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Keith Rupert Murdoch, AC, KSG (English pronunciation: /ruprt mrdk/; born 11

March 1931) is an Australian American media mogul and the Chairman and CEO of
News Corporation.
Beginning with one newspaper in Adelaide, Australia, Murdoch acquired and started
other publications in his native Australia before expanding News Corp into the United
Kingdom, United States and Asian media markets. Although it was in Australia in the
late 1950s that he first dabbled in television, he later sold these assets, and News Corp's
Australian current media interests (still mainly in print) are restricted by cross-media
ownership rules. Murdoch's first permanent foray into TV was in the USA, where he
created Fox Broadcasting Company in 1986. In the 2000s, he became a leading investor
in satellite television, the film industry and the Internet, and purchased a respected
business newspaper, The Wall Street Journal.
Rupert Murdoch was listed three times in the Time 100 as among the most influential
people in the world. He is ranked 13th most powerful person in the world in the 2010
Forbes' The World's Most Powerful People list.[3] With a net worth of US$6.3 billion, he
is ranked 117th wealthiest person in the world.[4]


1 Early life
2 Business activities
o 2.1 Early business activities in Australia and New Zealand (19531972)
o 2.2 Business activities in Britain (1968)
o 2.3 Business activities in the United States (1973)
o 2.4 Expansion in Asia (1993)
o 2.5 Later business activities in Australia (1999)
3 News International phone hacking scandal
4 Political activities
o 4.1 Political activities in Australia
o 4.2 Political activities in the United States
o 4.3 Political activities in the United Kingdom
4.3.1 David Cameron
5 Personal life
o 5.1 Marriages
o 5.2 Children
6 Portrayal on television, in film, books and music
7 Remuneration and wealth
8 See also
9 Notes
10 References

11 External links

Early life
Keith Rupert Murdoch was born in Melbourne, the only son of Sir Keith Murdoch and
Elisabeth Joy (ne Greene). At the time, his father was a wealthy regional newspaper
magnate based in Melbourne. Murdoch was groomed by his father from an early age to
take over the family business, and attended the elite Geelong Grammar School. He later
read Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Worcester College, Oxford University in the
United Kingdom, where he supported the Labour Party.[5]
When Murdoch was 21, his father died, prompting his return from Oxford to take charge
of the family business.[5]

Business activities
Early business activities in Australia and New Zealand (19531972)
In 1953, having returned to Australia following his father's death, he became managing
director of News Limited.[5] He began to direct his attention to acquisition and expansion.
He bought the Sunday Times in Perth, Western Australia. Over the next few years,
Murdoch established himself in Australia as a dynamic business operator, expanding his
holdings by acquiring suburban and provincial newspapers in New South Wales,
Queensland, Victoria and the Northern Territory, including the Sydney afternoon tabloid,
The Daily Mirror, as well as a small Sydney-based recording company, Festival Records.
His first foray outside Australia involved the purchase of a controlling interest in the
New Zealand daily The Dominion. In January 1964, while touring New Zealand with
friends in a rented Morris Minor after sailing across the Tasman, Murdoch read of a
takeover bid for the Wellington paper by the British-based Canadian newspaper magnate,
Lord Thomson of Fleet. On the spur of the moment, he launched a counter-bid. A fourway battle for control ensued in which the 32-year-old Murdoch was ultimately
successful. Later in 1964, Murdoch launched The Australian, Australia's first national
daily newspaper, which was based first in Canberra and later in Sydney.[6][7] The
Australian, a broadsheet, was intended to give Murdoch new respectability as a 'quality'
newspaper publisher, as well as greater political influence.
In 1972, Murdoch acquired the Sydney morning tabloid The Daily Telegraph[6] from
Australian media mogul Sir Frank Packer, who later admitted regretting selling it to him.
In that year's election, Murdoch threw his growing power behind the Australian Labor
Party under the leadership of Gough Whitlam and duly saw it elected.

Business activities in Britain (1968)

Rupert Murdoch World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2007

In 1968 Murdoch entered the UK newspaper market with his acquisition of the News of
the World, soon followed in 1969 of the then broadsheet daily newspaper The Sun from
IPC.[8] Murdoch turned it into a tabloid format and reduced costs by using the same
printing press for both newspapers; by 2006 The Sun was selling three million copies per
day.[9] In 1981, Murdoch acquired The Times and The Sunday Times from Canadian
newspaper publisher Lord Thomson of Fleet.[8] Ownership of The Times came to him
through his careful cultivation of Lord Thomson, who had grown tired of losing money
on it as a result of much industrial action that stopped publication.[10]
During the 1980s and early 1990s, Murdoch's publications were generally supportive of
Britain's Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.[11] At the end of the Thatcher/Major era,
Murdoch switched his support to the Labour Party and its leader, Tony Blair. The
closeness of his relationship with Blair and their secret meetings to discuss national
policies was to become a political issue in Britain.[12] Though this later started to change,
with The Sun publicly renouncing the ruling Labour government and lending its support
to David Cameron's Conservative Party, which soon after came to form a coalition
government. Former Prime Minister Gordon Brown's official spokesman said in
November 2009 that Brown and Murdoch "were in regular communication" and that
"there is nothing unusual in the prime minister talking to Rupert Murdoch".[13]
In 1986, Murdoch introduced electronic production processes to his newspapers in
Australia, Britain and the United States. The greater degree of automation led to
significant reductions in the number of employees involved in the printing process. In
England, the move roused the anger of the print unions, resulting in a long and often
violent dispute that played out in Wapping, one of London's docklands areas, where
Murdoch had installed the very latest electronic newspaper publishing facility in an old

warehouse.[14] The bitter dispute at Wapping started with the dismissal of 6,000
employees who had gone on strike and resulted in street battles and demonstrations.
Many on the political left in Britain alleged the collusion of Margaret Thatcher's
Conservative government with Murdoch in the Wapping affair, as a way of damaging the
British trade union movement.[15][16][17]
Murdoch's British-based satellite network, Sky Television, incurred massive losses in its
early years of operation. As with many of his other business interests, Sky was heavily
subsidised by the profits generated by his other holdings, but eventually he was able to
convince rival satellite operator British Satellite Broadcasting to accept a merger on his
terms in 1990. The merged company, BSkyB, has dominated the British pay-TV market
ever since.[18]
In response to print media's decline and the increasing influence of online journalism
during the 2000s, Murdoch proclaimed his support of the micropayments model for
obtaining revenue from on-line news,[19] although this has been criticised by some.[20]
News Corporation has subsidiaries in the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands, the Channel
Islands and the Virgin Islands. From 1986, News Corporation's annual tax bill averaged
around seven percent of its profits.[21]

Business activities in the United States (1973)

Murdoch made his first acquisition in the United States in 1973, when he purchased the
San Antonio Express-News. Soon afterwards, he founded Star, a supermarket tabloid, and
in 1976, he purchased the New York Post. On 4 September 1985, Murdoch became a
naturalised citizen to satisfy the legal requirement that only US citizens were permitted to
own American television stations. Also in 1985, Murdoch purchased the 20th Century
Fox movie studio. In 1986, Murdoch purchased six television stations owned by
Metromedia. These stations would form the nucleus of the Fox Broadcasting Company,
which was founded on 9 October 1986. In 1987 in Australia, he bought The Herald and
Weekly Times Ltd, the company that his father had once managed. By 1991, his
Australian-based News Corp. had worked up huge debts (much from Sky TV in the UK)
[citation needed]
, forcing Murdoch to sell many of the American magazine interests he had
acquired in the mid-1980s.
In 1995, Murdoch's Fox Network became the object of scrutiny from the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC), when it was alleged that News Ltd.'s Australian
base made Murdoch's ownership of Fox illegal. However, the FCC ruled in Murdoch's
favor, stating that his ownership of Fox was in the best interests of the public. That same
year, Murdoch announced a deal with MCI Communications to develop a major news
website and magazine, The Weekly Standard. Also that year, News Corp. launched the
Foxtel pay television network in Australia in partnership with Telstra.
In 1996, Murdoch decided to enter the cable news market with the Fox News Channel, a
24-hour cable news television station. Ratings studies released in the fourth quarter of

2004 showed that the network was responsible for nine of the top ten programs in the
"Cable News" category at that time[citation needed]. Rupert Murdoch and Ted Turner (founder
and former owner of CNN) are long-standing rivals.[22]
In late 2003, Murdoch acquired a 34 percent stake in Hughes Electronics, the operator of
the largest American satellite TV system, DirecTV, from General Motors for $6 billion
In 2004, Murdoch announced that he was moving News Corp.'s headquarters from
Adelaide, Australia to the United States. Choosing a US domicile was designed to ensure
that American fund managers could purchase shares in the company, since many were
deciding not to buy shares in non-US companies. Some analysts believed that News
Corp.'s Australian domicile was leading to the company being undervalued compared
with its peers.
On 20 July 2005, News Corp. bought Intermix Media Inc., which held and
other popular social networking-themed websites, for $580 million USD.[23] In June 2011,
it sold off Myspace for US$35 million.[24] On 11 September 2005, News Corp. announced
that it would buy IGN Entertainment for $650 million (USD).[25]
In May 2007, Murdoch made a $5 billion offer to purchase Dow Jones, owner of the
Wall Street Journal. At the time, the Bancroft family, which controlled 64% of the
shares, firmly declined the offer, opposing Murdoch's much-used strategy of slashing
employee numbers and "gutting" existing systems. Later, the Bancroft family confirmed
a willingness to consider a sale besides Murdoch, the Associated Press reported that
supermarket magnate Ron Burkle and Internet entrepreneur Brad Greenspan were among
the interested parties.[26] On 1 August 2007, the BBC's "News and World Report"[27] and
NPR's Marketplace[28] radio programs reported that Murdoch had acquired Dow Jones;
this news was received with mixed reactions.
In 2010 Murdoch won a media dispute with Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. A
judge ruled the Italian Prime Minister's media arm Mediaset had prevented News Corp.'s
Italian unit, Sky Italia, from buying advertisements on its television networks.[29]

Expansion in Asia (1993)

In 1993, Murdoch acquired Star TV, a Hong Kong company founded by Richard Li[30] for
$1 billion (Souchou, 2000:28), and subsequently set up offices for it throughout Asia. It
is one of the biggest satellite TV networks in Asia. However, the deal did not work out as
Murdoch had planned, because the Chinese government placed restrictions on it that
prevented it from reaching most of China.

Later business activities in Australia (1999)

In 1999, Murdoch significantly expanded his music holdings in Australia by acquiring
the controlling share in a leading Australian independent label, Michael Gudinski's

Mushroom Records; he merged that with Festival Records, and the result was Festival
Mushroom Records (FMR). Both Festival and FMR were managed by Murdoch's son
James Murdoch for several years.[31]

News International phone hacking scandal

Main article: News International phone hacking scandal
Starting in 2006, there were allegations that individuals working for the News of the
World, a British Sunday-only tabloid newspaper (eventually forced into closure by the
scandal) published by News Internationala subsidiary of Rupert Murdoch's News
Corporationhad engaged in phone hacking. The scandal came to prominence in the
midst of an attempted takeover of British Sky Broadcasting by News Corporation, which
was forced to abandon the acquisition.[32] While the original allegations were limited to
the hacking of celebrities, politicians and members of the British Royal Family, further
allegations that victims of the phone hacking included murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler,
relatives of deceased British soldiers, and victims of the 7/7 London bombings generated
widespread public outrage in the United Kingdom. The News of the World published its
final edition on 10 July 2011 after 168 years of publication.[32]
On 6 July 2011, British prime minister David Cameron declared that a public government
inquiry would convene to investigate the affair, once police inquiries had been
completed. On 13 July, Cameron named Lord Justice Leveson as chairman of the inquiry,
with a remit to look into the specific claims about phone hacking and police bribery by
the News of the World, while a separate inquiry would consider the culture and ethics of
the British media.[33] He also said the Press Complaints Commission would be replaced
The scandal attracted attention in the United States, where News Corporation is
headquartered and operates a multitude of media outlets. On 15 July, U.S. Attorney
General Eric Holder confirmed that the Department of Justice was following up calls for
an investigation into the company.[34]

Political activities
Political activities in Australia

Murdoch at the World Economic Forum, 2009

Murdoch found a political ally in John McEwen, leader of the Australian Country Party
(now known as the National Party of Australia), who was governing in coalition with the
larger Menzies-Holt Liberal Party. From the very first issue of The Australian Murdoch
began taking McEwen's side in every issue that divided the long-serving coalition
partners. (The Australian, 15 July 1964, first edition, front page: "Strain in Cabinet,
Liberal-CP row flares.") It was an issue that threatened to split the coalition government
and open the way for the stronger Australian Labor Party to dominate Australian politics.
It was the beginning of a long campaign that served McEwen well.[35]
After McEwen and Menzies retired, Murdoch transferred his support to the newly elected
Leader of the Australian Labor Party, Gough Whitlam, who was elected in 1972 on a
social platform that included universal free health care, free education for all Australians
to tertiary level, recognition of the People's Republic of China, and public ownership of
Australia's oil, gas and mineral resources.
Rupert Murdoch's flirtation with Whitlam turned out to be brief. He had already started
his short-lived National Star[35] newspaper in America, and was seeking to strengthen his
political contacts there.[36]
Asked about the Australian federal election, 2007 at News Corporation's annual general
meeting in New York on 19 October 2007, its chairman Rupert Murdoch said, "I am not
commenting on anything to do with Australian politics. I'm sorry. I always get into
trouble when I do that." Pressed as to whether he believed Prime Minister John Howard
should be re-elected, he said: "I have nothing further to say. I'm sorry. Read our editorials
in the papers. It'll be the journalists who decide that the editors."[37]
Murdoch nonetheless later described Howard's successor, Labor Party Prime Minister
Kevin Rudd, as "...more ambitious to lead the world than to lead Australia..." and
criticised Rudd's expansionary fiscal policies as unnecessary: "We were not about to
collapse...I thought we were trying to copy the rest of the world a little unnecessarily."[38]
Murdoch also opined that Rudd was "...oversensitive and too sensitive for his own
good..."[39] Rudd did not believe that News Limited's coverage of the 2009 OzCar affair
controversy was fair, and had challenged a journalist with The Australian asking "what
sort of journalistic checks were put in place" at the paper before publishing a story

suggesting Rudd was corrupt. Although News Limited's interests are extensive, also
including the Daily Telegraph, the Courier-Mail and the Adelaide Advertiser, it was
suggested[who?] that "the anti-Rudd push, if it is coordinated at all, is almost certainly
locally driven" as opposed to being directed by Murdoch.[40]

Political activities in the United States

In 1985 Murdoch became a United States citizen to satisfy legislation that only United
States citizens could own American television stations. This also resulted in Murdoch
losing his Australian citizenship.[41][42]
McNight (2010) identifies four characteristics of his media operations: free market
ideology; unified positions on matters of public policy; global editorial meetings; and
opposition to a perceived liberal bias in other public media.[43]
On 8 May 2006, the Financial Times reported that Murdoch would be hosting a fundraiser for Senator Hillary Clinton's (D-New York) Senate re-election campaign.[44]
In a 2008 interview with Walt Mossberg, Murdoch was asked whether he had "anything
to do with the New York Post's endorsement of Barack Obama in the democratic
primaries." Without hesitating, Murdoch replied, "Yeah. He is a rock star. It's fantastic. I
love what he is saying about education. I don't think he will win Florida... but he will win
in Ohio and the election. I am anxious to meet him. I want to see if he will walk the
In 2010 News Corporation gave $1M to the Republican Governors Association and $1M
to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.[47][48][49]
Murdoch also served on the board of directors of the libertarian Cato Institute.[50]

Political activities in the United Kingdom

In Britain, in the 1980s, Murdoch formed a close alliance with Margaret Thatcher, and
The Sun credited itself with helping John Major to win an unexpected election victory in
the 1992 general election.[51] However, in the general elections of 1997, 2001 and 2005,
Murdoch's papers were either neutral or supported Labour under Tony Blair. This has led
some critics to argue that Murdoch simply supports the incumbent parties (or those who
seem most likely to win an upcoming election) in the hope of influencing government
decisions that may affect his businesses. The Labour Party, under Blair, had moved from
the Left to a more central position on many economic issues prior to 1997. Murdoch
identifies himself as a libertarian, saying "What does libertarian mean? As much
individual responsibility as possible, as little government as possible, as few rules as
possible. But I'm not saying it should be taken to the absolute limit."[52]

In a speech delivered in New York, Rupert Murdoch said that the British Prime Minister
Tony Blair described the BBC coverage of the Hurricane Katrina disaster as being full of
hatred of America.[53]
In 1998, Rupert Murdoch failed in his attempt to buy the football club Manchester United
F.C.[54] with an offer of 625 million. It was the largest amount ever offered for a sports
club. It was blocked by the United Kingdom's Competition Commission, which stated
that the acquisition would have "hurt competition in the broadcast industry and the
quality of British football".
On 28 June 2006 the BBC reported that Murdoch and News Corporation were flirting
with the idea of backing Conservative leader David Cameron at the next General
Election.[55] However, in a later interview in July 2006, when he was asked what he
thought of the Conservative leader, Murdoch replied "Not much".[56] In a 2009 blog, it
was suggested that in the aftermath of the News of the World phone hacking scandal
which is still ongoing in 2011 and might yet have Transatlantic implications[57] Murdoch
and News Corporation might have decided to back Cameron.[58] Despite this, there had
already been a convergence of interests between the two men over the muting of Britain's
communications regulator Ofcom.[59]
In 2006, Britain's Independent newspaper reported that Murdoch would offer Tony Blair
a senior role in his global media company News Corp. when the prime minister stood
down from office.[60]
He is accused by former Solidarity MSP Tommy Sheridan of having a personal vendetta
against him and of conspiring with MI5 to produce a video of him confessing to having
affairs allegations over which Sheridan had previously sued News International and
won.[61] On being arrested for perjury following the case, Sheridan claimed that the
charges were "orchestrated and influenced by the powerful reach of the Murdoch
David Cameron
In August 2008 British Conservative leader and future Prime Minister David Cameron
accepted free flights to hold private talks and attend private parties with Murdoch on his
yacht, the Rosehearty.[63] Cameron has declared in the Commons register of interests he
accepted a private plane provided by Murdoch's son-in-law, public relations guru
Matthew Freud; Cameron has not revealed his talks with Murdoch. The gift of travel in
Freud's Gulfstream IV private jet was valued at around 30,000. Other guests attending
the "social events" included the then EU trade commissioner Lord Mandelson, the
Russian oligarch Oleg Deripaska and co-chairman of NBC Universal Ben Silverman. The
Conservatives have not disclosed what was discussed.[64]
In July 2011 it emerged that Cameron met key executives of Murdoch's News
Corporation 26 times during the 14 months that Cameron had served as Prime Minister.
It was also reported that Murdoch had given Cameron a personal guarantee that there

would be no risk attached to hiring the ex-editor of the News of the World Andy Coulson
as the Conservative Party's communication director in 2007.[66] This was in spite of
Coulson having resigned as editor over phone hacking by a reporter. Cameron chose to
take Murdoch's advice, despite warnings from Nick Clegg, Lord Ashdown and The
Guardian.[67] Coulson resigned his post in 2011 and was later arrested and questioned on
allegations of further criminal activity at The News of the World.

Personal life

Murdoch with his 3rd wife Wendi in 2011

Murdoch has been married three times.
In 1956 he married Patricia Booker, a former shop assistant and flight attendant from
Melbourne with whom he had his first child, a daughter, Prudence, born in 1958.[68]
Rupert and Patricia Murdoch divorced in 1967.
In 1967 Murdoch married Anna Torv,[68] a Scottish-born cadet journalist working for his
Sydney newspaper The Daily Telegraph (not to be mistaken for the actress Anna Torv of
Fringe who is the elder Torv's niece). During his marriage to Torv, a Roman Catholic,
Murdoch was awarded the KSG, a papal honour. Torv and Murdoch had three children:
Elisabeth Murdoch (born in Sydney, Australia on 22 August 1968), Lachlan Murdoch
(born in London, UK on 8 September 1971), and James Murdoch, (born in Wimbledon,
UK on 13 December 1972).[69][68] Murdoch's companies published two novels by his then
wife: Family Business (1988) and Coming to Terms (1991), both widely regarded[70] as
vanity publications. Anna and Rupert divorced in June 1999. Anna Murdoch received a
settlement of US$ 1.2 billion in assets.[71]
On 25 June 1999, 17 days after the divorce from Anna, Murdoch, then aged 68, married
Chinese-born Deng Wendi (Wendi Deng in Western style).[72] She was 30, a recent Yale
School of Management graduate, and a newly appointed vice-president of his STAR TV.
Murdoch has two children with her: Grace Helen (born in New York 19 November 2001)
and Chloe (born in New York 17 July 2003).[69]

Murdoch has six children.[73] Murdoch's eldest son Lachlan, formerly the deputy chief
operating officer at the News Corporation and the publisher of the New York Post, was
Murdoch's heir apparent before resigning from his executive posts at the global media
company at the end of July 2005.[73] Lachlan's departure left James Murdoch chief
executive of the satellite television service British Sky Broadcasting since November
2003, as the only Murdoch son still directly involved with the company's operations,
though Lachlan has agreed to remain on the News Corporation's board.[74]
After graduating from Vassar College[75] and marrying classmate Elkin Kwesi Pianim (the
son of Ghanaian financial and political mogul Kwame Pianim) in 1993,[75] Murdoch's
daughter Elisabeth, along with her husband, purchased a pair of NBC-affiliate television
stations in California, KSBW and KSBY, with a $35 million loan provided by her father.
By quickly re-organising and re-selling them at a $12 million profit in 1995, Elisabeth
emerged as an unexpected rival to her brothers for the eventual leadership of the
publishing dynasty's empire. But after divorcing her first husband in 1998 and quarrelling
publicly with her assigned mentor Sam Chisholm at BSkyB, she struck out on her own as
a television and film producer in London. She has since enjoyed independent success, in
conjunction with her second husband, Matthew Freud, the great-grandson of Sigmund
Freud (the founder of psychoanalysis) whom she met in 1997 and married in 2001.[75]
It is not known how long Murdoch will remain as News Corp.'s CEO. For a while the
American cable television entrepreneur John Malone was the second-largest voting
shareholder in News Corporation after Murdoch himself, potentially undermining the
family's control. In 2007, the company announced that it would sell certain assets and
give cash to Malone's company in exchange for its stock. In, 2007 Murdoch issued his
older children with equal voting stock.
Rupert Murdoch has since had two children with Wendi: Grace (born in New York 19
November 2001) and Chloe (born in New York 17 July 2003). There is reported to be
tension between Murdoch and his oldest children over the terms of a trust holding the
family's 28.5 percent stake in News Corporation, estimated in 2005 to be worth about
$6.1 billion. Under the trust, his children by Wendi Deng share in the proceeds of the
stock but have no voting privileges or control of the stock. Voting rights in the stock are
divided 50/50 between Murdoch on the one side and his children of his first two
marriages. Murdoch's voting privileges are not transferable but will expire upon his death
and the stock will then be controlled solely by his children from the prior marriages,
although their half-siblings will continue to derive their share of income from it. It is
Murdoch's stated desire to have his children by Deng given a measure of control over the
stock proportional to their financial interest in it (which would mean, if Murdoch dies
while at least one of the children is a minor, that Deng would exercise that control).
However, it does not appear that he has any strong legal grounds to contest the present
arrangement, and both ex-wife Anna and their three children are said to be strongly
resistant to any such change.[76]

Portrayal on television, in film, books and music

Rupert Murdoch and rival newspaper and publishing magnate Robert Maxwell are thinly
fictionalised as "Keith Townsend" and "Richard Armstrong" in The Fourth Estate by
British novelist and former MP Jeffrey Archer.[77]
Rupert Murdoch has been portrayed by Barry Humphries in the 1991 mini-series Selling
Hitler, Hugh Laurie in a parody of It's a Wonderful Life in the television show A Bit of
Fry & Laurie, Ben Mendelsohn in the film Black and White, Paul Elder in The Late Shift
and by himself on The Simpsons first in "Sunday, Cruddy Sunday" and most recently in
"Judge Me Tender".
It has been speculated that the character of Elliot Carver, the global media magnate and
main villain in the 1997 James Bond movie Tomorrow Never Dies, is based on Rupert
Murdoch. The writer of the film, Bruce Feirstein, has stated that Carver was actually
inspired by British press magnate Robert Maxwell, who was one of Murdoch's rivals.[78]
In 1999, the Ted Turner owned TBS aired an original sitcom, The Chimp Channel. This
featured an all-simian cast and the role of an Australian TV veteran named Harry Waller.
The character is described as "a self-made gazillionaire with business interests in all sorts
of fields. He owns newspapers, hotel chains, sports franchises and genetic technologies,
as well as everyone's favorite cable TV channel, The Chimp Channel." Waller is thought
to be a parody of Murdoch, a long-time rival of Turner's.[79]
In 2004, the movie Outfoxed included many interviews accusing Fox News of pressuring
reporters to report only one side of news stories, in order to influence viewers' political

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Murdoch 1985
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primaries ." , Murdoch , ". .
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2010 $ 1 $ 1
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Murdoch . [50]

1980 ,, Murdoch ,
1992 . [51] , 1997 , 2001
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1998 , Rupert Murdoch [54] 625
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. [55] 2006
, , Murdoch "". [56] 2009 ,
hacking 2011 [57]
Murdoch . [58] ,
muting . [59]
2006 Murdoch
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sued [61] -.
MSP conspiring MI5
"orchestrated Murdoch " . [62]

Murdoch , Rosehearty. [63]
Murdoch ,
; Murdoch . Gulfstream
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Mandelson, oligarch Oleg Deripaska - NBC
Universal . . [64]
2011 14 Murdoch 26

. [65] Murdoch
Andy Coulson 2007
hiring. [66] Coulson hacking
. Clegg, Ashdown
Murdoch ,. [67] Coulson 2011

3rd 2011 Wendi Murdoch

Murdoch .
1956 ,
, , , 1958 . [68] [69] Rupert Murdoch
1967 .
1967 Murdoch Torv, [68]
( Torv Torv )
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Elisabeth Murdoch (22 1968 , ), Murdoch (8 1971
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Murdoch . [69] [68] Murdoch :
(1988) (1991), [70] . Rupert
1999 . Murdoch US $ 1.2 . [71]
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(Wendi ) . [72] 30, ,
. Murdoch :. (
19 2001) Chloe ( 17 2003 ) [69]

Murdoch . [73] Murdoch ,

, Murdoch
resigning 2005. [73] 2003
Murdoch , Murdoch
, .
Vassar [75] 1993 Elkin Kwesi Pianim (Ghanaian
Kwame Pianim ) marrying, [75] Murdoch
Elisabeth,, NBC- , KSBW
KSBY, $ 35 . 1995
12 , Elisabeth
. divorcing 1998
BSkyB Chisholm,
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( ) 1997 2001 - ,. [75]

Murdoch Corp. .
undermining. 2007
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( 19 2001) Chloe ( 17 2003 ): Rupert Murdoch
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. , Wendi
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Rupert Murdoch Humphries 1991 Hitler,
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Waller . "
gazillionaire. , , franchises
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2004 ,
Outfoxed, '