hss
, , ( \hfil)
.
, , . ,
:

\hbox to 50pt {\hss }


\hbox{\hss }
\hbox to 30pt {\hss }
\hbox to 15pt {\hss }
\hbox to 0pt {\hss }

, \hss , \hfil; , ( , \hss, ). , , 30 pt


( ). ; ,
, . .
( ),

284

VIII.

, (. .
) 30 pt.
, ,
,
, ! , ,
.
\hss: , , (
. V . . 198)? :
\hbox to 0pt{\hss }
. , ,
; , , \hss; ,
,
, ,
. . V ,
TEX \llap, , :
\newcommand{\llap}[1]{\hbox to 0pt{\hss #1}}
, .

\hbox to 0pt{\hss}
, , ? : ; , ,
, . , TEX ,
TEX, ,
! (
) TEX
\rlap, :
\newcommand{\rlap}[1]{\hbox to 0pt{#1\hss}}
\lefteqn , :
\newcommand{\lefteqn}[1]{\rlap{$\displaystyle #1$\hss}}

VIII.3. \hbox

285

3.5.
\hbox TEX \vrule. , ,
( 0,4 ).
. III.10, width,
height, ( . III ) depth (
\vrule ). \vrule \hbox.
:
, ,
, .
:
\begin{flushleft}
\hbox{%
\vrule\hspace{.5em}\parbox{.9\textwidth}%
{ :
,
, ,
.}}
\end{flushleft}
. -, \parbox, \hbox. -, \flushleft, LATEX
. \textwidth , ,
. , \hbox.
, 0.5 em, , \parbox. ,
, \vrule,
, ( , \hbox
). ,
!
\hbox{
, \hbox , , (.
. 18).

286

VIII.

,
. , \parbox
, . . , \newlength \shirina \raznost, :
\begin{flushleft}
\shirina=\textwidth
\settowidth{\raznost}{\vrule\hspace{.5em}}
\addtolength{\shirina}{-\raznost}
\noindent\hbox{%
\vrule\hspace{.5em}\parbox{\shirina}%
{ ...
... .}}
\end{flushleft}
\settowidth, , . , \hbox{\vrule\hspace{.5em}},
( \hbox ,
);
, 0.4pt 0.5em. : flushright, ,
, \shirina \raznost .

4. \vbox
TEX \vbox. ,
. :

\vbox{\hbox{}

\hbox{ }}
:

, , \hbox,
, .
, , \vbox. TEX

VIII.4. \vbox

287

, (. . ):
\vspace, , , \newcommand \renewcommand . .
, - ,
, \vbox TEX \hbox, \vbox \hrule, \copy, . , , LATEX \mbox,
\parbox, \rule . . , \hbox, , :
\hbox{\raisebox{1pt}[2em][3em]{...}}
\vbox
; , , \mbox LATEX TEX
, , (\par ). ; ,
, \vbox , .

TEX \vbox
, , , , ,
. , , \hrule,
.
, \strut.
:
:

:

:\\
\vbox{\hbox{ }
\hrule}

:\\
\vbox{\hbox{\strut }
\hrule}
, \vbox .
,
\hbox \hrule: .
,
:

\vbox{\hrule
\hbox{\vrule\,\strut
\,\vrule}
\hrule}

288

VIII.

- \strut,
( \, ).

5.
, (, , \multiput) ,
, :
, . : ,
,
\newcommand{\abcd}{\parbox{6cm}%
{ ,
,
~--- \.}}
\abcd
, TEX
, .
TEX
, . -, , . \newsavebox.
, , TEX :
backslash -, backslash .

(
, LATEX ). -,
, .
, .
. 202 ,
,
, . ,
. \blok,
:
\newsavebox{\blok}

VIII.5.

289

,
, . \sbox :
, , .
:
\sbox{\blok}{\line(1,5){10}}
. , \usebox .
\multiput:
         
         
         
         
         

\begin{picture}(100,50)
\multiput(0,0)(10,0){10}%
{\usebox{\blok}}
\multiput(0,0)(2,10){6}%
{\line(1,0){90}}
\end{picture}

, :
LATEX , \hrule \vrule,
.

, \sbox,
,
\hbox \mbox. \sbox
, \hbox \mbox.
\sbox ,
.
\sbox \savebox,
, \makebox \mbox:
\savebox , , \makebox.
,
\savebox{\}[4cm][r]{}
,
\sbox{\}{\makebox[4cm][r]{}}

290

VIII.

LATEX \usebox ,
, TEX \copy. :
, . . .

\sbox{\blok}{}
,
\copy\blok{} \ldots

, \copy ! \copy \usebox , \hbox \mbox: (, , \put, \hbox


\mbox), ,
, LATEX \usebox , TEX \copy
, .
, \leaders:
, \leaders \copy. :

\savebox{\blok}[1cm]{$*$}
\hbox to \textwidth
{\leaders\copy\blok\hfil}

TEX \usebox .
, , , . , \blok , , ,
, TEX \wd, \ht \dp.
, \wd\blok, \ht\blok \dp\blok
, TEX ,
, :
12345
345
45

\sbox{\blok}{12345}\copy\blok
\hbox to \wd\blok{\hfil 345}
\hbox to \wd\blok{\hfil 45}

LATEX , \settowidth
, IX , \wd .

IX

,
,

.
. .

, ,
LATEX. , article, proc, report book. ,
, -, [2], -
LATEX ( ). , :
.
.
, LATEX : , , ,
. : ,
.
- :
, . : ,
.
:
,

292

IX.

LATEX. :
, .

1.
- :
, . IV , , ,
. LATEX,
@. @ , 1 . .
, . ,
mystyle. mystyle.sty (,
11 book;
c ):
\documentclass[11pt]{book}
\usepackage{mystyle}
\usepackage \begin{document}; , , . .
, mystyle.sty ( , -
).
, , ( , amsmath, ,
array,. . . ). ,
. \RequirePackage ( \usepackage), , :
\RequirePackage{array,longtable}
\RequirePackage[noamsfonts]{amsmath}
( \RequirePackage , \usepackage).
1
\@addtoreset ( , ), TEX
\@ ( -!),
addtoreset.

IX.2.

293

, @ , , \makeatletter \makeatother. @
, status quo. \makeatletter, \makeatother ,
@ .

, .

. .

2.
, . ,
, , @
.

2.1.
, , . ,
\newcounter ,
(. . 248 ). , , - ? , footnote;
article ,

. ,
, :
\@addtoreset{footnote}{section}
\@addtoreset ,
.
, , ,
( ).
.
\@addtoreset
\@addtoreset{footnote}{page}

294

IX.

. ,
TEX :
,
,
1.
\@addtoreset ,
article.
\@addtoreset{equation}{section}
, , . , \theequation.
amsmath,
: \numberwithin,
, \@addtoreset, the-.

2.2.
, ,
the-. , \label{metka} ,
\refstepcounter, abcd. . VII ,
\ref{metka} \theabcd. ,
. \ref \theabcd
.
abcd \p@abcd ( p, , ).
,
, chapter section ,
. , , ,
. .
book
: \thechapter \arabic{chapter} ( , , ),

\renewcommand{\thesection}{\thechapter.\arabic{section}}

IX.2.

295

- 2.3. ,
;
\renewcommand{\thesection}{\arabic{section}}
.
, \ref, 3 ,
: \thesection
! , section:
\renewcommand{\p@section}{\thechapter.}
2.3
4.3 : \thesection
3, \p@section
. ,
, .

2.3. \alph
. VII.3 , ,
\alph \Alph, ,
. ,
. ,
TEX, .
, \ralph,
,
; , (
\alph ) .
( ) :
\newcommand*{\ralph}[1]{\@ralph{\@nameuse{c@#1}}}
\newcommand*{\@ralph}[1]%
{\ifcase #1\or \or \or \or \or \or \or \or \or \or
\or \or \or \or \or \or \or \or \or \or
\or \or \or \or \or \or \or \or
\else\@ctrerr \fi}

296

IX.

( , , , , , ).
\Ralph,
( @ - -, , \@Ralph).
,
\or \else ( ),
.

2.4.
,
LATEX
.
article proc section
\newcounter{section}
report book,
, chapter ,
section chapter:
\newcounter{chapter}
\newcounter{section}[chapter]

:
\newcounter{part}
\newcounter{subsection}[section]
\newcounter{subsubsection}[subsection]
\newcounter{paragraph}[subsubsection]
\newcounter{subparagraph}[paragraph]
the- article proc :
\renewcommand{\thepart}{\Roman{part}}
\renewcommand{\thesection}{\arabic{section}}
\renewcommand{\thesubsection}{\thesection.\arabic{subsection}}
\renewcommand{\thesubsubsection}%
{\thesubsection.\arabic{subsubsection}}
\renewcommand{\theparagraph}%
{\thesubsubsection.\arabic{paragraph}}
\renewcommand{\thesubparagraph}%
{\theparagraph.\arabic{subparagraph}}

IX.2.

297

( \renewcommand, the- - ).
report book, , the-
chapter - \thesection:
\renewcommand{\thechapter}{\arabic{chapter}}
\renewcommand{\thesection}%
{\thechapter.\arabic{section}}
footnote. article
proc :
\newcounter{footnote}
report book chapter,

\@addtoreset{footnote}{chapter}
, footnote,
equation: article proc
, report book
chapter. report book \theequation:
\renewcommand{\theequation}{\thechapter.\arabic{equation}}
, figure table, , ,
equation: article proc ,
chapter
the-
\renewcommand{\thefigure}%
{\thechapter.\arabic{figure}}
( table).
, .
. VII.3.5, , enumerate, enumi, enumii, enumiii enumiv.
, , ,
( , ):
\renewcommand{\p@enumii}{\theenumi}
\renewcommand{\p@enumiii}{\theenumi(\theenumii)}
\renewcommand{\p@enumiv}{\p@enumiii\theenumiii}

298

IX.

3.
, ,
LATEX .

3.1.
, :
secnumdepth. ,
secnumdepth (, ,
LATEX
). . IX.1. , ,
IX.1.

\section
\subsection
\subsubsection
\paragraph
\subparagraph

1
2
3
4
5

\subsection,
\setcounter{secnumdepth}{2}
\chapter \part, , secnumdepth .
, , tocdepth:
,
(
).

3.2. ,
, ,
. \section, \subsection . ., -

IX.3.

299

, , LATEX .

\@startsection. , \section ( , ) :
\newcommand{\section}{\@startsection{section}{1}{0pt}%
{-3.5ex plus -1ex minus -.2ex}{2.3ex plus.2ex}%
{\normalfont\Large\bfseries}}
\@startsection , . , .
( section)
, LATEX
. \@startsection
(, abcd), abcd,
, \l@abcd,
(. . 4), \abcdmark,
(. . 6), \@startsection .
( 1) , .
(
).
\@startsection (
-3.5ex plus -1ex minus -.2ex) ,
. ,
, ( - ), - ,
,
LATEX .
,
. , plus- minus-, , ,
(. . 147).
( 2.3ex plus .2ex) , ,
, ,
( , ). ,

300

IX.

, ; \@startsection
( , )
.
\@startsection , ,
plus- / minus-.
, \@startsection
. ,
/ , .

\normalfont\Large\bfseries
, (
, ,
\@startsection, ).
, . , \section
, :
;
;
\Large;
.
? \thesection,
, :
\renewcommand{\thesection}{\Roman{section}}
\section :
\renewcommand{\section}{\@startsection{section}{1}%
{\parindent}{3.5ex plus 1ex minus .2ex}%
{2.3ex plus.2ex}{\normalfont\Large\S}}
\renewcommand, \section
. -,
,
, ( , : ,

IX.3.

301

, ).
, , ,
LATEX : ,
, .
, , ,
LATEX ,
. \section
, IX.2.

\subsection

0pt

\subsubsection

0pt

\paragraph

0pt

\subparagraph

\parindent

-3.25ex plus
-1ex minus-.2ex
-3.25ex plus
-1ex minus-.2ex
3.25ex plus 1ex
minus.2ex
3.25ex plus 1ex
minus.2ex

1.5ex
plus .2ex
1.5ex
plus .2ex
-1em
-1em

. IX.2.
, (
, ),
( ,
). .
. IX.1, ( \@startsection),
(section \section . .).
\@startsection ; .
\@startsection
. , 2 LATEX ,
(, ,
, LATEX
).
LATEX ,
2

: , , russcorr,
. . .

302

IX.

\renewcommand{\thesection}{\arabic{section}.}
,
\ref, , .


, .
\@startsection ,
LATEX .
, , : .
\@makechapterhead,
. , \@makechapterhead .
. TEX LATEX ( , #1 , . . ):
\newcommand{\@makechapterhead}[1]{%
\vspace*{50 pt}%
{\parindent=0pt
\raggedright \normalfont\huge\bfseries
\@chapapp{} % \@chapapp "" (. )
\thechapter \par % -
\vspace{20 pt} % ""
\normalfont\Huge\bfseries #1\par %
\nopagebreak
%
\vspace{40 pt}
%
}% .
}%
. \vspace*
( ).
, ;
, ,
. ,
;
, .
, .
\@chapapp Chapter, ,. . .
, , . ,
, \chaptername, \appendix ( )

IX.3.

303

\appendixname (. . 170). , \@makechapterhead


, \@chapapp .
(
).
, , . ,
, , , . ,
, , , \thechapter. -

!
, :
\@makechapterhead ,
secnumdepth , , , ( ). , secnumdepth; \@makechapterhead
, ,
.
, book \@makechapterhead,
, , \chapter , , \frontmatter \backmatter
( ?).

, \chapter
, \@makeschapterhead.
\@makechapterhead, ,
, :
\newcommand{\@makeschapterhead}[1]{%
\vspace*{50 pt}%
{\parindent=0pt \raggedright
\normalfont\Huge\bfseries #1\par
\nopagebreak
\vspace{40 pt}}}
,
. -, ( report), ( book); ,
, openright
openany ( \documentclass).

304

IX.

-, ; , .
, \chapter,
, . , LATEX TEX, book:
\newcommand{\chapter}{\cleardoublepage
\thispagestyle{plain}%
\global\@topnum=0
\@afterindentfalse
\secdef\@chapter\@schapter}
, TEX LATEX ,
:
, \@afterindentfalse \@afterindenttrue;
, ( ), \thispagestyle plain empty.
\part (), ,
. ,
.

4. ,
.
( ) ,
, toc (
\chapter, \section . .); LATEX toc- ( \input), , , ,
. (
lof lot ). .
, ,
, \section. , , \section, \chapter

IX.4. ,

305

. . , ,
.
\addtocontents toc- (, lof- lot-) TEX .
.
toc, lof lot, , . ,
. , , ( ,
),
\addtocontents{toc}{ \par}
(\par ,
, , TEX ). LATEX ,
( toc-, toc-
).
\addtocontents . , , -

,
\addtocontents{toc}{\hrule}
. , \addtocontents \protect (. . 170). \hrule
\protect, , ,
. , \protect

\protect .
\addtocontents, \protect. , -
. ,
(
\section), :
\addtocontents{toc}{\protect\nopagebreak}
toc- \nopagebreak, . \protect, .
\addtocontents \include . , ,

306

IX.

\documentclass{book}
\usepackage{mystyle}
\begin{document}
\tableofcontents
\include{ch1}
\addtocontents{\hrule}
\include{ch2}
\end{document}
, ,
, ch1.tex ch2.tex, , ch2.tex. , \addtocontents
ch2.tex ( ).

,
toc- (, lof- lot-) ,
, .
\addcontentsline, :
\addcontentsline{_}{_}{}
_ toc, lof lot, ,
(, \section
article
; . ). , _ ,
. , \addcontentsline
abcd, , LATEX toc(, lof- lot-) , \l@abcd
, , \addcontentsline, ,
\addcontentsline. ,

\addcontentsline{toc}{abcd}{ }

()

95,
LATEX toc-
\l@abcd{ }{95}
, , ,
\l@abcd . ,
. , ()

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

IX.4. ,

307

:
\newcommand{\l@abcd}[2]{\hbox to\textwidth{#1\dotfill #2}}
,
\addcontentsline \section* ( , ).
\addcontentsline , , , \protect; , , \the-,
- , toc- , \addcontentsline. , , :
\addcontentsline{toc}{abcd}{\thesection. }
,
\chapter \section.
\addcontentsline, ( ) section \section, subsection \subsection, , , LATEX
(, \@startsection).
, , \section, \l@section,
, \subsection,
\l@subsection . . , , , .
book \l@section :
\newcommand{\l@section}{\@dottedtocline{1}{1.5em}{2.3em}}
, \@dottedtocline, . . tocdepth, \@dottedtocline
. . ,
TEX . :
, , ,
, , , . ,

308

IX.

.
. ,
(
- , ). ,
. \l@section ( \l@subsection. . . ),
\@dottedtocline.
, , \@dottedtocline, . ,
, , \@pnumwidth, . book

\newcommand{\@pnumwidth}{1.55em}
1.55em .
, 2em,
\renewcommand{\@pnumwidth}{2em}
, , \@tocrmarg.
, , , ,
. , 3em,
:
\renewcommand{\@tocrmarg}{3em}
\@pnumwidth \@tocrmarg ,
; \@tocrmarg=4em !
, - , \@dotsep. book
\newcommand{\@dotsep}{4.5}
, ,
, 4.5 ( ,
, ):
\renewcommand{\@dotsep}{3,9}

IX.4. ,

309

\@dotsep=3,9 .
\l@subsection book , \l@section, \@dottedtocline. . IX.3.

IX.3. l@- ( book)

\l@subsection
\l@subsubsection
\l@paragraph
\l@subparagraph

\@dottedtocline
2 3.8em
3.2em
3 7.0em
4.1em
4 10em
5em
5 12em
6em

, , (\chapter book report, \section ). ( , ) \l@chapter book. , , ,


#1 ( ) , #2
.
\newcommand{\l@chapter}[2]%
{\pagebreak[3]
\vspace{1em plus 1pt}%
\@tempdima=1.5em %
{% ...
\rightskip=\@pnumwidth % .
\parfillskip=-\@pnumwidth
\noindent\bfseries % ,
\addtolength{\leftskip}{\@tempdima}% .
\hspace{-\leftskip}#1\nolinebreak
\hfil\nolinebreak
\hbox to \@pnumwidth {\hss #2}\par
\nopagebreak[3] % ...
}%
}%
, , , TEX
. ,

310

IX.

, - .
. \rightskip \leftskip. (
) :
\leftskip \rightskip ( ,
\parfillskip). \rightskip
, \@pnumwidth (
), \leftskip \@tempdima, ,
. , \parfillskip (. . 127)
-\@pnumwidth. ,
, : , , \@pnumwidth
, , ,
\leftskip + \parfillskip = \@pnumwidth \@pnumwidth = 0,
, - .
\@pnumwidth \@tempdima . \@pnumwidth , ,
. , \@tempdima LATEX (
-
),
LATEX , -
. ,
\l@chapter,
. , , , 2em 1.5em, \l@chapter,

\@tempdima=2em
\l@chapter , ,
\thechapter, ( , ). , #1 , ,
. , #1 3
( , ):
3
, \leftskip;
\hspace{-\leftskip}.

IX.4. ,

311

\makebox[\@tempdima][l]{\thechapter}
,
\@tempdima; , \@tempdima,
.

\hfil .
, \l@chapter \hfil ,
,
\leaders\hbox to .5em{\hss.\hss}\hfil
( ,
).
, \pagebreak[3] \nopagebreak[3] : LATEX , , , , , ,
( ).
, \l@chapter tocdepth,
- , :
\renewcommand{\l@chapter}[2]{}
, ( ) ( ) \l@figure \l@table \@dottedtocline.
, . . ,
. , , , \tableofcontents
article:
\newcommand{\tableofcontents}%
{\section*{\contentsname}\@starttoc{toc}}
\contentsname ,
(. . 169).
,
. , , \subsection, - .

312

IX.

\@starttoc. . toc
( ), lot lof ( ). \@starttoc toc- (,
lot- lof-) .
\tableofcontents , (,
\section* ).
. ,
. 6, ,
\tableofcontents.

5.
, (. . VII.3.5). . III
itemize, enumerate description; , LATEX flushleft, flushright, center,
quote, quotation, verse, ,
\newtheorem; . 5.3,
LATEX .

.

5.1.
. , , , ,
- .
, ,
. , , , .
. LATEX ( ,
, \item). ,
. ,

itemize, description
. . ( , - ; ,
quote verse, ,
.)

IX.5.

313

,
. . -, \leftmargin
\rightmargin , () () (
: ).
, \leftmargin \rightmargin
.
. \labelsep ,
, \labelwidth , .
. LATEX
\labelwidth. ,
, :
\labelsep , (

\leftmargin \labelwidth \labelsep


).
, \labelwidth, . , ,
description.
, . , \itemindent ,
.
, ,
, \itemindent , (). .

, . ,
, , , , .
\listparindent. , ( ,
\hangindent \hangafter).
, , .
. , -

314

IX.

(. 147), . . plus- minus.


( ) \topsep.
,
( \parskip . . 149).
( \par),
, \partopsep ( , \parskip \topsep).
, \parsep ( \parskip, ).
, \parsep,
\itemsep. , \itemsep , ,
,
.

5.2.
, . LATEX
:
, 1, , , 2 . . \@listI,
1, \@listii, 2, . .: @list, , ( 1,
I,
).
\@listI, \@listii . . ,

. ( )
.
, , \@listI, \@listii, . . . , \@listvi. ,
\@listI, \@listii,
. . . , \@listvi ( , ),
. , -
:

IX.5.

315

\renewcommand{\@listI}{%
\leftmargin=25pt
\rightmargin=0pt
\labelsep=5pt
\labelwidth=20pt
\itemindent=0pt
\listparindent=0pt
\topsep=8pt plus 2pt minus 4pt
\partopsep=2pt plus 1pt minus 1pt
\parsep=0pt plus 1pt
\itemsep=\parsep}
, \parsep \itemsep: , , ,
( , \parskip 1pt). , .
- (, \labelsep) , \@listI:
\@listI, LATEX ,
.

5.3. list trivlist


LATEX list. ,
.
list . :
\begin{list}{__}{}
.....................................
\end{list}
list . , ,
\item .
:

316

IX.
-
.

-
. , !

\begin{list}{ -}{}
\item .
\item .
, !
\end{list}

list ,
. , ( , , . 5.1: \@list...,
). , list
\usecounter. (
). \usecounter list, , \usecounter, , \item \refstepcounter (
\label \ref). c \usecounter (, tmp):

:


:
\begin{list}{\Alph{tmp}:}%
A: , {\usecounter{tmp}}
\item ,
, .

, .
B: , \item ,
.

.
C: .
\item .
\end{list}
,
, \hfill; ,
\item, \hfill .
list ,
, \newenvironment. , ,
quote:

IX.6.

317

\newenvironment{\quote}%
{\begin{list}{}{\rightmargin=\leftmargin}\item[]}}%
{\end{list}}
\item , \item (. . 132).
list LATEX
trivlist. list :
( ,
, );
\leftmargin, \labelwidth \itemindent
( , ); \parsep \parskip;
\item, ,
( ).
, , , \topsep ( )
: ,
. trivlist ,
; \newenvironment \item[],
\item . \item
( , . 8.1).
list ; . itemize
, . , ,
: ,
list .

6.
, LATEX, : , 4 . , \pagestyle -
4

, .

318

IX.

. , , . , .
\@oddhead
\@evenhead. , , \@oddhead , \@evenhead
. , \@oddhead , \@evenhead .
\@oddfoot \@evenfoot, . LATEX ,
\renewcommand.
, . .

\hbox to\textwidth{\@evenhead}
( , ;
). ,
\@evenhead TEX , \hbox to
\textwidth.
, , . . ; . ,
:

, () ;
, () ;
,
.
:
\renewcommand{\@evenhead}{\hfil .\,.\,}
\renewcommand{\@oddhead}{ \hfil}
\renewcommand{\@evenfoot}{\hfil --- \thepage ---\hfil}
\renewcommand{\@oddfoot}{\hfil --- \thepage ---\hfil}

IX.6.

319

, - ,
,
, :
\renewcommand{\@oddfoot}{}
, , \@evenhead . : \pagestyle \@evenhead;
, \pagestyle
. , \@evenhead, \pagestyle
(\thispagestyle ).
,
. -,
\headsep, , \footskip,

. -, \headheight, .
\headheight,
Overfull \vbox occurred while \output was active.
, \headheight.

. \hbox to
\textwidth \textwidth,
, .
\hrule,
(
\@evenhead):
\renewcommand{\@evenhead}%
{\vbox{\hbox to\textwidth{\hfil .\,.\,}\hrule}}
, , . -,
, ,
;
, , ,

320

IX.

(- ,
, , ). \strut :
\renewcommand{\@evenhead}%
{\vbox{\hbox to\textwidth{\hfil \strut
.\,.\,}\hrule}}
,
, \headheight
overfull. ,
- :
\renewcommand{\@evenhead}%
{\raisebox{0pt}[\headheight][0pt]{%
\vbox{\hbox to\textwidth{\hfil \strut
.\,.\,}\hrule}}%
}%
, ? \raisebox TEX
, \headheight ( ,
) ( , ). ;
,
\headsep.
, \headheight,
, .
, \@evenhead
, \vbox,
\underline. , , : ,
, \underline .
, .
A
L TEX
, , , .
.
- ,
LATEX \markboth \markright. ,
. \markboth, , (,
TEX ). , (- )
\markboth{}{}

IX.6.

321

:
.
. \@oddhead
. , \leftmark , \rightmark
. ,
\renewcommand{\@evenhead}{\leftmark\hfil}
\renewcommand{\@oddhead}{\hfil\rightmark}
, , ,
,
5 . ,
, \leftmark, \rightmark
.
,
. , ? : \leftmark
, , \rightmark
, . , ,
\leftmark \rightmark
, .
.
\markboth{x}{y} \markboth{z}{t}
( ) 1, 2 , 3 :
\markboth{u}{v}, \markboth{a}{b} \markboth{m}{n},
4 .
\leftmark \rightmark
:

1
2
3
4
5

\leftmark
x
z
u
m

\rightmark
t
t
n
n

, , \section: ,
, ,
.

322

IX.

\markboth,
, \markright ,
: , , ,
\markright. ,

\markboth{}{}

\markright{}
(
), ,

\markboth{}{}
, \section
. , , . : article, ( , secnumdepth ), twoside \pagestyle{headings}.
-, ,
\section \subsection. \section
, \sectionmark, ( \section )
, \section ( ). \sectionmark ( #1
, ):
\newcommand{\sectionmark}[1]{\markboth{%
\MakeUppercase{\thesection\hspace{1em}#1}}%
{}% ( )
}%
LATEX \MakeUppercase,
. , ,
6 , ,
. , ,
6

; , .

IX.6.

323

\MakeLowercase,
, , . ( , , \MakeUppercase \MakeLowercase
\markboth \markright,
.) ,
,
\MakeUppercase ( ,
).
\subsectionmark, , \subsection,
:
\newcommand{\subsectionmark}[1]{\markright
{\thesubsection\hspace{1em}#1}}
#1 (,
).
, \section
: ,
, ,
. \subsection
, , ,
(, ),
,
. , \subsubsection
.
, .
:
\newcommand{\@evenhead}{\thepage\hfil
\normalfont\slshape\leftmark}
( ) :
( )
( , ) 7 :
!
\@oddhead, , article ( ,
\pagestyle{headings}) :
\newcommand{\@oddhead}{{\normalfont\slshape\rightmark}%
\hfil\thepage}
7

, , , . \leftmark \rightmark.

324

IX.

, :

, . , \subsection ,
, \rightmark ( \sectionmark, , , \section ,
\subsection).
\sectionmark.
,
, \section
. :
\newcommand{\sectionmark}[1]{\markboth
{\uppercase{\thesection\hspace{1em}#1}}%
{\uppercase{\thesection\hspace{1em}#1}}%
}%
, , .
.
, , \pagestyle, \@oddhead
\@evenhead; , ,
\leftmark \rightmark.
\pagestyle (
),
\sectionmark. \pagestyle
() \@evenhead.
, , , \subsection - , \subsectionmark,
:
\renewcommand{\subsectionmark}[1]{}
, , ,
. , , ,
, . \section ,
.

IX.6.

325

, , \section! , ,
\sectionmark,
, LATEX
. ( , \@oddhead)
\pagestyle{myheadings}
LATEX
, .
\@oddhead .,
:
.
, ,
\section{
,
}%
\markboth{\thesection\hspace{1em}}{}
, ( , ,
\pagestyle myheadings headings). \markboth \section, , \thesection, . ,
( ) \section \markboth,
, .
, , : \chapter \chaptermark, \section
\sectionmark . . , , , \@startsection
abcd,
\abcdmark.
, .
,
(, , ).
, ,
( ).
\markboth \markright
, - , , . ,

326

IX.

\markboth \thesection,
( \leftmark \rightmark)
. , -
, \markboth \markright,
, \protect.

, LATEX , ,
, ,
. ,
, ( ) \pagestyle. , article,
. .
;
, \pagestyle empty, plain
myheadings. , report
book, , , \tableofcontents
\markboth{\contentsname}
( . .).
\pagestyle headings ( , article).
, . -,
\pagestyle{myheadings}
, \markboth / \markright. -,
\sectionmark:
- ,
, .
-, \@oddhead:
,
, ( , \@oddhead \leftmark \rightmark,
). ,
.
, ,
.

IX.7.

327

7.
(:
).

7.1.
, (
), \caption.
. ()
\abovecaptionskip ( ) \belowcaptionskip (
). 10pt ( ), .
, \@makecaption;
( #1 ,
\thefigure \thetable; #2
):
\newcommand{\@makecaption}[2]{%
\vspace{\abovecaptionskip}%
\sbox{\@tempboxa}{#1: #2}
\ifdim \wd\@tempboxa >\hsize
#1: #2\par
\else
\global\@minipagefalse
\hbox to \hsize {\hfil #1: #2\hfil}%
\fi
\vspace{\belowcaptionskip}}
.
, . \@tempboxa ( LATEX
)
( ;
, , ,
). ( TEX )
( TEX \hsize:
, \textwidth, \columnwidth).
,

328

IX.

( \ifdim \else), ,
( \else \fi).
.
? #1 , #2 , ,
, .
. , , . ,
(, #1: #2): , \sbox ( ),
. , ( ,
) ;
\@makecaption ,
\ifdim, \else \fi, \else \fi (, , ). ,
, . , \ifdim \else , , \else \fi .
: \@makecaption , , \renewcommand; ,
\renewcommand ,
( )
.

7.2.
, LATEX
.
,
,
.
, , LATEX ,
\setcounter:
topnumber , (
/ ).
: 2.
bottomnumber ,

IX.7.

329

( / ). : 1.
totalnumber ,
(
/ ). : 3.
dbltopnumber : ,
. : 2.
totalnumber
/ , (, , ,
figure table p).
, , . \arraystretch
\baselinestretch; ,
\renewcommand.
:
\topfraction ,
, .
: 0.7. , , , 70%
. , ,
50%,
\renewcommand{\topfraction}{0.5}
.
\bottomfraction , . : 0.3.
\textfraction , , ( ,
LATEX p, ).
: 0.2.

330

IX.

\floatpagefraction , , , LATEX p.
, . : 0.5 (
, , p
figure, , 50% ).
.
, , :
\dbltopfraction , \topfraction, ()
. : 0.7.
\dblfloatpagefraction , \floatpagefraction, ()
. : 0.5.
, ,
,
(),
. . ,
\setlength.
\textfloatsep (),
.
\floatsep ().
\intextsep (), ( h).
, () .
, , :
\dbltextfloatsep
(), .

IX.7.

331

\dblfloatsep (), .
- \setlength, ,
11 \floatsep, \intextsep \dblfloatsep 12pt
plus 2pt minus 2pt, \textfloatsep \dbltextfloatsep 20pt plus 2pt minus 4pt.
,
. , () - (,
). :
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(), .
\botfigrule () .
, ,
() ( , figure table ).
, :
\dblfigrule , \topfigrule, , , .
. (), \newcommand.8
:
LATEX , :
1) ,
TEX ;
2) TEX
;
3) , , ,
TEX, .
8

, \renewcommand!

332

IX.

, , , \botfigrule \hrule:
, , LATEX
. :
\newcommand{\botfigrule}{\hrule\vspace{-0.4pt}}
(, , \hrule, 0.4pt). , :
, ,
, .
, , :
\newcommand{\botfigrule}{\vspace{-3pt}\hrule
\vspace{2.6pt}}
,
; \vspace{2.6pt} ,
.
\topfigrule \dblfigrule .
, , \topfigrule
, :
.

8.
8.1. ,
(,
\newtheorem), \@begintheorem
\@opargbegintheorem ( ,
). :
\newcommand{\@begintheorem}[2]{\begin{trivlist}
\item[\hspace{\labelsep}{\bfseries#1\ #2}]
\itshape}
#1 (, , , ,. . . \newtheorem
), #2

IX.8.

333

. , , , , ,
#2. , ,
, .
\@opargbegintheorem :
\newcommand{\@opargbegintheorem}[3]{\begin{trivlist}
\item[\hspace{\labelsep}{\bfseries #1\ #2\ (#3)}]
\itshape}
#1 #2 - , #3
( , ).
, trivlist, , . . , , \@begintheorem;
,
, . , \@begintheorem \@opargbegintheorem, :
, \@begintheorem, ( ). , \@endtheorem, :
\newcommand{\@endtheorem}{\end{trivlist}}
, (, . VII). ,

: , , \begin{trivlist} \@begintheorem, \@endtheorem
, LATEX
( \begin \end).
AMS ( ) . , , .

-
, equation. , \theequation ( \@addtoreset) equation;

334

IX.

. , , .
\@eqnnum. :
\newcommand{\@eqnnum}{(\theequation)}
- .
, TEX
, ( . .).

8.2.
.
. , \setlength . , ,
, LATEX :
\setlength{\skip\footins}{12pt plus 4pt minus 4pt}
\setlength
, ,
( : [2]).
, ,
. , ,
- , \footnoterule, :
\newcommand{\footnoterule}{\vspace*{-3pt}
\hrule width .4\columnwidth
\vspace*{2.6pt}}
: ,
\vspace. , , \footnoterule, , TEX,
(
, ).
3 , (,
, \hrule, 0.4 ),
2.6 . ,
, , 3 +
0.4 + 2.6 = 0.

IX.8.

335

, \vspace*{-3pt}: , \hrule \vspace*{-0.4pt}? :


. . . 332.

, \footnoterule ; , \vspace .
, , ,
,
\renewcommand{\footnoterule}{}
( - !). , \footnoterule -.
:
1) \footnoterule ,
TEX ;
2) \footnoterule TEX
;
3) , \footnoterule, ,
TEX, .
, ,
\footnotesep. .
, ,
, , \strut (. . III.10.3).
, \footnotesep .
\@makefnmark.
:
\newcommand{\@makefnmark}{\hbox{\mathsurround=0pt
$^{\@thefnmark}$}}
\@thefnmark
( , , \footnotemark). ,
.
, \hbox,
\mathsurround ,
, .

336

IX.

, , ,
. \@makefntext. , #1 , \@thefnmark , :
\newcommand{\@makefntext}[1]{\parindent=1em\noindent
\hbox to 1.8em{\hss\@makefnmark}#1}
, \parbox ,
; \noindent,
, .
, ,
\@makefntext, , \renewcommand .

8.3.
,
, \@cite
\@biblabel. :
\newcommand{\@cite}[2]{[{#1\if@tempswa , #2\fi}]}
\newcommand{\@biblabel}[1]{[#1]\hfill}
, (#1
, #2 , \cite, ),
,
- (,
) , \cite; ,
, . , \renewcommand
\newcommand.
, ,

\renewcommand{\@cite}[2]{{[#1]\if@tempswa , #2\fi}}

IX.8.

337

( \if@tempswa,
). \if@tempswa \fi , \cite ; \@cite #2,
\cite .

8.4.
,
( theindex), , \item,
\subitem . . ( \item) \@idxitem (
\item!). ,
. :
\newcommand{\@idxitem}{\par\hangindent=40pt}
, , \subitem
\subsubitem, .
:
\newcommand{\subitem}{\par\hangindent=40pt\hspace*{20pt}}
\newcommand{\subsubitem}{\par\hangindent=40pt\hspace*{30pt}}
, \indexspace, , :
\newcommand{\indexspace}{\par\vspace{10pt plus 5pt minus 3pt}}

. , ,
( LATEX
); ,
,
. , \theindex. book
report :
\newenvironment{theindex}{\@restonecoltrue
\if@twocolumn\@restonecolfalse\fi
\columnseprule=0pt \columnsep=35pt
\twocolumn[\@makeschapterhead{\indexname}]%
\@mkboth{\uppercase{\indexname}}{\uppercase{\indexname}}%
\thispagestyle{plain}\parindent=0pt
\setlength{\parskip}{0pt plus .3pt}%

338

IX.

\let\item=\@idxitem}%
{\if@restonecol \onecolumn \else \clearpage \fi}
, ,
; ,
, , theindex . ,
. ,
: , theindex
(. . IV.4.1). , ( )
. , ,
. \theindex, \markboth \@mkboth ,
, , .
, . ,
\item,
\subitem . . (, \hangindent).
, \twocolumn . . III.9.6, ,
, .
\@makeschapterhead, (. . 3),
, . ,
: , , , .
.
theindex :
\twocolumn[\@makeschapterhead{\indexname}\input{ukaz.tex}]
ukaz.tex , .
, , \twocolumn \addcontentsline, , :
\addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{\indexname}

IX.8.

339

, theindex, \twocolumn,
(. . 149).
, multicol
, theindex multicols. theindex
( , multicol ):
\renewenvironment*{theindex}{\columnseprule=0pt\columnsep=35pt
\@makeschapterhead{\indexname}%
\@mkboth{\uppercase{\indexname}}{\uppercase{\indexname}}%
\thispagestyle{plain}\parindent=0pt
\setlength{\parskip}{0pt plus .3pt}%
\let\item=\@idxitem
\begin{multicols}{2}}%
{\end{multicols}}
,
.
, theindex, ,
article :
\twocolumn[\section*{\indexname}]%
( article ).

TEX LATEX
.
, , , TEX.

1.
, (Donald E. Knuth) TEX ,
. TEX 1978
; 1989 TEX
( TEX ,
). , , ; ,
1 .
TEX ,
: [2],
, TEX,
. Web;
Web Pascal ( ,
), Web
C.
1
$ 327.68, 215 ;
$ 2.56.

.2.

341

2.
TEX (
Pascal C, ), ( TEX -
virgin TEX) :
TEX 2 , . (. 240).
, TEX , ,
tex-. TEX ,
, . TEX
: LATEX,
.
TEX
? . TEX ,
(- \newcommand \renewcommand); ,
,
(, LATEX) TEX,
TEX ,
dvi-.
, , :
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. : TEX - TEX

, ; TEX
, ,
( , ), ,
.
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, ,
2

\.

342

. TEX LATEX

, TEX
.)
TEX
: Plain TEX, [2].
Plain TEX , , AMS-TEX, (Michael Spivak). Plain TEX
, . , AMS-TEX Plain
TEX TEX ,

TEX ; ( !),
( ).
1984 (Leslie Lamport)
A
L TEX ( , 1989 , LATEX 2.09). , LATEX
\label, \ref \pageref.
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, 1995 LATEX,
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TEX (Frank Mittelbach, Michel Goossens ); LATEX 2 , .
: TEX , ,
; TEX .
,
(DOS, Linux . .), TEX.

.3. TEX

343

3. TEX
, TEX ( TEX) -
, . TEX
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. ( ,
:
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.)
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dvi-,
.
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(Eberhard Mattes) TEX DOS, emTEX.
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Windows fpTEX MiKTEX. , TEX: , TEXtures, shareware- OzTEX.
:
TEX ( ,
Plain TEX, LATEX AMS-TEX ). : LATEX MiKTEX?
.

4. dvi-
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( device independent). ,
. ( ;
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. TEX :
.

344

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, TEX?
.

,
(tfm);
,
(pk, gf);

, ;
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METAFONT, 600 dpi
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348

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351

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fill c withcolor 0.9 white;
draw a; draw b;
picture l;
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endfig;
bye




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draw z2a..z2 dashed evenly;
makelabel(nullpicture, z2);
draw z2..z3a withpen pencircle scaled .3;
label.bot(btex $x_3$ etex, z3a);
endfig; bye


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.5.

359

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398

. LATEX
enumerate :
, ,
,
,
; ;
rlist, (; ,
[u]);
( \appendix)
;
\cleardoublepage:
( , . .).
\glqq \grqq - ;

longtoc , ;
indentheadings
;
yo
,
\".

,
makeindex, ; .
( UNIX, TEX (
MiKTEX) GhostScript GSView Windows, emTEX
DOS) - (
GSView , , . . 415), ftp. .
.

5. : babel
TEX ( ,
Linux) babel. ( TEX, , (1)

.5. : babel

399

TEX- (2) .) , ,
tstbabel.tex :
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[russian]{babel}
\begin{document}
Test text.
\end{document}
latex tstbabel.tex. (TEX babel
russian), , babel
.
;
tstbabel.log. :
This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1)
**tstbabel.tex
(tstbabel.tex
LaTeX2e <2001/06/01>
Babel <v3.7h> and hyphenation patterns for english, french,
german, ngerman, russian, nohyphenation, loaded.
( hyphenation patterns for)
(russian),
babel.
( , .
TEX-;
, ,
MiKTEX Options MiKTEX texconfig teTEX.)
babel ,
\usepackage[...]{inputenc}
\usepackage[russian]{babel}
... , : , cp866 (DOS-),
cp1251 (Windows-) koi8-r ( koi8-r).
- , .
. : !

400

. LATEX

babel russian : , "</"> <</>> -,


"--- . ,
, . (, \chapter
, Chapter .
). .
babel ( ) LATEX,
! ,
, .

6. : babel
, LATEX
. :
\documentclass[12pt,a4paper]{article}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[french]{babel}
h \usepackage, i

, , (,
), , \, \^ . . (,
. .) ( \today) -. ,
(, , ,
). -,
, << >> ( , babel, ).

, .
, ( french german),
; , ,
(. , ,

.6. : babel

401

).
, , , \hyphenpenalty=10000 (. . 127):
, babel
, ,
, , , ,
, , , .

TEX?
,
LATEX, ,
, TEX .
- , .

1. UNIX-
Linux, FreeBSD ( ),
Solaris Sun Microsystems .

1.1. LATEX
, TEX .
teTEX,
( Linux, ).
, TEX , tex:
-
This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1)
**
latex. (
tex
Control-C Control-D; ,
x Enter.)
, , , ( ) TEX.

.1. UNIX-

403

, 1 , . ,
Linux RedHat
rpm. TEX, , .
, .
TEX-.
( , , ).
/usr/share/texmf/doc ( ,
: amstex, bibtex, context . .)
, LATEX X Window System ( UNIX, ,
. .). , ,
, . ,
LATEX.

1.2.
(, test.tex) :
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
This is a test file.
\end{document}
, . : LATEX,
. . (emacs, pico, joe, jed,
vi ). Midnight Commander (mc),
Norton Commander
Volkov Commander; ( F4). , UNIX,
- .
less
test.tex ( q).
1

, packages
RedHat ports FreeBSD.

404

. TEX?

1.3. LATEX
, test.tex ,
latex test.tex
:
This is TeX, Version 3.141519 (Web2C 7.3.1)
(test.tex
LaTeX2e <2000/06/01>
(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/base/article.cls
Document Class: article 2000/05/19 v 1.4b
Standard LaTeX document class
(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/base/size10.clo))
No file test.aux
[1] (test.aux) )
Output written on test.dvi (1 page, 236 bytes).
Transcript written on test.log
( ;
test.aux .) ( test.aux) test.dvi test.log.
,
.

1.4. dvi-

( , ).
X. (
, New shell, Xterminal,
xterm, - ), xdvi

xdvi test.dvi
, (, ) . ,
, ,
. Page Up Page Down (, , ,
), (
). :
, s,

.1. UNIX-

405

, (
, ) 1s
. , g,
. :
.
( , man xdvi). ,
q.

1.5. PostScript-
PostScript-.
: , test.tex
test.dvi,
dvips -o test.ps test.dvi
:
This is dvips(k) 5.86 Copyright 1999 Radical Eye Software
(www.radicaleye.com)
TeX output 2002.07.21:2137 -> test.ps
<texc.pro> [1]
[1] ( , , ).
test.ps.
less:
-
%!PS-Adobe-2.0
%%Creator: dvips(k) 5.86 Copyright 1999 Radical Eye Software
<...>
userdict /end-hook known{end-hook}if
%%EOF
( , 109 ).

1.6. PostScript-
, , PostScript- , gv (
ghostview).
gv test.ps

406

. TEX?

, , ( ) .
Page Up Page Down
(
). .
, . ,
, ( PostScript-
) . , ,
, .

1.7. PostScript-

lpr test.ps
, . , ,
. ( , .)
,
. ,
- UNIX
. Linux ( RedHat
Mandrake) (, printtool RedHat Linux).
, PostScript-, PostScript-.
( ,
Windows; Windows-only ). Ghostscript, ( )
.

1.8.

LATEX. .
ps2pdf PostScript- PDF. ,

.1. UNIX-

407

PostScript-, PDF-. ps2pdf Ghostscript

ps2pdf test.ps test.pdf


PDF- ( , ) gv (ghostview).
(save) PostScript. Acrobat Reader Adobe ( , ). , pdf2ps,
Ghostscript PDF- PostScript-.
,
(psselect), (psmerge),
(psnup pstops), (psbook) .
UNIX- .
,
pstops "2:0L@0.7(21cm,0)+1L@0.7(21cm,14.85cm)" text.ps text2.ps

text2.ps, 0.7
text.ps ( , ).

psselect 5-26 text.ps text2.ps


text2.ps 526 text.ps ( , , 5-).
, () man pstops.
, PostScript ( , dvips). , , ( C - ).
, TEX ( ), . Linux

408

. TEX?
/usr/share/texmf, FreeBSD /usr/local/share/texmf. , TEX
(, ) /var/lib/texmf.
( ,
TEX-) kpsewhich: ,
kpsewhich graphicx.sty

/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/graphics/graphicx.sty
.
mpost ( mp, mp ), PostScript-.
, ,
metapost.
(NetPBM ImageMagick, ), . , pcx-
picture.pcx PostScript (, Encapsulated PostScript)
convert, ImageMagick,

convert picture.pcx picture.eps
( ) gimp, .

1.9. TEX UNIX


Linux UNIX- . ,
TEX . ( , ,

, LATEX.)

.1. UNIX-

409

, , (
),
( CyrTUG , UNIX . .)
, -.
, , - LATEX
. :
, , -
. (
!)
,
LATEX, .
.
, .*
- tetex.unix ,
texkoi.tar.gz ( ftp://ftp.mccme.ru/pub/tex
; ).

tar xzvf texkoi.tar.gz
( , ). texkoi; README,
(
DETAILS), INSTALL.root INSTALL.user.
, , LATEX , ,
, LATEX
2 .
, Linux RedHat 6.0 ( ,
*

PDF-, , .
2
- koi8-r ( UNIX),
(
X Window System
/ ). UNIX
-, ,
TEX.

410

. TEX?

TEX-) (root). :
1) root (, su);
2) texkoi ( ), sh install.sh
( , . ),
LATEX , ( ).
, , Linux . install.sh
INSTALL.root.
installbsd.sh,
FreeBSD
( TEX ).
, . testrus.tex, :
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
This is a test file. ~--- .
\end{document}
( ,
xreditor,
; ,
reditor-dos2unix reditor-unix2dos,
DOS- (cp866, ) UNIX (koi8-r) ).

rlatex testrus.tex

This is TeX, Version 3.141519 (Web2C 7.3.1)
(testrus.tex
This is Russified LaTeX2e [2000/07],
based on LaTeX2e 2000/06/01
(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/base/article.cls
Document Class: article 2000/05/19 v 1.4b
Standard LaTeX document class

.2. Windows-

411

(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/base/size10.clo))
No file testrus.aux
(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/base/t1cmr.fd)[1]
(testrus.aux) )
[1] (testrus.aux) )
Output written on testrus.dvi (1 page, 284 bytes).
Transcript written on testrus.log.
( ) testrus.dvi.
xdvi (dvi-
) , dvips
PostScript-,
. .
, ( . ).

2. Windows-
, LATEX
Windows. ,
Microsoft Windows,
,
( ,
Windows 95/98/ME Windows NT/2000/XP).
TEX Windows, fpTEX MiKTEX.
, . MiKTEX.
,
emTEX ( ) DOS-
DOS-,
( PostScript- Ghostscript GSView).
UNIX, Windows TEX (
Windows). , TEX ( ),
, -. MiKTEX 2.0 ( ,
) ,
, miktex.win -.

412

. TEX?

readme,
MiKTEX 2.0 ( Windows- Ghostscript). (, DOS-),
,
cp866 (
).
.
1) : .
2) MiKTEX 2.0 Setup Wizard (
Windows-).
, ( , readme). ,
Windows NT/2000/XP .
3) PATH.
4) ( bat- ).
Ghostscript GSView Windows .

2.1. MiKTEX

.
MiKTEX 2.0 (
miktex.win\miktex20), zcmiktex.zip, unzip.exe
( ) test.tex ( ).
1) zcmiktex.zip .
unzip.exe, zcmiktex.zip -
unzip.exe zcmiktex.zip
zcmiktex (, C:\) (,
C:\zcmiktex).

.2. Windows-

413

2) MiKTEX SetupWizard, miktex.win\miktex20\2.0


setupwiz.exe. :
Shared vs. Private Installation
[ Windows NT/2000/XP . .] Install a shared
MiKTEX environment.
Installation Directory
C:\zcmiktex\texmf ( , zcmiktex ). .
Component Selection
( 100Mb), .
LATEX 2 LATEX 2 Packages, AMS-LATEX & AMSFonts, MetaPost
PSUtils.
Program Folder
, .
Local TEXMF Tree
Create local TEXMF tree
C:\zcmiktex\localtexmf
( , zcmiktex
).
Additional TEXMF Directory Trees
Incorporate preexisting TEXMF directory trees Next. Add C:\zcmiktex\zctexmf ( ,
zcmiktex ).
Next; .
PATH.
.
.
3)
C:\zcmiktex\texmf\miktex\bin

414

. TEX?
C:\zcmiktex\zctexmf\miktex\bin
PATH ( ,
). Windows 95/98
, autoexec.bat
SET PATH=C:\zcmiktex\texmf\miktex\bin;C:\zcmiktex\zctexmf\miktex\bin;%PATH%

PATH. Windows NT/2000/XP PATH Control Panel


System Advanced Environment Variables. Windows ME
msconfig.exe.
4) !
5) C:\zcmiktex\zctexmf ( , zctexmf)
install C:\zcmiktex\localtexmf C:\zcmiktex\zctexmf
( , ). localtexmf
zctexmf \.
6) MiKTEX 2.0. miktex.win\miktex20\2.0-updates mt20up1.exe. ,
, MiKTEX 2.0 (Installation Directory; - ,
!), Install.
Close.

2.2. PostScript-
GhostScript 7.05. , miktex.win\gs705 gs705w32.exe. Setup.
GNU Ghostscript Setup ,
Ghostscript (, , Program Files, ),
, (shortcuts)
Ghostscript . Install.

.2. Windows-

415

GSView. , GSView, -,
, -,
( ) . , gsv43w32.exe ( miktex.win\gsview43)
, Internet (
), ,
ftp.mccme.ru, pub/tex
.
GSView miktex.win\gsview43
gsv43w32.exe. :
Select Language
(, English [])
GSView Install
Next.
GSView ( , ) Next.
, ,
GSView , Finish.
, Exit
.

A
L TEX.

2.3.
(, test.tex) DOS
(cp866) :
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
This is a test file. ~--- .
\end{document}
(,
WordPad, Notepad Write ). ,
, Far (
F4); Norton Commander Volkov Commander DOS-.
- Microsoft Word,
MS-DOS
( Microsoft Word -). ,

416

. TEX?

cp866. ,
type test.tex DOS-.
(freeware shareware) , TEX (WinEdt, Quickpad, WinEdit, UltraEdit, Aditor . .)
, , ( .).

2.4. LATEX
, test.tex ,
rlatex test.tex
:
This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (MiKTeX 2 UP 1)
(test.tex
This is Russified LaTeX2e [2000/07], based on LaTeX2e
2000/06/01 (C:\texmf\tex\latex\base\article.cls
Document Class: article 2000/05/19 v1.4b Standard LaTeX
document class (C:\texmf\tex\latex\base\size10.clo))
No file test.aux.
(C:\texmf\tex\latex\base\t1cmr.fd) [1] (test.aux) )
Output written on test.dvi (1 page, 284 bytes).
Transcript written on test.log.
( ;
test.aux .) ( test.aux) test.dvi test.log.
,
.

2.5. dvi-
test.dvi ,
yap test.dvi
, (,
) . Page Up Page
Down (, ,
, ), ( ).
+ . :

.2. Windows-

417

g,
. yap , q.
File Print dvi-,
PostScript. , dvi- PostScript,
GSView, .
yap .

2.6. PostScript-
PostScript-.
: , test.tex
test.dvi,
dvips -o test.ps test.dvi
dvips :
This is dvips(k) 5.86 Copyright 1999 Radical Eye Software
(www.radicaleye.com) TeX output 2002.07.25:0115 -> test.ps
<texc.pro>. [1]
[1] ( , , ).
test.ps.

: -
%!PS-Adobe-2.0
%%Creator: dvips(k) 5.86 Copyright 1999 Radical Eye Software
<...>
userdict /end-hook known{end-hook}if
%%EOF
( , 149 ).

2.7. PostScript-
, , PostScript- , GSView.
Start Programs ( O File
Open), test.ps Windows Explorer - Far. (

418

. TEX?

Adobe,
PostScript- .)
GSView ,
; ,
(). (
) . Page Up Page Down ( +
) , < >
. P File Print,
( Windows
GDI printer
Windows ).
, MiKTEX 2.0 PostScript- (
psselect , pstops ,
psbook . .; . . 407,
man ).
, ,
(
NetPBM).

3. DOS-
DOS emTEX ( Eberhard
Mattes).
, 8086, 80286 80386 .
Windows
DOS- DOS- (, -
). : emTEX TEX-
(
).
- ( CTAN, . .4),
, . ,
. , emtex.dos/readme.em.
, 386
( -

.4. CTAN

419

),
, .
,
1996 emTEX .
emTEX
/justincase/emtexrus.old/1996
, : -,
, . -, 1996 dvi-
dvi.

4. :
CTAN
- (
ISO- ftp.mccme.ru,
pub/tex) LATEX ( . GSView).
- , . (
.)
TEX- CTAN (Comprehensive TEX Archive Network).
ftp.dante.de, . www.dante.de; .
TEX ( , ftp.mccme.ru),
-, CTAN.
(
, ) ftp.vsu.ru.


-, LATEX Companion [6]:
LATEX IX.
, [6] ( ), ,
:
, , .
LATEX , , , TEXbook [2]:
, TEX ,
.
, , : [2] LATEX . [1] , LATEX
( , , , ),
LATEX .
:
LATEX . ,
(
- TEX ).
LATEX dtx (dtx-),
. dtx- LATEX, dvi-,

421
1 . ( fd-, ,
dtx- fdd-, , dtx-.)
TEX dtx-
,
dvi-. dtx- fdd-
CTAN (. ).
LATEX dtx- .
.

dtx- LATEX ,
sty-, .


! 107
\" 107
\ 106
tabbing 210
\( 71
\) 71
\+ 211
\, 89, 99
\- 118, 119
tabbing 211
\. 107
\/ 114
\: 89
\; 89
\< 211
\= 107
tabbing 206
\> 206
? 107
\@ 105
\@addtoreset 293
\@afterindentfalse 304
\@afterindenttrue 304
\@begintheorem 332
\@biblabel 336
\@chapapp 302
\@cite 336
\@dotsep 308
\@dottedtocline 307
\@endtheorem 333
\@eqnnum 334

\@evenfoot 318
\@evenhead 318
\@idxitem 337
\@listI 314
\@listii 314
\@listiii 314
\@listiv 314
\@listv 314
\@listvi 314
\@makecaption 327
\@makechapterhead 302
\@makefnmark 335
\@makefntext 336
\@makeschapterhead 303
\@oddfoot 318
\@oddhead 318
\@opargbegintheorem 332, 333
\@pnumwidth 308
\@startsection 299
\@tocrmarg 308
\ (backslash ) 20, 105
\! 89
\# 18
\$ 18
\% 18
\[ 72
\\ 72, 75, 121, 212
121
72, 75
tabbing 206
tabular 212


\\* 122
\] 72
\_ 18
\{ 18, 31, 67
\} 18, 31, 67
\| 53
\^ 106
\ 106
tabbing 211
\~ 106
11pt ( ) 24, 156
12pt ( ) 23, 156

A
\a 208, 210
a4paper ( ) 157
a5paper ( ) 157
\AA 107
\aa 107
\abovecaptionskip 327
\abovedisplayshortskip 96
\abovedisplayskip 96
abstract () 169
AMS 386
\abstractname 169, 170
\Acute 71
\acute 70
\addcontentsline 306
\address 159, 385
\addtocontents 305
\include 305
\addtocounter 245
\addtolength 165, 259
\AE 107
\ae 107
\aleph 53
align () 82, 83
align* () 83
aligned () 83
\Alph 246, 397
\alph 246, 397
\alpha 46

423
\amalg 47
amsart ( ) 156,
385
amsbook ( )
156, 385
amscd ( ) 86, 385
amsfonts ( ) 24,
58, 63, 385
amsmath ( ) 45, 49,
50, 52, 60, 66, 69, 7679,
81, 84, 90, 100, 156, 385,
394
amsproc ( )
156, 385
amssymb ( ) 45, 49,
54, 55, 63, 69, 385
AMS-TEX 13, 86, 342
amsthm ( ) 265,
385, 397
\and 172
\angle 53, 58
\appendix 170, 398
\appendixname 169
\approx 47
\approxeq 56
\arabic 245
\arccos 49
\arcsin 49
\arctan 49
\arctg 397
\arg 49
array () 75, 212, 218,
222, 224, 268, 276
array ( ) 226
\arraycolsep 222
\arrayrulewidth 222
\arraystretch 224
article ( )
140, 156, 158, 161, 168,
171, 194, 252, 293, 294,
296, 297, 311, 326, 339
\ast 54

424
\asymp 48
at ( ) 363, 364
at- 221
\atop 77
\author 172
AMS 385
aux- 28, 193

B
\b 107
b5paper ( ) 157
babel ( ) 396,
398401
\backepsilon 56
\backmatter 170
\backprime 58
\backsim 56
\backsimeq 56
\backslash 53, 67
badness 124
\Bar 71
\bar 70
\barwedge 55
\baselineskip 145, 164
\baselinestretch 148, 382
\batchmode 43
\Bbbk 58
\because 55
\belowcaptionskip 327
\belowdisplayshortskip 96
\belowdisplayskip 96
\beta 46
\beth 58
\between 56
\bfdefault 366
\bfseries 22, 113
\bibitem 174, 193

175
\bibname 169
\bigcap 51
\bigcirc 47


\bigcup 51
\Biggl 68
\biggl 68
\Biggr 68
\biggr 68
\Bigl 68
\bigl 68
\bigodot 51
\bigoplus 51
\bigotimes 51
\Bigr 68
\bigr 68
\bigskip 146
\bigskipamount 122
\bigsqcup 51
\bigstar 58
\bigtriangledown 47
\bigtriangleup 47
\biguplus 51
\bigvee 51
\bigwedge 51
\binom 76, 77
\binoppenalty 61
\blacklozenge 58
\blacksquare 58
\blacktriangle 58
\blacktriangledown 58
\blacktriangleleft 56
\blacktriangleright 56
bmatrix () 73
book ( ) 156,
158, 171, 250, 294, 296,
297, 303, 304, 307309,
326, 337
\bot 53
\botfigrule 331
\bottomfraction 329
bottomnumber () 328
\bowtie 48
\Box 53
\boxdot 55
\boxed 69


\boxminus 55
\boxplus 55
\boxtimes 55
Braams, J. 14
\Breve 71
\breve 70
\bullet 47
\Bumpeq 56
\bumpeq 56

C
\c 107
\Cap 55
\cap 47
\caption 186, 327
longtable 232

188
Carlisle, D. 14
cases () 84
\cc 161
\ccname 161
CD () 86
\cdot 47
\cdots 32
center () 25, 129, 312
\centerdot 55
\cfrac 79
\ch 397
\chapter 168, 298, 303
chapter () 294, 296, 297
\chaptername 169
\Check 71
\check 70
\chi 46
\choose 78
\circ 47
\circeq 55
\circle 199
\circle* 199
\circlearrowleft 57
\circlearrowright 57

425
\circledast 55
\circledcirc 55
\circleddash 55
\circledS 58
\cite 174, 193

174
\cleardoublepage 144, 398
\clearpage 144
\cline 216
\closing 160
\clubpenalty 145
\clubsuit 53
\colon 48, 93
\columnsep 163
\columnseprule 149, 150, 163
\CompileMatrices 391
\complement 58
Computer Modern, 344
\cong 47
\contentsname 169, 311
convert () 408
\coprod 51
\copy 290
\copyright 53, 100
\cos 49
\cosec 397
\cosh 49
\cot 49
\coth 49
crop ( ) 359
\csc 49
\ctg 397
\cth 397
\Cup 55
\cup 47
\curlyeqprec 55
\curlyeqsucc 55
\curlyvee 55
\curlywedge 55
\curraddr 385
\curvearrowleft 57

426
\curvearrowright 57

D
\d 107
\dag 53
\dagger 47
\daleth 58
\dashrightarrow 58
\dashv 48
\date 172
159
\dbinom 77
\dblfigrule 331
\dblfloatpagefraction 330
\dblfloatsep 331
\dbltextfloatsep 330
\dbltopfraction 330
dbltopnumber () 329
\ddag 53
\ddagger 47
\Ddot 71
\ddot 70
\ddots 74
\DeclareFontEncoding 381
\DeclareMathOperator 49
\DeclareMathOperator* 52
\dedicatory 386
definition (
) 265
\deg 49
\Delta 46
\delta 46
depth ( ) 153, 285
description () 131,
135, 312
\det 51
\dfrac 76
\diagdown 58
\diagup 58
\Diamond 53
\diamond 47
\diamondsuit 53


\digamma 58
\dim 49
Dirty tricks ( ) 89,
93, 396
displaymath () 72,
159
\displaystyle 91
\div 47
\divideontimes 55
\documentclass 20, 155
\documentstyle 20
\Dot 71
\dot 70
\doteq 47
\doteqdot 55, 58
\dotfill 279
\dotplus 55
\dots 100
\doublebarwedge 55
\doublecap 58
\doublecup 58
\doublehyphendemerits 127
\Downarrow 48
\downarrow 48
\downdownarrows 57
\downharpoonleft 55
\downharpoonright 55
\dp 290
draft ( ) 158,
355
dtx- 420
dvi- 16, 345
dvi- 16, 345
dvihplj () 345
dvips ( ) 354
dvips () 351353,
355357, 359, 361, 384,
407, 411, 417
dvitype () 343

E
\ell 53


emacs () 403
\email 385
\emergencystretch 120, 125
\emph 109
empty (
) 161
\emptyset 53
emTEX 343, 411, 418
\encl 161
\enclname 161
\endfirsthead 231
\endfoot 231
\endgraf 172
\endhead 231
\endinput 34
\endlastfoot 231
\enlargethispage 145
\enskip 106
\ensuremath 237
enumerate () 131, 133,
134, 255, 256, 312, 398,
435
enumi () 256, 297
enumii () 297
enumiii () 297
enumiv () 297
\eps 397
\epsilon 46
\eqcirc 56
eqnarray () 85, 159
eqnarray* () 85
\eqno 60
\eqref 60
\eqsim 56
\eqslantgtr 55
\eqslantless 55
equation () 59, 159,
333
equation () 297, 333
equation* () 82
\equiv 47
\eta 46

427
\eth 58
eufrak ( ) 64
\EuScript 64
euscript ( ) 64
\evensidemargin 163
executivepaper (
) 157
\exhyphenpenalty 127
\exists 53
\exp 49
\extrarowheight 226

F
\fallingdotseq 55
\fbox 103
\fboxrule 273
\fboxsep 273
fd- 383
fdd- 421
figure () 185187,
198

186
figure () 297
figure* () 187
\figurename 169, 186
\fill 147, 283
\finalhyphendemerits 128
\Finv 58
\firsthline 226
\flat 53
fleqn ( ) 159
\floatpagefraction 330
\floatsep 330
\flushbottom 151
flushleft () 129, 312
flushright () 129,
312
\fnsymbol 246
\fontencoding 381
\fontfamily 365, 382
\fontseries 365, 382

428
\fontshape 365, 382
\fontsize 365, 382
\footnote 140
footnote () 293, 297
\footnotemark 141
\footnoterule 334
\footnotesep 335
\footnotesize 110
\footnotetext 141
\footskip 319
\forall 53
fpTEX 343
\frac 31
\framebox 273
\frenchspacing 104, 397
\frontmatter 170
\frown 48
\fussy 120

G
\Game 58
\Gamma 46
\gamma 46
gather () 81, 82
gather* () 82
\gcd 51
\ge 30, 47
\genfrac 77
\geq 54
\geqq 55
\geqslant 49, 55, 397
\gets 48
gf- 344
\gg 47
\ggg 56
\gggtr 58
Ghostscript () 352,
353, 356, 372, 374, 406,
407, 412, 414
ghostview () 353, 405,
407
\gimel 58


gimp () 354, 408
\glqq 398
\gnapprox 56
\gneq 56
\gneqq 56
\gnsim 56
Goossens, M. 14
graphicx ( ) 354,
355
\Grave 71
\grave 70
\grqq 398
gs705w32.exe () 414
gsv43w32.exe () 415
GSView () 353,
417419
\gtrapprox 55
\gtrdot 55
\gtreqless 56
\gtreqqless 56
\gtrless 55
\gtrsim 55
gv () 353, 405, 407
\gvertneqq 56

H
\H 107
\hangafter 137
\hangindent 137
\Hat 71, 394
\hat 70, 71, 394
\hbar 53, 58
\hbox 277
\hdotsfor 74
\headheight 164, 319
headings (
) 161
\headsep 164, 319, 320
\heartsuit 53
\height 272
height ( ) 152
\hfil 278

429

\hfill 279
\hfuzz 124
\hhline 229
hhline ( ) 229
\hline 214
\hoffset 165
\hom 49
\hookleftarrow 48
\hookrightarrow 48
\hphantom 92
\hrule 152
\hrulefill 279
\hslash 58
\hspace 106, 148
\hspace* 106
\hss 283
\ht 290
\Huge 110
\huge 110
\hyphenation 118
\hyphenpenalty 127

\indexspace 177
\inf 51
\infty 53
\injlim 52
\input 33
\int 52
\intercal 55
\intertext 83
\intextsep 330
\iota 46
\itdefault 366
\item 131
theindex 177

132

132, 134
itemize () 131, 135,
138, 255, 312
\itemsep 314
\itshape 113

\i 107
idx- 176
\iiiint 52
\iiint 52
\iint 52
\Im 53
50
ImageMagick () 408
\imath 53
\in 47
\include 34, 193
\addtocontents
305
\includeonly 35
indentheadings (
) 398
\index 176
\indexentry 177
\indexname 169

\j 107
jed () 403
Jeffrey, A. 14
\jmath 53
joe () 403
\Join 48

K
\kappa 46
\ker 49
\keywords 386
\kill 207
Knuth, Donald E. 13, 340
kpsewhich () 408

L
\L 107
\l 107
l@- 306

430
\label 27, 82, 191193
\labelenumi 256
\labelenumii 256
\labelenumiii 256
\labelenumiv 256
\labelitemi 255
\labelitemii 255
\labelitemiii 255
\labelitemiv 255
\labelsep 313
\labelwidth 313
\Lambda 46
\lambda 46
Lamport, Leslie 13
\land 54
landscape ( )
157
\langle 67
\LARGE 110
\Large 110
\large 110
\lasthline 227
\LaTeX 19
\LaTeXe 19
latexsym ( ) 48,
49, 53
layout ( ) 165
\lbrace 54, 178
\lbrack 54
\lceil 67
\ldotp 93
\ldots 32, 100
\le 30, 47
\leaders 280, 290
\left 31, 66
\Leftarrow 48
\leftarrow 54
\leftarrowtail 57
\lefteqn 88, 89, 92, 284
\leftharpoondown 49
\leftharpoonup 49
\leftleftarrows 57


\leftmargin 313
\leftmark 321
\Leftrightarrow 48
\leftrightarrow 48
\leftrightarrows 57
\leftrightharpoons 55
\leftrightsquigarrow 57
\leftskip 310
\leftthreetimes 55
legalpaper ( )
157
\leq 54
\leqno 60
leqno ( ) 159
\leqq 55
\leqslant 49, 55, 397
\lessapprox 55
\lessdot 55
\lesseqgtr 56
\lesseqqgtr 56
\lessgtr 55
\lesssim 55
letter ( ) 156,
159
letter () 160
\lfloor 67
\lg 49
\lhd 48
\lim 51
\liminf 51
\limits 52
\limsup 51
\line 199
\linebreak 121

122
\linethickness 205
list () 315317
\listfigurename 169
\listoffigures 188
\listoftables 188
\listparindent 313

431

\listtablename 169
\ll 47
\llap 198
\llcorner 67
\Lleftarrow 57
\lll 56
\llless 58
\ln 49
\lnapprox 56
\lneq 56
\lneqq 56
\lnot 54
\lnsim 56
lof- 188, 304
\log 49
log- 35, 116
\Longleftarrow 48
\longleftarrow 48
\Longleftrightarrow 48
\longleftrightarrow 48
\longmapsto 48
\Longrightarrow 48
\longrightarrow 48
longtable () 230, 231
longtable ( ) 24,
230
longtoc ( ) 398
\looparrowleft 57
\looparrowright 57
\looseness 126
\lor 54
lot- 188, 304
\lozenge 58
\lrcorner 67
\Lsh 55
\LTcapwidth 233
\ltimes 55
\lvertneqq 56

\makeatother 293
\makebox 269
\makeindex 176
makeindex () 175185,
398
182
\makelabels 161
\MakeLowercase 323
\maketitle 171
\MakeUppercase 322
\mapsto 48
\marginpar 194

194
\marginparpush 195
\marginparsep 195
\marginparwidth 195
\markboth 320
\markright 320, 322
math () 72
\mathbb 63
\mathbf 62, 65
\mathbin 94
\mathcal 65
\mathfrak 63
\mathop 94
\mathrel 94
\mathrm 65
\mathsf 65
\mathstrut 92
\mathsurround 96, 97, 255, 335
\mathtt 65
matrix () 73
\max 51
MaxMatrixCols () 73
\mbox 66, 121, 140, 268, 270
65

121

144
mc () 403

M
\mainmatter 170
\makeatletter 293

432
\mddefault 366
\mdseries 22, 113
\measuredangle 58
\medskip 146
\medskipamount 122
METAFONT 344
metapost () 357, 392,
408
mf () 344
mf- 344
\mho 53, 58
\mid 48
MiKTEX 343, 411
\min 51
minipage () 273
minus ( ) 147,
148, 281
Mittelbach, F. 14
\mod 50
\models 48
\mp 47
mp () 357, 408
mpost () 357, 408
\mu 46
multicol ( ) 150,
187, 339
multicols () 150, 339
\multicolumn 215, 216
\multimap 55
\multiput 202, 289
multline () 81
multline* () 81
\multlinegap 81
myheadings (
) 161, 325

N
\nabla 53
\natural 53
\ncong 57
\ne 47
\nearrow 49


\neg 53
\neq 54
NetPBM () 408, 418
\newcommand 235, 242
\newcounter 244

248
\newenvironment 260
\newenvironment* 262
\newfont 362
\newlength 257
\newpage 144
longtable 232
\newtheorem 263
\newtheorem* 265
\nexists 58
\ngeq 57
\ngeqq 57
\ngeqslant 57
\ngtr 57
\ni 47
\nLeftarrow 57
\nleftarrow 57
\nLeftrightarrow 57
\nleftrightarrow 57
\nleq 57
\nleqq 57
\nleqslant 57
\nless 57
\nmid 57
\noindent 137, 142
\nolimits 53
\nolinebreak 122
\nonfrenchspacing 104
\nonstopmode 43
\nonumber 85
\nopagebreak 143
longtable 232
\normalfont 113
\normalmarginpar 195
\normalsize 110
\not 69


\notag 82, 83
\notin 47, 69
notitlepage ( )
171
\nparallel 57
\nprec 57
\npreceq 57
\nRightarrow 57
\nrightarrow 57
\nshortmid 57
\nshortparallel 57
\nsim 57
\nsubseteq 57
\nsubseteqq 57
\nsucc 57
\nsucceq 57
\nsupseteq 57
\nsupseteqq 57
\ntriangleleft 57
\ntrianglelefteq 57
\ntriangleright 57
\ntrianglerighteq 57
\nu 46
\numberwithin 294
\nVDash 57
\nVdash 57
\nvDash 57
\nvdash 57
\nwarrow 49

O
\O 107
\o 107
\oddsidemargin 163
\odot 47
\OE 107
\oe 107
\oint 52
\Omega 46
\omega 46
\ominus 47
\onecolumn 150

433
onecolumn ( )
158
oneside ( ) 157,
158
openany ( ) 158,
303
\opening 160
openright ( )
158, 303
\oplus 47
\oslash 47
OT1 () 378
\otimes 47
\oval 200

200
\overbrace 80
Overfull 116, 282
167
\overleftarrow 71
\overline 70
\overrightarrow 71
\owns 54
OzTEX 343

P
\P 53
\pagebreak 144
longtable 232
\pagename 158
\pagenumbering 162
\pageref 27, 191, 192
\pagestyle 161, 319
\par 142
\paragraph 168
paragraph () 250
\parallel 47
\parbox 271

272
\parfillskip 127, 310
\parindent 26

434
\parsep 314
\parshape 139
\parskip 149
\part 168, 298
\partial 53
\partname 169
\partopsep 314
pdf2ps () 407
\perp 47
pgmtopbm () 354, 356
\phantom 92
\Phi 46
\phi 46
\Pi 46
\pi 46
pico () 403
picture () 196198,
268, 276
203
\pitchfork 56
pk- 344
Plain TEX 13
plain (
) 161
plain (
) 265
plus ( ) 147149,
281
\pm 47
pmatrix () 72
pnmtops () 354
\pod 50
\poptabs 210
\postchapter 397
\postsection 397
\pounds 53, 100
\Pr 51
\prec 48
\precapprox 56
\preccurlyeq 55
\preceq 48
\precnapprox 56


\precneqq 56
\precnsim 56
\precsim 55
\presection 397
\presubsection 397
\prime 53
printtool () 406
proc ( ) 156,
158, 168, 171, 296, 297
\prod 51
\projlim 52
proof () 266
\proofname 266
\propto 48
\protect 170, 305

\addcontentsline 307
\addtocontents
305
326
\ps 161
ps2pdf () 406, 407
ps4mf () 371
psbook () 407, 418
\Psi 46
\psi 46
psmerge () 407
psnup () 407
psselect () 407, 418
pstops () 407, 418
\pushtabs 210
\put 197

Q
\qbezier 201
\qed 266
\qquad 65, 89, 106
\quad 89, 90, 106
quotation () 129, 312
quote () 128, 129, 138,
312

R
\r 107
\raggedbottom 151
\raggedright 123
\raisebox 274
\Ralph 397
\ralph 397
\rangle 67
\rbrace 54, 178
\rbrack 54
\rceil 67
\Re 53
50
reditor-dos2unix ()
410
reditor-unix2dos ()
410
\ref 28, 191193
enumerate 133

186
,

250

167
59
\refname 169
\refstepcounter 249
\relax 153
\relpenalty 61
remark (
) 265
\renewcommand 159, 161, 169, 239
\renewcommand* 242
\renewenvironment 262
report ( ) 156,
158, 171, 194, 252, 296,
297, 303, 326, 337
\reversemarginpar 195
\rfloor 67
\rhd 48

435
\rho 46
\right 31, 66
\Rightarrow 48
\rightarrow 54
\rightarrowtail 57
\rightharpoondown 49
\rightharpoonup 49
\righthyphenmin 117, 397
\rightleftarrows 57
\rightleftharpoons 49, 55
\rightmargin 313
\rightmark 321
\rightrightarrows 57
\rightskip 310
\rightsquigarrow 57
\rightthreetimes 55
\risingdotseq 55
\rlap 284
rlatex () 396, 397
rlist () 398
\rmdefault 366
\rmfamily 113
\Roman 245
\roman 245
Rowley, C. 14
\Rrightarrow 57
\Rsh 55
\rtimes 55
\rule 151

151
russcorr ( ) 301,
397
russian ( ) 399,
400

S
\S 53, 100, 397
\savebox 289
\sbox 289
scaled ( ) 363
\scdefault 366

436
Schopf, R. 14
\scriptscriptstyle 91
\scriptsize 110
\scriptstyle 91
\scrollmode 43
\scshape 113
\searrow 49
\sec 49
secnumdepth () 298, 303,
322
\section 165, 167, 298, 299
AMS 386

167
section () 248, 294296
\section* 168
\sectionmark 322
\selectfont 149, 365, 383
\setcounter 245
\setlength 165, 258
\setminus 47
\settodepth 259
\settoheight 259
\sfdefault 366
\sffamily 113
\sh 397
\sharp 53
\shortmid 56
\shortparallel 56
\shoveleft 81
\shoveright 81
showkeys ( ) 193
\Sigma 46
\sigma 46
\signature 159
\sim 47
\simeq 47
\sin 49
\sinh 49
\slash 119, 127
\sldefault 366
\sloppy 119, 125


\slshape 19, 21, 113
\small 110
\smallfrown 56
smallmatrix () 74, 76
\smallsetminus 55
\smallskip 146
\smallskipamount 122
\smallsmile 56
\smash 92
\smile 48
\spadesuit 53
\special 196
\specialsection 386
\sphericalangle 58
split () 82
\sqcap 47
\sqcup 47
\sqrt 32
\sqsubset 48, 55
\sqsubseteq 48
\sqsupset 48, 56
\sqsupseteq 48
\square 58
\ss 107
\stackrel 79, 88
\star 47
\stepcounter 249
\stop 40
\strut 153, 154, 224, 320
\subitem 177, 337
\subjclass 386
\subparagraph 168
subparagraph () 250
\subsection 168, 298
AMS 386
\subsectionmark 323
\Subset 56
\subset 47
\subseteq 47
\subseteqq 56
\subsetneq 56
\subsetneqq 56


\substack 79
\subsubitem 177, 337
\subsubsection 168
AMS 386
subsubsection () 250
\succ 48
\succapprox 56
\succcurlyeq 55
\succeq 48
\succnapprox 56
\succneqq 56
\succnsim 56
\succsim 55
\sum 51
\sup 51
\suppressfloats 190
\Supset 56
\supset 47
\supseteq 47
\supseteqq 56
\supsetneq 56
\supsetneqq 56
\surd 53
\swarrow 49
\symbol 102, 103, 136

T
\t 107
T1 () 376
T2A () 379
tabbing () 206
\tabcolsep 222
table () 187, 198, 297
table () 297
table* () 187
\tablename 169, 187
\tableofcontents 173
311
tabular () 212229,
268, 276

214

437
\tabularnewline 217
\tan 49
\tanh 49
\tau 46
\tbinom 77
teTEX 343, 402
\TeX 19
\text 66
\textacutedbl 101
\textasciiacute 102
\textasciibreve 101
\textasciicaron 101
\textasciidieresis 101
\textasciigrave 101
\textasciimacron 102
\textasteriskcentered 101
\textbaht 101
\textbardbl 101
\textbf 109, 113
\textbigcircle 101
\textblank 101
\textborn 101
\textbrokenbar 101
\textbullet 101
\textcelsius 101
\textcent 101
\textcentoldstyle 101
\textcircledP 102
\textcolonmonetary 101
textcomp ( ) 100,
102
\textcopyleft 101
\textcopyright 101
\textcurrency 102
\textdagger 101
\textdaggerdbl 101
\textdblhyphen 101
\textdblhyphenchar 101
\textdegree 102
\textdied 101
\textdiscount 101
\textdiv 102

438
\textdivorced 101
\textdollar 101
\textdollaroldstyle 101
\textdong 101
\textdownarrow 101
\texteightoldstyle 101
\textellipsis 100
\textestimated 101
\texteuro 102
\textfiveoldstyle 101
\textfloatsep 330
\textflorin 101
\textfouroldstyle 101
\textfraction 329
\textfractionsolidus 101
\textgravedbl 101
\textguarani 101
\textheight 164
\textinterrobang 101
\textinterrobangdown 101
\textit 109, 113
\textlangle 101
\textlbrackdbl 101
\textleaf 101
\textleftarrow 101
\textlira 101
\textlnot 102
\textlquill 101
\textmarried 101
\textmd 113
\textmho 101
\textminus 101
\textmu 102
\textmusicalnote 101
\textnaira 101
\textnineoldstyle 101
\textnormal 113
\textnumero 100, 101
\textohm 101
\textonehalf 102
\textoneoldstyle 101
\textonequarter 102


\textonesuperior 102
\textopenbullet 101
\textordfeminine 101
\textordmasculine 102
\textparagraph 102
\textperiodcentered 102
\textpertenthousand 101
\textperthousand 101
\textpeso 101
\textpilcrow 101
\textpm 102
\textquotesingle 101
\textquotestraightbase 101
\textquotestraightdblbase 101
\textrangle 101
\textrbrackdbl 101
\textrecipe 101
\textreferencemark 102
\textregistered 102
\textrightarrow 101
\textrm 113
\textrquill 101
\textsc 109, 113
\textsection 101
\textservicemark 101
\textsevenoldstyle 101
\textsf 109, 113
\textsixoldstyle 101
\textsl 109, 113
\textsterling 100, 101
\textstyle 91
\textsurd 102
\textthreeoldstyle 101
\textthreequarters 102
\textthreequartersemdash 101,
102
\textthreesuperior 102
\texttildelow 101
\texttimes 102
\texttrademark 101
\texttt 109, 113
\texttwelveudash 101


\texttwooldstyle 101
\texttwosuperior 102
\textup 109, 113
\textuparrow 101
TEXtures 343
\textwidth 162
\textwon 101
\textyen 101
\textzerooldstyle 101
TEX 40
tfm- 344
\tfrac 76
\tg 397
\th 397
\thanks 172
AMS 385
the- 251
thebibliography ()
174
\theindex 337
theindex () 175, 177,
337339, 429
\theoremstyle 265
\therefore 55
\Theta 46
\theta 46
\thickapprox 56
\thicklines 204
\thicksim 56
\thinlines 204
\thispagestyle 161
\Tilde 71
\tilde 70
\times 47
\tiny 110
\title 172
AMS 385
titlepage ( )
171
titlepage () 173
\to 48
to ( ) 277, 278

439
toc- 173, 304
tocdepth () 298, 307
\tolerance 125
\top 53
\topfigrule 331
\topfraction 329
\topmargin 164
topnumber () 328
\topsep 314
\topskip 164
\totalheight 272
totalnumber () 329
\triangle 53
\triangledown 58
\triangleleft 47
\trianglelefteq 56
\triangleq 55
\triangleright 47
\trianglerighteq 56
trivlist () 317, 333
\ttdefault 366
\ttfamily 113, 136
\twocolumn 149, 339
twocolumn ( )
158
\twoheadleftarrow 57
\twoheadrightarrow 57
twoside ( ) 157,
158, 194

U
\u 107
\uchyph 128
\ulcorner 67
\underbrace 80
Underfull 117, 282
278
150
\underline 103
\unitlength 197, 198
\unlhd 48
\unrhd 48

440
unzip.exe () 412
\Uparrow 48
\uparrow 48
\updefault 366
\Updownarrow 48
\updownarrow 48
\upharpoonleft 55
\upharpoonright 55
\uplus 47
\upshape 22, 113
\Upsilon 46
\upsilon 46
\upuparrows 57
\urcorner 67
\usebox 289
\usecounter 316
\usepackage 24, 155, 397

155

V
\v 107
\value 246
\varDelta 63
\varepsilon 46
\varGamma 63
\varinjlim 52
\varkappa 49, 58, 397
\varLambda 63
\varliminf 52
\varlimsup 52
\varnothing 54, 58
\varOmega 63
\varPhi 63
\varphi 46
\varPi 63
\varpi 46
\varprojlim 52
\varpropto 56
\varPsi 63
\varrho 46
\varSigma 63


\varsigma 46
\varsubsetneq 56
\varsubsetneqq 56
\varsupsetneq 56
\varsupsetneqq 56
\varTheta 63
\vartheta 46
\vartriangle 56
\vartriangleleft 56
\vartriangleright 56
\varUpsilon 63
\varXi 63
\vbox 286
\Vdash 55
\vDash 55
\vdash 48
\vdots 74
\Vec 71
\vec 70
\vector 199
\vee 47
\veebar 55
\verb 136, 235
235
136
\verb* 136
verbatim () 136, 235
235
136
verbatim ( ) 137
verbatim* () 136
\verbatiminput 137
verse () 130, 131, 312
\Vert 54
vi () 403
Vmatrix () 73
vmatrix () 73
\voffset 165
\vphantom 92
\vphi 397
\vrule 152, 228
\vspace 146


\vspace* 147
\vss 355
\Vvdash 55

W
\wd 290
\wedge 47
\widehat 70
\widetilde 71
\widowpenalty 145
\width 271
width ( ) 152
\wp 53
\wr 47
wrapfig ( ) 188,
190, 198
wrapfigure () 188,
189, 198
wraptable () 188

X
xdvi () 345, 361, 404,
411
\Xi 46
\xi 46
\xleftarrow 79
xreditor () 410
\xrightarrow 79
xy ( ) 387
\xymatrix 388
XY-pic 387392

441
123

149

126
139
137

124
142

116, 117
172
212
23, 63, 107
23
171

(baseline) 267
47, 93, 94
47, 48, 93,
94

76, 78
(box) 267
288
, 14
46
63

yap () 417
yo ( ) 398

21
(dirty tricks) 89,
93, 396
, 14

\zeta 46

98
, 14
106
tabbing 208

17, 114
26

442
26
em 27
ex 27
26
26
26
26
26
26, 257
257
258
259
266
31
, 78, 91


319

319

320
19
240
19
25
(fragile) 171
18
86,
387392
32
114
359

172
194
359

185
187
186
29, 30
52
, . . 52, 90
52
110, 148149, 365,
382

99
99
99
, 14
99
147, 281
283
, 13, 340
318

99
279, 280
308

290
151
153, 220, 224
92
\ 397
, 13

341
234
260
240
194
363
72
75
, 343
, 14
100
100


32


106
70
amsmath 71
~ 103
\ 397

173

305

306

304
173
298
67
24
262266
51, 52,
93, 94
23, 156
155

24

118
,
128
117
127

121

119
118
57, 69

443


enumerate 256
itemize 255
(enumerate)
133
(list) 315317
(trivlist) 317
(itemize) 131
(description)
135
26
\ 397

187
186
187
187
103
162
164
163
(marks) 320

322
21
175

337
178

89, 94
145, 146
105, 106

105
26
26

168

444

299, 302, 304

168, 299

304

300
298
69, 103, 273, 274
TEX 141
, 14

, 15
31
80
31,
6668
140
140
172
,
334
335

336

334
, 15
188
174

336
175
188
169
50
29, 30
130

143



145
144

144

144
165
162
161
318
48, 49, 57
( XY-pic) 388,
390
79, 86
87
87
,
( XY-pic) 390
(
XY-pic) 388, 391

115

120
119
122
103
121
121
115
244
the- 251
245, 246

254

293
248
245
245
244


294
249

216
array 227
214
214

215

222

224
212
!- (
array) 227
<- >- (
array) 228
at- 221
| 214

218
222

216


210

210
206

207
211
206
50
98
(em-dash) 98
(en-dash) 98
171

445

172
173
172
197, 267

107

341


71
6566
29, 71, 72
29, 72, 159

32
70
59, 60, 159, 294,
334
61

78, 91
128, 129
26

, 16
, 14

Computer Modern 344


typewriter 378
(encoding)
OT1 378
T1 376
T2A 379
29
19
(series) 111

446
(shape) 112
22


(family) 111
( ) 32, 54, 95


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