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Homer Reid

December 8, 1999

Chapter 2

Problem 2.1

A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an

infinite plane conductor held at zero potential. Using the method

of images, find:

(a) the surface-charge density induced on the plane, and plot it;

(b) the force between the plane and the charge by using Coulomb’s

law for the force between the charge and its image;

(c) the total force acting on the plane by integrating σ 2 /20 over

the whole plane;

(d) the work necessary to remove the charge q from its position to

infinity;

(e) the potential energy between the charge q and its image (com-

pare the answer to part d and discuss).

(f ) Find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron

originally one angstrom from the surface.

(a) We’ll take d to be in the z direction, so the charge q is at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, d).

The image charge is −q at (0, 0, −d). The potential at a point r is

q 1 1

Φ(r) = −

4π0 |r − dk| |r + dk|

The surface charge induced on the plane is found by differentiating this:

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 2

dΦ

σ = −0 z=0

dz

q −(z − d) (z + d)

= − +

4π |r + dk|3 |r + dk|3 z=0

qd

= − (1)

2π(x2 + y 2 + d2 )3/2

We can check this by integrating this over the entire xy plane and verifying

that the total charge is just the value −q of the image charge:

∞ ∞

qd ∞ 2π rdψdr

Z Z Z Z

σ(x, y)dxdy = − 2 + d2 )3/2

−∞ −∞ 2π 0 0 (r

Z ∞

rdr

= −qd 2 + d2 )3/2

(r

Z0

qd ∞ −3/2

= − u du

2 d2

qd ∞

= − −2u−1/2 2

2 √ d

= −q

(b) The point of this problem is that, for points above the z axis, it doesn’t

matter whether there is a charge −q at (0, 0, d) or an infinite grounded sheet

at z = 0. Physics above the z axis is exactly the same whether we have the

charge or the sheet. In particular, the force on the original charge is the same

whether we have the charge or the sheet. That means that, if we assume the

sheet is present instead of the charge, it will feel a reaction force equal to what

the image charge would feel if it were present instead of the sheet. The force

on the image charge would be just F = q 2 /16π0d2 , so this must be what the

sheet feels.

(c) Total force on sheet

Z ∞ Z 2π

1

= σ 2 dA

20 0 0

q 2 d2 ∞ rdr

Z

=

4π0 0 (r + d2 )3

2

q 2 d2 ∞ −3

Z

= u du

8π0 d2

∞

q 2 d2 1 −2

= − u

8π0 2 2

d

q 2 d2 1 −4

= d

8π0 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 3

q2

=

16π0 d2

in accordance with the discussion and result of part b.

(d) Work required to remove charge to infinity

q2

Z ∞

dz

=

4π0 d (z + d)2

q2

Z ∞

= u−2 du

4π0 2d

q2 1

=

4π0 2d

q2

=

8π0 d

q2

=

8π0 d

equal to the result in part d.

(f )

=

8π0 d 8π(8.85 · 10−12 coulombs V−1 m−1 )(10−10 m )

= 7.2 · (1.6 · 10−19 coulombs · 1 V )

= 7.2 eV .

Problem 2.2

Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge

q inside a hollow, grounded, conducting sphere of inner radius a.

Find

(a) the potential inside the sphere;

(b) the induced surface-charge density;

(c) the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q.

(d) Is there any change in the solution if the sphere is kept at a

fixed potential V ? If the sphere has a total charge Q on its

inner and outer surfaces?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4

Problem 2.3

to the x − y plane in the first quadrant at (x0 , y0 ). The intersecting planes x =

0, y ≥ 0 and y = 0, x ≥ 0 are conducting boundary surfaces held at zero potential.

Consider the potential, fields, and surface charges in the first quadrant.

(a) The well-known potential for an isolated line charge at (x0 , y0 ) is Φ(x, y) =

(λ/4π0 ) ln(R2 /r2 ), where r2 = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 and R is a constant.

Determine the expression for the potential of the line charge in the presence of

the intersecting planes. Verify explicitly that the potential and the tangential

electric field vanish on the boundary surface.

(b) Determine the surface charge density σ on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0. Plot σ/λ

versus x for (x0 = 2, y0 = 1), (x0 = 1, y0 = 1), and (x0 = 1, y0 = 2).

(c) Show that the total charge (per unit length in z) on the plane y = 0, x ≥ 0 is

2 x0

Qx = − λ tan−1

π y0

p

(d) Show

p that far from the origin [ρ ρ0 , where ρ = x2 + y 2 and ρ0 =

x20 + y02 ] the leading term in the potential is

Φ → Φasym = .

π0 ρ4

Interpret.

(a) The potential can be made to vanish on the specified boundary surfaces

by pretending that we have three image line charges. Two image charges have

charge density −λ and exist at the locations obtained by reflecting the original

image charge across the x and y axes, respectively. The third image charge has

charge density +λ and exists at the location obtained by reflecting the original

charge through the origin. The resulting potential in the first quadrant is

R2 R2 R2 R2

λ

Φ(x, y) = ln 2 − ln 2 − ln 2 + ln 2

4π0 r1 r2 r3 r4

λ r2 r3

= ln (2)

2π0 r1 r4

where

r12 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ] r22 = [(x + x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5

From this you can see that

• when x = 0, r1 = r2 and r3 = r4

• when y = 0, r1 = r3 and r2 = r4

and in both cases the argument of the logarithm in (2) is unity.

(b)

d

σ = −0 Φ

dy

λ 1 dr2 1 dr3 1 dr1 1 dr4

= − + − − y=0

2π r2 dy r3 dy r1 dy r4 dy

We have dr1 /dy = (y − y0 )/r1 and similarly for the other derivatives, so

λ y − y0 y + y0 y − y0 y + y0

σ = − + − −

2π r2 r32 r12 r42 y=0

2

y0 λ 1 1

= − −

π (x − x0 )2 + y02 (x + x0 )2 + y02 )

Z ∞

Qx = σdx

0

Z ∞ Z ∞

y0 λ dx dx

= − −

π 0 (x − x0 )2 + y02 0 (x + x0 )2 + y02

For the first integral the appropriate substitution is (x − x0 ) = y0 tan u, dx =

y0 sec2 udu. A similar substitution works in the second integral.

"Z #

π/2 Z π/2

λ

= − du − du

π tan−1 − xy0 x

tan−1 y 0

0 0

λ π −1 −x0 π −1 x0

= − − tan − + tan

π 2 y0 2 y0

2λ x 0

= − tan−1 . (3)

π y0

The calculations are obviously symmetric with respect to x0 and y0 . The

total charge on the plane x = 0 is (3) with x0 and y0 interchanged:

2λ y0

Qy = − tan−1

π x0

Since tan−1 x − tan−1 (1/x) = π/2 the total charge induced is

Q = −λ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6

which is, of course, also the sum of the charge per unit length of the three image

charges.

(d) We have

λ r2 r2

Φ= ln 22 32

4π0 r1 r4

Far from the origin,

r12 = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 ]

2 x0 2 2 y0 2

= x (1 − ) + y (1 − )

x y

2 x 0 2 y0

≈ x (1 − 2 ) + y (1 − 2

x y

= x − 2x0 x + y 2 − 2y0 y)

2

2 2 xx0 + yy0

= (x + y ) 1 − 2 2

x + y2

Similarly,

−xx0 + yy0

r22 2 2

= (x + y ) 1 − 2

x2 + y 2

xx0 − yy0

r32 2 2

= (x + y ) 1 − 2 2

x + y2

−xx0 − yy0

r42 2 2

= (x + y ) 1 − 2

x2 + y 2

Next,

(xx0 + yy0 )2

r12 r42 2 2 2

= (x + y ) 1 − 4

(x2 + y 2 )2

(xx0 − yy0 )2

r22 r32 2 2 2

= (x + y ) 1 − 4

(x2 + y 2 )2

so 2

λ 1 − 4 (xx2

0 −yy0 )

(x +y )2 2

Φ= ln .

1 − 4 (xx 0 +yy0 )

2

4π0

(x2 +y 2 )2

The (x2 + y 2 ) term in the denominator grows much more quickly than the

(xx0 + yy0 ) term, so in the asymptotic limit we can use ln(1 + ) ≈ to find

λ

Φ = −4 + 4

4π0 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2

−4(x2 x20 + y 2 y02 − 2xyx0 y0 ) + 4(x2 x20 + y 2 y02 + 2xyx0 y0 )

λ

=

4π0 (x2 + y 2 )2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7

λ 16xyx0 y0

=

4π0 (x2 + y 2 )2

4λ (xy)(x0 y0 ) √

= .

π0 (x2 + y 2 )2

Problem 2.4

A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an

equally charged, isolated, conducting sphere of radius R.

(a) Inside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the

point charge attracted rather than repelled by the charged

sphere?

(b) What is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the

point charge is located a distance a(= d−R) from the surface

of the sphere, if a R?

(c) What are the results for parts a and b if the charge on the

sphere is twice (half) as large as the point charge, but still

the same sign?

Let’s call the point charge q. The charged, isolated sphere may be replaced

by two image charges. One image charge, of charge q1 = −(R/d)q at radius

r1 = R2 /d, is needed to make the potential equal at all points on the sphere.

The second image charge, of charge q2 = q − q1 at the center of the sphere,

is necessary to recreate the effect of the additional charge on the sphere (the

“additional” charge is the extra charge on the sphere left over after you subtract

the surface charge density induced by the point charge q).

The force on the point charge is the sum of the forces from the two image

charges:

" #

1 qq1 qq2

F = + d2 (4)

4π0 R2 2

d− d

q2 d2 + dR

−dR

= + (5)

4π0 [d2 − R2 ]2 d4

and the overall force is attractive. As d → ∞, the denominator of both terms

looks like d4 , so the dR terms in the numerator cancel and the overall force is

repulsive.

(a) The crossover distance is found by equating the two bracketed terms in (5):

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8

dR d2 + dR

=

[d2 − R 2 ]2 d4

d4 R = (d + R)[d2 − R2 ]2

0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + dR4 + R5

I used GnuPlot to solve this one graphically. The root is d/R=1.6178.

(b) The idea here is to set d = R + a = R(1 + a/R) and find the limit of (4) as

a → 0.

" #

a a 2 a

−R2 (1 + R2 (1 + R

q2 R)

) + (1 + R)

F = 2 + 4 a 4

4π0 a R (1 + R )

R2 (1 + R )2 − R2

2 2

q −R − aR (2R + 3a)(R − 4a)

≈ +

4π0 4a2 R2 R4

The second term in brackets approaches the constant 2/R 2 as a → 0. The first

term becomes −1/4a2. So we have

q2

F →− .

16π0 a2

Note that only the first image charge (the one required to make the sphere an

equipotential) contributes to the force as d → a. The second image charge,

the one which represents the difference between the actual charge on the sphere

and the charge induced by the first image, makes no contribution in this limit.

That means that the limiting value of the force will be as above regardless of

the charge on the sphere.

(c) If the charge on the sphere is twice the point charge, then q2 = 2q − q1 =

q(2 + R/d). Then (5) becomes

q2 2d2 + dR

dR

F = − 2 +

4π0 [d − R2 ]2 d4

and the relevant equation becomes

0 = 2d5 − 4d3 R2 − 2d2 R3 + 2dR4 + R5 .

Again I solved graphically to find d/R = 1.43. If the charge on the sphere is

half the point charge, then

q2 d2 + 2dR

dR

F = − 2 +

4π0 [d − R2 ]2 2d4

and the equation is

0 = d5 − 2d3 R2 − 4d2 R3 + dR4 + 2R5 .

The root of this one is d/R=1.88.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9

Problem 2.5

(a) Show that the work done to remove the charge q from a dis-

tance r > a to infinity against the force, Eq. (2.6), of a

grounded conducting sphere is

q2 a

W = .

8π0 (r2 − a2 )

and the energy discussion of Section 1.11.

(b) Repeat the calculation of the work done to remove the charge q

against the force, Eq. (2.9), of an isolated charged conducting

sphere. Show that the work done is

q2 a q 2 a qQ

1

W = − − .

4π0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r2 r

the energy discussion of Section 1.11.

q2 a 1

|F | =

4π0 y (1 − a2 /y 2 )2

3

Z ∞

W = − F dy (6)

r

q2 a

Z ∞

dy

=

4π0 r y 3 (1 − a2 /y 2 )2

q2 a

Z ∞

ydy

=

4π0 r (y 2 − a2 )2

q2 a

Z ∞

du

=

4π0 r2 −a2 2u2

∞

q 2 a 1

= −

4π0 2u r2 −a2

q2 a

= (7)

8π0 (r2 − a2 )

To relate this to earlier results, note that the image charge q 0 = −(a/r)q is

located at radius r 0 = a2 /r. The potential energy between the point charge and

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10

its image is

1 qq 0

PE =

4π0 |r − r0 |

−q 2 a

1

=

4π0 r(r − a2 /r)

−q 2 a

1

= (8)

4π0 r2 − a2

Result (7) is only half of (8). This would seem to violate energy conservation. It

would seem that we could start with the point charge at infinity and allow it to

fall in to a distance r from the sphere, liberating a quantity of energy (8), which

we could store in a battery or something. Then we could expend an energy

equal to (7) to remove the charge back to infinity, at which point we would

be back where we started, but we would still have half of the energy saved in

the battery. It would seem that we could keep doing this over and over again,

storing up as much energy in the battery as we pleased.

I think the problem is with equation (8). The traditional expression q1 q2 /4π0 r

for the potential energy of two charges comes from calculating the work needed

to bring one charge from infinity to a distance r from the other charge, and it

is assumed that the other charge does not move and keeps a constant charge

during the process. But in this case one of the charges is a fictitious image

charge, and as the point charge q is brought in from infinity the image charge

moves out from the center of the sphere, and its charge increases. So the simple

expression doesn’t work to calculate the potential energy of the configuration,

and we should take (7) to be the correct result.

(b) In this case there are two image charges: one of the same charge and location

as in part a, and another of charge Q − q 0 at the origin. The work needed to

remove the point charge q to infinity is the work needed to remove the point

charge from its image charge, plus the work needed to remove the point charge

from the extra charge at the origin. We calculated the first contribution above.

The second contribution is

qQ q 2 a

Z ∞ Z ∞

q(Q − q 0 )dy 1

− = − + dy

r 4π0 y 2 4π0 r y2 y3

∞

1 qQ q 2 a

= − − − 2

4π0 y 2y r

2

1 qQ q a

= − + 2

4π0 r 2r

q2 a q 2 a qQ

1

W = − − .

4π0 2(r2 − a2 ) 2r2 r

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11

Some problems in this and other chapters use the Green’s function technique.

It’s useful to review this technique, and also to establish my conventions since

I define the Green’s function a little differently than Jackson.

The whole technique is based on the divergence theorem. Suppose A(x) is

a vector valued function defined at each point x within a volume V . Then

Z I

0 0

(∇ · A(x )) dV = A(x0 ) · dA0 (9)

V S

φ(x)∇ψ(x) where φ and ψ are scalar functions, (9) becomes

∂ψ

Z I

(∇φ(x0 )) · (∇ψ(x0 )) + φ(x0 )∇2 ψ(x0 ) dV 0 =

0

φ(x ) dA0

V S ∂n x0

where ∂ψ/∂n is the dot product of ∇ψ ~ with the outward normal to the surface

area element. If we write down this equation with φ and ψ switched and subtract

the two, we come up with

I

∂ψ ∂φ

Z

2

φ∇ ψ − ψ∇2 φ dV 0 =

φ −ψ dA0 . (10)

V S ∂n ∂n

This statement doesn’t appear to be very useful, since it seems to require that

we know φ over the whole volume to compute the left side, and both φ and

∂φ/∂n on the boundary to compute the right side. However, suppose we could

choose ψ(x) in a clever way such that ∇2 ψ = δ(x − x0 ) for some point x0

within the volume. (Since this ψ is a function of x which also depends on x0

as a parameter, we might write it as ψx0 (x).) Then we could use the sifting

property of the delta function to find

I

0 ∂ψx0 0 ∂φ

Z

2

0 0

0

φ(x0 ) = ψx0 (x )∇ φ(x ) dV + φ(x ) − ψx0 (x ) dA0 .

V S ∂n x0

∂n x0

so we have

I

1 0 ∂ψx0 0 ∂φ

Z

0 0 0

0

φ(x0 ) = − ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) 0 − ψx0 (x ) ∂n 0 dA .

0 V S ∂n x x

(11)

Equation (11) allows us to find the potential at an arbitrary point x0 as

long as we know ρ within the volume and both φ and ∂φ/∂n on the boundary.

boundary. Usually we do know ρ within the volume, but we only know either φ

or ∂φ/∂n on the boundary. This lack of knowledge can be accommodated by

choosing ψ such that either its value or its normal derivative vanishes on the

boundary surface, so that the term which we can’t evaluate drops out of the

surface integral. More specifically,

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12

ditions), we choose ψ such that ψ = 0 on the boundary. Then

1 0 ∂ψx0

Z I

0 0 0

0

φ(x0 ) = − ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φ(x ) 0 dA . (12)

0 V S ∂n x

conditions), we choose ψ such that ∂ψ/∂n = 0 on the boundary. Then

1 0 ∂φ

Z I

0 0 0

0

φ(x0 ) = − ψx0 (x )ρ(x )dV + φx0 (x ) 0 dA . (13)

0 V S ∂n x

Again, in both cases the function ψx0 (x) has the property that

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

December 8, 1999

Problem 2.11

A line charge with linear charge density τ is placed parallel to, and a

distance R away from, the axis of a conducting cylinder of radius b held

at fixed voltage such that the potential vanishes at infinity. Find

(a) the magnitude and position of the image charge(s);

(b) the potential at any point (expressed in polar coordinates with the

origin at the axis of the cylinder and the direction from the origin

to the line charge as the x axis), including the asymptotic form far

from the cylinder;

(c) the induced surface-charge density, and plot it as a function of angle

for R/b=2,4 in units of τ /2πb;

(d) the force on the charge.

(a) Drawing an analogy to the similar problem of the point charge outside

the conducting sphere, we might expect that the potential on the cylinder can

be made constant by placing an image charge within the cylinder on the line

conducting the line charge with the center of the cylinder, i.e. on the x axis.

Suppose we put the image charge a distance R0 < b from the center of the

cylinder and give it a charge density −τ . Using the expression quoted in Problem

2.3 for the potential of a line charge, the potential at a point x due to the line

charge and its image is

τ R2 τ R2

Φ(x) = ln − ln

4π0 |x − Rî|2 4π0 |x − R0 î|2

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 2

τ |x − R0 î|2

= ln .

4π0 |x − Rî|2

cylinder surface. This requires that the argument of the logarithm be equal to

some constant γ at those points:

|x − R0 î|2

=γ

|x − Rî|2

or

b2 + R02 − 2R0 b cos φ = γb2 + γR2 − 2γRb cos φ.

For this to be true everywhere on the cylinder, the φ term must drop out, which

requires R0 = γR. We can then rearrange the remaining terms to find

b2

R0 = .

R

This is also analogous to the point-charge-and-sphere problem, but there are

differences: in this case the image charge has the same magnitude as the original

line charge, and the potential on the cylinder is constant but not zero.

(b) At a point (ρ, φ), we have

Φ= ln 2 .

4π0 ρ + R2 − 2ρR cos φ

For large ρ, this becomes

0

τ 1 − 2 Rρ cos φ

Φ→ ln .

4π0 1 − 2R ρ cos φ

τ 2(R − R0 ) cos φ

Φ →

4π0 ρ

τ R(1 − b2 /R2 ) cos φ

=

2π0 ρ

(c)

∂Φ

σ = −0

∂ρ r=b

τ 2b − 2R0 cos φ 2b − 2R cos φ

= − −

4π b2 + R02 − 2bR0 cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ

2

" #

τ b − bR cos φ b − R cos φ

= − −

2π b2 + Rb42 − 2 bR3 cos φ b2 + R2 − 2bR cos φ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 3

R2

" #

τ b −b

σ = −

2π R2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ

R 2 − b2

τ

= −

2πb R2 + b2 − 2bR cos φ

(d) To find the force on the charge, we note that the potential of the image

charge is

τ C2

Φ(x) = − ln .

4π0 |x − R0 î|2

with C some constant. We can differentiate this to find the electric field due to

the image charge:

τ

E(x) = −∇Φ(x) = − ∇ ln |x − R0 î|2

4π0

τ 2(x − R0 î)

= − .

4π0 |x − R0 î|2

τ 1 τ R

E=− î = − î.

2π0 R − R0 2π0 R2 − b2

The force per unit width on the line charge is

τ2 R

F = τE = −

2π0 R2 − b2

tending to pull the original charge in toward the cylinder.

Problem 2.12

Starting with the series solution (2.71) for the two-dimensional potential

problem with the potential specified on the surface of a cylinder of radius

b, evaluate the coefficients formally, substitute them into the series, and

sum it to obtain the potential inside the cylinder in the form of Poisson’s

integral:

Z 2π

1 b2 − ρ 2

Φ(ρ, φ) = Φ(b, φ0 ) 2 dφ0

2π 0 b + ρ2 − 2bρ cos(φ0 − φ)

space bounded by the cylinder and infinity?

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 4

Referring to equation (2.71), we know the bn are all zero, because the ln

term and the negative powers of ρ are singular at the origin. We are left with

∞

X

Φ(ρ, φ) = a0 + ρn {an sin(nφ) + bn cos(nφ)} . (1)

n=1

at ρ = b gives

Z 2π

1

a0 = Φ(b, φ)dφ (2)

2π 0

Z 2π

1

an = Φ(b, φ) sin(nφ)dφ (3)

πbn 0

Z 2π

1

bn = Φ(b, φ) cos(nφ)dφ. (4)

πbn 0

( )

1 2π

∞

1 X ρ n

Z

0

Φ(ρ, φ) = Φ(b, φ ) + [sin(nφ) sin(nφ ) + cos(nφ) cos(nφ )] dφ0

0 0

π 0 2 n=1 b

( ∞

)

1 2π 1 X ρ n

Z

0 0

= Φ(b, φ ) + cos n(φ − φ ) . (5)

π 0 2 n=1 b

The bracketed term can be expressed in closed form. For simplicity define

x = (ρ/b) and α = (φ − φ0 ). Then

∞ ∞

1 X n 1 1 X n inα

+ xn e−inα

+ x cos(nα) = + x e

2 n=1 2 2 n=1

1 1 1 1

= + + − 2

2 2 1 − xeiα 1 − xe−iα

1 1 1 − xe−iα − xeiα + 1

= + − 2

2 2 1 − xeiα − xe−iα + x2

1 1 − x cos α

= + − 1

2 1 + x2 − 2x cos α

1 x cos α − x2

= +

2 1 + x2 − 2x cos α

1 − x2

1

= .

2 1 + x2 − 2x cos α

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 5

Problem 2.13

(a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are

separated by small lengthwise gaps on each side, and are kept at different

potentials V1 and V2 . Show that the potential inside is given by

V1 + V 2 V1 − V 2 −1 2bρ

Φ(ρ, φ) = + tan cos φ

2 π b2 − ρ 2

gap.

(b) Calculate the surface-charge density on each half of the cylinder.

This problem is just like the previous one. Since we are looking for an

expression for the potential within the cylinder, the correct expansion is (1)

with expansion coefficients given by (2), (3) and (4):

2π

1

Z

a0 = Φ(b, φ)dφ

2π 0

π Z 2π

1

Z

= V1 dφ + V2 dφ

2π 0 π

V1 + V 2

=

2

Z π Z 2π

1

an = V 1 sin(nφ)dφ + V 2 sin(nφ)dφ

πbn 0 π

1 h

π 2π

i

= − V 1 |cos nφ| 0 + V 2 |cos nφ| π

nπbn

1

= − n

[V1 (cos nπ − 1) + V2 (1 − cos nπ)]

nπb

0 , n even

=

2(V1 − V2 )/(nπbn ) , n odd

Z π Z 2π

1

bn = V 1 cos(nφ)dφ + V 2 cos(nφ)dφ

πbn 0 π

1 h

π 2π

i

= V 1 |sin nφ| 0 + V 2 |sin nφ| π

nπbn

= 0.

V1 + V 2 2(V1 − V2 ) X 1 ρ n

Φ(ρ, φ) = + sin nφ. (6)

2 π n b

n odd

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 6

X 1 1 X 1

xn sin nφ = (iy)n [einπ − e−inφ ] (x = iy)

n 2i n

n odd n odd

∞

1 X (−1)n iφ 2n+1

− (ye−iφ )2n+1

= (ye )

2 n=0 2n + 1

1 −1 iφ

= tan (ye ) − tan−1 (ye−iφ ) (7)

2

where in the last line we just identified the Taylor series for the inverse tangent

function. Next we need an identity:

−1 −1 −1 γ1 − γ 2

tan γ1 − tan γ2 = tan .

1 + γ 1 γ2

(I derived this one by drawing some triangles and doing some algebra.) With

this, (7) becomes

X 1

1 2iy sin φ

xn sin nφ = tan−1

n 2 1 + y2

n odd

1 −1 2x sin φ

= tan .

2 1 − x2

V1 + V 2 V1 − V 2 2ρb sin φ

Φ(ρ, b) = + tan−1 .

π π b2 − ρ 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 7

Problem 2.15

(a) Show that the Green function G(x, y; x0 , y 0 ) appropriate for Dirichlet

boundary conditions for a square two-dimensional region, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤

y ≤ 1, has an expansion

∞

X

G(x, y; x0 , y 0 ) = 2 gn (y, y 0 ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx0 )

n=1

2

∂ 2 2

− n π gn (y, y 0 ) = δ(y 0 − y) and gn (y, 0) = gn (y, 1) = 0.

∂y 2

and cosh(nπy 0 ) in the two regions y 0 < y and y 0 > y, in accord with the

boundary conditions and the discontinuity in slope required by the source

delta function, show that the explicit form of G is

G(x, y; x0 , y 0 ) =

∞

X 1

−2 sin(nπx) sin(nπx0 ) sinh(nπy< ) sinh[nπ(1 − y> )]

n=1

nπ sinh(nπ)

(I have taken out a factor −4π from the expressions for gn and G, in accordance

with my convention for Green’s functions; see the Green’s functions review

above.)

(a) To use as a Green’s function in a Dirichlet boundary value problem G must

satisfy two conditions. The first is that G vanish on the boundary of the region

of interest. The suggested expansion of G clearly satisfies this. First, sin(nπx0 )

is 0 when x0 is 0 or 1. Second, g(y, y 0 ) vanishes when y 0 is 0 or 1. So G(x, y; x0 , y 0 )

vanishes for points (x0 , y 0 ) on the boundary.

The second condition on G is

2

∂2

∂

∇2 G = + G = δ(x − x0 ) δ(y − y 0 ). (8)

∂x02 ∂y 02

∞

∂2 X

gn (y, y 0 ) sin(nπx) −n2 π 2 sin(nπx0 )

G = 2

∂x 02

n=1

∞

∂2 X ∂ 02

G = 2 g (y, y 0 ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx0 )

2 n

∂y 02

n=1

∂y

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 8

We can add these together and use the differential equation satisfied by gn to

find

∞

X

∇2 G = δ(y − y 0 ) · 2 sin(nπx) sin(nπx0 )

n=1

= δ(y − y ) · δ(x − x0 )

0

(b) The suggestion is to take

An1 sinh(nπy 0 ) + Bn1 cosh(nπy 0 ), y 0 < y;

gn (y, y 0 ) = (9)

An2 sinh(nπy 0 ) + Bn2 cosh(nπy 0 ), y 0 > y.

The idea to use hyperbolic sines and cosines comes from the fact that sinh(nπy)

and cosh(nπy) satisfy a homogeneous version of the differential equation for g n

(i.e. satisfy that differential equation with the δ function replaced by zero).

Thus gn as defined in (9) satisfies its differential equation (at all points except

y = y 0 ) for any choice of the As and Bs. This leaves us free to choose these

coefficients as required to satisfy the boundary conditions and the differential

equation at y = y 0 .

First let’s consider the boundary conditions. Since y is somewhere between

0 and 1, the condition that gn vanish for y 0 = 0 is only relevant to the top line

of (9), where it requires taking Bn1 = 0 but leaves An1 undetermined for now.

The condition that gn vanish for y 0 = 1 only affects the lower line of (9), where

it requires that

= (An2 + Bn2 )enπ + (−An2 + Bn2 )e−nπ (10)

Then

so An2 = − cosh(nπ) and Bn2 = sinh(nπ).

for (y 0 > y). Actually, we haven’t completely determined An2 and Bn2 ; we could

multiply (11) by an arbitrary constant γn and (10) would still be satisfied.

Next we need to make sure that the two halves of (9) match up at y 0 = y:

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 9

70000

60000

50000

40000

g(yprime)

30000

20000

10000

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

yprime

βn sinh[nπ(1 − y)] sinh(nπy 0 ), y 0 < y;

gn (y, y 0 ) =

βn sinh[nπ(1 − y 0 )] sinh(nπy), y 0 > y.

= βn sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) (13)

with y< and y> defined as in the problem. Figure 1 shows a graph of this

function n = 5, y = .41.

The final step is to choose the normalization constant βn such that gn sat-

isfies its differential equation:

2

∂ 2 2

− n π gn (y, y 0 ) = δ(y − y 0 ). (14)

∂ 2 y 02

To say that the left-hand side “equals” the delta function requires two things:

• that the left-hand side vanish at all points y 0 6= y, and

• that its integral over any interval (y1 , y2 ) equal 1 if the interval contains

the point y 0 = y, and vanish otherwise.

The first condition is clearly satisfied regardless of the choice of βn . The second

condition may be satisfied by making gn continuous, which we have already

done, but giving its first derivative a finite jump of unit magnitude at y 0 = y:

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 10

y0 =y+

∂ 0

g n (y, y ) 0 − = 1.

∂y 0 y =y

so (14) is satisfied if

1

βn = − .

nπ sinh(nπ)

Then (13) is

gn (y, y 0 ) = −

nπ sinh(nπ)

and the composite Green’s function is

∞

X

G(x, y; x0 , y 0 ) = 2 gn (y, y 0 ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx0 )

n=1

∞

X sinh[nπ(1 − y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx) sin(nπx0 )

= −2 (15)

.

n=1

nπ sinh(nπ)

Problem 2.16

y ≤ 1) bounded by “surfaces” held at zero potential. Over the entire square

there is a uniform charge density of unit strength (per unit length in z).

Using the Green function of Problem 2.15, show that the solution can be

written as

∞

4 X sin[(2m + 1)πx] cosh[(2m + 1)π(y − (1/2))]

Φ(x, y) = 3 1− .

π 0 m=0 (2m + 1)3 cosh[(2m + 1)π/2]

within the square is given by

I

1 ∂G 0 ∂Φ

Z

Φ(x0 ) = − G(x0 ; x0 )ρ(x0 )dV 0 + Φ(x0 ) − G(x 0 ; x ) 0

0 dA .

0 V S ∂n

x 0 ∂n x

(16)

In this case the surface integral vanishes, because we’re given that Φ vanishes

on the boundary, and G vanishes there by construction. We’re also given that

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 11

ρ(x0 )dV 0 = dx0 dy 0 throughout the entire volume. Then we can plug in (15) to

find

∞ Z 1Z 1

2 X 1

Φ(x0 ) = sinh[nπ(1−y> )] sinh(nπy< ) sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx0 )dx0 dy 0 .

π0 n=1 n sinh(nπ) 0 0

(17)

The integrals can be done separately. The x integral is

1

sin(nπx0 )

Z

sin(nπx0 ) sin(nπx0 )dx0 = − [cos(nπ) − 1]

0 nπ

(2 sin(nπx0 ))/nπ , n odd

= (18)

0 , n even

The y integral is

Z y0 Z 1

0 0

sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] sinh(nπy )dy + sinh(nπy0 ) sinh[nπ(1 − y 0 )]dy 0

0 y0

1 n y0 1 o

= sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] · cosh(nπy 0 )0 − sinh[nπy0 ] · cosh[nπ(1 − y 0 )]y0

nπ

1

= {sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] cosh(nπy0 ) + sinh(nπy0 ) cosh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 ) − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )]}

nπ

1

= {sinh[nπ] − sinh[nπ(1 − y0 )] − sinh(nπy0 )}. (19)

nπ

Inserting (18) and (19) in (17), we have

Φ(x0 ) = 3 1− .

π 0 n3 sinh(nπ)

n odd

The thing in brackets is equal to what Jackson has, but this is tedious to show

so I’ll skip the proof.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 12

Problem 2.17

dimensional electrostatics by integrating 1/R with respect to z 0 − z

between the limits ±Z, where Z is taken to be very large. Show that

apart from an inessential constant, the Green function can be written

alternately as

G(x, y; x0 , y 0 ) = − ln[(x − x0 )2 + (y − y 0 )2 ]

= − ln[ρ2 + ρ02 − 2ρρ0 cos(φ − φ0 )].

Green function can be expressed as a Fourier series in the azimuthal

coordinate,

∞

1 X im(φ−φ0 )

G= e gm (ρ, ρ0 )

2π −∞

m2

1 ∂ 0 ∂gm δ(ρ − ρ0 )

ρ − 02 gm = .

ρ ∂ρ

0 0 ∂ρ 0 ρ ρ

solutions of the homogeneous radial equation (2.68) for ρ0 < ρ and

for ρ0 > ρ, with a discontinuity of slope at ρ0 = ρ determined by the

source delta function.

(c) Complete the solution and show that the free-space Green function has

the expansion

∞ m

1 1 X 1 ρ<

G(ρ, φ; ρ0 , φ0 ) = ln(ρ2> ) − · cos[m(φ − φ0 )]

4π 2π m=1 m ρ>

(As in Problem 2.15, I modified the text of the problem to match with my

convention for Green’s functions.)

(a)

R = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y 0 )2 + (z − z 0 )2 ]1/2

≡ [a2 + u2 ]1/2 , a = [(x − x0 )2 + (y − y 0 )2 ]1/2 , u = (z − z 0 ).

Integrating,

Z i +Z

du

Z h

= ln (a2 + u2 )1/2 + u

−Z [a + u2 ]1/2

2 −Z

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 13

(Z 2 + a2 )1/2 + Z

= ln

(Z 2 + a2 )1/2 − Z

(1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 + 1

= ln

(1 + (a2 /Z 2 ))1/2 − 1

a2

2+ 2Z 2

≈ ln a2

2Z 2

4Z + a22

= ln

a2

= ln[4Z + a2 ] − ln a2 .

2

Since Z is much bigger than a, the first term is essentially independent of a and

is the ’nonessential constant’ Jackson is talking about. The remaining term is

the 2D Green’s function:

= − ln[ρ2 + ρ02 − 2ρρ0 cos(φ − φ0 )] in cylindrical coordinates.

Z

∇2 G(ρ, φ; ρ0 , φ0 )ρ0 dρ0 dφ0 = 1

but ∇2 G = 0 at points other than (ρ, φ). These conditions are met if

1

∇2 G(ρ, φ; ρ0 , φ0 ) = δ(ρ − ρ0 )δ(φ − φ0 ). (20)

ρ0

You need the ρ0 on the bottom there to cancel out the ρ0 in the area element in

the integral. The Laplacian in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates is

2 1 ∂ 0 ∂ 1 ∂

∇ = 0 0 ρ − 02 02 .

ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ0 ρ ∂φ

∞

m2

2 1 X 1 ∂ 0 ∂gm 0

0

∇ G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) =0

ρ − 02 gm eim(φ−φ ) .

2π −∞ ρ ∂ρ

0 0 ∂ρ 0 ρ

brackets equals δ(ρ − ρ0 )/ρ0 for all m and may be removed from the sum, leaving

∞

δ(ρ − ρ0 ) 1 X im(φ−φ0 )

∇2 G(ρ, φ; ρ0 , φ0 ) = · e

ρ0 2π −∞

δ(ρ − ρ0 )

= δ(φ − φ0 ).

ρ0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 14

the homogenous radial differential equation in the two regions and piecing them

together at ρ = ρ0 such that the function is continuous but its derivative has a

finite jump of magnitude 1/ρ.

For m ≥ 1, the solution to the homogenous equation

m2

1 ∂ 0 ∂

ρ − 02 f (ρ0 ) = 0

ρ0 ∂ρ0 ∂ρ0 ρ

is

f (ρ0 ) = Am ρ0m + Bm ρ0−m .

Thus we take

A1m ρ0m + B1m ρ0−m , ρ0 < ρ

gm =

A2m ρ0m + B2m ρ0−m , ρ0 > ρ.

In order that the first solution be finite at the origin, and the second solution

be finite at infinity, we have to take B1m = A2m = 0. Then the condition that

the two solutions match at ρ = ρ0 is

which requires

A1m = γm ρ−m B2m = ρm γm

for some constant γm . Now we have

m

γ m ρ0 , ρ0 < ρ

gm = ρ m

γm ρ0 , ρ0 > ρ

ρ

dgm dgm 1

− =

dρ0 ρ0 =ρ+ dρ0 ρ0 =ρ− ρ

or

1 1 1

−mγm + =

ρ ρ ρ

so

1

γm = − .

2m

Then

0 m

− 1 ρ , ρ0 < ρ

2m

gm = ρ m

− 1 ρ0 , ρ0 > ρ

2m ρ

m

1 ρ<

= − .

2m ρ>

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 15

∞ m

1 X 1 ρ< 0

G = − eim(φ−φ )

4π −∞ m ρ>

∞ m

1 X 1 ρ<

= − cos[m(φ − φ0 )].

2π 1 m ρ>

solution of the radial equation, but I have left it out because it doesn’t vanish

as ρ0 → ∞.

Problem 2.18

Problem 2.17, find the Green function for the interior Dirichlet prob-

lem of a cylinder of radius b [gm (ρ, ρ0 = b) = 0. See (1.40)]. First

find the series expansion akin to the free-space Green function of

Problem 2.17. Then show that it can be written in closed form as

2 02

ρ ρ + b4 − 2ρρ0 b2 cos(φ − φ0 )

G = ln 2 2

b (ρ + ρ02 − 2ρρ0 cos(φ − φ0 ))

or

(b2 − ρ2 )(b2 − ρ02 ) + b2 |ρ − ρ0 |2

G = ln .

b2 |ρ − ρ0 |2

(b) Show that the solution of the Laplace equation with the potential

given as Φ(b, φ) on the cylinder can be expressed as Poisson’s inte-

gral of Problem 2.12.

(c) What changes are necessary for the Green function for the exterior

problem (b < ρ < ∞), for both the Fourier expansion and the

closed form? [Note that the exterior Green function is not rigorously

correct because it does not vanish for ρ or ρ0 → ∞. For situations

in which the potential falls of fast enough as ρ → ∞, no mistake is

made in its use.]

(a) As before, we write the general solution of the radial equation for gm in the

two distinct regions:

0 A1m ρ0m + B1m ρ0−m , ρ0 < ρ

gm (ρ, ρ ) = (21)

A2m ρ0m + B2m ρ0−m , ρ0 > ρ.

The first boundary conditions are that gm remain finite at the origin and

vanish on the cylinder boundary. This requires that

B1m = 0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 16

and

A2m bm + B2m b−m = 0

so

A2m = γm b−m B2m = −γm bm

for some constant γm .

Next, gm must be continuous at ρ = ρ0 :

m

m ρ m b

A1m ρ = γm −

b ρ

m

γ m ρ m b

A1m = − .

ρm b ρ

m 0 m

0 bρ m ρ

gm (ρ, ρ ) = γm − , ρ0 < ρ

b ρ ρ

0 m m

ρ b

= γm − , ρ0 > ρ.

b ρ0

1 dgm dgm

= −

ρ dρ0 ρ0 =ρ+ dρ0 ρ0 =ρ−

m−1 m

bm

ρ ρ m b 1

= mγm + m+1 − mγm −

bm ρ b ρ ρ

m

b 1

= 2mγm

ρ ρ

so

1 ρ m

γm =

2m b

and

0 m 0 m

0 1 ρρ ρ

gm (ρ, ρ ) = 2

− , ρ0 < ρ

2m b ρ

0 m m

1 ρρ ρ

= 2

− , ρ0 > ρ.

2m b ρ0

or m m

1 ρρ0 ρ<

gm (ρ, ρ0 ) = − .

2m b2 ρ>

Plugging into the expansion for G gives

∞ 0 m m

1 X 1 ρρ ρ<

G(ρ, φ, ρ0 , φ0 ) = − cos m(φ − φ0 ). (22)

2π n=1 m b2 ρ>

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 17

∞ ∞ Z x

X 1 n 0

X

n−1

x cos n(φ − φ ) = u du cos m(φ − φ0 )

n=1

n n=1 0

Z x( X ∞

)

1 n 0

= u cos n(φ − φ ) du

0 u n=1

Z x

cos(φ − φ0 ) − u

= du

0 1 + u2 − 2u cos(φ − φ0 )

1 x

= − ln(1 − 2u cos(φ − φ0 ) + u2 )0

2

1

= − ln[1 − 2x cos(φ − φ0 ) + x2 ].

2

(I summed the infinite series here back in Problem 2.12. The integral in the

second-to-last step can be done by partial fraction decomposition, although I

cheated and looked it up on www.integrals.com). We can apply this result

individually to the two terms in (22):

1 + (ρρ0 /b2 )2 − 2(ρρ0 /b2 ) cos(φ − φ0 )

0 0 1

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) = − ln

4π 1 + (ρ< /ρ> )2 − 2(ρ< /ρ> ) cos(φ − φ0 )

2 4

ρ> b + ρ2 ρ02 − 2ρρ0 b2 cos(φ − φ0 )

1

= − ln

4π b4 ρ2> + ρ2< − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ0 )

2 4

ρ> b + ρ2 ρ02 − 2ρρ0 b2 cos(φ − φ0 )

1

= − ln

4π b4 ρ2> + ρ2< − 2ρ< ρ> cos(φ − φ0 )

2

1 ρ>

= − ln

4π b2

4

b + ρ2 ρ02 − 2ρρ0 b2 cos(φ − φ0 )

1

− ln 2 2 (23)

4π b (ρ + ρ02 − 2ρρ0 cos(φ − φ0 ))

This is Jackson’s result, with an additional ln term thrown in for good measure.

I’m not sure why Jackson didn’t quote this term as part of his answer; he did

include it in his answer to problem 2.17 (c). Did I do something wrong?

(b) Now we want to plug the expression for G above into (16) to compute

the potential within the cylinder. If there is no charge inside the cylinder, the

volume integral vanishes, and we are left with the surface integral:

∂G

Z

Φ(ρ, φ) = Φ(b, φ0 ) dA0 . (24)

∂ρ0 ρ0 =b

For this we need the normal derivative of (23) on the cylinder:

∂G 1 2ρ0 − 2ρ cos(φ − φ0 )

=− 4 2 2

− 2 .

∂ρ 0 4π b + ρ ρ − 2ρρ b cos(φ − φ ) ρ + ρ02 − 2ρρ0 cos(φ − φ0 )

02 0 0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 2 18

Evaluated at ρ0 = b this is

ρ2 − b 2

∂G 1

=− .

∂ρ0 ρ0 =b 2π b(ρ2 + b2 − 2ρb cos(φ − φ0 ))

In the surface integral, the extra factor of b on the bottom is cancelled by the

factor of b in the area element dA0 , and (24) becomes just the result of Problem

2.12.

(c) For the exterior problem we again start with the solution (21). Now the

boundary conditions are different; the condition at ∞ gives A2m = 0, while the

condition at b gives

m

ρ m b

A2m = γm ρm − .

b ρ

m m

ρ m b 1 ρ m b 1 1

−mγm − − mγm + =

b ρ ρ b ρ ρ ρ

or m

1 b

γm = − .

2m ρ

Putting it all together we have for the exterior problem

2 m m

1 b ρ<

gm = − .

2m ρρ0 ρ>

This is the same gm we came up with before, but with b2 and ρρ0 terms flipped

in first term. But the closed-form expression was symmetrical in those two

expressions (except for the mysterious ln term) so the closed-form expression

for the exterior Green’s function should be the same as the interior Green’s

function.

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

June 15, 2000

Problem 3.1

Two concentric spheres have radii a, b(b > a) and each is divided into two hemi-

spheres by the same horizontal plane. The upper hemisphere of the inner sphere

and the lower hemisphere of the outer sphere are maintained at potential V . The

other hemispheres are at zero potential.

Detemine the potential in the region a ≤ r ≤ b as a series in Legendre polynomials.

Include terms at least up to l = 4. Check your solution against known results in

the limiting cases b → ∞ and a → 0.

lems with azimuthal symmetry is

∞ h

X i

Φ(r, θ) = Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ). (1)

l=0

tiplying both sides by Pl0 (cos θ) and integrating from -1 to 1 gives

Z 1

2 h i

Φ(r, θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) .

−1 2l + 1

At r = a this yields

1

2 h

Z i

V Pl (x)dx = Al al + Bl a−(l+1) ,

0 2l + 1

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2

and at r = b,

0

2 h l

Z i

V Pl (x)dx = Al b + Bl b−(l+1) .

−1 2l + 1

The integral from 0 to 1 vanishes for l even, and is given in the text for l odd:

Z 1

1 (l − 2)!!

Pl (x)dx = (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 .

0 2 2 2 !

The integral from -1 to 0 also vanishes for l even, and is just the above result

inverted for l odd. This gives

1 (l − 2)!! 2 h i

V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 = Al al + Bl a−(l+1)

2 2 2 ! 2l + 1

1 (l − 2)!! 2 h l i

−V (− )(l−1)/2 l+1 = Al b + Bl b−(l+1) .

2 2 2 ! 2l + 1

or

αl = Al al + Bl a−(l+1)

−αl = Al bl + Bl b−(l+1)

with

1 (2l + 1)(l − 2)!!

αl = V (− )a(l−1)/2 .

4 l+1

2 2 !

The solution is

bl+1 + al+1 al+1 bl+1 (bl + al )

Al = α l Bl = −αl

a2l+1 − b2l+1 a2l+1 − b2l+1

The first few terms of (1) are

2

(a + b2 )r a2 b2 (a + b) 7 (a4 + b4 )r3 a4 b4 (a3 + b3 )

3

Φ(r, θ) = V − 2 3 P1 (cos θ)− − 4 7 P3 (cos θ)+· · ·

4 a3 − b 3 r (a − b3 ) 16 a7 − b 7 r (a − b7 )

In the limit as b → ∞, the problem reduces to the exterior problem treated

in Section 2.7 of the text. In that limit, the above expression becomes

3 a 2 7 a 4

Φ(r, θ) → V P1 (cos θ) − V P3 (cos θ) + · · ·

4 r 16 r

in agreement with (2.27) with half the potential spacing. When a → 0, the

problem goes over to the interior version of the same problem, as treated in

section 3.3 of the text. In that limit the above expression goes to

3 r 7 r 3

Φ(r, θ) → − V P1 (cos θ) + V P3 (cos θ) + · · ·

4 b 16 b

This agrees with equation (3.36) in the text, with the sign of V flipped, because

here the more positive potential is on the lower hemisphere.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3

Problem 3.2

A spherical surface of radius R has charge uniformly distributed over its surface

with a density Q/4πR2 , except for a spherical cap at the north pole, defined by the

cone θ = α.

(a) Show that the potential inside the spherical surface can be expressed as

∞

Q X 1 rl

Φ= [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ)

8π0 2l + 1 R

l=0

(b) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the origin.

(c) Discuss the limiting forms of the potential (part a) and electric field (part b) as

the spherical cap becomes (1)very small, and (2) so large that the area with

charge on it becomes a very small cap at the south pole.

(a) Let’s denote the charge density on the sphere by σ(θ). At a point infinites-

imally close to the surface of the sphere, the electric field is

σ

F = −∇Φ = − r̂

0

so

∂Φ σ

= . (2)

∂r r=R 0

The expression for the potential within the sphere must be finite at the origin,

so the Bl in (1) are zero. Differentiating that expansion, (2) becomes

∞

∂ X

Φ(r, θ) = lAl rl−1 Pl (cos θ)

∂r

l=1

1 1 2l

Z

σ(θ)Pl (cos θ)d(cos θ) = Al Rl−1

0 −1 2l + 1

so Z cos α

2l + 1 Q

Al = · Pl (x)dx.

2lRl−1 4πR2 0 −1

To evaluate the integral we use the identity (eq. 3.28 in the text)

1 d

Pl (x) = [Pl+1 (x) − Pl−1 (x)]

(2l + 1) dx

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4

so cos α

1

Z

Pl (x)dx = [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] .

−1 2l + 1

(We used the fact that Pl+1 (−1) = Pl−1 (−1) for all l.) With this we have

Q

Al = [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)]

8π0 lRl+1

so the potential expansion is

∞

Q X1 rl

Φ(r, θ) = [Pl+1 (cos α) − Pl−1 (cos α)] l+1 Pl (cos θ).

8π0 l R

l=1

Within the body of the sum, I have an l where Jackson has a 2l + 1. Also,

he includes the l = 0 term in the sum, corresponding to a constant term in

the potential. I don’t understand how he can determine that constant from the

information contained in the problem; the information about the charge density

only tells you the derivative of the potential. There’s nothing in this problem

that fixes the value of the potential on the surface beyond an arbitrary constant.

(b) The field at the origin comes from the l = 1 term in the potential:

∂Φ 1 ∂Φ

E(r = 0) = −∇Φ|r=0 = − r̂ + θ̂

∂r r ∂θ r=0

Q d

= − [P 2 (cos α) − 1] P 1 (cos θ)r̂ + P 1 (cos θ) θ̂

8π0 R2 dθ

h

Q 3 3 i

= − 2

cos2 α − cos θr̂ − sin θ θ̂

8π0 R 2 2

3Q sin2 α

= k̂.

16π0 R2

The field points in the positive z direction. That makes sense, since a positive

test charge at the origin would sooner fly up out through the uncharged cap

than through any of the charged surface.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5

Problem 3.3

with its center at the origin, and is maintained at a fixed potential V . With the

information that the charge density on a disc at fixed potential is proportional to

(R2 − ρ2 )−1/2 , where ρ is the distance out from the center of the disc,

!

R 2l

∞

2V R X (−1)l

Φ(r, θ, φ) = P2l (cos θ)

π r 2l + 1 r

l=0

(c) What is the capacitance of the disk?

We are told that the surface charge density on the disk goes like

σ(r) = K(R2 − r2 )−1/2

K 1 r 2 3 · 1 r 4 5 · 3 · 1 r 6

= 1+ + + +···

R 2 R (2!)(2 · 2) R (3!)(2 · 2 · 2) R

∞

K X (2n − 1)!! r 2n

= (3)

R n=0 n! · 2n R

for some constant K. From the way the problem is worded, I take it we’re

not supposed to try to figure out what K is explicitly, but rather to work the

problem knowing only the form of (3).

At a point infinitesimally close to the surface of the disk (i.e., as θ → π/2),

the component of ∇Φ in the direction normal to the surface of the disk must

be proportional to the surface charge. At the surface of the disk, the normal

direction is the negative θ̂ direction. Hence

1 ∂ σ

Φ(r, θ) =± . (4)

r ∂θ θ=(π/2) 0

with the plus (minus) sign valid for Φ above (below) the disc.

For r < R the potential expansion is

∞

X

Φ(r, θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ). (5)

l=0

∞ ∞

X d K X (2n − 1)!! r 2n

Al rl−1

Pl (cos θ) =± . (6)

dθ cos θ=0 R0 n=0 n! · 2n R

l=0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6

For l even, dPl /dx vanishes at x = 0. For l odd, I used some of the Legendre

polynomial identities to derive the formula

d (2l − 1)!!

= (−1)l (2l + 1)

P2l+1 (x) .

dx x=0 l! · 2l

This formula reminds one strongly of expansion (3). Plugging into (6) and

equating coefficents of powers of r, we find

(−1)l K

A2l+1 = ±

(2l + 1)R2l+1 0

so

∞

K X (−1)l r 2l+1

Φ(r, θ) = A0 ± P2l+1 (cos θ).

0 2l + 1 R

l=1

I wrote A0 explicitly because we haven’t evaluated it yet–the derivative condition

we used earlier gave no information about it. To find A0 , observe that, on the

surface of the disk (cos θ = 0), all the terms in the above sum vanish ( because

Pl (0) is 0 for odd l) so Φ = A0 on the disk. But Φ = V on the disk. Therefore,

A0 = V . We have

∞

K X (−1)l r 2l+1

Φ(r, θ) = V ± P2l+1 (cos θ) (7)

0 2l + 1 R

l=1

where the plus (minus) sign is good for θ less than (greater than)π/2. Note that

the presence of that ± sign preserves symmetry under reflection through the z

axis, a symmetry that is clearly present in the physical problem.

(a) For r > R, there is no charge. Thus the potential and its derivative must be

continuous everywhere–we can’t have anything like the derivative discontinuity

that exists at θ = π/2 for r < R. Since the physical problem is symmetric under

a sign flip in cos θ, the potential expansion can only contain Pl terms for l even.

The expansion is

∞

X

Φ(r, θ) = B2l r−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

l=0

At r = R, this must match up with (7):

∞ ∞

K X (−1)l X

V ± P2l+1 (cos θ) = B2l R−(2l+1) P2l (cos θ).

0 2l + 1

l=1 l=0

Z 1 ∞ Z 0 Z 1

K X (−1)l

2R−(2l+1)

B2l = V Pl (x)dx + − P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx + P2l+1 (x)Pl (x)dx

4l + 1 −1 0 2l + 1 −1 0

l=1

2K X (−1)l 1

∞ Z

= 2V δl,0 + P2l+1 (x)P2l (x)dx.

0 2l + 1 0

l=1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7

Problem 3.4

The surface of a hollow conducting sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even

number of equal segments by a set of planes; their common line of intersection is

the z axis and they are distributed uniformly in the angle φ. (The segments are like

the skin on wedges of an apple, or the earth’s surface between successive meridians

of longitude.) The segments are kept at fixed potentials ±V , alternately.

(a) Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the general

case of 2n segments, and carry the calculation of the coefficients in the series

far enough to determine exactly which coefficients are different from zero. For

the nonvanishing terms exhibit the coefficients as an integral over cos θ.

(b) For the special case of n = 1 (two hemispheres) determine explicitly the poten-

tial up to and including all terms with l = 3. By a coordinate transformation

verify that this reduces to result (3.36) of Section 3.3.

X l

∞ X h i

Φ(r, θ, φ) = Alm rl + Blm r−(l+1) Ylm (θ, φ). (8)

l=0 m=−l

For the solution within the sphere, finiteness at the origin requires Blm = 0.

∗

Multiplying by Yl0m0 and integrating over the surface of the sphere we find

1

Z

∗

Alm = Φ(a, θ, φ) Ylm (θ, φ) dΩ

al

n π 2kπ/n

V X

Z Z

k ∗

= (−1) Ylm (θ, φ) sin θ dφ dθ

al 0 2(k−1)π/n

k=1

n

1/2 Z 1 (Z )

X 2kπ/n

V 2l + 1 (l − m)! m k −imφ

= Pl (x) dx (−1) e dφ .

al 4π (l + m)! −1 2(k−1)π/n

k=1

(9)

The φ integral is easy:

Z 2kπ/n

1 h −2imkπ/n i

e−imφ dφ = − e − e−2im(k−1)π/n .

2(k−1)π/n im

This is to be summed from k = 1 to n with a factor of (−1)k thrown in:

X 1 h −2mπi(1/n) i

= − (e − 1) − (e−2mπi(2/n) − e−2mπi(1/n) ) + · · · − (1 − e−2mπi((n−1)/n) )

im

2 n o

= 1 − e−2mπi/n + e2(−2mπi/n) − e3(−2mπi/n) + · · · + e(n−1)(−2mπi/n) . (10)

im

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8

1 − xn 1 − e−2mπi

1 + x + x2 + x3 + · · · + xn−1 = = ,

1−x 1 + e−2imπ/n

Note that the numerator vanishes. Thus the only way this thing can be nonzero

is if the denominator also vanishes, which only happens if the exponent in the

denominator equates to -1. This only happens if m/n = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, · · · . In

that case, the 2mπi/n term in the exponent of the terms in (10) equates to πi,

so all the terms with a plus sign in (10) come out to +1, while all the terms

with a minus sign come out to -1, so all n terms add constructively, and (10)

equates to (

2n

X , m = n/2, 3n/2, 5n/2, · · ·

= im

0, otherwise.

Then the expression (9) for the coefficients becomes

1/2 Z 1

2nV 2l + 1 (l − m)! n 3n

Alm = Plm (x)dx, m= , , · · · = 0, otherwise.

imal 4π (l + m)! −1 2 2

(b) As shown above, the only terms that contribute are those with m = n/2,

m = 3n/2, et cetera. Of course there is also the constraint that m < l. Then,

with n = 2, up to l = 3 the only nonzero terms in the series (9) are those with

l = 1, m = ±1, and l = 3, m = ±1 or ±3. We need to evaluate the θ integral

for these terms. We have

Z 1 Z 1

1

P1 (x) dx = − (1 − x2 )1/2 dx = −π

−1 −1

1 1

15 2 3 3π

Z Z

P31 (x) dx = − (1 − x2 )1/2 x − dx = −

−1 −1 2 2 8

1 1

15π

Z Z

P33 (x) dx = −15 (1 − x2 )3/2 dx = − .

−1 −1 4

1/2

4πV i 3

A1±1 = ±

a 4π · 2

1/2

3πV i 7 · 2

A3±1 = ±

2a3 4π · 4!

1/2

5πV i 7

A3±3 = ± 3

a 4π · 6!

Now we can plug these coefficients into (8) to piece together the solution.

This involves some arithmetic in combining all the numerical factors in each

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9

h r 7 r 3

Φ(r, θ, φ) = V 3 sin θ sin φ + sin θ(5 cos2 θ − 1) sin φ

a 16 a

7 r 3 3

+ sin θ sin 3φ + · · ·

144 a

Problem 3.6

Two point charges q and −q are located on the z azis at z = +a and z = −a,

respectively.

(a) Find the electrostatic potential as an expansion in spherical harmonics and

powers of r for both r > a and r < a.

(b) Keeping the product qa = p/2 constant, take the limit of a → 0 and find the

potential for r 6= 0. This is by definition a dipole along the z azis and its

potential.

(c) Suppose now that the dipole of part b is surrounded by a grounded spherical

shell of radius b concentric with the origin. By linear superposition find the

potential everwhere inside the shell.

q 1 1

Φ(z) = −

4π0 |z − a| z + a

a a 2 a a 2

q

= 1+ + +··· − 1− + ···

4π0 z z z z z

q a a 3

= + +···

2π0 z z z

P

for z > a. Comparing this with the general expansion Φ = Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ)

at θ = 0 we can identify the Bl s and write

q a a 3

Φ(r, θ) = P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · ·

2π0 r r r

for r > a. For r < a we can just swap a and r in this equation.

(b)

a 2

qa

Φ(r, θ) = P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · ·

2π0 r2 r

a 2

p

= P1 (cos θ) + P3 (cos θ) + · · ·

4π0 r2 r

p

→ cos θ as a → 0.

4π0 r2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10

(c) When we put the grounded sphere around the two charges, a surface charge

distribution forms on the sphere. Let’s denote by Φs the potential due to this

charge distribution alone (not including the potential of the dipole) and by Φd

the potential due to the dipole. To calculate Φs , we pretend there are no charges

within the sphere, in which case we have the general expansion (1), with Bl = 0

to keep us finite at the origin. The total potential is just the sum Φs + Φd :

∞

p X

Φ(r, θ) = 2

cos θ + Al rl Pl (cos θ).

4π0 r

l=0

that only the l = 1 term in the sum contribute, and that

p

A1 = − .

4π0 b3

The total potential inside the sphere is then

p r

Φ(r, θ) = 1 − P1 (cos θ).

4π0 b2 b

Problem 3.7

Three point charges (q, −2q, q) are located in a straight line with separation a and

with the middle charge (−2q) at the origin of a grounded conducting spherical shell

of radius b, as indicated in the figure.

(a) Write down the potential of the three charges in the absence of the grounded

sphere. Find the limiting form of the potential as a → 0, but the product

qa2 = Q remains finite. Write this latter answer in spherical coordinates.

(b) The presence of the grounded sphere of radius b alters the potential for r < b.

The added potential can be viewed as caused by the surface-charge density

induced on the inner surface at r = b or by image charges located at r > b. Use

linear superposition to satisfy the boundary conditions and find the potential

everywhere inside the sphere for r < a and r > a. Show that in the limit

a → 0,

r5

Q

Φ(r, θ, φ) → 1 − 5 P2 (cos θ).

2π0 r3 b

q 2 1 1

Φ(z) = − + +

4π0 z |z − a| z + a

a a 2 a a 2

q

= −2 + 1 + + ··· + 1− + +···

4π0 r z z z z

q a 2 a 4

= + +··· .

2π0 z z z

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11

As before, from this result we can immediately infer the expression for the

potential at all points:

q a 2 a 4

Φ(r, θ) = P2 (cos θ) + P4 (cos θ) + · · ·

2π0 r r r

2

qa a 2

= P 2 (cos θ) + P 4 (cos θ) + · · ·

2π0 r3 r

Q

→ P2 (cos θ) as a → 0 (11)

2π0 r3

(b) As in the previous problem, the surface charges on the sphere produce an

extra contribution Φs to the potential within the sphere. Again we can express

Φs with the expansion (1) (with Bl = 0), and we add Φs to (11) to get the full

potential within the sphere:

∞

Q X

Φ(r, θ) = 3

P2 (cos θ) + Al rl Pl (cos θ)

2π0 r

l=0

term in the sum contributes, and that

Q

A2 = − .

2π0 b5

Then the potential within the sphere is

r 5

Q

Φ(r, θ) = 1 − P2 (cos θ).

2π0 r3 b

Problem 3.9

A hollow right circular cylinder of radius b has its axis coincident with the z axis

and its ends at z = 0 and z = L. The potential on the end faces is zero, while the

potential on the cylindrical surface is given as V (φ, z). Using the appropriate sepa-

ration of variables in cylindrical coordinates, find a series solution for the potential

anywhere inside the cylinder.

The general solution of the Laplace equation for problems in cylindrical coordi-

nates consists of a sum of terms of the form

R(ρ)Q(φ)Z(z).

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12

Z(z) = Cekz + De−kz .

In this case, Z must vanish at z = 0 and z = L, which means we have to take

k imaginary, i.e.

πn

Z(z) = C sin(kn z) with kn = , n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·

L

With this form for Z, R must be taken to be of the form

R(ρ) = EIν (kn ρ) + F Kν (kn ρ).

Since we’re looking for the potential on the inside of the cylinder and there is

no charge at the origin, the solution must be finite as ρ → 0, which requires

F = 0. Then the potential expansion becomes

∞ X

X ∞

Φ(ρ, φ, z) = [Anν sin νφ + Bnν cos νφ] sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ). (12)

n=1 ν=0

Z L Z 2π

πL

V (φ, z) sin νφ sin(kn z) dφ dz = Iν (kn b)Anν

0 0 2

so Z L Z 2π

2

Anν = V (φ, z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. (13)

πLIν (kn b) 0 0

Similarly,

Z L Z 2π

2

Bnν = V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz. (14)

πLIν (kn b) 0 0

Problem 3.10

For the cylinder in Problem 3.9 the cylindrical surface is made of two equal half-

cylinders, one at potential V and the other at potential −V , so that

V for −π/2 < φ < π/2

V (φ, z) =

−V for π/2 < φ < 3π/2

(b) Assuming L >> b, consider the potential at z = L/2 as a function of ρ and φ

and compare it with two-dimensional Problem 2.13.

The potential expansion is (12) with coefficients given by (13) and (14). The

relevant integrals are

Z L Z 2π

V (φ, z) sin(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

0 0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13

(Z ) (Z )

L π/2 Z 3π/2

= V sin(kn z) dz sin(νφ) dφ − sin(νφ) dφ

0 −π/2 π/2

= 0

Z L Z 2π

V (φ, z) cos(νφ) sin(kn z) dφ dz

0 0

(Z ) (Z )

L π/2 Z 3π/2

= V sin(kn z) dz cos(νφ) dφ − cos(νφ) dφ

0 −π/2 π/2

2V n π/2 3π/2

o

= |sin νφ|−π/2 − |sin νφ|π/2 (n odd)

νkn

0 , n or ν even

= 8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 1, 5, 9, · · ·

−8V /kn ν , n odd, ν = 3, 7, 11, · · ·

Anν = 0

Bnν = 0, n or ν even

= (−1)(ν−1)/2 · 16V /(nνπ 2 Iν (kn b)), n and ν odd

The potential expansion is

16V X (−1)(ν−1)/2

Φ(ρ, θ, z) = cos(νφ) sin(kn z)Iν (kn ρ) (15)

π 2 n,ν nνIv (kn b)

(b) At z = L/2 we have

16V X (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 Iν (kn ρ)

Φ(ρ, θ, L/2) = 2

cos(νφ) .

π n,ν nν Iν (kn b)

form for Iν quoted in the text as equation (3.102), we have

16V X (−1)(n+ν−2)/2 ρ ν

Φ(ρ, θ) = cos(νφ) .

π 2 n,ν nν b

(∞ )( ∞ )

16V X (−1)n X (−1)ν ρ ν

Φ(ρ, θ) = cos(νφ)

π2 n=0

2n + 1 ν=0

2ν + 1 b

(∞ )

16V n π o X (−1)ν ρ ν

= 2

cos(νφ)

π 4 ν=0

2ν + 1 b

4V 2ρb cos φ

= tan−1

π b2 − ρ 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14

This agrees with the result of Problem 2.13, with V1 = −V2 = V . The first

series is just the Taylor series for tan−1 (x) at x = 1, so it sums to π/4. The

second series can also be put into the form of the Taylor series for tan−1 (x),

using tricks exactly analogous to what I did in my solution for Problem 2.13.

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

June 15, 2000

Problem 3.11

f (ρ) can be based on the ”homogenous” boundary conditions:

d

At ρ = 0, ρJν (kρ) Jν (k 0 ρ) = 0

dρ

d λ

At ρ = a, ln[Jν (kρ)] = − (λ real)

dρ a

The first condition restricts ν. The second condition yields eigenvalues k = yνn /a,

where yνn is the nth positive root of x dJν (x)/dx + λJν (x) = 0.

(a) Show that the Bessel functions of different eigenvalues are orthogonal in the

usual way.

(b) Find the normalization integral and show that an arbitrary function f (ρ) can

be expanded on the interval in the modified Bessel-Fourier series

∞ y

νn

X

f (ρ) = A n Jν

n=1

a

" 2 #−1 Z a

ν2

2 dJν (yνn ) y ρ

νn

An = 2 1− 2 Jν2 (yνn ) + f (ρ)ρJν dρ.

a yνn dyνn 0 a

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2

ν2

1 d d 2

ρ Jν (kρ) + k − 2 Jν (kρ) = 0. (1)

ρ dρ dρ ρ

Z a

ν2

0 d d 2 0

Jν (k ρ) ρ Jν (kρ) + k ρ − Jν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0. (2)

0 dρ dρ ρ

Z a

0 d d

Jν (k ρ) ρ Jν (kρ) dρ

0 dρ dρ

a Z a

d d d

= ρJν (k 0 ρ) Jν (kρ) − ρ Jν (k 0 ρ) Jν (kρ) dρ. (3)

dρ 0 0 dρ dρ

One of the conditions we’re given is that the thing in braces in the first term

here vanishes at ρ = 0. At ρ = a we can invoke the other condition:

d 1 d λ

ln[Jν (kρ)] = Jν (kρ) =−

dρ ρ=a Jν (kρ) dρ ρ=a a

d

→ a Jν (ka) = −λJν (ka).

dρ

Z a

d d

Jν (k 0 ρ) ρ Jν (kρ) dρ

0 dρ dρ

Z a

0 d 0 d

= −λJν (k ρ)Jν (kρ) − ρ Jν (k ρ) Jν (kρ) . (4)

0 dρ dρ

This is clearly symmetric in k and k 0 , so when we write down (2) with k and

k 0 switched and subtract from (2), the first integral (along with the ν 2 /ρ term)

vanishes, and we are left with

Z a

02 2

(k − k ) ρJν (k 0 ρ)Jν (kρ) dρ = 0

0

proving orthogonality.

(b) If we multiply (1) by ρ2 J 0 (kρ) and integrate, we find

Z a Z a Z a

0 d 0 2 2 0 2

ρJν (kρ) [ρJν (kρ)]dρ+k ρ Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ−ν Jν (kρ)Jν0 (kρ)dρ = 0.

0 dρ 0 0

(5)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3

R

The first and third integrals are of the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx and can be done

immediately. In the second integral we put f (ρ) = ρ2 Jν (kρ), g 0 (ρ) = Jν0 (kρ)

and integrate by parts:

Z a Z a Z a

2

2 2 a 2

0

ρ Jν (kρ)Jν (kρ)dρ = ρ Jν (kρ) 0 − 2

ρJν (kρ)dρ − ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν0 (kρ)dρ

0 0 0

a a

1 2 2

Z Z

→ ρ2 Jν (kρ)Jν0 (kρ)dρ = a Jν (ka) − ρJν2 (kρ)dρ.

0 2 0

Using this in (5),

a

a2 02 (ak)2 2 ν2 2

Z

Jν (ka) + aJν (ka) − k 2 ρJν2 (kρ)dρ − J (ka) = 0

2 2 0 2 ν

so

a

a2 ν2 a2 02

Z

ρJν2 (kρ)dρ = − 2 Jν2 (ka) +

J (ka)

0 2 2k 2k 2 ν

( 2 )

a2 ν2

2 d

= 1− Jν (ka) + Jν (ka)

2 (ka)2 d(ka)

This agrees with what Jackson has if you note that k is chosen such that ka =

ynm .

Problem 3.12

An infinite, thin, plane sheet of conducting material has a circular hole of radius a

cut in it. A thin, flat, disc of the same material and slightly smaller radius lies in

the plane, filling the hole, but separated from the sheet by a very narrow insulating

ring. The disc is maintained at a fixed potential V , whilc the infinite sheet is kept

at zero potential.

Bessel functions for the potential at any point above the plane.

(b) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the center of the disc

is

z

Φ0 (z) = V 1 − √

a2 + z 2

(c) Show that the potential a perpendicular distance z above the edge of the disc

is

V kz

Φa (z) = 1− K(k)

2 πa

where k = 2a/(z 2 + 4a2 )1/2 , and K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the

first kind.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4

this problem there is no φ dependence, so Q = 1. Also, the boundary conditions

on Z are that it vanish at ∞ and be finite at 0, whence Z(z) ∝ exp(−kz) for

any k. Then the potential expansion becomes

Z ∞

Φ(ρ, z) = A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ) dk. (6)

0

To evaluate the coefficients A(k), we multiply both sides by ρJ0 (k 0 ρ) and inte-

grate over ρ at z = 0:

Z ∞ Z ∞ Z ∞

ρΦ(ρ, 0)J0 (k 0 ρ) dρ = A(k) ρJ0 (kρ)J0 (k 0 ρ) dρ dk

0 0 0

A(k 0 )

=

k0

so

Z ∞

A(k) = k ρΦ(ρ, 0)J0 (kρ) dρ

0

Z a

= kV ρJ0 (kρ)dρ.

0

Z ∞ Z a

Φ(ρ, z) = V kρ0 e−kz J0 (kρ)J0 (kρ0 ) dρ0 dk. (7)

0 0

The ρ0 integral can be done right away. To do it, I appealed to the differential

equation for J0 :

1

J000 (u) + J00 (u) + J0 (u) = 0

u

so

Z x Z x Z x

uJ0 (u) du = − uJ000 du − J00 (u) du

0 0 0

Z x Z x

0 x 0

= − |uJ0 (u)|0 + J0 (u) du − J00 (u) du

0 0

x

= − |uJ00 (u)|0 = −xJ00 (x) = xJ1 (x).

(In going from the first to second line, I integrated by parts.) Then (7) becomes

Z ∞

Φ(ρ, z) = aV J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk. (8)

0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5

Z a Z ∞

0 −kz

Φ(0, z) = V J0 (0) ρ ke J0 (kρ )dk dρ0

0

0 0

Z a Z ∞

0 ∂ −kz

= V ρ − e J0 (kρ )dk dρ0

0

0 ∂z 0

Z a ( !)

∂ 1

= V ρ0 − p dρ0

0 ∂z ρ02 + z 2

Z a

zρ0

= V 2 )3/2

dρ0

0 (ρ 02 + z

Here we substitute u = ρ02 + z 2 , du = 2ρ0 dρ:

Z 2 2

V zJ0 (0) a +z −3/2

Φ(0, z) = u du

2 z2

2 2

1 a +z

= −V z 1/2

u z2

1 1

= Vz −√

z z2 + z2

z

= V 1− √

a2 + z 2

Z ∞

Φ(a, z) = aV J1 (ka)J0 (ka)e−kz dk

0

Problem 3.13

Solve for the potential in Problem 3.1, using the appropriate Green

function obtained in the text, and verify that the answer obtained

in this way agrees with the direct solution from the differential

equation.

0

1 0 ∂G(x; x )

Z I

0 0 0 0

Φ(x) = − G(x; x )ρ(x ) dV + Φ(x ) 0 dA . (9)

0 V S ∂n x

Here there is no charge in the region of interest, so only the surface integral

contributes. The Green’s function for the two-sphere problem is

l

∞ X ∗

X Ylm (θ0 , φ0 ) Ylm (θ, φ)

G(x; x0 ) = − Rl (r; r0 ) (10)

2l + 1

l=0 m=−l

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 6

with

l

a2l+1

0 1 l 1 r>

Rl (r; r ) = 2l+1 r< − l+1 l+1

− . (11)

1− a r< r> b2l+1

b

Actually in this case the potential cannot have any Φ dependence, so all terms

with m 6= 0 in (10) vanish, and we have

∞

1 X

G(x; x0 ) = − Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ0 )Rl (r; r0 ).

4π

l=0

In this case the boundary surfaces are spherical, which means the normal to a

surface element is always in the radial direction:

∞

∂ 0 1 X ∂

G(x; x ) = − Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos θ0 ) Rl (r; r0 ).

∂n 4π ∂n

l=0

The surface integral in (9) has two parts: one integral S1 over the surface of

the inner sphere, and a second integral S2 over the surface of the outer sphere:

∞ Z π Z 2π

1 X ∂Rl 0 0 2 0 0

S1 = − Pl (cos θ) Φ(a, θ )Pl (cos θ )a sin θ dφ dθ

4π ∂n r0 =a 0 0

l=0

∞ Z 1

V X 2 ∂Rl

= − a Pl (cos θ) P l (x) dx

2 ∂n r0 =a 0

l=0

∞

V X 2 ∂Rl

= − a γl Pl (cos θ) ·

2 ∂n r0 =a

l=0

where

Z 1

γl = Pl (x) dx

0

1 (l − 2)!!

= (− )(l−1)/2 , l odd

2 2[(l + 1)/2]!

= 0, l even.

∞ Z 0

V X 2 ∂Rl

S2 = − b Pl (cos θ) P l (x) dx

2 ∂n r0 =b −1

l=0

∞

V X 2 ∂Rl

= b γl Pl (cos θ)

2 ∂n r0 =b

l=0

because Pl is odd for l odd, so its integral from -1 to 0 is just the negative of

the integral from 0 to 1. The final potential is the sum of S1 and S2 :

0

∞

02 ∂Rl r =b

V X

Φ(r, θ) = γl Pl (cos θ) r (12)

2 ∂n r0 =a

l=0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 7

Since the point of interest is always between the two spheres, to find the

normal derivative at r = a we differentiate with respect to r< , and at r = b

with respect to r> . Also, at r = a the normal is in the +r direction, while at

r = b the normal is in the negative r direction.

al−1 rl

2 ∂ 2 1

0

a Rl (r; r ) = (2l + 1)a 2l+1 − 2l+1

∂n r 0 =a 1 − ab rl+1 b

a2l+1

2 ∂

0 2 b−(l+2) l

b Rl (r; r ) = (2l + 1)b 2l+1 r − l+1

∂n r 0 =b 1 − ab r

∞

(ab)l+1 (bl + al )r−(l+1) − (al+1 + bl+1 )rl

V X

Φ(r, θ) = (2l + 1)γl Pl (cos θ)

2 b2l+1 − a2l+1

l=0

Problem 3.14

A line charge of length 2d with a total charge Q has a linear charge

density varying as (d2 − z 2 ), where z is the distance from the mid-

point. A grounded, conducting spherical shell of inner radius b > d

is centered at the midpoint of the line charge.

expansion in Legendre polynomials.

(b) Calculate the surface-charge density induced on the shell.

(c) Discuss your answers to parts a and b in the limit that d << b.

First of all, we are told that the charge density ρ(z) = λ(d2 − z 2 ), and that

the total charge is Q, whence

d

4 3

Z

Q = 2λ (d2 − z 2 )dz = d λ

0 3

3Q

→ . λ=

4d3

In this case we have azimuthal symmetry, so the Green’s function is

∞

1 X

G(x; x0 ) = − Pl (cos θ0 )Pl (cos θ)Rl (r; r0 ) (13)

4π

l=0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 8

with

l

0 l 1 r>

Rl (r; r ) = r< l+1

− .

r> b2l+1

Since the potential vanishes on the boundary surface, the potential inside the

sphere is given by

1

Z

Φ(r, θ) = − G(r, θ; r0 , θ0 )ρ(r0 , θ0 )dV.

0 V

In this case ρ is only nonzero on the z axis, where r = z. Also, Pl (cos θ)=1 for

z > 0, and (−1)l for z < 0. This means that the contributions to the integral

from the portions of the line charge for z > 0 and z < 0 cancel out for odd l,

and add constructively for even l:

∞

" Z #

d

1 X

Φ(r, θ) = Pl (cos θ) 2 Rl (r; z)ρ(z) dz

4π0 0

l=0,2,4,...

We have

d d l

r>

1

Z Z

l

Rl (r; z)ρ(z) dz = λ r< l+1

− (d2 − z 2 ) dz

0 0 r> b2l+1

d l d

r< λ

Z Z

=λ l+1

(d2 − z 2 ) dz − 2l+1 l l

r< r> (d2 − z 2 ) dz

0 r> b 0

directly:

d Z d

λ λrl

Z

l l

− r< r> (d2 − z ) dz2

= − 2l+1 z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz

b2l+1 0 b 0

λrl dl+3 dl+3

= − 2l+1 −

b l+1 l+3

λrl dl+3

= − (14)

(l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1

d l

r<

Z

λ l+1

(d2 − z 2 ) dz

0 r>

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 9

( )

r d

1 d2 − z 2

Z Z

= λ z l (d2 − z 2 ) dz + rl dz

rl+1 0 r z l+1

( 2 l+1 l+3

2 d )

1 d r r l d

1

= λ l+1

− + r − l + l−2

r l+1 l+3 lz (l − 2)z r

2

r2 d2 r2

r l

d 2 2

= λ − + d − +

l+1 l+3 d l(l + 2) l l+2

r2 d2

r l

2 2

= λ − + d

(l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2)

d

r2 d2 rl dl+3

r l

2

Z

Rl (r; z)ρ(z) dz = λ − + d2 −

0 (l + 2)(l + 3) l(l + 1) d l(l + 2) (l + 1)(l + 3)b2l+1

(15)

But something is wrong here, because with this result the final potential will

contain terms like r 0 Pl (cos θ) and r2 Pl (cos θ), which do not satisfy the Laplace

equation.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 10

Problem 3.15

Consider the following “spherical cow” model of a battery con-

nected to an external circuit. A sphere of radius a and conductiv-

ity σ is embedded in a uniform medium of conductivity σ 0 . Inside

the sphere there is a uniform (chemical) force in the z direction

acting on the charge carriers; its strength as an effective electric

field entering Ohm’s law is F . In the steady state, electric fields

exist inside and outside the sphere and surface charge resides on

its surface.

(a) Find the electric field (in addition to F ) and current density

everywhere in space. Determine the surface-charge density

and show that the electric dipole moment of the sphere is

p = 4π0 σa3 F/(σ + 2σ 0 ).

(b) Show that the total current flowing out through the upper

hemisphere of the sphere is

2σσ 0

I= · πa2 F

σ + 2σ 0

Calculate the total power dissipation outside the sphere. Us-

ing the lumped circuit relations, P = I 2 Re = IVe , find the

effective external resistance Re and voltage Ve .

(c) Find the power dissipated within the sphere and deduce the

effective internal resistance Ri and voltage Vi .

(d) Define the total voltage through the relation Vt = (Re + Ri )I

and show that Vt = 4aF/3, as well as Ve + Vi = Vt . Show

that IVt is the power supplied by the “chemical” force.

(a) What’s going on in this problem is that the conductivity has a discontinu-

ity going across the boundary of the sphere, but the current density must be

constant there, which means there must an electric field discontinuity in inverse

proportion to the conductivity discontinuity. To create this electric field discon-

tinuity, there has to be some surface charge on the sphere, and this charge gives

rise to extra fields both inside and outside the sphere.

Since there is no charge inside or outside the sphere, the potential in those

two regions satisfied the Laplace equation, and may be expanded in Legendre

polynomials:

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 11

∞

X

for r < a, Φ(r, θ) = Φin (r, θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ)

l=0

X∞

for r > a, Φ(r, θ) = Φout (r, θ) = Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ)

l=0

Al al = Bl a−l+1 → Bl = a2l+1 Al

so

Al rl Pl (cos θ),

( P∞

Φin (r, θ) = l=0 r<a

Φ(r, θ) = (16)

2l+1 −(l+1)

P∞

Φout (r, θ) = l=0 Al a r Pl (cos θ), r > a.

Now, in the steady state there can be no discontinuities in the current den-

sity, because if there were than there would be more current flowing into some

region of space than out of it, which means charge would pile up in that region,

which would be a growing source of electric field, which would mean we aren’t

in steady state. So the current density is continuous everywhere. In particular,

the radial component of the current density is continuous across the boundary

of the sphere, i.e.

Jr (r = a− , θ) = Jr (r = a+ , θ). (17)

Outside of the sphere, Ohm’s law says that

J = σ 0 E = −σ 0 ∇Φout .

Inside the sphere, there is an extra term coming from the chemical force:

∂ 0 ∂

σ − Φin + F cos θ = −σ Φout

∂r r=a ∂r r=a

∞ ∞

X

X σ0

F P1 (cos θ) − lAl al−1 Pl (cos θ) = (l + 1)Al al−1 Pl (cos θ).

σ

l=0 l=0

0

σ

F − A1 = 2A1 (18)

σ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 12

σ0

−lAl = (l + 1)Al (19)

σ

(20)

for l 6= 1. Since the conductivity ratio is positive, the second relation is impos-

sible to satisfy unless Al = 0 for l 6= 1. The first relation becomes

σ

A1 = F.

σ + 2σ 0

Then the potential is

σ

(

σ+2σ 0 F r cos θ, r<a

Φ(r, θ) = (21)

σ 3 −2

σ+2σ 0 F a r cos θ, r>a

The dipole moment p is defined by

1 p·r

Φ(r, θ) → as r → ∞. (22)

4π0 r3

The external portion of (21) can be written as

σ F a3 z

Φ(r, θ) =

σ + 2σ 0 r3

and comparing this with (22) we can read off

σ

p = 4π0 F a3 k̂.

σ + 2σ 0

The electric field is found by taking the gradient of (21):

σ

(

− σ+2σ 0 F k̂, r<a

E(r, θ) = 3

σ a

σ+2σ 0 F r (2 cos θr̂ + sin θ θ̂), r > a

The surface charge σs (θ) on the sphere is proportional to the discontinuity

in the electric field:

σs (θ) = 0 [Er (r = a+ ) − Er (r = a− )]

30 σ

= F cos θ.

σ + 2σ 0

Z Z

J · dA = σ (Ein + F k̂) · dA

Z π/2 Z 2π

σ

=σ 1− F cos θ sin θ a2 dφ dθ

σ + 2σ 0 0 0

σσ 0 2

=2 · πa F (23)

σ + 2σ 0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 13

dP = σE 2 dV (24)

To see this, suppose we have a rectangular volume element with sides dx, dy,

and dz. Consider first the current flowing in the x direction. The current density

there is σEx and the cross-sectional area is dydz, so I = σEx dydz. Also, the

voltage drop in the direction of current flow is V = Ex dx. Hence the power

dissipation due to current in the x direction is IV = σEx2 dV . Adding in the

contributions from the other two directions gives (24).

For the power dissipated outside the sphere we use the expression for the

electric field we found earlier:

Z ∞ Z π Z 2π

Pout = σ 0 E 2 (r, θ, φ)r2 sin θ dφ dθ dr

a 0 0

2 Z ∞Z π

σ 1

= 2πσ 0 2 6

F a 4

(4 cos2 θ + sin2 θ) sin θ dθ dr

σ + 2σ 0 a 0 r

2

8π 0 σ

= σ F 2 a3

3 σ + 2σ 0

4 σ

Ve = Pout /I = aF ·

3 σ + 2σ 0

and the effective external resistance:

2

Re = Pout /I 2 = .

3πaσ 0

0

4σσ 2

Z Z

Pin = σ (E + F k̂)2 dV = F2 dV

(σ + 2σ 0 )2

0

16σσ 2

= πa3 F 2

3(σ + 2σ 0 )2

Since we’re in steady state, the current flowing out through the upper hemi-

sphere of the sphere must be replenished by an equal current flowing in through

the lower half of the sphere, so to find the internal voltage and resistance we

can just divide by (23):

8 σ0

Vi = Pin /I = aF

3 σ + 2σ 0

4

Ri = Pin /I 2 = .

3πaσ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 14

(c)

2 1 2 2σσ 0 4

(Re + Ri )I = + · πa2 F = aF

3πa σ0 σ σ + 2σ 0 3

4aF 4

(Vi + Ve ) = σ + 2σ 0 = aF

3(σ + 2σ 0 ) 3

Problem 3.17

The Dirichlet Green function for the unbounded space between the planes at z = 0

and z = L allows discussion of a point charge or a distribution of charge between

parallel conducting planes held at zero potential.

(a) Using cylindrical coordinates show that one form of the Green function is

1

G(x, x0 ) = − ×

πL

∞ ∞

X X

im(φ−φ0 )

nπz nπz 0 nπρ0

<

nπρ

>

e sin sin Im Km .

n=1 m=−∞

L L L L

1

G(x, x0 ) = − ×

2π

∞ ∞

sinh(kz< ) sinh[k(L − z> )]

X Z

0

dk eim(φ−φ ) Jm (kρ)Jm (kρ0 ) .

m=−∞ 0 sinh(kL)

linear combinations of terms of the form

There are two possibilities for the combination Z(kz)Rm (kρ), both of which

solve the Laplace equation:

or

and must thus take one of the above forms, at all points x0 6= x. At x0 = x,

G must be continuous, but have a finite discontinuity in its first derivative.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 15

be met by dividing space into two regions, one on either side of the source point

x, and taking G to be different linear combinations of terms T (as in (25)) in

the two regions. The question is, in which dimension (i.e., ρ, z, or φ) do we

define the two “sides” of the source point?

(a) The first option is to imagine a cylindrical boundary at ρ0 = ρ, i.e. at the

radius of the source point, and take the inside and outside of the cylinder (i.e.,

ρ0 < ρ and ρ0 > ρ) as the two distinct regions of space. Then, within each

region, the entire range of z must be handled by one function, which means this

one function must vanish at z = 0 and z = L. This cannot happen with terms of

the form (26), so we are forced to take Z and R as in (27), with B = −A and k

restricted to the discrete values kn = nπ/L. Next considering the singularities

of the ρ functions in (27), we see that, to keep G finite everywhere, for the

inner region (ρ0 < ρ) we can only keep the Im (kρ) term, while for the outer

region we can only keep the Km (kρ) term. Then G(x; x0 ) will consist of linear

combinations of terms T as in (25) subject to the restrictions discussed above:

(P

imφ0

0 mn Amn (x)e sin(kn z 0 )Im (kn ρ0 ), ρ0 < ρ

G(x; x ) = P imφ0 0 0

mn Bmn (x)e sin(kn z )Km (kn ρ ), ρ0 > ρ.

Clearly, to establish continuity at ρ0 = ρ, we need to take Amk (x) = γmk (z, φ)Km (kρ)

and Bmk (x) = γmk (z, φ)Im (kρ), where γmk is any function of z and φ. Then

we can write G as

X 0

G(x; x0 ) = γmk (z, φ)eimφ sin(kz 0 )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ).

mk

The obvious choice of γmk needed to make this a delta function in z and φ is

γmk = (4/L)e−imφ sin(kz). Then we have

4 X im(φ0 −φ)

G(x; x0 ) = e sin(kz) sin(kz 0 )Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ).

L

mk

What I don’t quite understand is that this expression already has the correct

delta function behavior in ρ, even though I never explicitly required this. To

obtain this expression I first demanded that it satisfy the Laplace equation for

all points x0 6= x, that it satisfy the boundary conditions of the geometry, and

that it have the right delta function behavior in z 0 and φ0 . But I never demanded

that it have the correct delta function behavior in ρ0 , and yet it does. I guess

the combination of the requirements that I did impose on this thing is already

enough to ensure that it meets the final requirement.

(b) The second option is to imagine a plane boundary at z 0 = z, and take the

two distinct regions to be the regions above and below the plane. In other words,

the first region is that for which 0 ≤ z 0 ≤ z, and the second region that for which

z ≤ z 0 ≤ L. In this case, within each region the entire range of ρ0 (from 0 to ∞)

must be handled by one function. This requirement excludes terms of the form

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 16

there is no linear combination of these functions that will be finite over the whole

range of ρ0 . Hence we must use terms of the form (26). To ensure finiteness at

the origin we must exlude the Nm term, so D = 0. To ensure vanishing at z 0 = 0

we must take A = −B, so the z 0 function in the region 0 ≤ z 0 ≤ z is proportional

to sinh(kz 0 ). To ensure vanishing at z 0 = L we must take A = −Be−2kL , so

the z 0 function in the region z ≤ z 0 ≤ L is proportional to sinh[k(z 0 − L)].

With these restrictions, the differential equation and the boundary conditions

are satisfied for all terms of the form (25) with no limitation on k. Hence the

Green’s function will be an integral, not a sum, over these terms:

P∞ R ∞ imφ0

0 m=0 R0 Am (k, ρ, φ, z)e sinh(kz 0 )Jm (kρ0 ) dk, 0 ≤ z0 ≤ z

G(x ; x) = P∞ ∞ imφ 0

m=0 0 Bm (k, ρ, φ, z)e sinh[k(z 0 − L)]Jm (kρ0 ) dk, z ≤ z0 ≤ L

Problem 3.18

at zero potential parallel to and a distance L away from the plane with the disc

insert in it. For definiteness put the grounded plane at z = 0 and the other plane

with the center of the disc on the z axis at z = L.

(a) Show that the potential between the planes can be written in cylindrical coor-

dinates (z, ρ, φ) as

Z ∞

sinh(λz/a)

Φ(z, ρ) = V dλJ1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) .

0 sinh(λL/a)

(b) Show that in the limit a → ∞ with z, ρ, L fixed the solution of part a reduces

to the expected result. Viewing your result as the lowest order answer in an

expansion in powers of a−1 , consider the question of corrections to the lowest

order expression if a is large compared to ρ and L, but not infinite. Are there

difficulties? Can you obtain an explicit estimate of the corrections?

(c) Consider the limit of L → ∞ with (L − z), a and ρ fixed and show that the

results of Problem 3.12 are recovered. What about corrections for L a, but

not L → ∞?

(a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates with

angular symmetry that vanishes at z = 0 is

Z ∞

Φ(ρ, z) = A(k)J0 (kρ) sinh(kz) dk. (28)

0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 17

Z ∞ Z ∞ Z ∞

0 0

ρJ0 (k ρ)Φ(ρ, L) dρ = A(k) sinh(kL) ρJ0 (k ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ dk

0 0 0

Z ∞

1 0

= A(k) sinh(kL) δ(k − k ) dk

0 k

1

= 0 A(k 0 ) sinh(k 0 L)

k

so

Z ∞

k

A(k) = ρJ0 (kρ)Φ(ρ, L) dρ

sinh(kL) 0

Z a

Vk

= ρJ0 (kρ) dρ

sinh(kL) 0

Z ka

V

= uJ0 (u) du. (29)

k sinh(kL) 0

I worked out this integral earlier, in Problem 3.12:

Z x

uJ0 (u) du = xJ1 (x).

0

V

A(k) = · (ka)J1 (ka)

k sinh(kL)

and (28) is

∞

sinh(kz)

Z

Φ(ρ, z) = V aJ1 (ka)J0 (kρ) dk

sinh(kL)

Z0 ∞

sinh(λz/a)

=V J1 (λ)J0 (λρ/a) dλ. (30)

0 sinh(λL/a)

(b) For x 1,

1

J0 (x) → 1 − x2 + · · ·

4

and for x 1 and y 1,

x + 16 x3 + · · ·

sinh(x) x 1 2 2

= = 1 + (x − y ) + O(x4 )

sinh(y) y + 16 y 3 + · · · y 6

With these approximations we may expand the terms containing a in (30):

2 ! 2 !

sinh(λz/a) 1 λρ z 1 λ

J0 (λρ/a) ≈ 1− 1+ (x2 − y 2 ) (31)

sinh(λL/a) 4 a L 6 a

" 2 #

z λ 1 2 2 1 2

= 1− (L − z ) + ρ + · · · (32)

L a 6 4

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 18

Z ∞ Z ∞

Vz 1 1 2 2 1 2 2

Φ(ρ, z) = J1 (λ) dλ − 2 (L − z ) + ρ λ J1 (λ) dλ + · · ·

L 0 a 6 4 0

The first integral evaluates to 1, so for a infinite the potential becomes simply

Φ(z) = V z/L. This is just what we expect to get for the potential between two

infinite sheets, one grounded and the other at potential V.

The second integral, unfortunately, has a bit of an infinity problem. It’s not

hard to see where the problem comes: I derived the expansion above based on

the premise that λ/a is small, but the integral goes over all λ up to ∞, so for

any finite a the expansions eventually become invalid in the integral.

I’m still trying to work out a better procedure for estimating corrections for

finite a.

(c) In this part we’re interested in taking L → ∞ and looking at the potential

a fixed distance away from the plane with the circular insert. Calling the fixed

distance z 0 , the z coordinate of the point we’re interested in is L − z 0 . We have

=

sinh kL sinh kL

= cosh(kz 0 ) − coth(kL) sinh(kz 0 ) (33)

Now, coth(kL) differs significantly from 1 only for kLa . 1, in which region

kz 0 . z/L 1, so cosh(kz 0 ) ≈ 1 and sinh(kz 0 ) ≈ 0. By the time k gets big

enough that kz 0 is starting to get significant, coth(kL) has long since started to

look like 1, so the two terms in (33) add directly. The result is that, for all k,

(33) can be approximated as exp(−kz 0 ). Then (30) becomes

Z ∞

0

Φ(ρ, z) = aV J1 (ka)J0 (kρ)e−kz dk

0

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

August 6, 2000

Problem 3.19

Consider a point charge q between two infinite parallel conducting planes held at

zero potential. Let the planes be located at z = 0 and z = L in a cylindrical

coordinate system, with the charge on the z axis at z = z0 , 0 < z0 < L. Use

Green’s reciprocation theorem of Problem 1.12 with Problem 3.18 as the comparison

problem.

(a) Show that the amount of induced charge on the plate at z = L inside a circle

of radius a whose center is on the z axis is given by

q

QL (a) = − Φ(z0 , 0)

V

(b) Show that the induced charge density on the upper plate can be written as

Z ∞

q sinh(kz0 )

σ(ρ) = − dk kJ0 (kρ)

2π 0 sinh(kL)

−πq πz

0

σ(0) = 2

sec2

8L 2L

Z Z Z Z

ρ0 Φ dV + σ 0 Φ dA = ρΦ0 dV + σΦ0 dA. (1)

V S V S

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 2

We’ll use the unprimed symbols to refer to the quantities of Problem 3.18,

and the primed symbols to refer to those of Problem 3.19. Then

ρ(r, z) = 0

σ(r, z) =?

Φ(r, z) = 0, z=0

= 0, z = L and r > a

= V, z = L and r < a

∞

sinh(kz)

Z

=V dk aJ1 (ak)J0 (rk) 0<z<L

0 sinh(kL)

ρ0 (r, z) = qδ(r)δ(z − z0 )

σ 0 (r, z) =?

Φ0 (r, z) = 0, z = 0 or z = L

=?, 0≤z≤L

Z ∞

sinh(kz0 )

Z

qV dk aJ1 (ak) +V σ 0 (r, z) dA = 0

0 sinh(kL) z=L,r<a

so

∞

sinh(kz0 ) q

Z Z

σ 0 (r, z) dA = −q dk aJ1 (ak) = − Φ(z0 , 0) (2)

z=L,r<a 0 sinh(kL) V

The integral on the left is just the total surface charge contained within a circle

of radius a around the origin of the plane z = L.

(b) The integrand on the left of (2) doesn’t depend on φ, so we can do the

angular part of the integral right away to give

Z a Z ∞

sinh(kz0 )

2π σ 0 (r, L)r dr = −q dk aJ1 (ak)

0 0 sinh(kL)

Differentiating both sides with respect to a, we have

Z ∞

∂ sinh(kz0 )

2πaσ 0 (a, L) = −q dk [aJ1 (ak)] (3)

0 ∂a sinh(kL)

where I’ve blithely assumed that the partial derivative can be passed through

the integral sign. The partial derivative is

∂ ∂

[aJ1 (ak)] = [xJ1 (x)]

∂a ∂x x=ak

= |J1 (x) + xJ10 (x)|x=ak

= |xJ0 (x)|x=ak = akJ0 (ak)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 3

so (3) becomes

∞

q sinh(kz0 )

Z

0

σ (a, L) = − dk kJ0 (ak) (4)

2π 0 sinh(kL)

∞

−q sinh(kz0 )

Z

σ 0 (0, L) = k .

2π 0 sinh(kL)

Problem 3.22

by the surfaces φ = 0, φ = β, and ρ = a, as indicated in the sketch.

Using separation of variables in polar coordinates, show the the Green function can

be written as

!

∞ mπ/β

0 0

X 1 mπ/β 1 ρ> mπφ mπφ0

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) = − ρ< mπ/β

− sin sin

m=1

mπ ρ> a2mπ/β β β

As before, the procedure for determining the Green’s function is to split the

region of interest into two parts (one on each ’side’ of the observation point), find

separate solutions of the Laplace equation that satisfy the boundary conditions

in each region, and then join the two solutions at the source point such that

their values match up but the first derivative (in whichever dimension we chose

’sides’) has a finite discontinuity.

Suppose the observation point is (ρ, φ). Let’s break the region into two

subregions, defined by 0 ≤ ρ0 ≤ ρ and ρ ≤ ρ0 ≤ a. The general solution of the

Laplace equation in two-dimensional polar coordinates is

Φ(ρ0 , φ0 ) =A0 + B0 ln ρ0

X

+ ρ0n [An sin nφ0 + Bn cos nφ0 ] + ρ0−n [Cn sin nφ0 + Dn cos nφ0 ].

n

excludes the ln term and the negative powers of ρ. However, these terms may

be included in the solution for the second region. In both regions, the solution

must vanish at φ = 0, which excludes the cos terms (i.e. Bn = Dn = 0). The

solution must also vanish at φ = β, which requires that n = mπ/β, m = 1, 2, · · · .

With these considerations we may write down the solutions for G in the two

regions:

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 4

G(ρ, φ; ρ0 , φ0 )

∞

X

0mπ/β mπφ0

= Am ρ sin , 0 ≤ ρ0 ≤ ρ (5)

m=1

β

∞ h

X

0mπ/β 0−mπ/β

i mπφ0

= Bm ρ + Cm ρ sin , ρ ≤ ρ0 ≤ a (6)

m=1

β

The solution in the second region must vanish at ρ0 = a for all φ0 , i.e.

Bm amπ/β + Cm a−mπ/β = 0

so

Bm = γm a−mπ/β and Cm = −γm amπ/β

where γm can be anything. Then (6) becomes

" mπ/β #

∞ 0 mπ/β

0 0

X ρ a mπφ0

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) = γm − sin ρ ≤ ρ0 ≤ a.

m=1

a ρ0 β

The solutions in the two regions must agree on the boundary between the two

regions, i.e. at ρ0 = ρ. This determines Am and γm :

" #

ρ mπ/β a mπ/β

Am = λ m − γm = λm ρmπ/β

a ρ

can write

G(ρ, φ; ρ0 , φ0 )

∞

" mπ/β #

X ρ mπ/β a mπφ0

= λm − ρ0mπ/β sin 0 ≤ ρ0 ≤ ρ

m=1

a ρ β

" #

∞ mπ/β mπ/β

X ρ0 a mπ/β mπφ0

= λm − ρ sin ρ ≤ ρ0 ≤ a.

m=1

a ρ0 β

X mπφ0

G(ρ, φ; ρ0 , φ0 ) = λm fm (ρ; ρ0 ) sin (7)

m

β

ρ mπ/β a

0 > mπ/β

fm (ρ; ρ ) = − ρ< .

a ρ>

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 3 5

1

∇2 G(ρ, φ; ρ0 , φ0 ) = δ(ρ0 − ρ)δ(φ0 − φ). (8)

ρ

The Laplacian of (7) is

2 " 2 #

1 ∂2 d2

2 ∂ X

0 mπ 0 mπφ0

∇ G= + 02 02 G = λm fm (ρ; ρ ) − fm (ρ; ρ ) sin

∂ρ02 ρ ∂φ m

dρ02 ρ0 β β

1 mπφ

λm = κ m sin (9)

β β

and " 2 #

d2

mπ 1

κm fm (ρ; ρ0 ) − 0

fm (ρ; ρ ) = δ(ρ0 − ρ).

dρ02 ρ0 β ρ

At all points ρ0 6= ρ, the latter condition is already satisfied by f as we con-

structed it earlier. At ρ0 = ρ, the condition is achieved by choosing κm to

satisfy

ρ0 =ρ+

d 1

κm 0 fm (ρ; ρ0 ) = . (10)

dρ ρ =ρ−

0 ρ

Referring to (7), we have

" mπ/β #

d mπ ρ mπ/β a

ρmπ/β−1

fm = + (11)

dρ 0

ρ0 +ρ+ β a ρ

" mπ/β #

d mπ ρ mπ/β a

ρmπ/β−1 .

f m

= − (12)

dρ 0

ρ0 +ρ− β a ρ

ρ0 =ρ+

dfm 2mπ mπ/β 1

= a · .

dρ ρ0 =ρ−

0 β ρ

Then from (10) we read off

β −mπ/β

κm = a

2mπ

and plugging this into (9) gives

1 −mπ/β mπ

λm = a sin φ.

2mπ β

Plugging this into (7) we obtain finally

" #

X 1 ρ ρ mπ/β ρ mπ/β

mπφ

mπφ0

0 0 < > <

G(ρ, φ; ρ , φ ) = − sin sin

m

2mπ a2 ρ> β β

I seem to be off by a factor of 2 here, but I can’t find where.

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Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

October 8, 2000

Problem 4.8

A very long, right circular, cylindrical shell of dielectric constant /0 and inner and

outer radii a and b, respectively, is placed in a previously uniform electric field E0

with its axis perpendicular to the field. The medium inside and outside the cylinder

has a dielectric constant of unity.

(a) Determine the potential and electric fields in the three regions, neglecting end

effects.

(c) Discuss the limiting forms of your solution appropriate for a solid dielectric

cylinder in a uniform field, and a cylindrical cavity in a uniform dielectric.

We will take the axis of the cylinder to be the z axis and the electric field to

be aligned with the x axis: E0 = E0 î. Since the cylinder is very long and we’re

told to neglect end effects, we can ignore the z direction altogether and treat

this as a two-dimensional problem.

(a) The general solution of the Laplace equation in two dimensional polar co-

ordinates is

X

Φ(r, ϕ) = [An rn + Bn r−n ][Cn sin(nϕ) + Dn cos(nϕ)]

For the region inside the shell (r < a), the B coefficients must vanish to keep

the potential from blowing up at the origin. Also, in the region outside the shell

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 2

(r > b), the only positive power of r in the sum must be that which gives rise

to the external electric field, i.e. −E0 r cos ϕ with An = 0 for n > 1. With these

observations we may write expressions for the potential in the three regions:

X

rn [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ], r<a

X

Φ(r, ϕ) = rn [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] + r−n [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ], a<r<b

X

r−n [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ],

−E0 r cos ϕ + r>b

∂Φ ∂Φ

0 =

∂r x=a− ∂r x=a+

or

0 X n−1

na [An sin nϕ + Bn cos nϕ] =

X

nan−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − na−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos nϕ]

0

An = Cn − En a−2n (1)

0

Bn = Dn − Fn a−2n (2)

Next, the tangential boundary condition at r = a is

∂Φ ∂Φ

=

∂ϕ x=a+ ∂ϕ x=a−

or

X X

nan [An cos nϕ − Bn sin nϕ] = nan [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + na−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ]

An = Cn + En a−2n (3)

−2n

Bn = Dn + F n a (4)

0 0 X −(n+1)

− E0 cos ϕ − nb [Gn sin nϕ + Hn cos ϕ] =

X

nbn−1 [Cn sin nϕ + Dn cos nϕ] − nb−(n+1) [En sin nϕ + Fn cos ϕ]

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 3

which leads to

0

Gn = Cn b2n − En

− (5)

0 0

− b2 E0 δn1 − Hn = Dn b2n − Fn (6)

Finally, we have the tangential boundary condition at r = b:

X

bE0 sin ϕ + nb−n [Gn cos nϕ − Hn sin nϕ] =

X

nbn [Cn cos nϕ − Dn sin nϕ] + nb−n [En cos nϕ − Fn sin nϕ]

giving

Gn = Cn b2n + En (7)

2 2n

−b E0 δn1 + Hn = Dn b + Fn . (8)

The four equations (1), (3), (5), and (7) specify a degenerate system of linear

equations, which can only be satisfied by taking An = Cn = En = Gn = 0 for

all n. Next, for n 6= 1, the system of equations (2), (4), (6), and (8) specify the

same degenerate system of equations, so Bn = Dn = Fn = Gn = 0 for n 6= 0.

However, for n = 1, we have

0 1 0

B1 = D1 − F1 a−2 D1 = 1+ B1

2

⇒

1 2 0

B1 = D1 + F1 a−2 F1 = a 1− B1 .

2

and

−H1 = b2 E0 + D1 b 2 − F 1

0 0

H1 = b 2 E 0 + D 1 b 2 + F 1

→ 0 = 2b2 E0 + b2 1 + D1 + 1 − F1

0 0

1 2

−4b2 E0 = b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 B1

0

or

−40b2

B1 = E0 .

b2 ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 4

Then

−20 ( + 0 )b2

D1 = E0

b2 (

+ 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2

−20 ( − 0 )a2 b2

F1 = 2 E0

b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2

−b2 (b2 − a2 )(20 − 2 )

H1 = 2 E0 .

b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2

The potential is

−40 b2

· E0 rcos ϕ, r<a

b2 ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2

−20 b2 a2

Φ(r, ϕ) = ( + 0 )r + ( − 0 ) E0 cos ϕ, a<r<b

b2 ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2 r

−(b2 − a2 )(20 − 2 ) b2

2 2 2 2

· E0 cos ϕ − E0 rcos ϕ, b < r.

b ( + 0 ) − a ( − 0 ) r

The electric field is

40 b2

E0 [cos ϕr̂ − sin ϕϕ̂] , r<a

b ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2

2

20 b2 a2

( + ) − ( − 0 2 E0 cos ϕr̂

)

0

b2 ( + 0 )2 − a2 ( − 0 )2

r

2

E(r, ϕ) = a

− ( + 0 ) + ( − )

0 2 E 0 sin ϕϕ̂ , a<r<b

r

2

(b2 − a2 )(20 − 2 )

b

− 2 · E0 [cos ϕr̂ + sin ϕϕ̂]

2 2

b ( + 0 ) − a ( − 0 ) 2 r

+E0 [cos ϕr̂ − sin ϕϕ̂] , b < r.

(b) In Figure 4.1 I’ve plotted the field lines for b = 2a, = 50 . Also, as an

appendix to this document I’ve included the C program I wrote to generate this

plot.

(c) For a solid dielectric cylinder in a uniform field, we would have a → 0. In

that case the field would look like

2

0

+ 0 E0 î, r<b

E(r, ϕ) = 2

(2 − 2 ) b

E0 î − 0

E0 [cos ϕr̂ + sin ϕϕ̂], r>b

( + 0 )2 r

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 5

40

E0 î, r<a

( + 0 )2

E(r, ϕ) =

20 20 ( − 0 ) a 2

E0 î − E0 [cos ϕr̂ + sin ϕϕ̂], r > a.

( + 0 )2

( + 0 ) r

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 6

Problem 4.9

A point charge q is located in free space a distance d away from the center of a

dielectric sphere of radius a (a < d) and dielectric constant /0 .

(a) Find the potential at all points in space as an expansion in spherical harmonics.

(b) Calculate the rectangular components of the electric field near the center of

the sphere.

(c) Verify that, in the limit /0 → ∞, your result is the same as that for the

conducting sphere.

We will take the origin of coordinates at the center of the sphere, and put

the point charge on the z axis at z = +h. Then the problem has azimuthal

symmetry.

(a) Since there is no free charge within the sphere, ∇·D = 0 there. But since the

permittivity is uniform within the sphere, we may also write ∇·(D/) = ∇·E = 0

there. This means that polarization charge only exists on the surface of the

sphere, so within the sphere the potential satisfies the normal Laplace equation,

whence X

Φ(r, θ) = Al rl Pl (cos θ) (r < a).

l

Now, in the region r > a, the potential may be written as the sum of two

components Φ1 and Φ2 , where Φ1 comes from the polarization charge on the

surface of the sphere, while Φ2 comes from the external point charge. Since

Φ1 satisfies the Laplace equation for r > a, we may expand it in Legendre

polynomials:

X

Φ1 (r, θ) = Bl r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ) (r > a).

l

q X rl

Pl (cos θ), r<d

4π0 dl+1

Φ2 (r, θ) = (9)

X dl

q

Pl (cos θ), r > d.

4π0 rl+1

Putting this all together we may write the potential in the three regions as

X

Al rl Pl (cos θ), r<a

l

q r

X

Φ(r, θ) = Bl r−(l+1) + l+1

Pl (cos θ), a<r<d

4π0 d

X qdl

Bl + r−(l+1) Pl (cos θ), r > d.

4π0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 7

∂Φ ∂Φ

= 0

∂r r=a− ∂r r=a+

lqal−1

→ lAl al−1 = −(l + 1)Bl a−(l+2) +

0 4π0 dl+1

0 −(l + 1) −(2l+1) q

→ Al = Bl a + (10)

l 4π0 dl+1

∂Φ ∂Φ

=

∂θ r=a− ∂θ r=a+

q al

→ Al al = Bl a−(l+1) +

4π0 d(l+1)

q a2l+1

→ Bl = Al a2l+1 − (11)

4π0 dl+1

Combining (10) and (11), we obtain

1 2l + 1 q

Al =

0 + l+1

l

l 4π0 dl+1

qa2l+1

1

Bl =

1−

0 + l+1

l

0 4π0 dl+1

Al → 0

as must happen, since the field within a conducting sphere vanishes; and

qa2l+1

Bl → − . (12)

4π0 dl+1

With the coefficients (12), the potential outside the sphere due to the polariza-

tion charge at the sphere boundary is

l

1 qa X a2 1

Φ1 (r, θ) = − Pl (cos θ).

4π0 d d rl+1

Comparing with (9) we see that this is just the potential of a charge −qa/d on

the z axis at z = a2 /d. This is just the size and position of the image charge

we found in Chapter 2 for a point charge outside a conducting sphere.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 8

q 30 1 50 2 2 2

= z+ (z − x − y ) + · · ·

4π0 d2 ( + 20 ) 2 d3 (2 + 30 )

q 50 x

Ex = · +···

4π0 d2 2 + 30 d

q 50 y

Ey = 2

· +···

4π0 d 2 + 30 d

q 30 50 z

Ez = − + + · · ·

4π0 d2 + 20 2 + 30 d

Problem 4.10

Two concentric conducting spheres of inner and outer radii a and b, respectively,

carry charges ±Q. The empty space between the spheres is half-filled by a hemi-

spherical shell of dielectric (of dielectric constant /0 ), as shown in the figure.

(a) Find the electric field everywhere between the spheres.

(b) Calculate the surface-charge distribution on the inner sphere.

(c) Calculate the polarization-charge density induced on the surface of the dielectric

at r = a.

We’ll orient this problem such that the boundary between the dielectric-

filled space and the empty space is the xy plane. Then the region occupied

by the dielectric is the region a < r < b, 0 < θ < π/2, and the problem has

azimuthal symmetry.

(a) Since the dielectric has uniform permittivity, all the polarization charge

exists on the boundary of the dielectric, so within its body we may take the

potential to be a solution of the normal Laplace equation. The potential in the

region between the spheres may then be written

X π

[Al rl + Bl r−(l+1) ]Pl (cos θ), 0<θ<

2

Φ(r, θ) = X π

l −(l+1)

[Cl r + Dl r ]Pl (cos θ), <θ<π

2

First let’s apply the boundary conditions at the interface between the di-

electric and free space. That region is described by θ = π/2, a < r < b, and we

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 9

must have

∂Φ ∂Φ

= 0

∂θ θ=π/2+ ∂θ θ=π/2−

∂Φ ∂Φ

=

∂r θ=π/2+ ∂r θ=π/2−

which leads to

X

Al − Cl Pl0 (0)rl + Bl − Dl Pl0 (0)r−l+1 = 0 (13)

0 0

X

l−1

l [Al − Cl ] P (0)r − (l + 1) [Bl − Dl ] Pl (0)r−l+2 = 0. (14)

Since these equations must be satisfied for all r in the region a < r < b, the

coefficients of each power of r must vanish identically. In (13), this requirement

is automatically satisfied for l even, since Pl0 (0) vanishes for even l. Similarly,

(14) is automatically satisfied for l odd. For other cases the vanishing of the

coefficients must be brought about by taking

Al = C l Bl = Dl , l odd (15)

0 0

Al = C l Bl = Dl , l even. (16)

Next let’s consider the charge at the surface of the inner sphere. There are

actually two components of this charge; one component comes from the surface

distribution of the free charge +Q that exists on the sphere, and the other

component comes from the bound polarization charge on the inner surface of

the dielectric

Problem 4.13

Two long, coaxial, cylindrical conducting surfaces of radii a and b are lowered

vertically into a liquid dielectric. If the liquid rises an average height h between the

electrodes when a potential difference V is established between them, show that the

susceptibility of the liquid is

χe =

0 V 2

where ρ is the density of the liquid, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and the

susceptibility of air is neglected.

First let’s work out what happens when a battery of fixed voltage V is con-

nected between two coaxial conducting cylinders with simple vacuum between

them. To begin, we can use Gauss’ law to determine the E field between the

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 10

cylinders. For our Gaussian pillbox we take a disk of thickness dz and radius

r, a < r < b centered on the axis of the cylinders. By symmetry there is no

component of E normal to the top or bottom boundary surfaces, and the com-

ponent normal to the side surfaces (the radial component) is uniform around

the disc. Hence

q 1

I

E · dA = 2π r dzEρ = = (2π a dz)σ

0 0

aσ

→ Eρ (ρ) =

0 r

where σ is the surface charge on the inner conductor. This must integrate to

give the correct potential difference between the conductors:

Z b

aσ b

V =− Eρ (ρ)dρ = − ln

a 0 a

which tells us that, to establish a potential difference V between the conductors,

the battery has to flow enough charge to establish a surface charge of magnitude

0 V

σ= (17)

a ln(b/a)

on the cylinder faces (the surface charges are of opposite sign on the two cylin-

ders).

It is useful to figure out the energy per unit length stored in the electric field

between the cylinder plates here. This is just

1 b 2π

Z Z

Wv = E · D ρ dρ dφ

2 a 0

Z b

= π0 E 2 (ρ)ρ dρ

a

a2 σ 2

=π ln(b/a)

0

π0 V 2

= (18)

ln(b/a)

where the v subscript stands for ’vacuum’, since (18) is the energy per unit length

stored in the field between the cylinders with just vacuum between them.

Now suppose we introduce a dielectric material between the cylinders. If the

voltage between the cylinders is kept at V , then the E field must be just the

same as it was in the no-dielectric case, because this field integrated from a to

b must still give the same potential difference. However, in order to establish

this same E field in the presence of the retarding effects of the dielectric, the

battery now has to establish a surface charge that is greater that it was before

by a factor (/0 ). With this greater charge on the electrodes, the D field will

now be bigger by a factor (/0 ) than it was in our above calculation. So the

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 11

energy per unit length stored in the field between the cylinders increases by a

factor (/0 − 1) over the result (18):

πV 2

∆Wd = ( − 0 ) .

ln(b/a)

On the other hand, to get to this point the battery has had to flow enough

charge to increase the surface charges to be of magnitude (/0 ) times greater

than (17). In doing this the internal energy of the battery decreases by an

amount equal to the work it had to do to flow the excess charge, namely

2πV 2

∆Wb = −V dQ = V (2π a dσ) = ( − 0 )

ln(b/a)

(per unit length). The energy lost by the battery is twice that gained by the

dielectric, so the system with dielectric between the cylinders has lower overall

energy than the system with vacuum between the cylinders by a factor

πV 2

∆W = ( − 0 ) (19)

ln(b/a)

(per unit length).

Turning now to the situation in this problem, we’ll take the axis of the

cylinders as the z axis, so that the surface of the liquid is parallel to the xy

plane. We’ll take the boundary between the liquid and the air above it to be at

z = 0. With no potential between the cylinder plates, the liquid between the

cylinders is at the same height as the liquid outside.

Now suppose a battery of fixed potential V is connected between the two

cylinder plates. As we showed earlier, the combined system of battery and di-

electric can lower its energy by having more of the dielectric rise up between the

cylinders. However, at some point the energy win we get from this is balanced

by the energy hit we take from the gravitational potential energy of having

the excess liquid rise higher between the cylinders. The height at which we no

longer gain by having more liquid between the cylinders is the height to which

the system will settle.

So suppose that, with a battery keeping a voltage V between the electrodes,

the liquid between the electrodes rises to a height h above the surface of the

liquid outside the electrodes. The decrease in electrostatic energy this affords

over the case with just vacuum filling that space is just (19) times the height,

i.e.

πV 2

Ee = −h( − 0 ) (20)

ln(b/a)

This must be balanced by the gravitational potential energy Eg of the excess

liquid. Eg is easily calculated by noting that the area between the cylinders is

π(b2 − a2 ), so the mass of liquid contained in a height dh between the cylinders

is dm = ρπ(b2 − a2 )dh, and if this mass is at a height h above the liquid surface

its excess gravitational energy is

dEg = (dm)gh = πgρ(b2 − a2 )hdh.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 12

h

1

Z

Eg = πgρ(b2 − a2 ) h0 dh0 = πgρ(b2 − a2 )h2 . (21)

0 2

Comparing (20) to (21), we find that the gravitational penalty of the excess

liquid just counterbalances the electrostatic energy reduction when

2( − 0 )V 2

h=

ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a)

2χe 0 V 2

=

ρg(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a)

Solving for χe ,

ρgh(b2 − a2 ) ln(b/a)

χe = .

20 V 2

So I seem to be off by a factor of 2 somewhere.

Actually we should note one detail here. When the surface of the liquid

between the cylinders rises, the surface of the liquid outside the cylinders must

fall, since the total volume of the liquid is conserved. Hence there are really

two other contributions to the energy shift, namely, the change in gravitational

and electrostatic energies of the thin layer of liquid outside the cylinders that

falls away when the liquid rises between the cylinders. But if the surface area of

the vessel containing the liquid is sufficiently larger than the area between the

cylinders, the difference layer will be thin and its energy shifts negligible.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 13

Appendix

Source code for field line plotting program used in Problem 4.8.

/*

* Program to draw field lines for Jackson problem 4.8.

* Homer Reid October 2000

*/

#include <stdio.h>

#include <math.h>

#include "/usr2/homer/include/GnuPlot.c"

#define EPS 5.0 /* permittivity of cylinder */

#define B 8.0 /* radius of outer cylinder */

#define NUMPOINTS 250.0 /* no. of pts to plot for each line */

#define DELTAY (4.0 * B) / NUMLINES /* vert spacing of initial pts */

/*

* Return r component of electric field at position (r,phi).

*/

double Er(double r, double phi)

{

double Coeff;

if ( r < A )

Coeff=(4.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM;

else if ( r < B )

Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) - (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) );

else

Coeff=1.0 - ((B*B - A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM));

return Coeff*E0*cos(phi);

}

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 14

/*

* Return phi component of electric field at (r,phi).

*/

double Ephi(double r, double phi)

{

double Coeff;

if ( r < A )

Coeff=(4.0*EPS*EZ*B*B)/DENOM;

else if ( r < B )

Coeff=(2*EPS*B*B/DENOM)*( (EPS+EZ) + (EPS-EZ)*(A*A)/(r*r) );

else

Coeff=1.0 + ((B*B - A*A)*(EZ*EZ-EPS*EPS)*(B*B)/(r*r*DENOM));

return -Coeff*E0*sin(phi);

void main()

{

double i,j,r,phi,x,y,dx,dy;

double RComp,PhiComp;

FILE *g;

g=GnuPlot("Field lines");

/*

* Send basic GnuPlot configuration commands.

*/

fprintf(g,"set terminal postscript portrait color\n");

fprintf(g,"set output ’fig4.1.eps’\n");

fprintf(g,"set multiplot \n");

fprintf(g,"set size square\n");

fprintf(g,"set noxtics\n");

fprintf(g,"set noytics\n");

fprintf(g,"set xrange [%g:%g]\n",-2.0*B,2.0*B);

fprintf(g,"set yrange [%g:%g]\n",-2.0*B,2.0*B);

/*

* Draw circles at r=a and r=b.

*/

fprintf(g,"plot ’-’ t ’’, ’-’ t ’’ with lines, ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n");

fprintf(g,"e\n");

for(phi=0; phi<=2*M_PI; phi+=(2*M_PI/100))

fprintf(g,"%g %g\n",A*cos(phi),A*sin(phi));

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 15

fprintf(g,"e\n");

for(phi=0; phi<=2*M_PI; phi+=(2*M_PI/100))

fprintf(g,"%g %g\n",B*cos(phi),B*sin(phi));

fprintf(g,"e\n");

/*

* Draw field lines.

*/

for (i=1.0; i<=NUMLINES; i+=1.0)

{

/*

* Compute starting x and y coordinates and initiate plot.

*/

x=-2.0*B; y=2.0*B * ((NUMLINES - 2.0*i)/NUMLINES);

fprintf(g,"plot ’-’ t ’’ with lines\n");

/*

* Plot NUMPOINTS points for this field line.

*/

for (j=0.0; j<NUMPOINTS; j+=1.0)

{

/*

* compute polar coordinates of present location

*/

r=sqrt(x*x + y*y);

if (x==0.0)

phi=(y>0.0) ? M_PI/2.0 : -M_PI/2.0;

else

phi=atan(y/x);

/*

* compute rise and run of electric field

*/

RComp=Er(r,phi);

PhiComp=Ephi(r,phi);

dx=cos(phi)*RComp - sin(phi)*PhiComp;

dy=sin(phi)*RComp + cos(phi)*PhiComp;

/*

* bump x coordinate forward a fixed amount, and y

* coordinate up or down by an amount depending on

* the direction of the electric field at this point

*/

x+=DELTAX;

y+=DELTAX * (dy/dx);

fprintf(g,"%g %g\n",x,y);

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 4 16

};

fprintf(g,"e\n");

};

}

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

November 8, 2000

Problem 5.1

µ0 I 0 x − x0

dB = dl ×

4π |x − x0 |3

for the magnetic induction at the point P with coordinate x produced by an incre-

ment of current I dl0 at x0 , show explicitly that for a closed loop carrying a current

I the magnetic induction at P is

µ0 I

B= ∇Ω

4π

where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the loop at the point P . This corresponds

to a magnetic scalar potential, ΦM = −µ0 IΩ/4π. The sign convention for the

solid angle is that Ω is positive if the point P views the “inner” side of the surface

spanning the loop, that is, if a unit normal n to the surface is defined by the

direction of current flow via the right-hand rule, Ω is positive if n points away from

the point P , and negative otherwise. This is the same convention as in Section 1.6

for the electric dipole layer.

I like to change the notation slightly: the observation point is r1 , the coordi-

nate of a point on the current loop is r2 , and the displacement vector (pointing

to the observation point) is r12 = r1 − r2 .

The solid angle subtended by the current loop at r1 is given by a surface

integral over the loop:

cos γ dA

Z

Ω= 2

S r12

1

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

February 11, 2001

Problem 5.10

A circular current loop of radius a carrying a current I lies in the x − y plane with

its center at the origin.

(a) Show that the only nonvanishing component of the vector potential is

µ0 Ia ∞

Z

Aφ (ρ, z) = dk cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )

π 0

(b) Show that an alternative expression for Aφ is

µ0 Ia ∞

Z

Aφ (ρ, z) = dke−k|z| J1 (ka)J1 (kρ).

2 0

(c) Write down integral expressions for the components of magnetic induction,

using the expressions of parts a and b. Evaluate explicitly the components of

B on the z axis by performing the necessary integrations.

Jφ = Iδ(z)δ(ρ − a) (1)

Following Jackson, we take the observation point x on the x axis, so its coordi-

nates are (ρ, φ = 0, z). Since there is no current in the z direction, and since the

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2

or z directions. In the φ direction we have

µ0 Jy (x0 )

Z

= dx0

4π |x − x0 |

µ0 Jφ (x0 ) cos φ0 0

Z

= dx

4π |x − x0 |

0

µ0 Jφ (x0 )eiφ

Z

= Re dx0

4π |x − x0 |

" ∞ Z ∞ #

µ0 2

Z X

0 0

= Re Jφ (x0 )eiφ eim(φ−φ ) cos[k(z − z 0 )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> ) dk dx0

4π π m=−∞ 0

integration and remembering that φ = 0, we have

∞ Z ∞ Z

µ0 X

0 i(1−m)φ0 0 0

Aφ = Re Jφ (x )e cos[k(z − z )]Im (kρ< )Km (kρ> )dx dk

2π 2 m=−∞ 0

µ0 ∞

Z Z ∞ Z ∞

Aφ = Jφ (r0 , z 0 ) cos[k(z − z 0 )]I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> )ρ0 dz 0 dr0 dk

π 0 0 −∞

∞

Iaµ0

Z

Aφ = cos kz I1 (kρ< )K1 (kρ> ) dk.

π 0

(b) The procedure for obtaining this expression is identical to the one I just

went through, but with the expression from Problem 3.16(b) used for the Green’s

function instead of equation (3.148).

(c) Let’s suppose that the observation point is in the interior region of the

current loop, so ρ< = ρ, ρ> = a. Then

∂Aφ

Bρ = [∇ × A]ρ = −

∂z

Iaµ0 ∞

Z

=− k sin kz I1 (kρ)K1 (ka) dk

π 0

1 ∂Aφ

Bz = [∇ × A]z = Aφ +

ρ ∂ρ

Iaµ0 ∞

I1 (kρ)

Z

0

= cos kz + kI1 (kρ) K1 (ka) dk

π 0 ρ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3

Bρ (ρ = 0) = 0

Iaµ0 ∞

Z

Bz (ρ = 0) = k cos kzK1 (ka) dk

π 0

Z ∞

Iaµ0 ∂

= sin kzK1 (ka)dk

π ∂z 0

Z ∞ ∞

z ∞

1

Z

sin kzK1 (kz) dk = − sin kzK0 (ka) +

cos kzK0 (ka) dk

0 a 0 a 0

K0 is finite at zero but sin vanishes there, and sin is finite at infinity but K0

vanishes there, so the first term vanishes. The integral in the second term is

Jackson’s equation (3.150). Plugging it in to the above,

Iµ0 ∂ z

Bz (ρ = 0) =

2 ∂z (z + a2 )1/2

2

Iµ0 a2

= .

2 (z 2 + a2 )3/2

Problem 5.11

A circular loop of wire carrying a current I is located with its center at the origin

of coordinates and the normal to its plane having spherical angles θ0 , φ0 . There is

an applied magnetic field, Bx = B0 (1 + βy) and By = B0 (1 + βx).

(a) Calculate the force acting on the loop without making any approximations.

Compare your result with the approximate result (5.69). Comment.

(b) Calculate the torque in lowest order. Can you deduce anything about the higher

order contributions? Do they vanish for the circular loop? What about for

other shapes?

(a) Basically we’re dealing with two different reference frames here. In the “lab”

frame, R, the magnetic field exists only in the xy plane, and the normal to the

current loop has angles θ0 , φ0 . We define the “rotated” frame R0 by aligning

the z 0 axis with the normal to the current loop, so that in R0 the current loop

exists only in the x0 y 0 plane, but the magnetic field now has a z 0 component.

The force on the current loop is

Z

F = (J × B)dV. (2)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4

PSfrag replacements

z1 = z z1

θ0

z0

y1 y 0 = y1

x φ0 y x1

x1

x0

R → R1 R1 → R 0

opposite is true for B. There are two ways to do the problem: we can work out

the components of J in R and do the integral in R, or we can work out the

components of B in R0 and do the integral in R0 , in which case we would have

to transform the components of the force back to R to get the answer we desire.

I think the former approach is easier.

To derive the transformation matrix relating the coordinates of a point in R

and R0 , I imagined that the transformation arose from two separate transforma-

tions, as depicted in figure (??). The first transformation is a rotation through

φ0 around the z axis, which takes us from R to an intermediate frame R1 . Then

we rotate through θ0 around the y1 axis, which takes us to R0 . Evidently, the

coordinates of a point in the various frames are related by

x1 cos φ0 sin φ0 0 x

y1 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y (3)

z1 0 0 1 z

0

x cos θ0 0 − sin θ0 x1

y0 = 0 1 0 y1 (4)

z0 sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z1

Multiplying matrices,

0

x cos θ0 cos φ0 cos θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 x

y 0 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 y . (5)

z0 sin θ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 cos θ0 z

This matrix also gives us the transformation between unit vectors in the two

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5

frames:

î0 cos θ0 cos φ0 cos θ0 sin φ0 − sin θ0 î

ĵ0 = − sin φ0 cos φ0 0 ĵ . (6)

k̂0 sin θ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 cos θ0 k̂

We will also the inverse transformation, i.e. the expressions for coordinates in

R in terms of coordinates in R0 :

0

x cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0 x

y = cos θ0 sin φ0 cos φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0 y 0 . (7)

z − sin θ0 0 cos θ0 z0

To do the integral in (2) it’s convenient to parameterize a point on the

current loop by an angle φ0 reckoned from the x0 axis in R0 . If the loop radius

is a, then the coordinates of a point on the loop are x0 = a cos φ0 , y 0 = a sin φ0 ,

and the current density/volume element product is

J dV = Id l = (Ia dφ0 )φ̂0

= Ia dφ0 [− sin φ0 î0 + cos φ0 ĵ0 ]

h

= Ia dφ0 (− sin φ0 cos θ0 cos φ0 − cos φ0 sin φ0 )î

i

+ (sin φ0 sin φ0 + cos φ0 cos φ0 )ĵ + (sin φ0 sin θ0 )k̂

We also need the components of the B field at a point on the current loop:

B(φ0 ) = B0 [1 + βy(φ0 )]î + B0 [1 + βx(φ0 )]

= B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ0 cos θ0 sin φ0 + sin φ0 cos φ0 )]î + B0 [1 + aβ(cos φ0 cos θ0 cos φ0 − sin φ0 sin φ0 )]ĵ

The components of the cross product are

[J × B]x dV = −Jz By dV

= (· · · )βIa2 B0 dφ0 sin2 φ0 sin θ0 sin φ0

[J × B]y dV = Jz Bx dV

= (· · · ) + βIa2 B0 dφ0 sin2 φ0 sin θ0 cos φ0

[J × B]z dV = (Jx By − Jy Bx ) dV

= (· · · ) + 0

where we only wrote out terms containing a factor of cos2 φ0 or sin2 φ0 , since only

these terms survive after the integral around the current loop (we grouped all

the remaining terms into (· · · )). In the surviving terms, cos2 φ0 and sin2 φ0 turn

into factors of π after the integral around the loop. Then the force components

are

Fx = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0

Fy = πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 cos φ0

Fz = 0.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6

To compare this with the first-order approximate result, note that the magnetic

moment has magnitude πa2 I and is oriented along the z 0 axis:

m = πa2 I k̂0 = πa2 I sin θ0 cos φ0 î + sin θ0 sin φ0 ĵ + cos θ0 k̂

so

∇ B · m = ∇ B0 (1 + βy)mx + B0 (1 + βx)my

= B0 β my î + mx ĵ

= πβIa2 B0 sin θ0 sin φ0 î + sin θ0 cos φ0 ĵ)

Problem 5.12

Two concentric circular loops of radii a, b and currents I, I 0 , respectively (b < a),

have an angle α between their planes. Show that the torque on one of the loops

is about the line of intersection of the two planes containing the loops and has the

magnitude

∞ 2 2n

µ0 πII 0 b2 X (n + 1)

Γ(n + 3/2) b 1

N= P2n+1 (cos α).

2a n=0

(2n + 1) Γ(n + 2)Γ(3/2) a

Z

N = r × Jb (r) × Ba (r) dr

Z n o

= r · Ba (r) Jb (r) − r · Jb (r) Ba (r) dr.

where Jb is the current density of the smaller loop and Ba is the magnetic field

of the larger loop. But r · Jb vanishes, because the current flows in a circle

around the origin—there is no current flowing toward or away from the origin.

Thus Z

N = rBr (r)Jb (r)dr (8)

where Br is the radial component of the magnetic field of the larger current

loop.

As in the last problem, it’s convenient to define two reference frames for this

situation. Let R be the frame in which the smaller loop (radius b, current I)

lies in the xy plane, and R0 the frame in which the larger loop lies in the x0 y 0

plane. We might as well take the line of intersection of the two planes to be the

y axis, so y = y 0 . Then the z 0 axis has spherical coordinates (θ = α, φ = 0) in

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7

R, and for transforming back and forth between the two frames we may use the

transformation matrices we derived in the last problem, with θ0 = α, φ0 = 0. If

we choose to evaluate the integral (8) in frame R, the current density is

Jb (r) = Iδ(r − b)δ(θ − π/2) − sin φî + cos φĵ

Z 2π

2

Nx = −Ib Br (r = b, θ = π/2, φ) sin φ dφ (9)

0

Z 2π

Ny = Ib2 Br (r = b, θ = π/2, φ) cos φ dφ (10)

0

of the field of the larger loop. Of course, we already have an expression for the

field in R0 : in that frame the field is just that of a circular current loop in the

x0 y 0 plane, Jackson’s equation (5.48):

∞ 2l+1

µ0 I 0 a X (−1)l (2l + 1)!! r<

Br0 (r0 , θ0 ) = P

2l+2 2l+1

(cos θ0 ).

2r0 2l l! r>

l=0

We are interested in evaluating this field at points along the smaller current

loop, and for all such points r = b; then r< = b, r> = a and we have

∞ 2l

µ0 I 0 X (−1)l (2l + 1)!! b

Br0 (r0 = b, θ0 ) = P2l+1 (cos θ0 ). (11)

2a 2l l! a

l=0

To transform this to frame R, we first note that, since the origins of R and R0

coincide, the unit vectors r̂ and r̂0 coincide, so Br = Br0 . Next, (11) expresses

the field in terms of cos θ 0 , the polar angle in frame R0 . How do we write this

in terms of the angles θ and φ in frame R? Well, note that

z0

cos θ0 =

r

x sin α + z cos α

=

r

r sin θ cos φ sin α + r cos θ cos α

=

r

= sin θ sin α cos φ + cos θ cos α (12)

where in the second line we used the transformation matrix from Problem 5.11

to write down z 0 in terms of x and z. Equation (12) is telling us what our

coordinates in R0 are in terms of our coordinates in R; if a point has angular

coordinates θ, φ in R, then (12) tells us what angle θ 0 it has in R0 . (We could

also work out what the azimuthal angle φ0 would be, but we don’t need to,

because (11) doesn’t depend on φ0 .)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 8

To express the Legendre function in (11) with the argument (12), we may

make use of the addition theorem for associated Legendre polynomials:

Pl (cos θ0 ) = Pl (cos θ cos α + sin θ sin α cos φ)

l

X

= Pl (cos θ)Pl (cos α) + 2 Plm (cos θ)Plm (cos α) cos mφ.

m=1

Of course, the smaller loop exists in the xy plane, so for all points on that loop

we have θ = π/2, whence

l

X

Pl (cos θ0 ) = Pl (0)Pl (cos α) + 2 Plm (0)Plm (cos θ) cos mφ.

m=1

We may now write down an expression for the radial component of the magnetic

field of the larger loop, evaluated at points on the smaller loop, in terms of the

angle φ that goes from 0 to 2π around that loop:

∞ 2l (

µ0 I 0 X (−1)l (2l + 1)!! b

Br (φ) = P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α)

2a 2l l! a

l=0

2l+1

)

X

m m

+2 P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α) cos mφ .

m=1

This looks ugly, but in fact when we plug it into the integrals (9) and (10)

the sin φ and cos φ terms beat against the cos mφ term, integrating to 0 in the

former case and πδm1 in the latter. The torque is

Nx = 0

∞ 2l

πµ0 II 0 b2 X (−1)l (2l + 1)!! b 1 1

Ny = P2l+1 (0)P2l+1 (cos α).

a 2l l! a

l=0

To finish we just need to rewrite the numerical factor under the sum:

(−1)l (2l + 1)!! 1

(2l + 1)!! Γ(l + 3/2)

P2l+1 (0) =

2l l! 2l l! Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2)

(2l + 3 − 2)(2l + 3 − 4)(2l + 3 − 6) · · · (5)(3) Γ(l + 3/2)

=

2l Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2)

(l + 3/2 − 1)(l + 3/2 − 2) · · · (5/2)(3/2) Γ(l + 3/2)

=

Γ(l + 1) Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2)

2

Γ(l + 3/2)

=

Γ(l + 1)Γ(3/2)

2

2 Γ(l + 3/2)

= (l + 1)

Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2)

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 9

So my answer is

∞ 2 2l

πµ0 II 0 b2 X

2 Γ(l + 3/2) b 1

Ny = (l + 1) P2l+1 (cos α).

a Γ(l + 2)Γ(3/2) a

l=0

Evidently I’m off by a factor of 1/(l + 1)(2l + 1) under the sum, but I can’t find

where. Can anybody help?

Problem 5.13

is rotated about a diameter with constant angular velocity ω. Find the vector

potential and magnetic-flux density both inside and outside the sphere.

Problem 5.14

A long, hollow, right circular cylinder of inner (outer) radius a (b), and of relative

permeability µr , is placed in a region of initially uniform magnetic-flux density B0

at right angles to the field. Find the flux density at all points in space, and sketch

the logarithm of the ratio of the magnitudes of B on the cylinder axis to B0 as a

function of log10 µr for a2 /b2 = 0.5, 0.1. Neglect end effects.

We’ll take the cylinder axis as the z axis of our coordinate system, and we’ll

take B0 along the x axis: B0 = B0 î. To the extent that we ignore end effects,

we may imagine the fields to have no z dependence, so we effectively have a two

dimensional problem.

There are two distinct current distributions in this problem. The first is

a current distribution Jfree giving rise to the uniform field B0 far away from

the cylinder; this current distribution is only nonvanishing at points outside the

cylinder. The second is a current distribution Jbound = ∇ × M existing only

within the cylinder. Since there is no free current within the cylinder or in its

inner region, the equations determining H in those regions are

∇ · B = ∇ · (µH) = 0, ∇ × H = Jfree = 0.

These imply that, within the cylinder and in its inner region, we may derive H

from a scalar potential: H = −∇Φm , with Φm satisfying the Laplace equation.

In the external region, there is free current, so things are not so simple. To

proceed we may separate the H field in the external region into two compo-

nents: one that arises from the free current, and one that arises from the bound

currents within the cylinder. The former is just (1/µ0 )B0 and the second is

again derivable from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. So, in

the external region, H = (1/µ0 )B0 − ∇Φm .

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 10

So our task is to find expressions for Φm in the three regions such that the

boundary conditions on B and H are satisfied at the borders of the regions.

Writing down the solutions of the 2-D Laplace equation in the three regions,

and excluding terms which blow up as ρ → 0 or ρ → ∞, we have

P

∞ n

Pn=1 ρ n A n cos nφ + Bn sin nφ r<a

o

∞

ρn Cn cos nφ + Dn sin nφ + ρ−n En cos nφ + Fn sin nφ

Φm (ρ, φ) = n=1 a<r<b

P∞ ρ−n G cos nφ + H sin nφ

r>b

n=1 n n

Actually, we may argue on symmetry grounds that the sin terms must all

vanish: otherwise, the fields would take different values on the positive and

negative y axes, but there is nothing in the problem distinguishing these axes

from each other. With this simplification we may write down expressions for

the components of the H field in the three regions:

∞

∂ X

−nAn ρn−1 cos nφ,

− Φm = r<a

∂r

n=1

∞

∂ X

Hr = − Φm = −n Cn ρn−1 − En ρ−(n+1) cos nφ, a<r<b

∂r n=1

∞

∂ h X

−(n+1)

i

(1/µ )B − Φ = (1/µ )B cos φ + nG ρ cos nφ , r < b.

0 0r m 0 0 n

∂r

n=1

∞

∂ X

nAn ρn−1 sin nφ,

− Φm = r<a

∂φ

n=1

∞

∂ X

Hφ = − Φm = n Cn ρn−1 + En ρ−(n+1) sin nφ, a<r<b

∂φ n=1

∞

∂ h X

−(n+1)

i

(1/µ )B − Φ = − (1/µ )B sin φ + nG ρ sin nφ , r < b.

0 0φ m 0 0 n

∂φ

n=1

where µ = µ0 outside the cylinder and µr µ0 inside. With the above expressions

for the components of H, we have

∞ ∞

1 X X

B0 cos φ + nGn b−(n+1) cos nφ = µr −n Cn bn−1 − En b−(n+1) cos nφ

µ0 n=1 n=1

∞ ∞

1 X X

− B0 sin φ + nGn b−(n+1) sin nφ = n Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) sin nφ.

µ0 n=1 n=1

We may multiply both sides of these by cos nφ and sin nφ and integrate from

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 11

0 to 2π to find

1

B0 + G1 b−2 = −µr C1 + µr E1 b−2 (13)

µ0

Gn b−(n+1) = −µr Cn bn−1 − En b−(n−1) , n 6= 1 (14)

1

− B0 + G1 b−2 = C1 + E1 b−2 (15)

µ0

Gn b−(n+1) = Cn bn−1 + En b−(n+1) , n 6= 1 (16)

Similarly, at r = a we obtain

A1 = µr C1 − µr E1 a−2 (17)

An an−1 = µr Cn an−1 − En a−(n+1) , n 6= 1

A1 = C1 + E1 a−2 (18)

An an−1 = Cn an−1 + En a−(n+1) , n 6= 1.

(19)

n = 1, multiplying (15) by µr and adding and subtracting with (13) yields

B0

2µr C1 = −(µr + 1) + (µr − 1)G1 b−2 (20)

µ0

B0 2

2µr E1 = (1 − µr ) b + (µr + 1)G1 . (21)

µ0

On the other hand, multiplying (18) by µr and adding and subtracting with

(17) yields

2

2µr E1 = (µr − 1)a A1 . (23)

B0 (µr − 1)

A1 = − + G1 b−2

µ0 (µr + 1)

B 0 b2

(µr + 1)

A1 = − + G1 a−2

µ0 a 2 (µr − 1)

and now equating these two equations gives

(µ2r − 1)b2

a 2

B0

G1 = 1 − 2 2 2 2

b2 .

b (µr + 1) b − (µr − 1) a µ0

frag replacements

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 12

(a/b) = 0.1

-1

-1.5

log10 r

-2

-2.5

-3

-3.5

-4

-4.5

0 1 2 3 4 5

log10 µr

Figure 2: Damping of field inside cylindrical cylinder of permeability µr .

−4µr b2 B0

A1 = 2 2 2 2

(µr + 1) b − (µr − 1) a µ0

−2(µr + 1)b2 B0

C1 = 2 2 2 2

(µr + 1) b − (µr − 1) a µ0

−2(µr − 1)b2 B0 2

E1 = 2 2 2 2

a .

(µr + 1) b − (µr − 1) a µ0

The H field is

4µr b2 B0

H= î, r<a

(µr + 1)2 b2

− (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0

2b2 B 0 n a 2 a 2 o

= 2 2 2 2

(µr + 1) + (µr − 1) î − 2(µr − 1) cos φr̂ , a < r < b

(µr + 1) b − (µr − 1) a µ0 r r

2 2 2

2

B0 (b − a )(µr − 1) B0 b

= î + î + 2 sin φ φ̂ , r > b.

µ (µr + 1)2 b2 − (µr − 1)2 a2 µ0 r2

The ratio r of the field within the cylinder to the external field is

4µr

r= 2 .

(µr + 1)2 − (µr − 1)2 ab2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 13

Problem 5.16

A circular loop of wire of radius a and negligible thickness carries a current I. The

loop is centered in a spherical cavity of radius b > a in a large block of soft iron.

Assume that the relative permeability of the iron is effectively infinite and that of

the medium in the cavity, unity.

(a) In the approximation of b a, show that the magnetic field at the center of

the loop is augmented by a factor (1 + a3 /2b3 ) by the presence of the iron.

(b) What is the radius of the ”image” current loop (carrying the same current)

that simulates the effect of the iron for r < b?

(a) There are two distinct current distributions in this problem: the free current

density J1 flowing in the loop, and the bound current density J2 flowing in the

iron. These give rise to two fields B1 and B2 , which must be summed at each

point in space to get the observed field.

B1 is just the field of a planar current loop, which Jackson has already

worked out for us in his section 5.5:

∞

µ0 I X (−1)n (2n + 1)!! r 2n

P2n+1 (cos θ), r < a

2n n!

2a n=0 a

B1r = ∞ (24)

µ0 Ia2 X (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n

P2n+1 (cos θ), r > a.

2r3

2n n! r

n=0

∞

µ0 I X (−1)n (2n − 1)!! r 2n 1

P2n+1 (cos θ), r < a

2n−1 n!

4a n=0 a

B1θ = ∞ (25)

µ0 Ia2 X (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n 1

− 4r3 P2n+1 (cos θ), r > a.

2n (n + 1)!

n=0

r

On the other hand, since J2 vanishes for r < b, the field B2 to which it gives

rise has no divergence or curl in that region, which means that throughout the

region it may be derived from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation:

"∞ #

X

B2 = −∇Φm = −∇ An rn Pn (cos θ)

n=0

∞

X

→ B2r = nAn rn−1 Pn (cos θ) (26)

n=1

X∞

B2θ = An rn−1 Pn1 (cos θ) (27)

n=1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 14

Since the iron filling the space r > b is assumed to have infinite permeability,

the H field (and hence the B field, since B = H for r < b) must be strictly

radial at the boundary r = b. The An coefficients are thus determined by the

requirement that (27) and (25) sum to zero at r = b:

∞ ∞

X µ0 Ia2 X (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n 1

An bn−1 Pn1 (cos θ) = P2n+1 (cos θ).

n=1

4b3 n=0 2n (n + 1)! b

The orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials requires that each

term in the sum cancel individually, whence

A2n = 0

µ0 Ia2 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! a 2n

A2n+1 = .

4b3 2n (n + 1)! b2

Then the field of the bound current in the iron is determined everywhere in the

region r < b:

∞

µ0 Ia2 X (−1)n (2n + 1)(2n + 1)!! ar 2n

B2r = P2n+1 (cos θ) (28)

4b3 n=0 2n (n + 1)! b2

∞

µ0 Ia2 X (−1)n (2n + 1)!! ar 2n 1

B2θ = P2n+1 (cos θ). (29)

4b3 n=0 2n (n + 1)! b2

As r → 0, B2θ → 0 and B2r → µ0 Ia2 /4b3 , while B1r → µ0 I/2a, so the total

field at r = 0 is

µ0 Ia2 a3

µ0 I µ0 I

Br (r = 0) = B1r (r = 0) + B2r (r = 0) = + = 1+ 3 .

2a 4b3 2a 2b

(b) The B2 field may be attributed to an image current ring outside r = b if,

for suitable redefinitions of I and a, the expressions (28) and (29) can be made

to look like the r < a versions of (24) and (25).

Problem 5.18

vacuum with its center a distance d away from a semi-infinite slab of permeability

µ. Find the force acting on the loop when

(a) the plane of the loop is parallel to the face of the slab,

(b) the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the face of the slab.

(c) Determine the limiting form of your answer to parts a and b when d a.

Can you obtain these limiting values in some simple and direct way?

(a) We’ll take the loop to be at z = +d, and the slab of permeability µ to

occupy the space z < 0, so that the boundary surface is z = 0.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 15

H may be obtained from a scalar potential, H = −∇Φm , and since ∇ · H = 0

as well we have ∇2 Φm = 0. The azimuthally symmetric solution of the Laplace

equation in cylindrical coordinates that remains finite as z → −∞ is

Z ∞

Φm (z < 0) = dk A(k)ekz J0 (kρ), (30)

0

Z ∞

∂

Hρ (z < 0) = − Φm = − dk kA(k)ekz J00 (kρ)

∂ρ 0

Z ∞

= dk kA(k)ekz J1 (kρ) (31)

0

Z ∞

∂

Hz (z < 0) = − Φm = − dk kA(k)ekz J0 (kρ). (32)

∂z 0

On the other hand, for z > 0 we may decompose the H field into two

components: one component H1 arising from the current loop, and a second

component H2 arising from the bound currents running in the slab. H1 is just

given by the curl of the vector potential we worked out in Problem 5.10:

µ0 Ia ∞

Z

dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), z>d

1 2

0

H1 = ∇×A, A = Aφ φ̂, Aφ =

µ0 µ Ia ∞

Z

0 dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ),

z < d.

2 0

so

1 ∂

H1ρ = − Aφ

µ0 ∂z

Ia ∞

Z

dk ke−k(z−d) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), z>d

2 0

=

Ia ∞

Z

dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)J1 (kρ),

−

z < d.

2 0

(33)

1 1 ∂

H1z = (ρAφ )

µ0 ρ ∂ρ

Ia ∞

1

Z

−k(z−d)

2 dk ke J1 (ka) J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) z>d

0 kρ

= Z ∞

Ia 1

dk ke−k(d−z) J1 (ka)

J1 (kρ) − J0 (kρ) , z < d.

2 0 kρ

(34)

In the last two equations we may use Jackson’s identity (3.87),

1 1

J1 (kρ) = [J0 (kρ) + J2 (kρ)]

kρ 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 16

to rewrite H1z as

Ia ∞

Z

4 dk e−k(z−d) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] , z > d

H1z = Z0 (35)

Ia ∞

dk e−k(d−z) J1 (ka) [J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)] , z < d.

4 0

Since the H2 field arises entirely from bound currents, it may also be derived

from a scalar potential Φm satisfying the Laplace equation. The azimuthally

symmetric solution of the Laplace equation in cylindrical coordinates that re-

mains finite for all ρ and as z → +∞ is

Z ∞

Φm (z > 0) = dk B(k)e−kz J0 (kρ)

0

Z ∞

H2r (z > 0) = − dk kB(k)e−kz J1 (kρ) (36)

0

Z ∞

H2z (z > 0) = dk kB(k)e−kz J0 (kρ). (37)

0

The required forms of the functions A(k) and B(k) are determined by the

boundary conditions on H at the medium boundary, z = 0:

Hρ (z = 0− ) = Hρ (z = 0+ ) µHρ (z = 0− ) = µ0 Hρ (z = 0+ ).

∞ ∞ ∞

µ0 Ia

Z Z Z

− dk kA(k)J0 (kρ) = dk ke−kd J1 (ka) (J2 (kρ) − J0 (kρ)) + dk kB(k)J0 (kρ)

0 2 0 0

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

April 20, 2001

Problem 5.19

and radius a. The cylinder has a permanent magnetization M0 , uniform throughout

its volume and parallel to its axis.

(a) Determing the magnetic field H and magnetic induction B at all points on the

axis of the cylinder, both inside and outside.

(b) Plot the ratios B/µ0 M0 and H/M0 at all points on the axis of the cylinder,

both inside and outside.

scalar potential Φm (ρ, z) satisfying the Laplace equation. Dividing space into

three regions

Z ∞

dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ), z > L/2

0

Z ∞

dk B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz J0 (kρ),

Φm = − L/2 < z < L/2

0

Z ∞

dk D(k)ekz J0 (kρ),

z < −L/2.

0

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 2

∂Φm ∂Φm

=

∂ρ z= L + ∂ρ z= L −

2 2

Z ∞ Z ∞ h i

⇒ dk kA(k)e −kL/2

J1 (kρ) = dk k B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J1 (kρ)

0 0

(1)

This must hold for all ρ. Multiplying both sides by ρJ1 (k 0 ρ), integrating from

ρ = 0 to ρ = ∞, and using the identity

Z ∞

1

dρ ρJn (kρ)Jn (k 0 ρ) = δ(k − k 0 ) (2)

0 k

Bz (z = L/2+) = Bz (L/2−)

or

µ0 Hz (z = L/2+) = µ0 Hz (z = L/2−) + Mz (z = L/2−)

∂Φm ∂Φm

= + M (ρ)

∂z z= L + ∂z z= L −

2 2

Z ∞ Z ∞ h i

⇒ dk kA(k)e −kL/2

J0 (kρ) = dk k −B(k)ekL/2 + C(k)e−kL/2 J0 (kρ) + M (ρ)

0 0

(4)

where (

M1 , ρ<a

M (ρ) =

0, ρ > a.

Now we multiply both sides of (4) by ρJ0 (k 0 ρ) and integrate from ρ = 0 to

ρ = ∞ to obtain

Z a

A(k) = −B(k)ekL + C(k) + M1 ekL/2 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ

0

= −B(k)ekL + C(k) + γ(k) (5)

where we defined

a

aM1 kL/2

Z

γ(k) = M1 ekL/2 ρJ0 (kρ)dρ = e J1 (ka).

0 k

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 3

1 −kL 1

B(k) = e γ(k) C(k) = A(k) − γ(k). (6)

2 2

From the boundary conditions at z = −L/2 we may similarly obtain the rela-

tions

B(k) − C(k)ekL = D(k) − γ(k)

1 1 −kL

B(k) = D(k) − γ(k) C(k) = e γ(k). (7)

2 2

Comparing (6) and (7) we find

M1 a kL

A(k) = D(k) = cosh J1 (ka)

k 2

M1 a −kL/2

B(k) = C(k) = e J1 (ka).

2k

Then the components of the H field are

Z ∞

kL −kz

M a dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), z > L/2

1

2

0

Z ∞

Hρ = M 1 a dk e−kL/2 cosh(kz)J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), − L/2 < z < L/2

0

Z ∞

kL kz

M1 a dk cosh e J1 (ka)J1 (kρ), z < −L/2

2

0

Z ∞

kL −kz

M1 a dk cosh e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ), z > L/2

2

0

Z ∞

Hz = −M1 a dk e−kL/2 sinh(kz)J1 (ka)J0 (kρ), − L/2 < z < L/2

0

Z ∞

kL kz

−M1 a dk cosh e J1 (ka)J0 (kρ), z < −L/2.

2

0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 4

Problem 5.23

A right circular cylinder of length L and radius a has a uniform lengthwise magne-

tization M .

(a) Show that, when it is placed with its flat end against an infinitely permeable

plane surface, it adheres with a force

K(k) − E(k) K(k1 ) − E(k1 )

F = 2µ0 aLM 2 −

k k1

where

2a a

k=√ , k1 = √ .

4a2 + L2 a2 + L2

(b) Find the limiting form of the force if L a.

We’ll define our coordinate system so that the z axis is the cylinder axis,

and we’ll take the surface of the permeable medium at z = 0.

Our general strategy for this problem will be as follows. First, we’ll find

the magnetic field H0 that exists in all space when the cylinder is pressed up

flat against the infinitely permeable medium. Then we’ll calculate the shift dE

in the energy of the magnetic field incurred by moving the cylinder up a small

distance dz off the surface of the medium. The force on the cylinder is then

readily calculated as F = −dE/dz.

To calculate the energy shift incurred by moving the cylinder a distance dz

away from the permeable medium, we won’t have to go through and completely

recalculate the fields and their energy in the new configuration. Instead, we

can use the following little trick. When we move the cylinder up a distance dz,

two things happen. First a gap of height dz opens between the surface and the

face of the cylinder, where previously there had been a fixed magnetization M,

but now there is just free space. Second, between L and L + dz there is now a

fixed magnetization M where previously there was none. Moving the cylinder of

fixed M up a distance dz is thus formally equivalent to keeping the cylinder put

and instead introducing a cylinder of the opposite magnetization −M between 0

and dz, while also introducing a cylinder of magnetization +M between L and

L + dz. The increase in field energy in this latter case is fairly easily calculated

by taking the integral of µ0 Mc˙

H0 over the regions in which the fixed magnetization changes.

So the first task is to find the field that exists when the cylinder is pressed

flat against the surface. Since there are no free currents in the problem, we

may derive H from a scalar potential satisfying the Laplace equation. To be-

gin we write down the general solutions of the Laplace equation in cylindrical

coordinates, observing first that by symmetry we can only keep terms with no

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 5

Z ∞

dk A(k)e−kz J0 (kρ), z>L

0

Z ∞

Φ(m) = dk [B(k)ekz + C(k)e−kz ]J0 (kρ), 0<z<L (8)

0

Z ∞

dk D(k)e+kz J0 (kρ),

z < 0.

0

ing first of all that the medium existing in the region below z = 0 has finite

permeability µ, the tangential boundary condition is

∂Φm ∂Φm

=

∂ρ z=0− ∂ρ z=0+

Z ∞ Z ∞

dk k D(k)J1 (kρ) = dk k [B(k) + C(k)]J1 (kρ). (9)

0 0

0

Multiplying (9) by ρJ1 (k ρ), integrating from 0 to ∞, and using the identity

(2), we find

D(k) = B(k) + C(k). (10)

The normal boundary condition at z = 0 is of a mixed type. Below the line

we have simply Bz = µHz . Above the line we may write Bz = µ0 [Hz + M (ρ)],

where M (ρ) represents the fixed magnetic polarization of the cylinder:

(

M, ρ<a

M (ρ) = (11)

0, ρ > a.

∂ ∂

−µ Φm

= −µ0 Φm + µ0 M (ρ)

∂z z=0− ∂z z=0+

Z ∞ Z ∞

µ

− dk k D(k)J0 (kρ) = − dk k [B(k) − C(k)]J0 (kρ) + M (ρ)

µ0 0 0

Now multiplying by ρJ0 (k 0 ρ), integrating from ρ = 0 to ∞, and using (2) yields

Z ∞

µ

D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − ρ M (ρ)J0 (kρ) dρ. (12)

µ0 0

Z a

Ma

M ρJ0 (kρ) dρ = J1 (ka) ≡ γ(k)

0 k

where we defined a convenient shorthand. Then (12) is

µ

D(k) = −B(k) + C(k) − γ(k).

µ0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 6

Now taking µ → ∞, we see that, to keep the B and C coefficients from blowing

up, we must have D → 0. Then equation (??) tells us that B(k) = −C(k), so

the middle entry in (8) may be rewritten:

Z ∞

Φm (z, ρ) = dk β(k) sinh(kz)J0 (kρ), (0 < z < L).

0

∂Φm ∂Φm

=

∂ρ z=L+ ∂ρ z=L−

∂Φm ∂Φm

− = − + M (ρ)

∂z z=L+ ∂z z=L−

with M (ρ) defined as above. Working through the same procedure as above

yields the conditions

A(k)e−kL = β(k) cosh(kL) + γ(k)

β(k) = −γ(k)e+kL

A(k) = γ(k) sinh(kL).

Plugging these back into (8) and differentiating, we find for the z component of

the H field

Z ∞

M a dk e−kz cosh(kL)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka), z>L

0

Hz (ρ, z) = Z ∞ (13)

dk e−kL cosh(kz)J0 (kρ)J1 (ka),

−M a

0 < z < L.

0

Now that we know the field, we want to find the change in energy density

incurred by putting into this field a short cylinder (radius a, height dz) of

magnetization −M k̂ between z = 0 and z = dz, and another cylinder of the

same size but with magnetization +M k̂ between z = L and z = L + dz. The

change in field energy is just the integral of µ0 M · H over the volume in which

the magnetization density has changed:

Z dz Z a Z L+dz Z a

dU = −2πµ0 M Hz (z, ρ)ρ dρ dz + 2πµ0 M Hz (z, ρ)ρ dρ dz

0 0 L 0

a

Z Z a

= 2πµ0 M dz Hz (L, ρ)ρ dρ − Hz (0, ρ)ρ dρ (14)

0 0

where in the last step we assumed that Hz remains essentially constant over

a distance dz in the z direction, and may thus be taken out of the integral.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 5 7

Inserting (13) into (), and exchanging the order of integration, we first do the ρ

integral: Z a

a

J0 (kρ)ρdρ = J1 (ka).

0 k

Then () becomes

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

March 28, 2002

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 2

Problem 6.2

The charge and current densities for a single point charge q can be written formally

as

ρ(x0 , t0 ) = qδ[x0 − r(t0 )]; J(x0 , t0 ) = qv(t0 )δ[x0 − r(t0 )]

where r(t0 ) is the charge’s position at time t0 and v(t0 ) is its velocity. In evaluating

expressions involving the retarded time, one must put t0 = tret = t − R(t0 )/c, where

R = x − r(t0 ).

(a) As a preliminary to deriving the Heaviside-Feynman expressions for the electric

and magnetic fields of a point charge, show that

1

Z

d3 x0 δ[x0 − r(tret )] =

κ

(b) Starting with the Jefimenko generalizations of the Coulomb and Biot-Savart

laws, use the expressions for the charge and current densities for a point charge

and the result of part a to obtain the Heaviside-Feynman expressions for the

electric and magnetic fields of a point charge,

(" # " # )

q R̂ 1 ∂ R̂ 1 ∂ h v i

E= + − 2

4π0 κR2 c ∂t κR c ∂t κR ret

ret ret

and (" # " # )

µ0 q v × R̂ 1 ∂ v × R̂

B= +

4π κR2 c ∂t κR

ret ret

(c) In our notation Feynman’s expression for the electric field is

(" # " # )

q R̂ [R]ret ∂ R̂ 1 ∂2

E= + + 2 2 [R̂]ret

4π0 R2 c ∂t R2 c ∂t

ret ret

while Heaviside’s expression for the magnetic field is

(" # " # )

µ0 q v × R̂ 1 ∂ v × R̂

B= + .

4π κ2 R 2 c[R]ret ∂t κ

ret ret

Show the equivalence of the two sets of expressions for the fields.

(a) Let’s first assume that the charge is traveling along the z axis, so that its

position is given by

r(t) = (z0 + vz t)k̂.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 3

z

tret (t, z) = t −

c

so

r[tret (t, z)] = (z0 + vz tret (t, z))k̂.

Hence

n z o

= δ(x)δ(y)δ z − [z0 + vz (t − )]

c

n vz o

= δ(x)δ(y)δ z − z0 − vz t + z)]

c

n vz o

= δ(x)δ(y)δ 1 + z − (z0 + vz t)

c

By the properties of the δ function we may write this as

1 z0 + v z t

= δ(x)δ(y)δ z − .

1 + vz /c 1 + vz /c

The δ function is singling out the point in space from which originates the

electromagnetic disturbance we feel at the origin at time t. Let’s think about

what’s going on here in two limiting cases. First, as vz → 0, the z delta function

becomes δ(z−(z0 +vz t)). This means that the source point for the field we feel at

the origin at time t is just z = z0 − vz t, which is of course just the instantaneous

location of the source particle at time t. In other words, the electromagnetic

disturbance left behind by the particle at time t reaches the origin so quickly

that the particle hasn’t had time to move on. The electromagnetic disturbance

seems to be coming from the instantaneous location of the particle itself.

In the opposite limit vz → c, the z delta function becomes δ(z −(z0 −vz t)/2).

This says that the point from which we feel an electromagnetic disturbance at

time t is half as far from the origin as the particle itself is at time t. This

again makes sense. At each point in the particle’s motion, the electromagnetic

disturbance it causes begins propagating toward the origin, while meanwhile

the particle continues propagating away from the origin at the same speed.

Hence when the electromagnetic disturbance has reached the origin, the particle

has traveled as far as the electromagnetic disturbance did, but in the opposite

direction, so it is now twice as far from the origin as it was when the disturbance

we are just now feeling was generated.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 4

Problem 6.5

Into this field is placed a small localized time-independent current density J(x),

which generates a magnetic field H.

(a) Show that the momentum of these electromagnetic fields, (6.117), can be trans-

formed to

1

Z

Pfield = 2 ΦJ d3 x

c

provided the product ΦH falls of rapidly enough at large distances. How

rapidly is “rapidly enough”?

(b) Assuming that the current distribution is localized to a region small compared

to the scale of variation of the electric field, expand the electrostatic potential

in a Taylor series and show that

1

Pfield = E(0) × m,

c2

where E(0) is the electric field at the current distribution and m is the mag-

netic moment, (5.54), caused by the current.

(c) Suupose the current distribution is placed instead in a uniform electric field

E0 (filling all space). Show that, no matter how complicated is the localized

J, the result in part a is augmented by a surface integral contribution from

infinity equal to minus one-third of the result of part b, yielding

2

Pfield = E0 × m.

3c2

Compare this result with that obtained by working directly with (6.117) and

the considerations at the end of Section 5.6.

Z

c2 Pfield = E × H dV

Z

= − (∇Φ) × H dV.

∂Φ ∂Φ

Z

c 2 Pz = − ( Hy − Hx ) dx dy dz (1)

∂x ∂y

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 5

eventually take to infinity. Integrating the first term by parts with respect to

x, we have

Z L Z L (Z L ) Z LZ L x=L

∂Φ ∂Hy

Z

Hy dx dy dz = ΦHy − Φ dx dy dz.

−L −L −L ∂x −L −L x=−L ∂x

Similarly integrating the second term in (1) by parts with respect to y, we may

write (1) as

Z LZ L x=L Z LZ L y=L Z

c 2 Pz = − ΦHy dy dz + ΦHx dx dz + Φ(∇ × H)z dV

−L −L x=−L −L −L y=−L

Z L Z L x=L Z L Z L y=L Z

=− ΦHy dy dz + ΦHx dx dz + ΦJz dV

−L −L x=−L −L −L y=−L

dependent E field. This equation is just the z component of

Z Z

2

c P = ΦH × dA + ΦJ dV. (2)

vanishes providing the product Φ(x)H(x) vanishes more quickly (i.e. like a

higher power of x) than x2 . Then we are left with just the second term:

Z

2

c P = ΦJ dV. (3)

(b) We have

1X ∂2Φ

Φ(x) = Φ(0) + x · ∇Φ(0) + xi xj +···

2 ∂xi ∂xj

We may arbitrarily choose Φ(0) = 0. Also, we are told that the electric field

doesn’t vary much in the region of nonvanishing J, in which case we may ignore

the second derivatives of Φ, to obtain

c2 P = −

x · E(0) J dV. (4)

We have

− x · E(0) J = E(0) × J x − x · E(0) J − E(0) × J x

= E(0) × x × J − E(0) × J x

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 6

where in the first line we added and subtracted a term, and in the second used

the BAC-CAB identity of vector analysis. With this, (4) becomes

Z Z

c2 P = E(0) ×

x + J dV − E(0) × J] x dV

Z

= 2E(0) × m − E(0) × J] x dV

where in the first term we have identified the definition of the dipole moment m.

Evidently to get this to match up with what Jackson has we need to argue that

second term is exactly half the first, but I can’t see how to do this for arbitrary

J. Can anybody help?

(c) From (2) we have

Z Z

c2 P = ΦH × dA + ΦJ dV.

The second term is just equal to (E × m)/c2 , as computed in part b. For the

first term,

Problem 6.13

sheets of dimensions a and b separated by a distance d small compared to a or b.

Current is fed in and taken out uniformly along adjacent edges of length b. With

the input current and voltage defined at this end of the capacitor, calculate the

input impedance or admittance using the field concepts of Section 6.9.

(a) Calculate the electric and magnetic fields in the capacitor correct to second

order in powers of the frequency, but neglecting fringing fields.

(b) Show that the expansion of the reactance (6.140) in powers of the frequency

to an appropriate order is the same as that obtained for a lumped circuit

consisting of a capacitance C = 0 ab/d in series with an inductance L =

µ0 ad/3b.

(a) We’ll suppose the plates are oriented parallel to the xy plane, with the lower

plate at z = 0 and the upper plate at z = d. We’ll take the edges of side a

parallel to the x axis, and the edges of side b parallel to the y axis. Then the

boundary condition on the current density is

J(0, y, 0) = −J(0, y, d) = J0 ĵ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 7

With neglect of fringing fields, the electric field between the plates exists

only in the z direction, while the magnetic field exists only in the x direction.

We assume harmonic time dependence and write

tions are then

∂E

∇·E=0 ⇒ =0

∂z

∂B

∇·B=0 ⇒ =0

∂x

∂B ∂E (6)

∇×E=− ⇒ = +iωB

∂t ∂y

1 ∂E ∂B iω

∇×B= 2 ⇒ =+ E.

c ∂t ∂y c2

We postulate an expansion in powers of ω for E and B:

(7)

B(y) = B0 (y) + ωB1 (y) + ω 2 B2 (y) + · · ·

∂

E0 + ωE1 + ω 2 E2 + · · · = iω B0 + ωB1 + ω 2 B2 + · · ·

∂y

∂ iω

B0 + ωB1 + ω 2 B2 + · · · = 2 E0 + ωE1 + ω 2 E2 + · · ·

∂y c

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 8

∂E0

=0 ⇒ E0 = α

∂y

∂B0

=0 ⇒ B0 = β

∂y

∂E1

= iB0 = iβ ⇒ E1 = iβy

∂y

∂B1 i iα iα

= 2

E0 = 2 ⇒ B1 = y

∂y c c c2

∂E2 α α

= iB1 = − 2 y ⇒ E2 = − 2 y2

∂y c 2c

∂B2 i β β

= 2 E1 = − 2 y ⇒ B2 = − 2 y2

∂y c c 2c

∂E3 iβ iβ

= iB2 = − 2 y 2 ⇒ E3 = − 2 y3

∂y 2c 6c

∂B3 i iα iα

= 2 E2 = − 4 y 2 ⇒ B3 = − 4 y3

∂y c 2c 6c

∂E4 α 3 iβ 4

= iB3 = y ⇒ E4 = y

∂y 24c4 24c2

∂B4 i β β 4

= 2 E3 = + 4 y 3 ⇒ B4 = y

∂y c 6c 24c4

E(y) = α(1 − + + · · · ) + iβc(ky − + ···) (8)

2 24 6

= α cos ky + iβc sin ky (9)

iα

B(y) = β cos ky + sin ky (10)

c

where k = ω/c, and where we simply wrote down what we guessed to be the

sums of the full infinite series from their first few terms.

To complete the problem we need to determine the constants α and β, for

which purpose we appeal to the boundary conditions on the plates. We know

that the discontinuities in the E and B field are proportional to the surface

charge and current densities on the plates. Since these conditions only give

information on the differences between the fields outside and between the plates,

we ostensibly have to know what the fields are outside to get what they are

inside. But for the purposes of this problem we’ll just assume there are no

fields outside, so the charge and current densities on the plates determine the

fields inside. I know this is correct in the low-frequency limit, and in the high-

frequency limit I’m not yet sure how to compute the radiation fields in the

region outside the plates, so I will ignore them.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 9

σ

Ez = −

0

Bx = −µ0 Ky

where σ and Ky are the charge density and y component of the surface current

density on the top plate (assumed to be identical but with opposite sign on the

bottom plate). Plugging in the solutions (9) and (??), we have

1 iα (11)

Ky = − (β cos ky + sin ky)

µ0 c

As a sanity check, we can verify the continuity relation between charge and

current on the plates:

∂Ky ∂σ

=− = +iωσ

∂y ∂t

Plugging in (11), the left and right sides of this are

1 ikα

LHS = − (−kβ sin ky + cos ky)

µ0 c

RHS = −iω0(α cos ky + iβc sin ky)

The forcing function in this problem is the surface current density specified

on the edges of length b. If the total current fed into the y = 0 edge of the top

plate is I(t) = I0 cos ωt (with an opposite current taken out of the y = 0 edge

of the bottom plate) then the surface current boundary conditions are

I0

Ky (y = 0) = cos ωt

b

Ky (y = a) = 0

Comparing with (11), we see that these boundary conditions we have to take

µ0 I 0

β=− cos ωt

b

iµ0 I0 c

α=− cos ωt cot ka

b

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 10

iµ0 I0 c

Ez = − cos ωt [cot ka cos ky + sin ky]

b

iµ0 I0 c 1

=− cos ωt [cos ka cos ky + sin ka sin ky]

b sin ka

iµ0 I0 c cos[k(y − a)]

=− cos ωt

b sin ka

µ0 I 0

Bz = − cos ωt [− cos ky + cot ka sin ky]

b

µ0 I 0 1

=− cos ωt [− sin ka cos ky + cos ka sin ky]

b sin ka

µ0 I 0 sin[k(y − a)]

=− cos ωt

b sin ka

Problem 6.14

connected to a current source by axial leads, as shown in the sketch. The current

in the wire is I(t) = I0 cos ωt.

(a) Calculate the electric and magnetic fields between the plates to second order in

powers of the frequency (or wave number), neglecting the effects of fringing

fields.

(b) Calculate the volume integrals of we and wm that enter the definition of the

reactance X, (6.140), to second order in ω. Show that in terms of the input

current Ii , defined by Ii = −iωQ, where Q is the total charge on one plate,

these energies are

1 |Ii |2 d µ0 |Ii |2 d ω 2 a2

Z Z

3 3

we d x = , wm d x = 1+

4π0 ω 2 a2 4π 8 12c2

(c) Show that the equivalent series circuit has C ≈ π0 a2 /d, L ≈ µ0 d/8π,

√ and

that an estimate for the resonant frequency of the system is ωres = 2 2c/a.

Compare with the first root of J0 (x).

(∝ e−iωt ) for all quantities; then time differentiation is replaced by multiplica-

tion by −iω. If we neglect the effects of fringing fields, everything is symmetric

in θ, and the electric field between the plates is entirely in the z direction, while

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 11

E(x, t) = E(r, z)e−iωt ẑ B = B(r, z)e−iωt θ̂. (12)

The Maxwell equations for the fields between the plates are

∂

∇·E=0 ⇒ E=0

∂z

∂

∇·B=0 ⇒ B=0

∂θ (13)

∂B ∂E

∇×E=− ⇒ = −iωB

∂t ∂r

1 ∂E 1 ∂ iω

∇×B= 2 ⇒ (rB) = − 2 E.

c ∂t r ∂r c

To proceed, let’s propose an expansion of the fields in powers of the frequency:

E(r) = E0 (r, z) + ωE1 (r, z) + ω 2 E2 (r, z) + · · · (14)

2

B(r) = B0 (r, z) + ωB1 (r, z) + ω B2 (r, z) + · · · (15)

Then the curl equations in (13) become

∂

E0 + ωE1 + ω 2 E2 = −iω B0 + ωB1 + ω 2 B2

∂r

1 ∂ iω

rB0 + ωrB1 + ω 2 rB2 = − 2 E0 + ωE1 + ω 2 E2

r ∂r c

Now we just have to go through and equate like powers of ω in these equations.

For n = 0, we have

∂E0

=0 ⇒ E 0 = α1 (16)

∂r

for some constant α1 , and

1 ∂ β

(rB0 ) = 0 ⇒ B0 = . (17)

r ∂r r

But for nonzero β this blows up at the origin. Hence we must take β = 0, so

B0 = 0. 2 For n = 1, we have

∂E1

= −iB0 = 0 ⇒ E 1 = α2 (18)

∂r

for some constant α2 , and

1 ∂ i iα1 iα1

(rB1 ) = − 2 E0 = − 2 ⇒ B1 = − r. (19)

r ∂r c c 2c2

Continuing,

∂E2 α1 α1 2

= −iB1 = − 2 r ⇒ E2 = − r (20)

∂r 2c 4c2

1 ∂ i iα2 iα2

(rB2 ) = − 2 E1 = − 2 ⇒ B2 = − 2 r (21)

r ∂r c c 2c

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 12

∂E3 α2 α2 2

= −iB2 = − 2 r ⇒ E3 = − r (22)

∂r 2c 4c2

1 ∂ i iα1 iα1 3

(rB3 ) = − 2 E2 = 4 r2 ⇒ B3 = r (23)

r ∂r c 4c 16c4

Evidently E2n and E2n+1 have the same form but differ by the presence of

α1 or α2 , as is true for B2n−1 and B2n . Plugging in equations (16) through (23)

into (14) and (15), we obtain

ω2 2 ω4 4

E(r) = (α1 + ωα2 ) 1 − 2

r + r +···

4c 64c4

(kr)2 (kr)4

= (α1 + ωα2 ) 1 − + +···

4 64

(kr)2

i kr

B(r) = − (α1 + ωα2 ) 1− +···

c 2 8

These look the first few terms in certain Bessel functions:

i

B(r) = − βJ1 (kr)

c

where we can define the constant β = (α1 + ωα2 ) since we’re dealing with a

fixed frequency. Inserting into (12) we obtain

i

E(r, t) = βJ0 (kr)e−iωt k̂ B(r, t) = − βJ1 (kr)e−iωt θ̂. (24)

c

To work out the value of β, we need to apply the boundary conditions at the

capacitor plates. An easy way to do this is to consider what happens as ω → 0.

In that limit there is no magnetic field, and the electric field between the plates

is just Ez (t) = −2σ(t)/0 , where σ(t) is the instantaneous value of the surface

charge induced on each plate (positive on the top plate, negative on the bottom).

Now, the total charge on the top plate is just the integral of the current flowing

onto that plate:

I0

Z

q = I(t) dt = sin ωt

ω

and the surface charge is this divided by the plate area (since we are assuming a

low frequency, any charge that flows onto the plate instantaneously equilibrates

with the rest of the charge on the plate, yielding a constant surface charge

density):

I0

σ(t) = sin ωt.

πa2 ω

Hence the electric field in the low frequency limit is

2I0

Ez (ω → 0) = − sin ω.

πa2 ω0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 6 13

2I0 i

β=− .

πa2 ω0

Hence

2I0 2µ0 I0 c

E(r, t) = − J0 (kr) sin ωt k̂ B(r, t) = J1 (kr) cos ωt θ̂. (25)

πa2 ω0 πa2 ω

0 2 I02 kr 2

we = E = 2 2

1− +···

4 (πa ω) 0 4

2 2

2

1 2 µ0 I 0 c kr (kr)2 2

wm = B = 1 − + · · ·

4µ20 (πa2 ω)2 2 8

We only have to keep the first terms in the parentheses to get the energy right

to second order in ω:

Z a

I02

Ue ≈ (2πd)(r dr)

(πa2 ω)2 0 0

I02 d

=

πa2 ω 2 0

Z a Z a

µ0 I02 c2 kr (kr)3 µ0 I02 c2 kr (kr)3

Um = (2πd)(rdr) − + · · · U m = (2πd)(rdr) − + · · ·

(πa2 ω)2 0 2 8 (πa2 ω)2 0 2 8

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

May 24, 2002

my own derivations of some of the formulas from this chapter.

The unifying feature of waveguide and cavity problems is that we single out

one spatial coordinate and announce from the start that the fields will have

sinusoidal dependence on that coordinate. Taking the special coordinate to be z,

this means that all components of all fields have the functional form f (x, y)eikz

for some wavevector k.

Assuming harmonic time dependence, we write explicitly

n o

E(x) = Ex (x, y)i + Ey (x, y)j + Ez (x, y)k ei(kz−ωt)

n o (1)

B(x) = Bx (x, y)i + By (x, y)j) + Bz (x, y)k ei(kz−ωt)

We have here a total of six functions f (x, y) that we must find to satisfy

Maxwell’s equations with the relevant boundary conditions. At first this would

appear tough since the six fields are all coupled by Maxwell’s equations, but

after a little algebra we obtain the following simplified situation: The z− di-

rection fields Ez (x, y) and Bz (x, y) turn out to satisfy (separately) simple one-

dimensional differential equations, which may be readily solved upon specifying

the boundary conditions for a particular situation. Meanwhile, the remaining

fields (Ex , Ey , Bx , By ) can be expressed simply as linear combinations of Ez and

Bz and their derivatives, so once we obtain the z fields we have everything. In

what follows we’ll derive the differential equations satisfied by Ez and Bz and

the equations giving the remaining fields in terms of them.

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 2

The Maxwell curl equations are

∂B 1 ∂E

∇×E=− , ∇×B=

∂t c2m ∂t

where cm is the speed of light in the medium. We begin by applying the first

curl equation to our ansatz (1), obtaining

∂y Ez − ikEy = iωBx (2)

−∂x Ez + ikEx = iωBy (3)

∂x Ey − ∂y Ex = iωBz , (4)

and we pause to solve the first two of these for Ex and Ey :

ω i ω i

Ex = By − ∂ x Ez , Ey = − Bx − ∂ y Ez . (5)

k k k k

Next we apply the second curl equation to our ansatz, obtaining

iω

∂y Bz − ikBy = − Ex (6)

c2m

ω

−∂x Bz + ikBx = −i 2 Ey (7)

cm

ω

∂x By − ∂y Bx = −i 2 Ez . (8)

cm

But in (5) we solved for Ex and Ey , and if we then plug those solutions into (6)

and (7) we can solve for Bx and By in terms of Bz and Ez :

ikc2

ω

Bx = 2 m2 2 ∂x Bz + 2 ∂y Ez (9)

ω − k cm cm k

ikc2

ω

By = 2 m2 2 ∂y Bz − 2 ∂x Ez . (10)

ω − k cm cm k

Finally, with the ansatz (1) the equation ∇ · B = 0 reads

∂Bx ∂By

+ = −ikBz .

∂x ∂y

When we plug (9) and (10) into this, the terms involving Ez fields cancel, and

we obtain an equation involving Bz alone:

2

∂2

2

∂ ω 2

+ 2 Bz + − k Bz = 0

∂x2 ∂y c2m

or

∂2 ∂2

+ Bz + γ 2 Bz = 0 (11)

∂x2 ∂y 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 3

where r

ω2

γ= − k2.

c2

If we had carried out this derivation in the reverse order we would have obtained

the same equation for Ez :

2

∂2

∂

+ Ez + γEz = 0. (12)

∂x2 ∂y 2

We can think of equations (11) and (12) as eigenvalue equations that have solu-

tions only for certain values of the parameter γ, which depend on the boundary

conditions.

Armed with equations (11) and (12) and the boundary conditions appropri-

ate to our problem we can now solve for Bz and Ez and then use (9) and (10)

to find the remaining components of the B field. The remaining components of

the E field are given by analogous equations:

ikc2m ω

Ex = ∂ x Ez +∂y Bz (13)

ω 2 − k 2 c2m k

ikc2 ω

Ey = 2 m2 2 ∂ y Ez − ∂ x Bz . (14)

ω − k cm k

The boundary conditions on the fields at the surfaces of the waveguide or cavity

are that Ek and B⊥ be continuous, where ⊥ denotes the component of the

vector normal to the boundary surface and k includes all other components of

the vector. This means that the two eigenvalue equations (11) and (12) must be

solved subject to different boundary conditions, which means in general their

eigenvalues will be different. If we have a solution of (12) for some value of γ

(i.e. for some combination of values of ω and k), then there will be no nonzero

solution of (11) for that value of γ, and hence we must have Bz = 0 identically

for the mode at that frequency and wavevector. Since in this case the magnetic

field has nonzero components only transverse to the direction of propagation,

this is called a transverse magnetic mode. Similarly, if (11) can be solved with

nonzero Bz at some γ, then Ez = 0 and we have a transverse electric mode. A

mode for which both Ez and Bz are zero is called a transverse electromagnetic

mode, and can only exist in the region between two conducting surfaces, not

within a single conductor as is possible for TE and TM modes.

Since either Ez or Bz is zero, we can simplify some of the equations above

and collect results appropriate to the two cases.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 4

TM Modes TE Modes

Bz ≡ 0 Ez ≡ 0

∇2t Ez + γ 2 Ez = 0, En =0 ∂Bn

∇2t Bz 2

∂S

+ γ Bz = 0, =0

∂n ∂S

ikc2m

Ex = ∂ x Ez iωc2m

ω 2 − k 2 c2m Ex = ∂y Bz

ω 2 − k 2 c2m

ikc2m

Ey = ∂ y Ez iωc2m

ω 2 − k 2 c2m Ey = − 2 ∂x Bz

ω − k 2 c2m

iω

Bx = ∂ y Ez ikc2

ω 2 − k 2 c2m Bx = 2 m2 2 ∂x Bz

ω − k cm

iω

By = − 2 ∂ x Ez ikc2

ω − k 2 c2m By = 2 m2 2 ∂y Bz

ω − k cm

dicular to the boundary surfaces, so the boundary condition for the eigenvalue

equation is Ez = 0. For the case of TE modes, the boundary condition is B⊥ = 0.

Suppose one boundary surface is the yz plane. The normal to this plane is the

x direction, so Bx must vanish at this surface; but we just saw that in the TE

case Bx ∝ ∂x Bz , i.e. the derivative of Bz normal to the boundary surface must

vanish. This is general: the boundary condition for the eigenvalue equation in

the TM case is ∂Bz /∂n = 0.

The flow of power down a waveguide is described by the z component of the

Poynting vector S = E × H = µ1 E × B. Using the boxed expressions above, for

the two types of modes we obtain

1

SzTM = (Ex By − Ey Bx )

µ

kωc2m

(∂x Ez )2 + (∂y Ez )2 e2i(kz−ωt)

= 2 2 2 2

µ(ω − k cm )

kωc2m

(∂x Ez )2 + (∂y Ez )2

=

2µ(ω 2 2 2

− k cm ) 2

kω

(∂x Ez )2 + (∂y Ez )2 .

= 4

(15)

2γ

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 5

kω

(∂x Bz )2 + (∂y Bz )2 .

SzTE = 4

(16)

2µγ

To address the issue of dissipation in the boundaries, we solve Maxwell’s

equations within the boundary surfaces. The two curl equations are

∇ × E = iωB (17)

∇ × B = µJ − iµωE

= µ (σ − iω) E

≈ µσE (18)

since σ ω in most cases. (For example, for a copper waveguide with air

or vacuum interior we have we have σ ≈ 6 · 107 Ω−1 m−1 , while ω ≈ 9 ·

10−12 Ω−1 m−1 · (ω in rad/sec), so the approximation is good up to frequencies

ω ∼ 1019 rad/sec.)

Now we assume that the fields are only changing significantly in the direc-

tion normal to the boundary surface (i.e., as we go deeper and deeper into the

boundary surface the fields die out rapidly, whereas as we move along parallel

to the boundary surface the fields don’t change much) and keep only the normal

derivative in the curl equations. If ρ measures the depth of penetration into the

surface, the curl equations become

∂E

ρ̂ × = iωB

∂ρ

∂B

ρ̂ × = µσE

∂ρ

Differentiating the first of these, taking the cross product with ρ̂ of both sides,

and substituting in the second equation yields

∂ 2E

ρ̂ × ρ̂ × = iωµσE

∂ρ2

∂ 2 Eρ ∂ 2E

ρ̂ − = iωµσE.

∂ρ2 ∂ρ2

Evidently the ρ component of the LHS vanishes here, so Eρ = 0; the electric

field within the conducting boundary has no component normal to the surface.

For the remaining components we obtain

∂ 2 Ek

+ iωµσEk = 0

∂ρ2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 6

with solution

√

iωµσρ

Ek = e ± E0

±(1+i) ρδ

=e E0

p

where δ = 2/ωµσ is the skin depth and E0 is the field just at the surface of

the boundary. To keep the solution from blowing up as we penetrate into the

conductor we take the negative sign in the exponent. From (17) we then obtain

i−1 ρ

B= (ρ̂ × E0 )e−(1+i) δ .

δω

Evaluating this at the surface yields the modified boundary condition on the

fields in the cavity or waveguide:

i−1

B0 = (ρ̂ × E0 ). (19)

δω

From this equation we can work out the power loss per unitR length in the

cavity or waveguide. The power dissipated in a volume dV is (J · E) dV =

σ E 2 dV. We integrate over the volume occupied by the boundary surfaces in

R

a length dz :

I Z ∞

2 −2(1+i) ρδ

dP = dz σE0 e dρ dl e2i(kz−ωt)

0

σδ

I

= dz E0 dl e2i(kz−ωt)

2

2(1 + i)

dP σδ

I

= √ E02 dl (20)

dz 4 2

where the line integral is over the cross section of the surface boundary at a

fixed value of z.

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

May 24, 2002

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 2

Problem 8.2

σ and skin depth δ, as shown, is filled with a uniform lossless dielectric (µ, ). A

TEM mode is propagated along this line.

(a) Show that the time-averaged power flow along the line is

r

µ 2 b

P = πa |H0 |2 ln

a

where H0 is the peak value of the azimuthal magnetic field at the surface of

the inner conductor.

(b) Show that the transmitted power is attenuated along the line as

P (z) = P0 e−2γz

where

a1 + 1b

1

r

γ= .

2σδ µ ln ab

(c) The characteristic impedance Z0 of the line is defined as the ratio of the voltage

between the cylinders to the axial current flowing in one of them at any

position z. Show that for this line

r

1 µ b

Z0 = ln .

2π a

(d) Show that the series resistance and inductance per unit length of the line are

1 1 1

R= +

2πσδ a b

µ b µc δ 1 1

L= ln + + .

2π a 4π a b

(a) For the TEM mode, the electric field in the waveguide may be written

E(x, y, z, t) = Et (x, y)e−ikz e−iωt

where Et has only x and y components and may be derived from a scalar

potential, i.e. Et = −∇t Φ. Since Φ satisfies the Laplace equation, we may

write its general form immediately (neglecting an arbitrary constant):

∞

X

Φ(ρ, θ) = β0 ln ρ + (αl ρl + βl ρ−l ) sin(lθ + αl ).

l=1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 3

In this part of the problem we’ll neglect dissipation in the waveguide walls,

so the boundary condition on Et is that its components transverse to the walls

vanish, i.e.

∂Φ ∂Φ

= = 0.

∂θ r=b ∂θ r=a

This yields no condition on β0 , since the θ derivative of that term vanishes

anyway, but on the terms in the summation we obtain the conditions

αl al + βl a−l = αl bl + βl b−l = 0

1

Φ(ρ) = β0 ln ρ −→ E = −β0 ρ̂. (1)

ρ

1

r

H=− B= (z × E)

µ µ

β0

r

= θ̂. (2)

µ ρ

2

1 1 1

r

S = (E × H∗ ) = |β0 |2 ẑ

2 2 µ ρ

Integrating over the cross section of the waveguide, we obtain the power transfer:

Z b Z 2π

P = S · dA

a 0

Z b

1 2πρ dρ

r

= |β0 |2

2 µ a ρ2

b

r

= |β0 |2 · π ln (3)

µ a

|β0 |2

r

µ b

= (πa2 ) ln ·

a µ a2

r

µ b

P = (πa2 ) ln |H(a)|2 (4)

a

(b) Without going back and completely re-solving for the fields in the waveguide

for the case of finite conductivity, we can calculate the power loss per unit length

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 4

dP 1

I

− = |ρ̂ × H|2 dl

dz 2σδ c

2 2 !

1 β0 β0

= 2πb · + 2πa ·

2σδ µ b a

2

πβ0 1 1

= + .

σδ µ b a

a1 + 1b

1 dP 1

r

γ=− = .

2P dz 2σδ µ ln ab

β0

E(ρ, z, t) = − ei(kz−ωt) ρ̂

ρ

β0 i(kz−ωt)

r

H(ρ, z, t) = e θ̂

µ ρ

From the E field we can compute the voltage difference between the cylinders:

b

dρ b

Z

V (z, t) = −β0 ei(kz−ωt) = −β0 ei(kz−ωt) ln (5)

a ρ a

while from the H field we can compute the axial current flowing in, say, the

outer cylinder:

r

I = 2πb|Kb | = 2πb|ρ̂ × H(ρ = b)| = 2π β0 ei(kz−ωt) . (6)

µ

r

V 1 µ b

Z= = ln .

I 2π a

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 5

Problem 8.4

Transverse electric and magnetic waves are propagated along a hollow, right circular

cylinder of brass with inner radius R.

(a) Find the cutoff frequencies of the various TE and TM modes. Determine nu-

merically the lowest cutoff frequency (the dominant mode) in terms of the

tube radius and the ratio of cutoff frequencies of the next four higher modes

to that of the dominant mode. For this part assume that hte conductivity of

brass is infinite.

(b) Calculate the attenuation constant of the waveguide as a function of frequency

for the lowest two modes and plot it as a function of frequency.

(∇2t + γ 2 )Ψ(ρ, θ) = 0,

i.e. the Helmholtz equation. Ψ is Ez for the TM case and Hz for the TE case.

The boundary conditions are Ψ(ρ = R) = 0 for the TM case, and (∂Ψ/∂ρ)(ρ =

R) = 0 for the TE case.

The general solution of Helmholtz in 2D is

∞

X

Ψ(ρ, θ) = JL (γρ)(AL eiLθ + BL e−iLθ ) + NL (γρ)(CL eiLθ + DL eiLθ ).

L=0

Since this solution must be valid everywhere in the interior of the waveguide,

including at ρ = 0, the part of the solution involving NL must vanish. Also,

for a physical solution we must have L an integer. But otherwise I don’t think

there are any constraints on AL and BL . I guess these guys are determined by

the field configuration one forces into the waveguide at one of its ends.

The allowed values of γ are determined by the boundary conditions. These

are

∂Ψ

TE case : =0 =⇒ JL0 (γR) = 0 (8)

∂ρ ρ=R

(9)

xi

γi =

R

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 6

where the xi are the roots of JL (x) = 0 and JL0 (x) = 0. Referring to Jackson’s

tables on pages 114 and 370, we can write down the five lowest-lying eigenvalues:

1.841

γ1 = , TE, L = 1

R

2.405

γ2 = , TM, L = 0

R

3.054

γ3 = , TE, L = 2

R

3.832

γ4a = , TE, L = 1

R

3.832

γ4b = , TM, L = 0.

R

The last two eigenvalues are degenerate.

The lowest cutoff frequency is

γ1 1.841

ωc = √ = √ .

µ R µ

(b) The lowest-lying mode is the TE mode with L = 1. For this mode we have

with k 2 = µω 2 − γ12 . The tangential component of the field, from Jackson

(8.33), is

k

Hθ (ρ, θ, z, t) = − 2 Hz (11)

ργ

Using (10) and (11), we can find the current induced in the wall of the conductor

at ρ = R:

k

Keff = ρ̂ × H(ρ = R) = −H0 J1 (γ1 R)eiθ ei(kz−ωt ) θ̂ + ẑ .

Rγ12

" 2 #

dP 1 2 2 k

− = H J (γ1 R) · 2πR 1 + (12)

dz 2σδ 0 1 Rγ12

r 2 ω 2 1/2 Z

1 µ ω λ

P = 1− Hz∗ Hz dA

2 ωλ ω A

r 2 ω 2 1/2 Z R

µ ω λ

= πH02 1− ρJ12 (γ1 ρ) dρ

ωλ ω 0

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 7

r 2 ω 2 1/2 R2

µ ω λ

= πH02 1− [J2 (γ1 R)]2 (13)

ωλ ω 2

Dividing (12) by (13), we calculate the attenuation coefficient:

2 " 2 # 1/2

ω2

r

1 dP 2 J1 (1.841) k ωλ 2

β= = 1+

2P dz σδR µ J2 (1.841) Rγ12 ω ω 2 − ωλ2

2 " 2 # 1/2

ω2

r

1 dP 2 J1 (1.841) Rk ωλ 2

= = 1+

2P dz σδR µ J2 (1.841) (1.841)2 ω ω 2 − ωλ2

2 1/2

µR2 ω 2 ωλ 2 ω2

r

1 dP 2 J1 (1.841)

= = .

2P dz σδR µ J2 (1.841) (1.841)2 ω ω 2 − ωλ2

Problem 8.5

A waveguide is constructed so that √ the cross section of the guide forms a right

triangle with sides of length a, a, 2a, as shown. The medium inside has µr = r =

1.

(a) Assuming infinite conductivity for the walls, determine the possible modes of

propagation and their cutoff frequencies.

(b) For the lowest mode of each type calculate the attenuation constant, assuming

that the walls have large, but finite, conductivity. Compare the result with

that for a square guide of side a made from the same material.

(a) We’ll take the origin of coordinates at the lower left corner of the triangle.

Then the boundary surfaces are defined by x = 0, y = a, and x = y. The

task is to solve (∇2t + γ 2 )Ψ = 0 subject to the vanishing of Ψ, or its normal

derivative, at the walls. In the text, Jackson finds the form of the solutions

for a rectangular waveguide. A little bit of staring at the triangular waveguide

reveals that appropriate solutions for this geometry can be assembled from linear

combinations of the solutions for the rectangular case. For example, a term like

sin kx x sin ky y, for suitable choices of kx and ky , already vanishes on the two

legs of the triangle. To get it to vanish on the third boundary surface, i.e. the

hypotenuse (x = y), we can simply subtract the same term with kx and ky

swapped. In other words, we take

Ez (x, y) = Amn sin sin − sin sin (TM)

h a

mπx a

nπy a

nπx a i

mπy

X

Hz (x, y) = Bmn cos cos + cos cos (TE)

a a a a

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 8

The TE case involves the plus sign because in the normal derivative on the

diagonal boundary surface the x derivative comes in with the opposite sign as

the y derivative.

These satisfy (∇2t + γmn

2

)Ψ = 0, where

π 2

2

γmn = (n2x + n2y ).

a

In contrast to the rectangular case, TM modes with m = n vanish identically.

For both TM and TE modes, mode (m, n) is the same mode as (n, m).

As in the case of the rectangular waveguide, the smallest value of γ is to be

had for the TE1 , 0 mode, in which case

π

γ10 =

a

√

and the cutoff frequency is ωc(1,0) = π/(a µ). For the TM case the lowest

√

propagating mode is (m, n) = (2, 1), for which γ21 = 5π/a and ωc(2,1) =

√

5ωc(1,0) .

(b) The lowest-frequency TE mode has

h πx πy i

Hz = H0 cos + cos

a a

ikπ h πx πy i

Ht = 2 H0 sin î + sin ĵ .

aγ10 a a

The power loss is

dP 1

I

− = |n × H|2 dl (14)

dz 2σδ

On the lower surface (y = 0) we have

k2 π2

h πx i2

2 2 2 2 2 πx

|n × H| = |Hy + Hz | = H0 cos + 1 + 2 4 sin

a a γ10 a

The contribution of the lower surface to the integral in (14) is thus

k2 π2

3

Z

= aH02 + 2 4 (15)

lower 2 a γ10

The contribution of the right (vertical) boundary surface is the same. On the

diagonal boundary surface, we have

1 1

n = √ (−î + ĵ) =⇒ n × H = √ [Hz î + Hz ĵ − (Hy + Hx )k̂]

2 2

with magnitude

1 2

|n × H|2 = [Hx + Hy2 + Hz2 + 2Hx Hy ]

2 ( )

2

H02

2 πγ kπ 2 πγ

= 4 cos +4 sin

2 a aγ10 a

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 9

√ as we move from (0, 0) to (a, a). In

the integral in (14) we can put dl = 2dγ and integrate over γ from 0 to a to

obtain

√ k2 π2

Z

2

= 2aH0 1 + 2 4 .

diagonal a γ10

Adding this to two times (15) and inserting into (14), we have

aH02 √ √ k2 π2

dP

− = 3 + 2 + (2 + 2) 2 4 . (16)

dz 2σδ a γ10

On the other hand, from Jackson (8.51) we have

2 1/2

H2 ωλ2

r

µ ω

P = 0 1− 2

2 ωλ ω

Z aZ yh πx πy πx πy i

× cos2 + cos2 + 2 cos cos dx dy

0 0 a a a a

By symmetry, the integral is just half of what we would get from integrating

the integrand over a square of side a, which, by inspection, is a2 . Hence

2

a2 H02 ω2

r

µ ω

P = 1 − λ2 .1/2

4 ωλ ω

We could at this point proceed to write out the explicit form of the attenuation

constant, but what’s the point?

Problem 8.6

radius R and length L, with flat end faces.

(a) Determine the resonant frequencies of the cavity for all types of waves. With

√

(1/ µR) as a unit of frequency, plot the lowest four resonant frequencies of

each type as a function of R/L for 0 < R/L < 2. Does the same mode have

the lowest frequency for all R/L ?

(b) If R=2 cm, L=3 cm, and the cavity is made of pure copper, what is the

numerical value of Q for the lowest resonant mode?

(a) Taking the origin at the center of the cavity, the ρ and φ components of the

fields must vanish at z = ±L/2. Since the z dependence of all field components

is e±ikz , the allowed values of k are k = nπ/L, with E ∝ sin kz for k even and

E ∝ cos kz for k odd.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 10

(∇2t + γ 2 )Ez = 0, Ez |∂S = 0.

Expanding this in cylindrical coordinates, we obtain

∂ 2 Ez 1 ∂Ez 1 ∂ 2 Ez

+ + + γ 2 Ez = 0

∂ρ2 ρ ∂ρ ρ2 ∂φ2

∂2P

+ νP = 0

∂φ2

∂ 2 R 1 ∂R ν2

2

+ + γ − 2 = 0.

∂ρ2 ρ ∂ρ ρ

P (φ) = e±iνφ

R(ρ) = Jν (γρ).

For single-valuedness we require ν ∈ , and to ensure Ez (ρ = R) = 0 we require

γ = xνm /R where xνm is the mth root of Jν (x) = 0. Hence

(

ρ ±iνφ −iωt sin kz, keven

Ez = AJν xνm e e (TM modes).

R cos kz, kodd

∂Bz

(∇2t 2

+ γ )Bz = 0, = 0.

∂n ∂S

The general solution to the differential equation is the same as above, but now

the boundary condition requires Jν0 (γR) = 0, so γ = yνm /R where yνm is the

mth root of Jν0 (y) = 0. Then the solutions look like

(

ρ ±iνφ −iωt sin kz, keven

Bz = AJν yνm e e (TE modes).

R cos kz, kodd

related to the wavenumber according to

p

ωνmn = cm γνm 2 + k2

n

s 2

cm 2 + π2

R

x n2 , (TM)

R νm

L

= s

2

c R

m

2

yνm + π 2 n2 , (TE)

R L

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 11

PSfrag replacements

9

TE modes

TM modes

8

ω (units of c/R)

1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

R/L

Figure 1: TM and TE mode frequencies for the resonant cavity of Problem 8.6.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 8 12

The lowest four TM and TE mode frequencies are shown in Figure 1.

(b) The lowest resonant mode is the TE1,1,1 mode.info

Solutions to Problems in Jackson,

Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition

Homer Reid

January 13, 2003

Problem 11.4

P shielded so that each views only the mirror M, located a distance d away, and

mounted rigidly with respect to the flashtube-photocell assembly. The electronic

innards of the box are such that when the photocell responds to a light flash from

the mirror, the flashtube is triggered with a negligible delay and emits a short flash

toward the mirror. The clock thus “ticks” once every (2d/c) seconds when at rest.

(a) Suppose that the clock moves with a uniform velocity v, perpendicular to the

line from P F to M, relative to an observer. Using the second postulate

of relativity, show by explicit geometrical or algebraic construction that the

observer sees the relativistic time dilatation as the clock moves by.

(b) Suppose that the clock moves with a velocity v parallel to the line from P F

to M. Verify that here, too, the clock is observed to tick more slowly, by the

same time dilatation factor.

(a) Suppose that, relative to an observer, the clock is moving with speed v

perpendicular to the direction in which the light travels back and forth. Let dt

be the time measured by the observer for the light to travel from the flashtube

to the mirror. The vertical distance traveled by the light is d, but—as far as

the observer is concerned—during the time dt the mirror has also translated

a horizontal distance vdt. Hence the total distance the observer sees the light

1

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 2

p

travel (one-way) is d2 + (vdt)2 . But this distance must equal cdt, since the

light must have the universal speed c in any reference frame. Hence we have

p

cdt = d2 + (vdt)2

or !1/2

1 d

dt = .

1 + vc2

2

c

This is the time (as measured by the observer) in which the light makes the trip

from flashtube to mirror. The light takes the same amount of time to travel

back to the photocell, so the total period of the clock is just twice this, or

!1/2

1 2d

period = v2

1 − c2 c

which is greater than the period of the clock at rest by the normal Lorentz

dilatation factor.

(b) Now we suppose that the clock is moving relative to an observer with speed

v parallel to the direction of motion of the light. We align the z axis with the

direction of motion. Then we may write down the space-time coordinates (in

the clock’s rest frame) of the three relevant events in the operation of the clock

(taking x4 = ct):

xb = (0, 0, d, d), (light reaches mirror)

xc = (0, 0, 0, 2d), (light reaches photocell).

The transformation matrix from the clock’s reference frame to the observer’s

reference frame is

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

Γ= 0 0 γ γβ

0 0 γβ γβ

and using this we may write down the spacetime coordinates of the three events

above in the rest frame of the observer:

x0a = (0, 0, 0, 0)

x0b = 0, 0, γ(1 + β)d, γ(1 + β)d

x0c = 0, 0, 2γβd, 2γd

Evidently the difference in the time coordinates of events a and c (which is just

the observed period of the clock) is c∆t = 2γd, so again the observer observes

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 3

the clock to have a period of 2γd/c, longer by the factor γ than the period of

the clock in its rest frame.

Problem 11.5

a particle has a velocity u0 and an acceleration a0 . Find the Lorentz transformation

law for acceleration, and show that in the system K the components of acceleration

parallel and perpendicular to v are

3/2

v2

1− c2

ak = a0k

v·u0 3

1+ c2

v2

1− c2

v

0 0 0

a⊥ = 3 a⊥ + 2 × (a × u ) .

1+ v·u0 c

c2

The initial components of the velocity in the moving frame (frame K 0 ) are

u0kand u0⊥ . Using Jackson’s equations 11.31 to transform these to frame K, we

obtain

u0k + v

uk (0) = u0k v

(1)

1+ c2

u0⊥

u⊥ (0) = uk v . (2)

γv 1 + c2

After a time dt has passed in frame K, a time dt0 = dt/γ has passed in frame

K0 , and the velocity has increased by the amount a0 dt0 = a0 dt/γ. Then we can

write down the new components of the velocity in K 0 and again transform to

K:

u0k + a0k dt0 + v

uk (dt) = (u0k +a0k dt0 )v

(3)

1+ c2

u0⊥

u⊥ (dt) = (u0k +a0k dt0 )v

(4)

γv 1 + c 2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 4

∆uk = (u0k +a0k dt0 )v

− u0k v

1+ c2 1+c 2

2

v

a0k dt0 1 − c2

=

u0 v 2 u0 v

1+ k

c2 + 1 + ck2 a0k dt0

2

3/2

a0k dt 1 − vc2

=

u0 v 2 u0 v v 2 1/2

1 + ck2 + 1 + ck2 1+ c2 a0k dt

2

3/2

∆uk a0k 1 − vc2

ak = lim = .

dt→0 dt u0 v 2

1 + ck2

wrong?

Next, subtracting (2) from (4), we have

1 u0⊥ + a0⊥ dt0 u0⊥

∆u⊥ = −

γv 1 + uk v + ak dt0 v u0k v

0 0

c 2 c 2 1 + c2

0 a0 dt0 v

u v

0 0 0

1 a⊥ dt 1 + c2 − u⊥

k k

c2

=

γv u0k v 2

u0k v a0k dt0 v

1 + c2 + 1 + c2 c 2

0 0 v 0 0 0 0 0

1 ⊥a dt + c 2 u a

k ⊥ − u a

⊥ k dt

=

γv u0k v 2

u0k v a0k dt0 v

1 + c2 + 1 + c2 c 2

0 v 0 0 0 0

1 a ⊥ dt + c 2 u k a ⊥ − u ⊥ a k dt

= 2 2

γv

u v

0 u v a0k dtv

0

1 + ck2 + 1 + ck2 γv c2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 5

As before, when we divide by dt and take the limit as dt → 0 the second term

in the denominator becomes irrelevant and we obtain

∆u⊥ 1 0

h v 0 0 0 0

i

a⊥ = lim = a + u a − u a

u0 v 2

⊥ k ⊥ ⊥ k

dt→0 dt c2

γv2 1 + ck2

v2

1 − c2 0 v 0 0

h i

0 0

= a + u a − u a

u0 v 2

⊥ ⊥ ⊥

c2 k k

1 + ck2

Jackson writes the second term in the brackets a little differently. To show that

his expression is equivalent to mine, we use the BAC-CAB rule:

= vu0k a0k + a0⊥ − va0k u0k + u0⊥

But I’m still off by 1 in the exponent of the term in the denominator! What

am I missing?

Problem 11.6

Assume that a rocket ship leaves the earth in the year 2010. One of a set of twins

born in 2080 remains on earth; the other rides in the rocket. The rocket ship is

so constructed that it has an acceleration g in its own rest frame (this makes the

occupants feel at home). It accelerates in a straight-line path for 5 years (by its own

clocks), decelerates at the same rate for 5 more years, turns around, accelerates for

5 years, decelerates for 5 years, and lands on earth. The twin in the rocket is 40

years old.

(a) What year is it on earth?

(b) How far away from the earth did the rocket ship travel?

measured on earth. Using the first result of problem 11.5, we see that the

acceleration of the rocket as measured from earth is

3/2

v(t)2

dv

a= =± 1− 2 g,

dt c

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 6

or

dβ 3/2

= ± 1 − β2 α

dt

where α = g/c and the plus or minus sign depends on whether we are acceler-

ating or decelerating. Manipulating this a little, we obtain

dβ

= ±αdt.

(1 − β 2 )3/2

Integrating, we obtain

β 2

β0

(1 − β 02 )1/2 = ±α(t2 − t1 ). (5)

β1

For the first leg of the rocket’s journey, we have t1 = β1 = 0 and we take the

plus sign in (5). Then we find

β

= αt

(1 − β 2 )1/2

or

αt

β(t) = (6)

[1 + (αt)2 ]1/2

and

1 p

γ(t) = p = 1 + (αt)2

1 − β 2 (t)

(7)

Next let’s work out the relation between time as measured on the rocket and

time as measured on earth. With primed (unprimed) quantities referring to the

rocket (to earth), the infinitesimal relation is

dt = γ(t)dt0

or

t2

dt

Z

t02 − t01 =

t1 γ(t)

t2

dt

Z

= p

t1 1 + (αt)2

1 αt2 du

Z

= √

α αt1 1 + u2

1

= sinh−1 (αt2 ) − sinh−1 (αt1 )

α

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 7

1

t2 = sinh(αt02 ). (8)

α

Now we know that the first leg of the journey lasts until t02 = 5 years, and we

have

g 9.8 m s−2

α= = = 3.27 · 10−8 s−1 .

c 3 · 108 m s−1

Then the time on earth at the end of the first leg of the journey is, from (8),

3.153 · 107 s

1 −8 −1

t2 = · sinh 3.27 · 10 s (5 yr) s

3.27 · 10−8 1 yr

= 2.65 · 109 s

≈ 84 yr.

Finally, the distance the rocket travels during the first leg of its journey is

Z t

d=c β(t)dt

0

Z t

αt

=c p dt

0 1 + (αt)2

c αt u

Z

= √ du

α 0 1 + u2

c n 1/2 o

= 1 + (αt)2 −1

α

= 3.0 · 1015 meters.

The behavior of the rocket on the subsequent three legs of the journey is

similar to that in the first leg. In particular, the total distance traveled away

from earth is twice that covered in the first leg, or 6.0 ·1015 meters, and the

total time elapsed on earth during the rocket’s journey is four times that elapsed

during the first leg, or 4·84=336 years. So it should be the year 2436 on earth

by the time the rocket returns home.

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 8

Problem 11.13

An infinitely long straight wire of negligible cross-sectional area is at rest and has

a uniform linear charge density q0 in the inertial frame K 0 . The frame K 0 (and the

wire) move with a velocity v parallel to the direction of the wire with respect to

the laboratory frame.

(a) Write down the electric and magnetic fields in cylindrical coordinates in the rest

frame of the wire. Using the Lorentz transformation properties of the fields,

find the components of the electric and magnetic fields in the laboratory.

(b) What are the charge and current densities associated with the wire in its rest

frame? In the laboratory?

(c) From the laboratory charge and current densities, calculate directly the electric

and magnetic fields in the laboratory. Compare with the results of part (a).

I don’t like q0 as a symbol for charge density, because it appears to have the

wrong units. I’ll use λ instead. We’ll take our z axis to coincide with the wire

and take v in the positive z direction.

(a) In the rest frame there is no current and the E field is static; hence B = 0.

The electric field is found by considering a Gaussian pillbox in the shape of

a right circular cylinder coaxial with the wire and of radius r and length dz.

There is no electric field normal to the upper and lower surfaces, and the field

normal to the radial bounding surface is uniform across the circumference. On

the other hand, the charge enclosed in the cylinder is λ dz. Then Gauss’ law is

I

E · dA = 4πQ

=⇒ 2πrdzEr = 4πλdz

2λ

=⇒ Er = . (9)

r

In terms of cartesian components we have

x0 y0

Ex = 2λ , E y = 2λ .

x02 + y 02 x02 + y 02

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 9

F = ΛF 0 Λ̃

γ 0 0 βγ 0 −x0 −y 0 0 γ 0 0 βγ

1 0 1 0 0 x0 0 0 0

0

1 0 0

= 2λ 02

x + y 02 0 0 1 0 y 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

βγ 0 0 γ 0 0 0 0 βγ 0 0 γ

0 0

0 −x −y 0

2γλ x0 0 0 βx0

= 02 .

(x + y 02 ) y 0 0 0 βy 0

0 −βx0 −βy 0 0

Reading off from this the transformed fields, and dropping the primes on x and

y since the z boost leaves these coordinates unchanged, we have

2λ

E=γ (xi + yj) (10)

x2 + y 2

2λ

= γ r̂ (11)

r

λ

B = βγ (−yi + xj) (12)

2(x + y 2 )

2

2λ

= βγ φ̂. (13)

r

(b) In the rest frame there is no current and the charge density is ρ0 = λδ(x)δ(y),

so

J 0µ = cλ(δ(x)δ(y), 0, 0, 0).

The transformed current density is

J µ = Λµν J 0ν

γ 0 0 γβ δ(x)δ(y)

0 1 0 0 0

= cλ

0 0 1 0 0

βγ 0 0 γ 0

δ(x)δ(y)

0

= cγλ

.

0

βδ(x)δ(y)

(c) Computing the electric field in the laboratory frame is easy, since the charge

density is the same as we had before but with a factor of γ thrown in. Then

the E field is just (9) but with that factor of γ thrown in, i.e.

2γλ

E= r̂

r

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 10

For the magnetic field, we note that the current density in the lab frame is

J = cβγλδ(x)δ(y)ẑ. Then the current piercing a disc of radius r is I = cβγλ.

On the other hand, by symmetry the magnetic field in the azimuthal direction

around the circumference of this disc is constant, so we may use Ampere’s law,

∇ × B = (4π/c)J to write

4π

2πrBφ = (cβγλ)

c

or

2βγλ

B= φ̂

r

which agrees with (13).

Problem 11.15

axis, and a static, uniform, magnetic induction B0 = 2E0 lies in the x − y plane,

making an angle θ with the axis. Determine the relative velocity of a reference

frame in which the electric and magnetic fields are parallel. What are the fields in

that frame for θ 1 and θ → (π/2)?

Let’s suppose we boost along the z axis. Then the fields transform according

to Jackson equation (11.149):

B0 = 2γE0 cos θi + γE0 (2 sin θ + β)j.

E 0 · B0

cos θ =

|E0 ||B0 |

2γ 2 E02 cos θ(1 + β 2 )

=

γ 2 E02 (1 − 4β sin θ + 4β 2 )1/2 (4 + 4β sin θ + β 2 )1/2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 11

Problem 11.18

The electric and magnetic fields of a particle of charge q moving in a straight line

with speed v = βc, given by (11.152), become more and more concentrated as

β → 1, as indicated in Fig. 11.9. Choose axes so that the charge moves along

the z axis in the positive direction, passing the origin at t = 0. Let the spatial

coordinates of the observation point be (x, y, z) and define the transverse vector r ⊥ ,

with components x and y. Consider the fields and the source in the limit of β = 1.

(a) Show that the fields can be written as

r⊥ v̂ × r⊥

E = 2q 2 δ(ct − z); B = 2q 2 δ(ct − z).

r⊥ r⊥

(b) Show by substitution into the Maxwell equations that these fields are consistent

with a 4-vector source density,

(c) Show that the fields of part a are derivable from either of the following 4-vector

potentials,

A0 = Az = −2qδ(ct − z) ln(λr⊥ ); A⊥ = 0

or

A0 = Az = 0; A⊥ = −2qΘ(ct − z)∇⊥ ln(λr⊥ )

where λ is an irrelevant parameter setting the scale of the logarithm. Show

that the two potentials differ by a gauge transformation and find the gauge

function, χ.

(a) In the reference frame in which the particle is at rest at the origin, the fields

are

q

E0 = 02 (x0 i + y 0 j + z 0 k), B0 = 0.

(x + y 02 + z 02 )3/2

Transforming back to the laboratory frame according to Jackson 11.148, the

electric field is

q

E = 02 (γx0 i + γy 0 j + z 0 k)

(x + y + z 02 )3/2

02

where in this expression the coordinates are still those of the observation point

in the moving frame. The transformation of these to the lab frame is x0 = x,

y = y 0 = y, z 0 = γ(z − βct). Then the correct expression for the transformed

field is

q

E= 2 (γxi + γyj + (z − ct)k).

[x + y + γ 2 (z − ct)2 ]3/2

2

Homer Reid’s Solutions to Jackson Problems: Chapter 11 12

then ensures that all field components are zero. For z = ct, however, although

the z component of the field clearly vanishes, the behavior of the other com-

ponents is not as immediately clear. To elucidate the behavior of, say, the x

component of the field at z = ct we integrate it from z = ct − to z = ct + :

Z ct+ Z ct+

dz

Ex dz = qγx 2 2 2 3/2

ct− ct− [r⊥ + γ (z − ct) ]

Z γ/r⊥

qx du

= 2

r⊥ −γ/r⊥ [1 + u2 ]3/2

2qx γ

= 2 p 2 .

r⊥ r⊥ + γ 2 2

Z ct+

2qx 2

lim Ex dz = . (14)

γ→∞ ct− r⊥

On the other hand, integrating between two points on the same side of z = ct,

say from z = ct + to z = ct + 2, we find

Z ct+2 " #

2qx 2 2γ γ

Ex dz = p −p 2

ct+ r⊥ 2 + 4γ 2 2

r⊥ r⊥ + γ 2 2

which vanishes as γ → ∞.

Since Ex vanishes at any point z 6= ct but yields something nonzero when

integrated across that point, we conclude that it is just a δ function in (z − ct)

with coefficient given by (14):

2qx

Ex = 2 δ(z − ct).

r⊥

and, similarly,

2qy

Ey = 2 δ(z − ct).

r⊥

Combining these, we can write

r⊥

E = 2q 2 δ(ct − z).

r⊥

β = k̂ :

v̂ × r⊥

B = 2q 2 δ(ct − z).

r⊥