Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

C3347/UNIT5/1

UNIT 5

LAND DEALINGS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective To understand the concepts of land dealings under the National Land Code 1965. Specific Objectives At the end of the unit you will be able to: state the meaning of land dealings. list the types of dealings under the NLC. state the meaning of Transfers, Leases and Tenacies. define the importance of land registrations and dealing in land. list the dealing instruments that require registration under the NLC. state the meaning of Charges and Liens. state the meaning of Easement. state the meaning of caveat and its types. state the meaning of prohibitory order and its effect.

C3347/UNIT5/2

INPUT

The term dealing is defined in section 5 NLC to mean any transaction with respect to alienated land effected under the powers conferred under Division IV of the NLC. It includes any similar transaction effected under any previous land law. It does not include any caveat or prohibitory order, which are actually restraints on dealings.

Under Division IV of the Code, only four types of dealings are recognized and these are: a) b) c) d) 5.1 Transfers; Leases and tenancies; Charges and liens; and Easements. THE IMPORTANCE OF REGISTRATION IN LAND DEALINGS.

All dealings have to be registered and no instrument effecting any such dealing shall operate to transfer the title to any alienated land until it has been registered. However, even before registration is being effected the dealing is still effective since the parties are bound by contractual obligations. According to section 304 of the NLC, the registration of any instrument of dealing is effected by the Registrar making, under his hand and seal, a memorial of the dealing on the register document of title, under his hand and seal, on the instrument of dealing itself. The memorial consists of a short description of the nature and effect of the instrument, the identity of the parties thereto, and a statement of its number in the Presentation Book, the reference under which it is filed, and the time and date from which the registration is effective. (Hj. Salleh,1989)

C3347/UNIT5/3

The effect to registration is that the law confers on the transferee, leasee or chargee or the person or body in whose favour an easement has been granted and registered, as the case may be, the seal indefeasibility. -See section 340(1) NLC. 5.2 TRANSFERS

What may be transferred? According to section 214 NLC, the following are capable of being transferred under the Code namely, a) the whole, but not part only, of any alienated land b) the whole, but not part only, of any undivided share in any alienated land c) any lease of alienated d) any charge and e) any tenancy exempt from registration 5.2.1 Powers of Transfer and its Restrictions

The power to transfer is subject to limitations and prohibitions whether imposed by the National Land Code or any other written law for the time being in force. It is also limited by any restriction in interest to which the land is for the time being subject and in relation to leases, charges and tenancies exempt from registration, the provisions thereof, express or implied. Note: No lease or charge may be transferred to two or more persons or bodies otherwise than as trustees or representatives. Transfer of land must be effected by Form 14A and the title passes and vest in the purchaser upon the registration of the transfer. The purchaser also gets the benefits of any registered interest then enjoyed with the land.

5.3 LEASES AND TENANCIES A lease is defined as a conveyance by which the proprietor of land (lessor) grants to another person (lessee) an interest in the land less than a freehold and less than that to which the lessor is himself entitled. The NLC provides for two distinct types of leases and they are a term not exceeding three years and for a term exceeding three years. The first type is referred to as a tenancy exempt from registration and it is not a registerable interest. If all leases were registerable the title to the land would very quickly be filled up with a great deal of short tenancies.

C3347/UNIT5/4

With regard to leases for term exceeding three years, they may be granted either over the whole or over part only of the land. Leases for a part of the land may be granted for a maximum of thirty years. If the proprietor lessor is holding the land under a State lease he may not grant a lease to another person for longer than is tenancy has still to run. Leases for a part of the land must include a plan and description of the land so that the portion may be accurately identified.

C3347/UNIT5/5

Activity 5a

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT! Fill in the blanks with the correct answer. 1. The NLC provides four main types of dealing. These are transfers; leases and tenancy; charges and lien; and 2. .

The NLC does not require the granting of tenancy for a period not exceeding years to be registered in the land titles.

3. 4.

A form to be used for transfer of land, share or lease is

As provided in section 205(2) of the NLC, person / bodies in whose favour dealings are capable of being effected are those listed in section ____________ of the NLC.

5.

Sec. 214(3) of the NLC prohibits the transfer of lease or a charge to two or more person / bodies otherwise than as __________________ or representatives.

C3347/UNIT5/6

Feedback to Activity 5a

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

easement three Form 14A 43 trustees


I hope you are still okey and steady Lets go to another input.

C3347/UNIT5/7

INPUT

5.4 CHARGERS AND LIEN The NLC recognizes two types of security dealings with land and they are charges and liens. A charge is a transaction (or a dealing for the purposes of the Code) whereby registered proprietor of an alienated land or a lease conveys it as a security for the repayment of a loan, an annuity or any other periodical payment, to another. The proprietor of the land or lease is known as the chargor and the person whom the property is conveyed or in whose favour the charge has been effected is called the chargee. A lien is not a registerable dealing. Under section 281(1) of the NLC, it can be created in respect of any alienated land or any lease or sub-lease of alienated land. A lien is created when the proprietor of any alienated land or the lessee or the sublessee for the time being of any alienated land deposits with another his IDT, duplicate lease or duplicate sublease respectively as security for a loan. The person with whom the IDT, duplicate lease or duplicate sublease is deposited is known as the lien-holder and to protect his interest he may apply for the entry of a lien-holders caveat. A lien can also be created in respect of an undivided share in any alienated land and the document that needs to be deposited is the copy of the IDT. 5.5 EASEMENT Section 282(1) of the Code defines easement simply as any right granted by one proprietor to another, in capacity as such and for the beneficial enjoyment of his land. The land for the benefit of which the easement granted is called the dominant land and the land of the proprietor by whom the easement is granted is called the servient land. Rights of easement are either positive or negative in nature. Thus under section 283(1), the Code explicity states that the rights capable of being granted as easement are: any right to do something in, over or upon the servient land and any right that something should not be so done Section 283(2) then states that the said rights do not include: : any right to take anything from the servient land any right to the exclusive possession of any part thereof.

C3347/UNIT5/8

Every easement must possess the following characteristics, namely: there must be a dominant land and a servient land 5.6 the right grants must benefit or accommodate the dominant land the proprietors of the dominant land and servient land must be different persons and the right must be capable of forming the subject matter of a grant. INSTRUMENTS OF DEALING

According to section 206(1) NLC provides that every dealing shall be effected by the relevant instrument prescribed for that purpose and must be properly registered with the competent authority. There are fourteen types of instrument that require registration under the NLC. These are as follows:a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) 5.7 Transfer of land, share or lease (Form 14A) Transfer of charge (Form 14B) Lease of land (Form 15A) Sub-lease of land (Form 15B) Surrender of lease (Form 15C) Charge to secure payment of a principal sum (Form 16A) Charge to secure payment of a periodic sum (Form 16B) Postponement of a charge (Form 16C) Certificate of sale by Court (Form 16F) Certificate of sale by LA (Form 16I) Discharge of charge (Form 16N) Grant of easement (Form 17A) Grant of cross-easement in respect of a party-wall (Form 17B) Release of easement (Form 17C)

CAVEAT AND PROHIBITORY ORDER

A caveat is an entry in the RDT to any land made by RT / LA on his initiative (in the case of a Registrars caveat) or upon receiving an application for its entry from a certain person or body (in the case of any other caveat). It has the effect of preventing certain instrument of dealing from being registered by the RT / LA. The purpose of a caveat depends on its type. The NLC provides four types of caveats. These are the Registrars caveat, private caveat, lien-holders caveat and the trust caveat.

C3347/UNIT5/9

5.7.1

Registrars Caveat

A Registrars caveat is entered by the Registrar on the registrar document of title (RDT). So long as the caveat is in force no dealing may be effected in regard to that piece of land. Even dealings pending registration are frozen. A Registrars caveat also takes precedence over all other caveats. Basically, the Registrars caveats serve four main functions. To prevent fraud or improper dealings To protect the interests of the Federation or the State authority or any person who is under disability, e.g. minority, mental disorder, or unsoundness of mind or any person who is absent from the Federation To secure that land will be available to satisfy the whole or any part of any debt due to the Federation or the State Authority, whether such debt is secured or unsecured and whether or not judgement thereon has been obtained To correct errors which appear to the registrar to have been made in the register or issue document of title to the land or any other instrument relating thereto. According to section 319(1)(b) of the NLC the Registrars caveat prohibits the followings:Registration of any instrument of dealing Endorsement of any claim to the benefit of tenancy exempt from registration Entry of any lien-holders caveat However, under section 319(3) of the NLC the Registrar may waive the prohibition where he is satisfied that such an action would not be inconsistent with the purpose of the caveat. 5.7.2 Private Caveat

A private caveat may be entered either to bind the land itself or merely an interest therein. The persons and bodies who may enter private caveat are:

Any person or body claiming title to, or any registerable interest in any alienated land or any right to such title or interest Any person or body claiming to be beneficially entitled under any trust effecting and such land or interest The guardian or next-of kin of any minor claiming to be entitled.

According to section 322(2) of the NLC a private caveat which is expressed to bind the land itself prohibits the following: Registration of any instrument of dealing executed by or on behalf of the proprietor Registration of any certificate of sale

C3347/UNIT5/10

Endorsement of any claim to the benefit of tenancy exempted from registration granted by the proprietor Entry of lien-holders caveat in respect of the land 5.7.3 Lien- Holders Caveat Section 281 of the NLC provides that any proprietor of land or any lessee for the time being may deposit with any other person or body, as security for a loan, his issue document of title of duplicate lease. Upon such deposit being made, the depositee may thereupon apply to the Registrar for the entry of a liens holder caveat in respect of the land or lease. Upon entry of such caveat, the depositee becomes entitled to a lien over the land or lease. Where the lien-holder has obtained judgement against the land owner or the lessee for the amount due to him as secured by the lien, he shall be entitled to apply to the court for an order for the sale of the land or lease. According to section 330(5) of the NLC, the effects of lien-holders caveat are the same as those of the private caveat. Therefore if the lien-holders caveat expressed to bind the land itself, it prohibits the followings: Registration of any instrument of dealing executed by or on behalf of the proprietor Registration of any certificate of sale Endorsement of any claim to the benefit of tenancy exempted from registration granted by the proprietor Entry of any lien-holders caveat in respect of the land. 5.7.4 Trust Caveat A trust caveat may be entered by the Registrar in respect of any land or interest which is expressed to be held by any persons or bodies as trustees. The effect of the trust caveat shall be precisely stated therein and may be to prohibit, either absolutely or except subject to conditions, the registration, endorsement or entry of all or any of the followings: any instrument of dealing, or class or description of instrument of dealing, directly affecting the trust property any lien-holder caveat in respect of the land 5.7.5 Prohibitory Order According to section 334 of the NLC, prohibitory order means, where land or interest in land held by a judgement-debtor is to be sold in execution proceedings, an order made pursuant to the rules of court by a court of competent jurisdiction prohibiting the judgement-debtor from effecting any dealing therewith or from effecting such dealing therewith as may be specified in the order.

C3347/UNIT5/11

Once the Registrar has entered a caveat he must serve notice of it on the proprietor of the land. The caveat is effective until it is cancelled by the Registrar of his own motion or on an application in behalf of the proprietor of the land affected; on pursuant to an order of court made on an application by the proprietor. When the caveat has been cancelled the proprietor must be notified.

C3347/UNIT5/12

Activity 5b

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT! Fill in the blank with correct answer 1. The NLC recognizes two types of security dealings with land and they are ____________and ______________. The NLC provides four types of caveats. These are the Registrars caveat, _______________, lien-holders caveat and the __________________. The land for the benefit of which the easement granted is called the _______________ land and the land of the proprietor by whom the easement is granted is called the _____________ land. One of main Registrars ____________dealings. caveat function is to prevent fraud or

2.

3.

4.

5.

According to section 330(5) of the NLC, the effects of lien-holders caveat are the same as those of the ____________caveat.

Try you best to get all the answers correct GOOD LUCK!!

C3347/UNIT5/13

Feedback to Activity 5b

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

charges, lien private caveat, trust caveat dominant, servient improper private

C3347/UNIT5/14

KEY FACTS 1. The provisions in the NLC require certain dealings in land or interest in land to be registered. This is to ensure that dealings can be done efficiently, cheaply, and with certainty. 2. The issue of land dealings covers the aspects of transfer of land, leases and tenancies, charges and liens and easements. 3. The purpose of caveats and prohibitory order is to prevent land dealings to be carried out without prior knowledge being informed to the caveator or the Court (as in the case of prohibitory order).

Congratulations !!! you have finished with all the inputs and activities. Now move on to the self-assessment!!! Lets have a look at it now!!!

C3347/UNIT5/15

Self-Assessment 5

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self-Assessment given on the next page. If you face any problems, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck!... 1. 2. 3. State the functions of the Registrars caveat. Define the importance of land registrations and dealing in land. State the meaning of these following term:i. Charges ii. Easement iii. leases

C3347/UNIT5/16

Feedback To Self-Assessment 5
Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now. 1. Basically, the Registrars caveats serve four main functions. To prevent fraud or improper dealings To protect the interests of the Federation or the State authority, or any person who is under disability, e.g. minority, mental disorder, or unsoundness of mind, or any person who is absent from the Federation To secure that land will be available to satisfy the whole or any part of any debt due to the Federation or the State Authority, whether such debt is secured or unsecured and whether or not judgement thereon has been obtained To correct errors which appear to the registrar to have been made in the register or issue document of title to the land or any other instrument relating thereto.

2. The provisions in the NLC require certain dealings in land or interest in land to be registered. This is to ensure that dealings can be done quickly, cheaply, and with certainty for good development of the land. 3. i) A charge is a transaction (or a dealing for the purposes of the Code) whereby registered proprietor of an alienated land or a lease conveys it as a security for the repayment of a loan, an annuity or any other periodical payment to another. The proprietor of the land or lease is known as the chargor and the person whom the property is conveyed or in whose favour the charge has been effected is called the chargee. ii) Section 282(1) of the Code defines easement simply as any righgranted by one proprietor to another, in capacity as such and for the beneficial enjoyment of his land. The land for the benefit of which the easement granted is called the dominant land and the land of the proprietor by whom the easement is granted is called the servient land. iii) A lease is defined as a conveyance by which the proprietor of land (lessor) grants to another person (lessee) an interest in the land less than a freehold and less than that to which the lessor is himself entitled.

Оценить