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United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Civil and Environmental Engineering Department Graduation Project II

Analysis and Design of a Multi-storey Reinforced Concrete Building


Prepared Sultan Saif Saeed Alneyadi Sultan Khamis AL-shamsi Hasher Khamis AL-azizi Rashed Hamad AL-Neyadi Abdulrahman Abdulla Jarrah Adviser Dr. Usama Ebead 200203903 200101595 200106031 200204018 200210915

Second Semester 2007/2008

Outline
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Objectives Summary General Approach Building Types Concrete Structural Elements

Slabs

Columns

Flat Slab Design of Flat Slab Rectangular Columns Design of Rectangular Columns Design of Shear Walls Pile Group Design of Pile Group

Shear walls

Foundations

Economic Impact Environmental Impact Conclusion

Objectives
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The Objectives of the Project are: Carrying out a complete analysis and design of the main structural elements of

a multi-storey building including slabs, columns, shear walls and foundations


Getting familiar with structural softwares ( SAFE ,AutoCAD) Getting real life experience with engineering practices

Summary
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Our graduation project is a residential building in Abu- Dhabi.

This building consists of 12 repeated floors.

General Approach
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Obtaining an architectural design of a regular residential multi-

storey building.

Al-Suwaidy residential building in Abu Dhabi.

Establishing the structural system for the ground, and repeated

floors of the building.


The design of column, wind resisting system, and type of

foundations will be determined taking into consideration the architectural drawings.

Types of building
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Buildings are be divided into:

Apartment building
Apartment

buildings are multi-story buildings where three or more residences are contained within one structure. primary purpose of an office building is to provide a workplace and working environment for administrative workers.

Office building
The

Residential buildings
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Office buildings
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Concrete Mixtures
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Concrete is a durable material which is ideal for many jobs. The concrete mix should be workable. It is important that the desired qualities of the hardened concrete

are met. Economy is also an important factor.

Structural Elements
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Any reinforced concrete structure consists of : Slabs Columns Shear walls Foundations

Flat Slab Structural System


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Flat slab is a concrete slab which is reinforced in two directions

Advantages

Disadvantages

Types of Flat slab


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Defining properties
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Slab thickness = 23 cm Concrete compressive strength = 30 MPa Modules of elasticity of concrete = 200 GPa Yielding strength of steel = 420 MPa Combination of loads (1.4Dead Load + 1.6 Live Load)

ACI 318-02
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ACI 318-02 contains the current code requirements for

concrete building design and construction.


The design load combinations are the various

combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL

Flat Slab Analysis and Design


Analyzing of flat slab mainly is done to find
1. 2. 3. 4.

Shear forces. Bending moment. Deflected shape. Reactions at supports.

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Results and Discussion


Deflection

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Results and Discussion


Reactions at supports must be checked by a simple method.

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Flat Slab Reinforcement

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Columns
It is a vertical structural member supporting axial

compressive loads, with or with-out moments. Support vertical loads from the floors and roof and transmit these loads to the foundation.

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Types of column
Tied Columns Over 95% of all columns in building in non-seismic regions are tied columns Spiral Columns Spiral columns are generally circular. It makes the column more ductile.
Spiral column Rectangular column

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Steel Reinforcement in Columns


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The limiting steel ratio ranges between 1 % to 8 %. The concrete strength is between 25 MPa to 45 Mpa. Reinforcing steel strength is between 400 MPa to 500 Mpa.

Design procedure
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1. Calculate factored axial load Pu 2. Select reinforcement ratio 3. Concrete strength = 30 MPa, steel yield strength = 420 MPa 4. Calculate gross area 5. Calculate area of column reinforcement, As, and select rebar number and size.

Columns to be designed
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Guidelines for Column Reinforcement


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Long Reinforcement

Min. bar diameter 12 Min. concrete covers 40 mm Min. 4 bars in case of tied rectangular or circular Maximum distance between bars = 250 mm

Short Reinforcement ( Stirrups)

Least of:
(16)diameter of long bars least dimension of column (48)diameter of ties

dc

Asp

Column Design
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As = 0.01Ac

8- # of bars =

Reinforcement of Columns
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Shear walls
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A shear wall is a wall that resists

lateral wind loads which acts parallel to the plane of the wall.

Shear walls
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Wind results in a pressure on the surface of the building Pressure increases with height

Positive Pressure, acts towards the surface of the building Negative Pressure, acts away from the surface of the building (suction)

Wind pressure
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q = Velocity pressure (Wind speed, height and exposure condition) G = Gust factor that depends on the building stiffness Cp = External pressure coefficient

Gust G Factor & External pressure Cp coefficient


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for Stiff Structures take Windward Wall, Cp = +0.8

G =0.85

Leeward Wall, Cp = varies between -0.2 & -0.5


Depending

on the L/B Ratio L/B = 18.84 m /26.18 m = 0.719 < 1 then , Cp = -0.5

Velocity Pressure
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V = 160 km/h Kz = To be determined from the equations Kzt = 1 (level terrain adjacent to the building not on hill) Kd = 0.85 (rectangular building) I = 1 (use group II)

Important factor
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Velocity Exposure Coefficient ( Kz)


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Design of the wind force


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North south direction

Shear wall axial reactions


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Calculating Velocity Pressure


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V (km/hr) Zg Kzt Kd I Level 145

1 0.85
G Cp (windward) Cp (leeward) B (m) Kz 0.85 0.8 -0.5 26.18 qz (kn/m2)

9.5 274.32 1 0.85 1 Tributary Height (ht ) 1.75 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 4

145 km/h

Height (z) 43 39.5 36 32.5 29 25.5 22 18.5 15 11.5 8 4.5

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1.36 1.34 1.31 1.28 1.25 1.22 1.18 1.14 1.09 1.03 0.95 0.85

1.150225 1.129849 1.107994 1.084391 1.058688 1.030406 0.998873 0.963092 0.921495 0.871364 0.807270 0.715176

Design of the wind pressure


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G Cp (windward) Cp (leeward) B (m) 0.85 0.8 -0.5 26.18

qb = qz (at the top of the building)

Level

Height (z) m

Tributary Height (ht ) m 1.75 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 4

Kz

qz (kn/m2)

Design Wind Pressure(KN/m^2) Design Wind Force (KN) wind ward lee ward wind ward lee ward Total (qz G CP) (qb G CP) (qz G CP)(B)(ht ) (qb G CP)(B)(ht (floor level) ) 0.782153 0.768297 0.753436 0.737386 0.719908 0.700676 0.679233 0.654903 0.626617 0.592527 0.548944 0.486320 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 -0.488846 35.834345 70.399094 69.037332 67.566683 65.965161 64.202965 62.238149 60.008720 57.416871 54.293292 50.299721 50.927427 -22.396465 -44.792931 -44.792931 -44.792931 -44.792931 -44.792931 -44.792931 -44.792931 -44.792931 -44.792931 -44.792931 -51.191921 sum 58.230810 115.192025 113.830262 112.359614 110.758092 108.995896 107.031079 104.801650 102.209802 99.086222 95.092651 102.119348

Moment (KN.m) 2503.924826 4550.084972 4097.889443 3651.687445 3211.984664 2779.395349 2354.683748 1938.830531 1533.147032 1139.491559 760.7412106 459.5370657

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

43 39.5 36 32.5 29 25.5 22 18.5 15 11.5 8 4.5

1.36 1.34 1.31 1.28 1.25 1.22 1.18 1.14 1.09 1.03 0.95 0.85

1.150225 1.129849 1.107994 1.084391 1.058688 1.030406 0.998873 0.963092 0.921495 0.871364 0.807270 0.715176

1229.707452 28981.39785

Computing total moment acting toward N-S Direction


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M = total floor level *height (z)

W-E Direction Computation


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B= 18.84

L= 26.18
Level Height (z) m Tributary Height (ht ) m 1.75 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 4 Kz qz (kn/m2) Design Wind Pressure(KN/m^2) Design Wind Force (KN) wind ward lee ward wind ward lee ward Total (qz G CP) (qb G CP) (qz G CP)(B)(ht ) (qb G CP)(B)(ht ) (floor level) 0.7821531 0.7682974 0.7534359 0.7373860 0.7199079 0.7006763 0.6792333 0.6549025 0.6266165 0.5925275 0.5489438 0.4863200 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 -0.48885 25.7875879 50.6615328 49.6815633 48.6232356 47.4707271 46.2025923 44.7886449 43.1842734 41.3190931 39.0712612 36.1973543 36.6490728 -16.1172424 -32.2344849 -32.2344849 -32.2344849 -32.2344849 -32.2344849 -32.2344849 -32.2344849 -32.2344849 -32.2344849 -32.2344849 -36.8394113 sum 41.9048304 82.8960177 81.9160482 80.8577205 79.7052120 78.4370772 77.0231298 75.4187583 73.5535780 71.3057461 68.4318392 73.4884841 884.9384415

Moment (KN.m) 1801.907705 3274.392699 2948.977735 2627.875916 2311.451149 2000.145469 1694.508855 1395.247028 1103.30367 820.0160796 547.4547138 330.6981787 20855.9791983

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

43 39.5 36 32.5 29 25.5 22 18.5 15 11.5 8 4.5

1.36 1.34 1.31 1.28 1.25 1.22 1.18 1.14 1.09 1.03 0.95 0.85

1.150225 1.129849 1.107994 1.084391 1.058688 1.030406 0.998873 0.963092 0.921495 0.871364 0.807270 0.715176

Design of Shear Wall


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East west direction

North south direction

Interaction Diagram
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Shear Wall Reinforcement


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Foundations
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Foundations are structural components used to support

columns and transfer loads to the underlying Soil. Foundations


Shallow Isolated footing Combined Strap wall footing footing footing Raft footing Caissons Piles Deep

Pile foundation
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Our building is rested on a weak soil formation which

cant resist the loads coming from our proposed building, so we have to choose pile foundation.

Pile cap Piles

Weak soil

Bearing stratum

Pile foundation
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Piles are structural members that are made of steel,

concrete or timber.

Function of piles
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As with other types of foundation, the purpose of a pile

foundation is:
To transmit a foundation load to a solid ground To resist vertical, lateral and uplift load

Piles can be

Timber Concrete Steel Composite

Concrete piles
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General facts
Usual length: 10m-20m Usual load: 300kN-3000kN

Advantages
Corrosion resistance Can be easily combined with a concrete superstructure

Disadvantages
Difficult to achieve proper cutoff Difficult to transport

Pile foundation
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Piles can be divided in to two major categories:


1.

End Bearing Piles


If the soil-boring records presence of bedrock at the site within a reasonable depth, piles can be extended to the rock surface

2.

Friction Piles
When no layer of rock is present depth at a site, point bearing piles become very long and uneconomical. In this type of subsoil, piles are driven through the softer material to specified depths.

Pile Cap Reinforcement


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Pile caps carrying very heavy point loads tend to produce high

tensile stresses at the pile cap.


Reinforcement is thus designed to provide:

Resistance to tensile bending forces in the bottom of the cap Resistance to vertical shear

Design of the pile cap


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bearing capacity of one pile:

Rs = Cu As .L
Length of pile penetration L = 18 meters Adhesion factor of soil (clay) = 0.8 Untrained shear strength Cu = 50 Diameter = 0.9 m For piles with diameter 0.9 m Rs = 2035.75 KN

First type
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This section shows how pile caps are designed to carry

only vertical load, and the equation used to determine the resistance of cap is

Qi Pi = n
Where
P Q n is the strength of the pile cap per one pile is the total force acting on the pile cap is the number of piles used to support the pile cap

Columns layout & Reactions ( Vertical Load )


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Column 1 2 8 10 21 23 24 25 30 32

Reaction Total Reaction kN 129.63 246.85 382.66 393.38 458.35 400.85 627.74 384.14 158.3 355.26 kN 1555.56 2962.2 4591.92 4720.56 5500.2 4810.2 7532.88 4609.68 1899.6 4263.12

Design of pile cap (Vertical Load only)


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Pile Cap 2

Reaction = 4610.4 kN Pile diameter = 0.9 m Capacity for one pile = 0.8 * 50 * 18 * * 0.9 = 2035.75 KN Need 3 piles Length between piles = (2*0.3) + (3*0.9) + (2*0.9)*2 =6.9 m Width = 1.5 meters Q Pi = i = 1536.8 kN Actual forces on each pile =
n

Second type
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Second type
This section shows how pile caps are designed to carry

vertical load and lateral loads ( Bending Moment), and the equation used to determine the resistance of cap is

Qi M i r Pi = 2 n r

Shear walls layout & reactions


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wall W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W10 W11 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17 W18 M (KN.m) 14072.12 366.048 366.048 5719.5 30.65295 301.6143 10141.2 2402.52 20978.4 3297.6 2040 5470.2 7262.76 8571.48 N (KN) 12285.6 3596.76 3026.88 3605.04 4128 1899.6 32.80882 32.80882 6700.246 6700.246 262.4706 262.4706 7903.641 7086.706

Design of pile cap (Vertical Load & moment)


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Shear wall # (1): M = 14072.11561 Q = 12285.6 Assume 8 piles

P= P=

Q Mr n r2

12285.6 14072.11561* (1.909) So, PCapacityof Pile = 2035.75 KN 8 24.6762 12285.6 14072.11561* (4.26) P= So, PCapacityof Pile = 2035.75 KN 8 24.6762

Economical impact
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Reinforced concrete is proven to be a very economical

solution in the UAE. the most affordable solution for multistory building such as the one we are making the analysis and design for.

Environmental impact
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Although the cement production is environmentally

challenging, the final product of a reinforced concrete building is environmentally friendly.

Gantt Chart
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Conclusion
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We have applied our gained knowledge during our graduation

project We are able to use structural software ( SAFE ) We have practiced real life engineering practices This GP enables us to go into the market with an excellent background regarding design of RC At this point, we would like to thank all instructors, engineers, and Al Ain Consultant Office for their grateful effort.

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