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ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

Charcoal Briquetting Technology in the Province of Aurora, Philippines


Daiwey, A. S., Rotaquio, E. Jr. L., Angara, E. V. Aurora State College of Technology Zabali, Baler 3200, Aurora, Philippines

ABSTRACT Denuded forests and abandoned biomass characterized much of the Philippine land mass. Aiming to find a solution on how to solve this problem, various strategies and methodologies have been undertaken including information education campaign, promulgation /circulation of laws, policies and regulations yet exploitation of Mother Nature still exist. Our generation today is a generation of innovation; everything is new the gadgets, facilities, machineries and technologies. As a matter of fact what is new today is obsolete tomorrow, thus, scientists and researchers are passionately formulating and inventing various kind of devices trying to discover a technology that could best compete with the system and activities of todays generation. One positive result of this invention is the modern Briquetting Machineries used for charcoal production. This is a series of machines that can produce charcoal out of abandoned cellulosic biomass as primary materials instead of wood. This was designed wittingly to solve problems pertaining the unceasing cutting of trees and the profusion of wastes that build-up pollution problems. Cutting of trees is one of the most threatening upland activities that led to forest depletion while bulks of abandoned agricultural and other cellulosic wastes materials found everywhere secretes excessive gas emission in the atmosphere that heighten the concentration of ozone layers which make human suffering due to related environmental consequences such as; massive soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, flash floods, and soil fertility depletion that apparently turned into climate change. This technology controls further the advance depletion of natural forest by preventing the continuous cutting of trees while cleaning the environment through conversion of abandoned biomass into briquettes which at the same time serves as an additional source of income for unfortunate rural/urban communities, particularly the upland farmers and coastal dwellers. INTRODUCTION Since time immemorial, natural coconut shell and wood charcoal has been the major fuel energy used for char-grill and any type of cooking in the Philippines particularly in the province of Aurora because of price affordability
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ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

and availability in the market. It is true that patronizing commercial energy (LPG) is an easy way for cooking and an indicator of better or quality life. Nevertheless, it may create a lot of problems and the most probable harmful effect is climate changes that affect human health conditions. As we all know, the fossil fuel era of nonrenewable resources now a day is gradually coming to an end, oil will be the first to be depleted, followed by natural gas and coal. Energy problem then is very serious and the main objective now is to find solution on how to balance the supply and demand of energy sources. Therefore the need for conserving energy and developing alternative energy is a must. Biomass, as we can see, is abundantly available in the urban/rural regions and the only things we should do to make it useful is to utilize it properly through conversion into charcoal briquettes. Thus, the modern equipment of charcoal briquetting technology that can solve problems on traditional wood charcoal production was recommended. This enhances the knowledge of urban/rural communities regarding the modern way of charcoal making while preserving and protecting natural forests Furthermore, this technology aims to promote the diversified charcoal briquettes and other products extracted from abandoned biomass. A set of charcoal briquetting Machine is required to come up with a uniform size and figure of charcoal briquettes. This extruder machine has the capacity of pressing 300kg/day or more depending on the operators conditioning energy. The 30 kg of raw coconut husks materials using drum method has 10 percent recovery while the carbonized soft materials using fast carbonizer has a natural recovery of 30 percent. In so doing, charcoal briquetting production generates livelihood opportunities for unfortunate upland farmers and coastal dwellers since laborer does not requires diploma or professional license nor skilled workers either. The products can be sold here and abroad with reasonable price for household and industrial consumption. Charcoals produced from cellulosic wastes materials are simply environment-friendly, economically and socially acceptable because of its exemplified characteristics. Converting briquettes as household energy cannot just helps mitigate emission of methane, carbon dioxide and other green house gas molecules in the atmosphere but also sought to reduce impact of deforestation as we replace the traditional charcoal making which necessitates cutting of trees that causes depletion of countrys forest resources. Nevertheless, the so-called briquettes can be more effective when appropriate stove be used.

ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

Charcoal Briquette is the agglomeration of ground particles with alimentary binder, derived from either animal manure, vegetation substance or other abandoned cellulosic biomass usually produced with slow pyrolysis1. Charcoal production begun during the metallurgy development about 5,000 years ago and played an important role all throughout Bronze Age and Iron Age, approximately 3,000BC and 1,200BC respectively2. It happens after it was discovered that the heat calorific value of plain firewood does not meet the metals thawing temperature requirements because of the volatile and water released during combustion. Unlike charcoal burning heat which ranges more than 1,000F, enough degrees of temperatures needed for iron work production. As centuries and centuries have gone, charcoal was diversified until the development of a new mixture named Briquettes. The history of original charcoal briquettes began when Ellsworth B.A. Zwoyer of Pennsylvania applied for a patent in 1897. Nonetheless, Henry Ford helped popularized its uses in 1920s3 as he used left-over sawdust and glue for his assembled automobile. After World War I, Zwoyer and his son Paul started the Zwoyer Fuel Company, which built charcoal briquette manufacturing plants in Buffalo, NY, and Fall River, MA. In 1927, he acquired two more briquette patents for Briquetting Method and a Method of Carbonizing Fuel Briquettes. In the Philippines, particularly in the province of Aurora, illegal cutting of trees is rampant due to the following purposes such as; merchandizing, house construction, kaingin making and/or charcoal production. Traditional wood charcoal production process requires digging of holes to bury chopped trees then cover either with clay or sand then finally make a fire beneath the hole. The wood charcoal that was baked was gathered and put inside the sacks carried it home and
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Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of condensed substances that occurs spontaneously at high

enoughtemperatures. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyr "fire" and lysis "loosening". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal, April 2010. 2 According to Peter J. F. Harris (Department of Chemistry at the University of Reading in the U.K), as early as 30,000 BC, charcoal was used as art materials. First discovery of charcoal was probably in the aftermath of wildfire coming from lighting strike. A tree catches fire, falls down, gets partially buried and oxygen deprived, and then smoldering fire transforms the wood into charcoal. A synthesis taken from the wed site of http://virtualweberbullet.com/charcoal.html#factors, modified last June 2010. 3 It is not clear as to how Zwoyer came upon the idea of a briquette. But by the end of World War I, the Zwoyer Fuel Company had begun construction of charcoal briquette plants around the US. One of the earliest plants was set up in Buffalo, New York. However it was Henry Ford (with some help from Thomas Edison) who put the briquettes to practical use in 1920. His briquettes were constructed from the wood debris and sawdust in his automobile factory. It just happened that Kingsford was Fords brother in law. Ford agreed to focus on the auto industry. Kingsford would get in the business of selling charcoal. Kingsford Company would change its name to Kingsford Charcoal.http://www.whoinventedit.net/whoinvented-charcoal-briquettes.html, April 24, 2008.

ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

then collect the fine charcoal residue that had been accumulated at the bottom of sacks, mixed with clay to form a briquettes. This mixture was first used by toddlers while playing, putting a small amount of carbon and rolled it over on their palms to come up with various images then dried them under the sun until its beneficial uses was accidentally discovered when burned up. At first, they called this as charcoal crush but were changed into tiny coal after several years. Now, it was called charcoal briquettes when manufacturing process has changed dramatically due to the appearance of new industrial technologies. Selling of Charcoal Briquette in the Philippines was made by Kamado4 Company since 2003 with different label. The first type was sold intermittently in 2003-2005 and was labeled "Product of the Philippines." Second type of these briquettes which was labeled "Product of Thailand" was sold in 2006. Selling of third type briquettes labeled with "Product of Indonesia" was happened in 2007, and finally, late year of 2007 when they sold their "Try-It-Yourself" charcoal on eBay, with no country of origin identified. Each of the new offerings was decidedly inferior.5 Year 2009, modern Charcoal Briquetting Technology was introduced in the province through the initiative effort of Senator J. Angara, funded by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources Office and implemented by the Aurora State College of Technology through the Research Department. Thus, Peoples Organization Based in Baler received a one unit of this briquetting machines and now enjoying the benefits brought by his technology.

4 Kamado is a traditional Japanese wood or charcoal fired earthen vessel used as a stove or oven. They are often marketed as barbecues for outdoor use. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamado, 7 April 2010 at 12:46. Kamados appeal got the attention of Americans after World War II and carried a sample of it in an empty transport planes when US Air Force servicemen bring back from Japan, a synthesis taken from the website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Big_Green_Egg, 17 June 2010. The Big Green Egg is the brand name of kamado because of the origins of the basic design that lie in southern Japan. The Big Green Egg Company was founded in 1974 by Ed

Fisher and is based in Tucker, Georgia, USA (Late 1960s, manufacturing started in the America- production takes place in Mexico). 5 Here's a short summary of each review as taken from the article of 2009 Review of Kamado Coconut briquettes at website http://www.nakedwhiz.com/lumpdatabase/lumpbag92.htm, August 2009. 1. The Philippine charcoal was a great product, low on ash, long on burn time, hard durable briquettes that survived shipping abuse and burned with the characteristic sweet coconut smell. 2. The Thailand charcoal produced large volumes of ash, and much of it arrived at customers' doorsteps damp, moldy and crumbled. 3. The Indonesian charcoal produced the largest volume of ash we had ever tested to that point, burned for a very short time, and the briquettes were fragile and subject to shipping damage. 4. The 2007 "Try-It-Yourself" eBay charcoal had the shortest burn time and highest ash production we had ever seen in any charcoal up to that point. It was also fragile and subject to shipping damage.

ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

The project is intended to educate the charcoal makers of Aurora province with regards to the modern technology of charcoal production using abandoned plant-based materials through conversion into charcoal briquettes not only to clean the scattered biomass but to lessen the impact of cutting trees that causes forest denudation. Charcoal Briquettes produced from abandoned cellulosic wastes such as coconut husks/shell, rise hull/straw, saw dusts, grasses, twigs and so on and so forth has great contribution in solving national issues due to its exemplified characteristics as described as follows: 1) Charcoal Briquette produced is a smokeless fuel, 2) Converting agricultural wastes into charcoal briquettes can be of great help to assist the government in their clean and green drive program that promote tourism because of the attractive environment condition, 3) Expansion of deforestation will be prevented since cutting of trees as primary materials for wood charcoal making are eliminated, 4)Charcoal briquette is viewed as an advantage fuel because of its clean-burning nature plus the fact that in can be stored for a longer period of time without degradation. Thus, generates livelihood opportunities because interested Micro-entrepreneur can be organized for this product and lastly, 5) Shifting to charcoal briquettes can save governments saving. The wealth of individual entrepreneurs will increase while the nation in general can save dollars intended for importing Liquefied Petroleum Gas as energy consumption. This project aims to: 1. To promote charcoal briquettes and other profitable products from abandoned cellulosic wastes materials. 2. To determine charcoal briquetting procedure. 3. To generate other alternative livelihood opportunities for unfortunate rural upland farmers and coastal dwellers. METHODOLOGY 1 Promotion of charcoal briquettes and other profitable products from abandoned cellulosic wastes materials. Since time immemorial, natural wood and coconut shell charcoal has been the major fuel energy used for char-grill and any type of cooking in the Philippines primarily because of the price is economically reasonable and always available in the local market. Nonetheless, using such charcoal has consequences on humans health and the environment as a whole since cutting of trees are required for wood charcoal production that causes forest depletion. Thus, shifting
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ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

of traditional way of charcoal making into a modern technology of briquettes production are highly recommended because it will not just experience its beneficial effect but rather preserve the natural beauty of nature for the next generation. As we all know, the fossil fuel era of nonrenewable resources now a day is gradually coming to an end, oil will be first to be depleted, followed by natural gas and coal. The energy problems then become serious and the most important objective now is to find a solution on how to balance the demand and supply of energy sources. Therefore the need for conserving energy and developing alternative energy is a must. Biomass, as we can see, is abundantly available everywhere - both in the urban/rural regions. The only things we should do to make it useful are to utilize it properly through conversion into briquettes, mainly for cooking food purposes. Thus, the modern equipment in the new millennium that can solve problems on the traditional wood charcoal production known as Charcoal Briquetting Technology was highly recommended in order to enhance the knowledge of urban/rural communities regarding the modern way of charcoal making while protecting natural forests. This technology aims to promote the diversified charcoal briquettes and other products extracted from abandoned biomass. This can be done using a set of charcoal briquetting machines to come up with a uniform size of charcoal briquettes. This extruder machine has the capacity of pressing 300kg/day or more depending on the operators conditioning energy. The 30 kg of raw coconut husks materials using drum method has 10 percent recovery while the carbonized soft materials using fast carbonizer has a natural recovery of 30 percent. Moreover, different sizes and figures of briquettes can be made possible using different types of briquettor. The other profitable products that could be extracted from abandoned agricultural wastes were Liquid Smoke - the good alternative medicine, fertilizer and insecticide. Promoting charcoal briquettes and other profitable products from abandoned cellulosic wastes materials will be made possible through intensive information education campaign especially in doing mass media appearance like television and radio interviews/commercials. Seminar or circulation of pampletes, brochures and tarpaulin are another means of promotion. 2 Charcoal Briquetting Procedures Primarily, this will not end-up with determining the charcoal briquetting procedure but generally to educate the charcoal makers in Aurora province
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ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

regarding the importance of new technology. This is not only a matter of preventing the unceasing cutting of trees for wood charcoal production but to utilize abandoned plant-based materials by converting it into charcoal briquettes. As such, the clean and green drive program of the government can be promoted at the same time. The procedure is simply do collection of raw materials, prepare the materials, carbonized, grinds, binds, mixed, mould and then dry before labeling and packaging process be done prior to marketing. The desire sizes and figures depend largely on the style of briquettor machine. a. Collection of raw materials Production of charcoal briquettes and other products for household energy can be done from collected abandoned biomass such as leaves, twigs, grasses, branches, coconut husks/shell, and other rural cellulosic materials. This can be done using mini-dump truck, tricycle or any type of cargo vehicle. b. Prepare the raw materials. Gathered raw materials should be sorted out, chopped and exposed it under the sun for drying prior to carbonization. Drying can be done in a way of air, solar and artificial kiln drying. c. Carbonize the dried materials. Carbonization takes place when organic matter is raised into high temperature. The moisture embedded in the solid biomass should be removed before carbonization can take place. This can be achieved by drying prior to burning. The biomass then undergoes pyrolysis, which is the chemical decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis leads to carbonization of the materials when there is high temperature. There are two ways of doing carbonization hot flat and drum method. Hot Flat or fast carbonizer method can be used for light materials such as leaves, rice hulls/straw, peanut shell and the like. Drum-method, on the other hand, can be used for larger materials like twigs, corn cobs, buko wastes and other similar materials. The average recovery after carbonization was range to at least 30% and 10% production for hot flat and drum method respectively.
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ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

This means that we can produce 300 kg of carbonized materials for every 1 ton of soft (small) raw materials while 100 kg for large raw materials, like coconut husks. d. Grind the carbonized materials. Feed the carbonized materials into the hopper of the grinding machine to produce fine carbonized materials. Such fine particles can now be put into pail or any improvised stainless bucket or container for mixing with binders. e. Prepare the binder. Cassava or corn starch is recommended as binder because they are smokeless and often available in the local market. Usually, the amount of starch to be used for charcoal briquettes is 10% of the weight of carbonized materials. This means that every one (1) kilogram of carbonized materials needs one hundred (100) grams of binder (either cassava or corn starch). Nonetheless, Aurora Charcoal briquettes producer increased the volume of binder as high as 20% of ground materials to come up with a much better quality. Gelatinized the starch by adding one (1) liter of water for every one (1) kilo of fine carbon. f. Mix the ground particles and the binder. This is the process of coating every particle of ground carbonized materials with a film of binder to enhance adhesion in order to come up with a better quality of briquette. Pour proper proportions of carbonized materials and gelatinized starch into the mixer and then mix them thoroughly. g. Mold the mixture into briquettes. Convert the mixed materials into finished products through manual briquettor. Pour the mixture directly to the molder to transform it into uniformly-sized briquettes. A kilo of charcoal fine will produce approximately a kilo of charcoal briquettes. h. Dry the briquettes. Place the briquettes in trays and dry them either exposing it under the sun, for two days during sunny days, or putting it inside
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ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

the artificial drier for at least two hours. Place them in a suitable drier during rainy days for safe keeping purposes. i. Packing and labeling of charcoal briquettes. Charcoal can be packed and labeled using shrinkable plastic bags. Packaging can be 1 kg per pack or in boxes for bulk sales, usually 5-10 kg per box. The charcoal briquettes are ready for sale or use in cooking, grilling and heating either in poultry farms and houses fire place. 3 Generating alternative livelihood opportunities for unfortunate rural uplanders and coastal dwellers. Promoting charcoal briquetting production can also generates livelihood opportunities for unfortunate upland farmers and coastal dwellers since the criteria for hiring laborer does not required diploma or professional license, not even skilled worker either. In the municipality of Baler, there is a NonGovernment Organization named Ilaya Development Association who luckily received one set of charcoal briquetting machine funded and granted by the Department of Labor and Employment. This peoples organization now is enjoying the benefits of this technology as they currently doing alone the briquetting production in the province. In terms of marketing, the products used for household and industrial consumption can be sold here and abroad under reasonable prices. Charcoals produced from cellulosic wastes materials are simply environment-friendly, economically and socially acceptable because of its exemplified characteristics smokeless in nature once burn up. Embracing these products as alternative household energy will save governments funds allotted for importing Liquefied Petroleum Gas popularly known as LPG. Converting briquettes as household energy cannot just helps mitigate emission of methane, carbon dioxide and other green house gas molecules in the atmosphere but also sought to reduce impact of deforestation as we replaced the traditional charcoal making which necessitates cutting of trees that causes depletion of countrys forest resources. Nevertheless, the so-called briquettes can be more effective when appropriate stove be used.

ASCOT Research International Journal, Volume 3, December 2010

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (Experimental Analysis) Drum carbonizing method (hard and bigger materials) Using drum carbonizing method, the research study in table 1 speaks through the data gathered. And as an average result, after several trials of burning 150 kg of raw coco-husks materials, it decreases for as low as 15.5 kg or 10.33 % of recovery. Table 1 Trial 1 2 3 4 5 Materials Coco husks Coco husks Coco husks Coco husks Coco husks Total Time consumed Volume in weight (hour) Raw(kg) Dry(kg) 5 30 3.5 5 30 3.0 5 30 3.3 5 30 2.9 5 30 2.8 25 150 15.5 Recovery (%) 11.67 10 11 9.67 9.33 10.33

Hot flat carbonizing method (soft and small materials) Using hot flat carbonizing method, the research study speaks through the data gathered. And as an average result, after conducted several trials of burning 100 kg of raw rice hulls and saw dusts materials, it decreases for as low as 15 kg or 30 % and 14.7 kg or 29.4 of recovery respectively, see table 2. Table 2

Time Volume in weight Recovery Trial Materials consumed Raw(kg) Dry(kg) (%) 1 Rice hulls 1:00 10 3 30 2 3 4 5 Rice hulls Rice hulls Rice hulls Rice hulls Total 1:10 1:05 1:07 1:05 5:27 10 10 10 10 50 3 3 3 3 15 30 30 30 30 30

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Cont Time Trial Materials consumed 1 Saw dusts 1:03 2 3 4 5 Saw dusts Saw dusts 1:07 1:05 Volume in weight 10 10 10 3 2.9 3 Recovery (%) 30 29 30

Saw dusts 1:01 10 3 30 Saw dusts 1:09 10 2.8 28 Total 5:15 50 14.7 29.4 Grinding of carbon materials What interesting in grinding materials is the quantity of gas consumed. Table 3 below shows that the gas consumed in grinding carbonized coconut husks is a little bit expensive compare to the gas used in grinding rice hulls and saw dust carbonized materials. This is simply because of the unsound results of carbonization of which there were still raw coco-fiber that clog up the grinding machine which causes delay of the operation. Table 3 Materials Coco husks Rice hulls Saw dusts

Weight Gas Consumed volume (kg) (L) 15.5 .62 15.0 .28 14.7 .28

Ash production and burning time analysis (ASCOT Charcoal Briquette6 vs Natural coconut shell charcoal) After several trials conducted using natural coconut shell charcoal (as comparative materials), applying the with same procedure, weight, place and time; it turns out that natural coconut charcoal has lesser ash volume as compared to ASCOT charcoal briquette. Amazingly, ASCOT charcoal briquette has longer

The composition of ASCOT charcoal briquette is a combination of branches, coconut husks, rice hulls and saw dusts with 13.3% cassava starch binders.

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burning time. The latest experiments, on the other hands, are getting better. Table 4 Materials Weight Ash Recovery Burning time Nature of (g) (g) Percentage (min) Stove Natural coconut 250 12 5 55 Metal shell charcoal Charcoal Briquette 250 56 22 85 Metal 7 Latest Experiment 636 80 13 130 Metal

Liquid smoke collection and its efficacy Table 5 shows, after several trials of collecting liquid smoke with time consumed equivalent to thirteen hours and twenty minutes, that there are 3.27 litters liquid smoke collected in ninety kilograms of Coco-husks or at least one liter of Liquid Smoke in every thirty (30) kg of raw Coco-husks materials. Nonetheless, this liquid production may vary depending on the moisture content of raw materials subject to be carbonized. Liquid smoke is good for anti-dandruff and very effective alternative medicine for eczema, tooth ache and gas pain. It can also be use for any kind of skin diseases both for human and animals, see photos below treated with liquid smoke.8

7 This latest briquette experiments composes of branches, coconut husks, rice hulls and saw dusts with 20% binderscassava starch. 8 A synthesis taken from the personal experiences and testimonies of ILDEA members. ILDEA is an acronym of peoples organization based in So. Ilaya, Brgy., Zabali, Baler, Aurora. They were the first lucky organization granted with a unit of charcoal briquetting machine and now actively doing charcoal production in the province. The composition of ASCOT charcoal briquette is a combination of branches, coconut husks, rice hulls and saw dusts with 13.3% cassava starch binders.

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Table 5 Trial 1 2 3 Materials Coco husks Coco husks Coco husks Total Time No. of Volume in weight Production (L) Start End hour Raw(kg) Dry(kg) 7:30 12:30 5 30 3.5 1 7:40 2:00 5:20 30 2.8 1.27 8:00 11:00 3 30 3.0 1 13:20 90 9.3 3.27

Tisoys picture before May 3, 2010 Tisoys picture before June 30, 2010

Return Of Investment Marketing Expected Market distribution: Local market Municipal based Central aurora market (ex. Baler, San Luis, Maria aurora) Provincial based Nueva Ecija/Viscaya, Bulacan, Quirino, and other neighbor provinces. Agency/Company NGUs/LGUs/NGOs DOLE, ASCOT, DENR, DTI, etc Export All countries belong to united nation and other interested foreign consumers.

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Production of Magic Stoves

Php 500.00

Php 1,200.00

Php 450.00

Php 150.00

Php 700.00

Equipments Budgetary Requirement9 DESCRIPTION Drum carbonizer Hot flat carbonizer Grinder with engine Mixer Briquettor Kiln drier Delivery fee AMOUNT (Php) 1,800.00 16,000.00 62,000.00 8,000.00 21,000.00 47,000.00 20,000.00 Total 175,800.00

Socio-economic Aspect Charcoal briquetting generates enormous livelihood activity to the urban and rural communities. Unutilized and underutilized labor can be tapped that will spur the growth of local economy. Even the agriculture sector benefits from it by the demand of cassava starch needed as binder for the briquetting activity.

Jovencito M. TiponTipon, (2009). Machines Itemized Budget, Laguna: Tipontipon iron works.

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Carbonized waste cellulosic materials can be traded by underprivileged communities that could improve their way of living. There is no need for them to travel in the city to seek employment, they can stay at home and maintain their culture and traditions while doing charcoal briquettes production. Further possible advantage has something to do with: 1) Employment empowerment, 2) Capita l required, and 3) Currency saver. Employment creation everywhere because abandoned biomass is found everywhere. There is no need for specialized skill. Unskilled labor can be tapped. Very little capital required; cooperatives can be strengthened. Aside from sustaining the supply needs of local consumers, charcoal briquettes can be an export commodity, hence can be a dollar earner. When Charcoal briquette used as an alternative household energy for cooking; expensive LPG then can be substituted, thus currency reserve can be saved.10 Approximate Economic Parameter11 24kl/day X 22days/mo. X 12mo./yr X Php 15.00 95,040

Suggested Retail price for Briquettes Export price 24kl/day X 22days/mo. X 12mo./yr X Php 50.00 316,800 Target competitive 1L/day X 22days/mo. X 12mo./yr X Php 150.00 39,600 price for liquid smoke Export price 1L/day X 22days/mo. X 12mo./yr X Php 500.00 132,000 Grand Total Php .....583,440

10 Power point presentation made by Santiago S. Baconguis, Chief science research specialist, Ecosystems Research & Development Bureau, entitled Utilization of biomass charcoal briquette as Alternative fuel for tobacco fluecuring in the tobacco growing areas in Ilocos, Region, Philippines. There were five units of charcoal briquetting machine distributed in the province of Aurora today, including the one unit given to the organization of Ilaya Development Association or commonly called ILDEA. They were the active organization doing charcoal production in the province today. 11 This is taken from the on-going record of ILDEA who operated charcoal briquetting production in Aurora province. 24 kl. a day is taken from the performance of laborer using fast corbonizer. The figure of 24 came out after dividing numerator (weight of carbonized materials) and denominator (number of hours consumed). Performance of drum carbonizing method was not included because the time consuming for this will use by the laborer in another stages of doing charcoal briquetting like grinding all the way down to packaging which is the final stage.

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Environmental Impact For every ton of abandoned biomass charcoal briquette, about 88 trees with a diameter of about 10 cm is saved from fuelwood cutting and charcoal making. The conserved trees then serve as carbon sinker.12 Environmental Impact of Charcoal Briquetting CB Produced Per Year Number of Trees Saved Carbon Sequestered, kg Kg/year Ton/Year Per Year 10 years Per Year 10 years 79, 200 79. 20 6, 970 69, 697 153,331.2 1,533,312 Total value of timber saved/year/facility = Php 67, 320.00 CONCLUSION ILDEAs rampant cutting of forest trees was reduced after a unit of charcoal briquetting machine was granted upon them. Abandoned biomass cannot only be converted as charcoal briquettes but even liquid smoke can also be extracted. Liquid smoke is not only good for animal treatment but for human too. It has a potential alternative medicine for eczema and other skin diseases. Quality of ASCOT charcoal briquette is gradually getting better and still in the process of developing more to beat the natural coconut shell charcoals heat calorific value. RECOMMENDATION Needs more charcoal briquetting machine in Aurora not just only for generating employment, additional source of income or livelihood opportunities but primarily for climate changes mitigation and adaption purposes. Conduct laboratory analysis regarding the chemical content of liquid smoke to determine further its efficacy as alternative medicine (for human and animals), fertilizer (for rice, plants, fruits and vegetables), and insecticide (its efficiency in killing ants and other types of insects or termites).
Summary of information is taken from the technical report of the Ecosystem and Research Development Bureau, entitled Conduct of Technology forum on the DENR Charcoal Briquetting, 2009.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author expresses his gratitude of thanks to Senator Edgardo J. Angara for his initiative effort of introducing Charcoal Briquetting Technology in the province of Aurora, to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources Office for their generous acts of allotting funds to this project, to the management of Aurora State College of Technology for their moral support and assistance to formally implement the project; and finally, the deepest appreciation goes to the Forestry and Research Department personnel of ASCOT for their inspirational working unity towards a meaningful and successful mission vision and goal. REFERENCES On line http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charcoal, April, 2010. http://virtualweberbullet.com/charcoal.html#factors, June 2010. http://www.whoinventedit.net/who-invented-charcoal-briquettes.html, April, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamado, April 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Big_Green_Egg, June 2010. http://www.nakedwhiz.com/lumpdatabase/lumpbag92.htm, August 2009. On line article Hunt, C. et al. The Sustainable Table: http://www.sustainabletable.org/features/articles/summergrilling/ charcoal.html, April, 2008. Technical reports Baconguis, S. Utilization of Biomass Charcoal Briquette as Alternative Fuel for Tobacco Flue-curing in the Tobacco Growing Areas in Ilocos, Region, Philippines: Ecosystem and Research Development Bureau, April, 2008.
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Conduct of Technology Forum on the DENR Charcoal Briquetting, Laguna, Philippines: Ecosystem and Research Development Bureau, 2009. TiponTipon, J. Machines Itemized Budget: Tipontipon Iron Works, Laguna, Philippines, 2009.

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