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_____ _____________ 2007 .


:
: 010000 -

: 010100 , 010200
, 010500

2007

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34.
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:

2
2
7
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40
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62
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183

1.
1.
,
, .

. ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
.
.
,

,
,
.
.
-

.
,
, ,
, ,

.
,
,
.

. ,
.

. ,
.
,

,
.

(

, ,


.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
. , , ,
, .

.

x1 , x 2 , x 3 ,

.

x (t ) ,
i

(1.1)

.
, ,
. -
.
1 , 2 , 3 .

x i = x i ( i , t ) .

(1.2)


. ,

det x i 0 .
x j
(1.2)

i = i (x i , t ) .

(1.3)

i
""

.
.
() ,

(1.2), , i . ,
(1.3), ,
xi - . ,
,
.

u i = x i i .

(1.4)

1.1
xi

x = , x =
1

+ 3 ,

x =
3

+ 2 ,

- .
(
).
1.2
xi

r
r
r
r
u = 4 e + e + e .
2
1

2
3

2
3

,
(1, 0, 2) .
1.3

r
u = (3

4 3 )e1 + ( 21 3 )e2 + ( 4 2 1 )e3 .

,
(1, 0, 3) 3, 6, 6 , ,
.

1.4

x = , x =
1

x =

2
3

, 22 + 32 = 1 .
,
, .
,
, .
,
.

Z
dL
U
R
dl
r

Y
X
. 1.1 .

(dL) = d d .
2

ij

(1.5)

ij - .

(dl) = dx dx .
2

ij

(1.6)

(1.6) (1.5)
.
, ,
.

(1.2)

dx i = x i d j .
j

(1.7)

, (1.3)

d i = i dx j .
x j

(1.8)

(dl) (dL)
2

= 2L ij d i d j ,

L ij

x x
L IJ = 1 k k ij ,
2 i j

(1.9)

. (1.4),
:

u u u u
L IJ = 1 i + j + k k .
i i j
2 j

(1.10)

(dl) (dL)
2

= 2A ijdx i dx j ,

A ij


A IJ = 1 ij k k ,
x i x j
2

(1.11)

.
(1.4),

u u u u
A IJ = 1 i + j k k .
x i x i x j
2 x j

(1.12)

1.5

x = , x =
1

+ 3 ,

x =
3

+ 2 ,

- . .
1.6

r
r
r
r
u = 4 e + e + e
2
1

2
3

2
3

.
2.
(1.10)
, .
( ).
, (1.12)
, .
.
,

,

u i u j
+
.
x i
2 x j

ij = 1

(2.1)

2.1

x =
1

+ 2 ,

x =
2

+ 3 ,

x =
3

+ 1 ,

- .
. , ,
.

(1.4)

v i = u i .
t

v = du
dt

vi = vi (xi , t ) .
,

. ,
.
.
( )
,

v v
vij = 1 i + j .
i
2 j

ij

1 vi
2 j

v
.

j

, .
,

v ij =

dA ij
,
dt

ij

d
dt

ij

(2.2)

10

,
,
.
, , ,
.
2.2

x = ,
x = e ( + )/ 2 + e (
x = e ( + )/ 2 e ( )/ 2 ,
t

)/ 2 ,

.
2.3

x = , x = + (e
1

2 t

) x = + (e

1 ,

3 t

1 ,

.
(1.4)

du i = u i dx j .
x j

u i
x j

,

1 u i u j u i u j .
du i =
+
+

dx
2 x j x i x j x i j

(2.3)

1 u u
Wij = i j
2 x j x i

(2.4)

. (2.1)
,

11

. (2.4)

i = 12 ijk Wkj ,

(2.5)

ijk - -.
2.4

r
r
r
r
u = ( x x ) e + ( x + x ) e x x )e
2

,
,
(0, 2, 1) .
2.5

x =
1

2 + 3 ,

= 1 + 2 3 ,

= 1 + 2 + 3 .

,
, .
(2.1)
.

,

(dl) (dL) = (dldL)(dl+dL) = 2 d d .


2

ij

(2.6)

dl dL , (2.6)

dldL
d d
= ij i j .
dL
dL dL

(2.7)

12

. 2.1 .

,
, (2.7)

dldL
u
= ii = i ,
dL
i

(2.8)

d i
.
dL

,

.


. ,
2 , 3

cos =

u 2 u 3
+
= 2 23 .
3 u 2

(2.9)

13

,

.
3.

, (
) ( )
.
, ,
.

3 I1 2 + I 2 I 3 = 0 .

(3.1)

1 ,
2 , 3 . ,

J1 = I1 = ii ,

J 2 = I 2 = 1 ij ij J12 ,
2

(3.2)

J 3 = I 3 = det ij .

J1 = 1 + 2 + 3 ,
J 2 = 1 2 + 2 3 + 31 ,
J 3 = 1 2 3 .
3.1
5 1 1

= 1 4 0
1 0 4

ij

. .

(3.3)

14

6 0 0

= 0 4 0
0 0 3

ij

,
.

ij ' = ij ij ,

ij

(3.4)

- , = 1 ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) - .
3

,
.

J1' = 1' + 2' + 3' = 0 .


3.2 ,

x = , x =
1

+ 2 3 ,

x =
3

+ 2 2 ,


.
3.3

3 2
1

L = 3
1 2 .
2 2 6

ij

.
3.4

= 4 x1 x2 + 3 x3 ,

+ 7 x2 ,

= 3 x1 + 4 x2 + 4 x3

15

3.5

x = + 2 , x =
1

2 3 ,

= 21 + 2 2 + 3 .


.
3.6
1

= 3

ij

3
1
2

2 .

.
, ,
. , (
3 0 ) x3 ,
x1 , x2 .

u1 = u1 (x1 , x2 ) ,

u 2 = u 2 (x1 , x2 ) ,

u3 = 0 .

(3.5)


11 12

ij = 12 22
0
0

0 .
0

(3.6)

3.7 ,

= x1 + 3 x2 ,

= 3 x1 x2 ,

=5

.
(
)

16

u
1 ui
+ j
xi
2 x j

ij =


.
,

(
). (2.1)
, ,
2 jm
2 ij
2 ik
2 km
,

xk xm xi xk x j xm xi x j

(3.7)

.
:

2 11 2 22
2 12
+
=2
,
x1x 2
x 22 x12
2 23
2 22 2 33
+ 2 =2
,
x 2 x 3
x 32
x 2
2 33 2 11
2 31
+ 2 =2
,
2
x 1
x 3
x 3 x 1

23 31 12 2 11
+
+
,

=
x1 x1 x2 x3 x2x3
23 31 12 2 22

+
,
=

x2 x1 x2 x3 x3x1

23 31 12 2 33
+

=
.

x3 x1 x2 x3 x1x2

2 11 2 22
2 12
.
+
=2
x22
x12
x1x2

3.8

17

= x
x x

ij

xx

x .
5

.
3.9

= 3x1 x22 ,

= 2 x3 x1 ,

2
3

x1 x2 .

,
.
4.

, ,
,
.

, , , ,
- .
,
.
, .

.

dm
.
dv

(4.1)

,
, .
, , ,

. ,
,
( ), , ,
( ).
.
Fi (, )
bi = Fi (, ).

18

Ti (, ).
, .

dT
z
n

ds

x
. 3.1 .


ds .
n , ,
,
dTi .
,

tin =

dTi
,
ds

(4.2)


n .

,
() .
( ) .
,
,
, .

19

. 4.2 .

,

,
, ,

tin ds ti1ds1 ti2 ds2 ti3ds3 + Fi = 0 ,

ds

- ,

j
i

(4.3)

- ,

n
i

- , ds
ni .

ds i = dsn i (4.3)
tin = tij n j .

(4.4)

ni - , tij -
.

20

, ,
, (4.4).
(4.4)
.
, ,
, tij ,
,
. (4.4)
.
.

4.1

7 0 2

= 0 5 0 .
2 0 4

ij

r r
n = 2e

4.2

2r
e
3

1r
+ e .
3

P
7 5 0

= 5 3 1 .
0 1 2

ij


3 x1 + 6 x2 + 2 x3 = 12 .

4.3
3x x

= 5x
0

ij

5x
0
2x

0
2x
0

P 2,1, 3

2
2

+ x32 = 4 .

21

5.

, (2.1)
.
, , . , tij , tij0
-

0
ij

t ij =

x m x k p 0 ,
0 j i mk
t ij0 =

x j 0
p ,
k ik

tij0 - , pik0 -
-. , 0 -
.

.
, ,
ij .

11 12 13

ij = 21 22 23 .

33
32
31

(5.1)

(4.4)
, t in = ijn j ,

t 1n = n 1 11 + n 2 21 + n 3 31 ,
t n2 = n 1 12 + n 2 22 + n 3 32 ,
t 3n = n 1 13 + n 2 23 + n 3 33 .

(5.2)

V
tin Fi ,
, ,
.
(5.2)

22

Fi dv
v

+ t ij n jds = 0 .

(5.3)


- (5.3)
ji

x + Fi dv = 0 .

(5.4)

V ,
(5.4) ,

ji
+ Fi = 0 .
x j

(5.5)

.
5.1

= x
0

ij

x
0

0
x

, ,
.
5.2

xx

= (1 x )x
0

ij

(1 x )x
( x 3x ) / 3
2

0 .
2 x
2

,
.
,

23

ijk x j Fk dv + ijk x j t mk n m ds = 0 .
v

(5.6)

ijk - - , x j - - .

(5.6) . V

ijk kj

= 0,

ij

t .

(5.7)

ji

=
12

21

=
23

32

=
13

31

21 22 23
+
+
+ F2 = 0 ,
x1 x 2 x 3
11 12 13
+
+
+ F1 = 0 ,
x 1 x 2 x 3
31 32 33
+
+
+ F3 = 0 .
x1 x 2 x 3

(5.8)

6.

t = n .
n
i

6.1

ij

(6.1)

= 2
0

ij

2
2
0

0
.
0
2

24

1
=
2
1

2
ij

1
2
1
2
1
2

2 .
1

2
1

2

, tin ni ,
.

n
i

= ni .

(6.2)

(6.2) (6.3)

ij

ij )n j = 0 .

(6.3)

(6.3) , ,

11
12
13
21 22 23 = 0 .
31
32 33

3 I 1 2 + I 2 I 3 = 0 .
1 ,
2 , 3 . ,

J1 = I1 = ii ,
J 2 = I 2 = 12 ( ij ij J12 ),
J 3 = I3 = det ij .

25

6.2

3 1 1

.
= 1 0 2
1 2 0

ij

.
6.3

ij

J1 = 1 + 2 + 3 ,
J 2 = 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1 ,
J 3 = 1 2 3 .
6.4 , ij ik kj - .
6.5

6 3 0

= 3 6 0
0 0 8

ij

7.

tin
ds .

n = t in n i = ijn i n j .

(7.1)

26

s2 = t in t in n2 .

(7.2)

, ,

1 > 2 > 3 ,

(7.3)

t in = i n i .

(7.4)

z
n

ds

x
. 7.1 .

(7.4) (7.1)

n = t in n i = 1n 12 + 2 n 22 + 3 n 32 .

(7.5)

(7.4) (7.5) (7.2)

s2 = 12 n 12 + 22 n 22 + 32 n 32 ( 1n 12 + 2 n 22 + 3 n 32 ) .
2

(7.6)

s (7.6)
.

27

L = s2 n i n i ,

(7.7)

- .

L
= 0.
n i
,

n 1 [ 12 2 1 ( 1n 12 + 2 n 22 + 3 n 32 )+ ] = 0 ,
n 2 [ 22 2 2 ( 1n 12 + 2 n 22 + 3 n 32 )+ ] = 0 ,
n 3 [ 32 2 3 ( 1n 12 + 2 n 22 + 3 n 32 )+ ] = 0 .

(7.8)

n i n i = 1 .

n 1 = 1 n 2 = 0 n 3 = 0
n 1 = 0 n 2 = 1 n 3 = 0
n 1 = 0 n 2 = 0 n 3 = 1

s = 0,
s = 0,
s = 0.

(7.9)

n1 = 0

n 2 = 1/ 2

n 3 = 1/ 2

n 1 = 1

n2 = 0

n 3 = 1/ 2

n 1 = 1

n 2 = 1/ 2

n3 = 0

s = ( 2 3 )/ 2 ,
s = ( 1 3 )/ 2 ,
s = ( 1 2 )/ 2 .

(7.10)

(7.10)
,
.

.
,
,

1 > 2 > 3 .

28

n = 1n 12 + 2 n 22 + 3 n 32 ,
s2 + n2 = 12 n 12 + 22 n 22 + 32 n 32 .

(7.11)
(7.12)

n i n i = 1

2
1

( )( )+
=
( )( )
( )( )+
=
( )( )
( )( )+
=
( )( )
n

2
2

n 32

2
s

(7.13)

2
s

2
s

. 7.2 .

. 7.2, - n , s
.

.

29

max =

1 3
2

(7.14)

7.1

0
5 0

.
= 0 6 12
0 12 1

ij

.
7.2
,
x2 , x3 .
7.3 , ,
n
.
7.4

0
0
,

= 0 = 0
0 0 0
0 0

ij

ij

0 .
2

,
. 3 0

11 12

ij = 12 22
0
0

0 .
0

(7.15)

.
,
( )

30

ij' = ij ij ,
=

(7.16)

1
( 1 + 2 + 3 ) .
3

,
.

J1' = 1' + 2' + 3' = 0 .


7.5

12 4 0

.
= 4 9 2
0 2 3

ij

,
.
7.6

10 6 0

= 6 10 0 .
0
0 1

ij

7.7 ,
.
8.

,
,
. :
, ;

.

V
.

31

m = (x, t)dv ,
v

(8.1)

- . ,
,
, (8.1) :

dm = d x, t dv = d + v k dv = 0 .
( ) v dt
dt dt v
x k

,
,

v k
d
+
= 0.
dt
x k

(8.2)

.
.
,

dv = Jdv0 ,
dv0 , dv - ,
,

J = det

x i
,
j

d x, t dv = d J dv = 0 .
( ) v dt ( ) 0
dt v
0

, J = 1

0 = J .

(8.3)

(8.3)
.

32

8.1 , d (ln J ) = div(v).


dt
8.2 ,

=J
0

d + vk = 0 .

dt

V S
.

k i = v i dv ,
v

v i - . ,
( ), ,

. Fi x, t
t in , (4.4)
, ,

( )

dk i = d v dv = d F dv
dt v i
dt dt v i

+ t ij n jds .

(8.4)

(8.4)
(8.3), (8.4) -.
,

dv i
dt

t ij
+ Fi .
x j

(8.5)


. , , ,
, (8.5)
2

0 2u i = ij + 0 Fi ,

x j

(8.6)

33

0 - , ij -
, u i - .

M i = ijk x j v k dv .
v


,
- ,

dM i = d x v dv = x F dv + x t n ds .
ijk j k
ijk j mk m
dt dt v ijk j k
v
s

(8.7)

ijk - - , x j - - .
(8.7) (8.4), (8.7)
- .
V

ijk t kj = 0 ,

t ij = t ji .

(8.8)

,
(8.5).

K = 1 v i v i dv .
2v



, .

34

dK + v t dv = v t n ds + F v dv
i ji j
i i
dt v ij ji
s
v

(8.9)

K V ,
,

. vij - (2.2), tij - ,
Fi - .

, , ,

.


.

U = udv ,
v

dK + dU = v t n ds + F v dv c n ds .
i i
i i
dt
dt s i ji j
v
s

(8.10)

.
ci
(8.10)
.
(8.10) (8.9) .
V

du = 1 t v 1 c i .
dt ij ij x i
9.

(8.11)

35


,
.
, ,
. ,
, , ,
,
.

. ,
, .
,
.
,
T S .

, V ,
, ,
.

S = sdv ,
v

s .

ds = ds1 + ds 2 ,
dt dt dt
1
2
ds
ds

- , ,
-
dt
dt

, . ,

ds 2 = 0
dt
ds 2 > 0
dt

,
.

36

dq
- ,
dt

dq
= 1 c i .
T x i
dt
(8.11) ,
.
, ci ,

, ,

c i = k T ,
x i

(9.1)

k , T - .
,

.
,

dq
ds .
=T
dt
dt

(9.2)

d sdv edv ci n i ds ,

T
dt v
v
s

(9.3)

e .
(9.3) ,
.

ds e 1 ci
dt

T x i

c i T .
T 2 x i

(9.4)

.
.

37

,
, (
) :
- :

v k
d
+
= 0,
dt
x k

(9.5)

- :

dv i
dt

t ij
+ Fi ,
x j

(9.6)

- :

du = 1 t v 1 c i .
dt ij ij x i

(9.7)

ds e 1 ci
dt

T x i

c i T .
T 2 x i

(9.8)

, Fi ,
,
. :
, vi ,
tij , ci ,
u , s T .
,
.
,
(, ).
: (,
), (,
).

38

(9.5), (9.6)
,
.

,

.
,
,
. ,
,
.

. ,
.
,

( )
t .

x i = x i ( j , ),

(9.9)

j - , t .
,
,
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
i0 x i = x i ( j0 , ),

(9.9) , i0 .
.
.
(9.9)
, ,
, (1.10) (1.12).
,
.

39

,
() .

. ,

.


.
,

u = u (A ij ,s),
Aij - ,
(9.10)

(9.10)

- .

du = u dA ij + u ds .
A ij
s

(9.11)

(9.2)

dq
ds
=T
dt
dt
(8.11)

du = 1 t v + T ds .
dt ij ij
dt

(9.12)

, (2.2)

v ij =

dA ij
,
dt

du = 1 t ij dA ij + Tds

(9.11) (9.13), :

(9.13)

40

t ij = u ,
A ij
T = u .
s

(9.14)
(9.15)

,
(9.14) .
,
.

41

2.
10.


, ,
, .
15
ui ,
ij
ij .
,
() ,
.
,
, ,
. ,

,
. (
) .

. ,

.
,
.
, ..
. ,
"", ,

""

.
,

.
,

, ..
. .

42
2

. 100.2

. 10.1


10.1, 10..2






(.. 10.1)

(. 10.2).

, .


E :
= E ,


:
= .

,
E


,


.

. :



()
, ..

;

, ..


);


,
..
,



.

.
, ,

,

().

43


, .
1 , 2 , 3 .
2 3 , 1 ,
, 1 = 1/E . ,
1 ,
. ,
,
.
, 1
1 =

1, 2 = 1, 3 = 1.
E
E
E

,
2 3 . ,
:
1

1 +
3
1 2 3 =
1 ,
E
E
E
E
E
1

1 +
3
2 = 2 1 3 =
2 ,
E
E
E
E
E
1

1 +
3
3 = 3 1 2 =
3 .
E
E
E
E
E

1 =

= ( 1 + 2 + 3 )/3 .

1 0 0

1 +
0 2 0 = E
0 0
3

1 0 0
10 0

0 2 0 E 01 0 .
0 0 1
0 0

,

11 12 13

1 +

12
22
23

= E

13 23 33

11 12 13
10 0

12 22 23 E 01 0 .
0 0 1

13 23 33

(10.1)

44

ij =

1 +
3
ij ij .
E
E

(10.2)

1 +
ij .
E

(10.3)

i j , ij = 0
ij =

,
,
, E :
E
= .
2(1 + )

, E ,
:
1.

,
:
ij = 2 ij , i j.

(10.4)

= 11 + 22 + 33 :
11 + 22 + 33 =

(1 + )
9
3(1 2 )
.
( 11 + 22 + 33 ) =
E
E
E

,
:
= K .

(10.5)

K=

E
3(1 2 )

. , K
,
:

45

1
2

(10.2)
. (10.2),
.
1 +
3
1 2
ij ij
ij =
E
E
E
1
1
( ij ij ) =
=
ij .
2
2

1
3

ij = ij ij =



ij = 2 ij ,
= K .

(10.5)

1
3

ij = ij + ij = 2 ( ij ij ) + K ij =
2
= 2 ij + ( K ) ij .
3

= K 23 .

ij = ij + 2 ij .

(10.6)



.
- .
, , K , E , ,

. ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
, ,

46

,
ij
ij
, ..
ij = Cijkl kl ,

Cijkl ( ).
, , 81 . ,
, ,
- 21
( ).

.
,
.
, ,
13.
,
9. , ,
, .
.
( )
. A
, W , ..
,
. P ,
, F S
V ,

WdV = P u dV + F u dS .
i

-,
:

F u dS =
i

=
V

ij

( ij ui )
x j

dV =
V

n j ui dS = ( ij ui )n j dS =
S

( ij )
x j

ui dV + ij
V

( ui )
dV .
x j

47

( ui )
u
1 u u
= ( i ) = [ ( i + j )] = ij .
x j
x j
2 x j xi

ij

WdV = ( P + x
i

) ui dV + ij ij dV .
V


, .
V ,
W = ij ij .

,
W
.
W :
1
3

W = ij ij = ( ij + ij ) ( ij + ij ) =
1
1
= ij ij + ij ij + ij ij + ij ij =
3
3

= + ij ij = K + 2 ij ij =
1
1
= ( K 2 + 2 ij ij ) = ( + ij ij ),
2
2

W=

1
1
( + ij ij ) = ij ij .
2
2

(10.7)

.
, , ,
K

:
1
1
W = ij ij = ( K 2 + 2 ij ij ) 0.
2
2

(10.8)

, , ,

48


. ,
,
,
, ..
. , (10.8)
.
11.


, ,
-
.

ij ,
:
ij
x j

+ Pi = 0.

(11.1)


:
ij = ij + 2 ij .

(11.2)

,

:
1 ui u j
).
+
2 x j xi

ij = (

(11.3)

, -
V ,
S .
,
S .

ui = ui( s ) ,

(11.4)

49

ui( s ) = ui( s ) ( xs ) .

Fi = Fi ( xs ) :
ij n j = Fi .

(11.5)

,
SF ,
Su :
ij n j |S = Fi ,
F

ui |Su = ui( s ) .

(11.6)

. ,

, ,
.
:
. ,
-
.
.
, , ,
,
,
. ,
.


.
.
, ,

,
.
, .
.
,
, .
.
,
:

50

1)ui , ij , ij , 2)ui , ij , ij ,


. :
ui = ui ui , ij = ij ij , ij = ij ij .

,
ij
:
ij
x j

= 0,

(11.7)

.
(11.1) ui ,
V .
ij

ui dV =

( ij ui )
x j

dV ij
V

ui
dV = 0.
x j


-
S , ,
:

( ij ui )
x j

dV = ij ui n j dS = ( ij n j )ui dS = 0.
S

, ,

ij

ui
1 u u
dV = ij ( i + j )dV = ij ij dV = 2 WdV .
2 x j xi
x j
V
V
V

, :

WdV = 0.

(11.8)

W


.

51

(11.8) ,
V W = 0 . , ij = 0 ,
ij = 0 , ..
ij = ij ij = ij .

ui
" ".
" ", ui = 0 , .. ui = ui .
, ,
.
.
(11.2)
, ,

, . , , j ij = ,i ,
u j , j = ui , jj = ui , ,
( + ),i + ui + Fi = 0.

(11.9)


+ =

1
,
1 2



1
1 2
1
u 2 +
1 2
1
u3 +
1 2

u1 +

= 0,
x1

= 0,
x2

=0
x3

(11.10)

.
(11.10) .
:
u +

1
grad div u = 0.
1 2

52

(11.9) xi ,
ui , i +

1
,ii = 0.
1 2

, ui ,i = ,ii = ,
= 0,

.. ( )
, , .
(11.9) ,
,
u = 0,

.. ui
.
(11.4)-(11.6), ..
,
ui .


, .. .
ij .
,
ij , . ij ,

, ij , ,
. ,
- ij
.
.
(11.3),

,
ij =

1 ui u j
+
(
),
xi
2 x j

, (11.9) :

53

ij =

+ 2
.
xi x j

(11.11)

(11.2)
, ,
:
ij = 2 ij .

(11.12)

(11.11) (11.12)

(10.5),

ij +

1 2
= 0, i, j = 1, 2, 3,
1 + xi x j

(11.13)

-.
,
ij ,
(11.1), - (11.13) (11.5).
(11.13) ,
= 0 ,
ij = 0,

..
, .

12.


.
,
.

,
. ,

,
.

54

,

.
, Ox1 x2 ,
u1 = u1 ( x1, x2 ), u2 = u2 ( x1, x2 ), u3 = 0.

(12.1)

(11.3)
11 =

u1
u
1 u u
, 22 = 2 , 12 = ( 2 + 1 ).
2 x1 x2
x1
x2

(12.2)

:
13 = 23 = 33 = 0.


= 11 + 22 =

u1 u2
+
.
x1 x2


(11.2),
11 = + 211, 22 = + 2 22 , 12 = 212 .

(12.3)


13 = 23 = 0,

11 22 :
33 = =

( 11 + 22 ) = ( 11 + 22 ).
2( + )

(12.4)

x1 x2 .
(11.1)
11 12

+
+ F1 = 0, 12 + 22 + F2 = 0, F3 = 0.
x1
x2
x1
x2

(12.5)

55

,
x3 .
x1 ,
x2 ,

2 11 2 22
2 12
+
=

2
.
x22
x12
x1x2

,
, ,
2 11 2 22
2 12
+

+
=
.

)
2
11
22
x22
x12
x1x2

,
(11 + 22 ) = 0,

(12.6)

.
x3 ,
.
.

11n1 + 12 n2 = T1,
12 n1 + 22 n2 = T2 .

(12.7)

, (12.5) (12.6)

. , ,
, " ".
, ,
. ,
,
, ,

.

56

,
, ,
.
Ox1 x2 2h .

13 = 23 = 33 = 0.


33 = (

u
u1 u2 u3
) + 2 3 = 0.
+
+
x1 x2 x3
x3

u3 /x3
,
u1 u2
u
) + 2 1 ,
+
x1 x2
x1
u u
u
22 = ( 1 + 2 ) + 2 2 ,
x1 x2
x2
u u
12 = ( 1 + 2 ).
x2 x1
u3

u u
=
( 1 + 2 ),
+ 2 x1 x2
x3
u2 u3
u u
+
= 0, 1 + 3 = 0.
x3 x2
x3 x1

11 = (

(12.8)

(12.9)

2
.
+ 2

, (12.8)
(12.3) . ,
,
, x3
.

, ,
, .

57

, 2h
,
.
. , ,
, ,
,
.

.
x3 = h 13 , 23 , 33
. x3 = h
33
= 0.
x3

, x3 = h 33 ,
x3 . h
33 = 0 .
, u3
x3 , u3 = 0 .
u1 u2
:
h

1
1
u =
u1dx3 , u2 =
u2 dx3 .

2h h
2h h

(12.10)

(11.1) dx3 / (2h)


x3 h h .
1 13
1
1 23
1
( 13 ) |h h = 0,
( 23 ) |h h = 0,
dx3 =
dx3 =

2h h x3
2h
2h h x3
2h
h


11 12

+
+ F1 = 0, 12 + 22 + F2 = 0,
x1
x2
x1
x2

13 23
+
= 0,
x1
x2

(12.11)

, "",
.

58

, ..
, 13 23
, , .
,
11 n1 + 12 n2 = T1 ,

12 n1 + 22
n2 = T2 .

(12.12)

T1 T2 .
(11.2),
, 33 = 0 ,
u1 u2
u1
+
,
= (
) + 2
x1 x2
x1

11

22

u1 u2
u2
= (
+
,
) + 2
x1 x2
x2

(12.13)

u1 u2
= (
+
).
x2 x1

12

, ,
. ,
,

.
13. .
.

, .

11 12

+
= 0, 12 + 22 = 0.
x1
x2
x1
x2

(13.1)

,
11dx2 12 dx1

Q( x1, x2 )

59

12 =

Q
Q
, 11 =
.
x1
x2

(13.2)


12 =

P
P
, 11 =
.
x2
x1

(13.3)

(13.2) (13.3)
Q P
=
,
x1 x2

, , ,
Pdx1 + Qdx2

( x1, x2 )

,Q =
.
x1
x2

P=

(13.4)

(13.4) (13.2) (13.3),


11 =

2
2
2
,
=

,
=
.

12
22
x22
x1x2
x12

(13.5)

, ( x1, x2 )
.
, (13.5),
(12.14) .
(12.6). (13.5)
(12.6),
( 11 + 22 ) = (

2 2
+
) = ( ) = 0.
x12 x22

= 0,

(13.6)

60

4
4
4
2
+
+
x14
x12 x22 x14

.
,
,
, .
,
. T1 ,
T2 .
,
. n1 n2
,
.
n1 =

dx2
dx
, n2 = 1 .
dl
dl

(13.7)

(13.7) (13.5) (12.12),


2 dx2
2 dx1
+
= T1 ,
x22 dl x1x2 dl

2 dx2 2 dx1

= T2
x1x2 dl x12 dl

d
d
(
) = T1 , ( ) = T2 .
dl x2
dl x1

(13.8)

,
Sr ( r = 1, 2,..., m ) .
Sr N

|N = Ar ,
|N = Br .
x1
x2

(13.8),
M

= Ar T2 dl,
= Br + T1dl.
x1
x2
N
N

(13.9)

61


dx1 dx2
=
+
.
l x1 dl x2 dl

(13.10)

(13.9) (13.10) ,
M

= Cr + Ar x1 + Br x2 + [
N

dx1
dl

T2 dl +

dx2
dl

T dl ]dl.
1

(13.11)

= ( Ar T2 dl )n1 + ( Br + T1dl )n2 .


n
N
N

(13.12)

,

.

. (13.9), (13.11)

= Ar T2 dl = Ar V2 ,
x1

= Br + T1dl = Br + V1 ,
x2

= Cr + Ar x1N + Br x2 N + [

dx1
dl

T2 dl +

(13.13)

dx2
dl

T dl ]dl.
1

(13.14)

,
. ,

, .


,
..
...
,
:

62

2 2
+
= 0.
x12 x22

x1 ,

x2

z = x1 + ix2 , z = x1 ix2 ,


2
= 0.
zz

(13.15)

,

=

1
[ ( z ) + ( z )],
+

(13.16)

( z ) z .
(11.9)
(u1 + iu2 ) + ( + )(

) = 0.
+i
x1
x2

2 (u1 + iu2 )

+ ( + )
= 0.
z z
z

z ,
2

(u1 + iu2 )
+ ( + ) = 1 ( z ),
z

(13.17)

1 ( z ) .
,
2

(u1 iu2 )
+ ( + ) = 1 ( z ).
z

(13.18)

63

(13.17) (13.18) (13.16),



( z ) ( z )
2 (u1 + iu2 ) = ( z ) z ( z ) ( z ),

(13.19)

+ 3
= 3 4 .
+


.
(11.2):
11 + 22 = 2( + ) ,
22 11 + 2i 12 = 2 ( 22 11 + 2i 12 ) = 2

[2 (u1 iu2 )].


z

(13.20)

, ,

, :
11 + 22 = 2[ ( z ) + ( z )] = 4 Re[ ( z )],

22 11 + 2i12 = 2[ z ( z ) + ( z)].

(13.21)

,
, .

, - .
,

.
.
14.


q . ,
.

64

. 14.1.

14.1
:
q l2
( x2 )
y,
x = 2 4
J
h2
qx( y 2 )
4
.
xy =
2J

x = Ay + Bx 2 y,

xy = Cx + Dxy 2 ,

(14.1)

, .
y ;
, (14.1)
y = 0 ,
h
y =
2
y = q = 0.

,
(14.1), y = 0.

(14.1);

65

2
= Ay + Bx 2 y,
2
y

2
= Cx Dxy .

x y

(14.2)

A 2 B 2 2
= y + x y + f1 ( x),
2
y 2
3
Ay
B
=
+ x 2 y 3 + f1 ( x) y + f 2 ( x),
6
6

(14.3)
(14.4)

f1 f 2 x. (14.3)
x (14.2),
2
= Bxy 2 + f1' ( x ) = Cx Dxy 2 ;
x y


D = B; f1 ( x) =

C 2
x + E.
2

(14.4),

A 3 B 2 3 C 2
y + x y x y + Ey + f 2 ( x).
6
6
2

,
; ;
( x, y)

A 3 B 2 3 C 2
y + x y x y + f 2 ( x) + ( x, y ).
6
6
2

(14.5)

( x, y) ,
. (14.5)

4 4
4
4 4 4
;2
=
= 4 By + 2 2 ; 4 = 4 .
x 4 x 4 x 2y 2
x y y
y

66

4
4
4
+ 2 2 2 + 4 = 4 By.
x 4
x y
y

(14.6)

, ,
:

( x, y ) =

F 4
H 5 K 2 3
x y+
y + x y.
24
120
12

(14.6), Fy + 2 Ky + Hy = 4 By, ..

F + 2 K + H = 4 B.

(14.7)

K 2 3
x y , (14.5)
12

B 2 3
x y ; (14.7)
6

H = 4 B F .
(5)

Ay 3 Bx 2 y 3 C 2
F 4
(4 B + F ) 5
+
x y + f 2 ( x) +
=
x y
y,
6
6
2
24
120

(14.8)

.
4B + F 3

y,
6

B 3
F 2
''
y = y Cy + f 2 ( x) + x y,
3
2

xy = Bxy 2 + Cx x 3 .

x = Ay + Bx 2 y

(14.9)


; .
h
1. y =
2

67

y = q; xy = 0.
h
2. y = +
2

(14.10)

y = 0; xy = 0.

(14.11)

(14.10)
Bh3 Ch
Fh 2

+ f 2' ' ( x) +
x = 0.
24
2
4
F = 0; f 2'' ( x) = L, (14.9)
2

B
y = y 3 Cy + L,
3
xy = Bxy 2 + Cx.

x = Ay + Bx 2 y By 3 ,
3

(14.12)

(14.10) (14.11)
Bh3 Ch

+
+ L = q;
24
2

Bh3 Ch
+
+ L = 0.
24
2

,
q
L= ;
2

(14.13)

Bh3
Ch = q.
12

(14.14)

(14.10) (14.11)
Bh 2

+ C = 0.
4

(14.15)

68

(14.14) (14.15),
B=

6q
3q
; C=
.
3
2h
h

(14.16)

L, B C (14.13) (14.16) (14.12),

6q 2
q 3
4
+
x
y
y,
h3
h3

6q y 3 h 2
h3
y = 3 ( y + ),
12
h 3 4
2

6q h
xy = 3 ( y 2 ) x.

h 4

x = Ay

(14.17)

15.


, . ,
,
.
Ox3 ,
Ox1 Ox2 .
-
,
. ,

,
= x3 , , .
,
,
.. "" x3 .
:
u1 = x2 x3 , u2 = x1 x3 , u3 = ( x1, x2 ).

(15.1)


,
:

69

11 = 22 = 33 = 12 = 0,

+ x1 ).
13 = ( x2 ), 23 = (
x1

x2

(15.2)
(15.3)

(15.2) (15.3)
, ,
,
2 2
+
= 0.
x12 x22

(15.4)

, ( x1, x2 ) ,
-,
x1 x2 , .

Ox3 , .. n3 = 0 . (11.5)
,
(

x2 )n1 + (
+ x1 )n2 = 0.
x1
x2

(15.5)

n1 +
n2 =
,
x1
x1
n

= x2 n1 x1n2 .
n

(15.6)

, ,
. ,
. ,

dl = ( x2 n1 x1n2 ) dl =
n
dx
dx
1
= ( x2 2 + x1 1 ) dl = d ( x12 + x12 ) = 0.
dl
dl
2

70

, .. (15.3)
.
, ,
, .
, :

[ x1 (
[ x1 (
x2 )] +
+ x1 )] =
x2 .
x1
x1
x2
x2
x1

V1 = 13 d = (
x2 )d =

x1

= {

(15.7)

[ x1 (
x2 )] +
[ x1 (
+ x1 )]}d .
x1
x1
x2
x2

-
(15.6)
V1 = {
L

[ x1 (
x2 )] +
[ x1 (
+ x1 )]}dl = 0.
x1
x1
x2
x2

, V2 = 0 .
, , ,

M = ( x1 23 x2 13 )d.

(15.8)

(15.3),

M = D ,

D = ( x12 + x22 + x1

)d.
x2
x2
x1

(15.9)

D .
- ,
,
D = [(

x2 ) 2 + (
+ x1 ) 2 ]d .
x1
x2

71

, D > 0 .
( x1, x2 ) ,
( x1, x2 ) , -

=
,
=
.
x1 x2 x2
x1

(15.6)
dx2 dx1
dx
dx
+
( x2 2 + x1 1 ) = 0.
dl
dl
x2 dl x1 dl

,

1
2

|L = ( x12 + x22 ) + C .

(15.10)


13 = (

x2 ), 23 = (
x1 ).
x2
x1

(15.11)

( x1, x2 ) ,

.
1
( x1 , x2 ) = ( x1 , x2 ) ( x12 + x22 ).
2

(15.12)


13 =

, 23 =
.
x2
x1

(15.13)

,
2 2
+
= = 2,
x12 x22

(15.10)

(15.14)

72

( x1, x2 ) |L = C.

(15.15)

,
(15.14) (15.15).
(15.8)
M = 2 d

(15.16)

.
16. .

,
,
,
, ,
, .
,
.
, L ,

. q ,
, p
, w( x1, x2 )
x3 , .
,

w :
2w 2w
p
+ 2 = .
2
x1 x2
q

(16.1)

() L ,

w( x1, x2 ) |L = 0.

(16.2)

, (15.15) (16.2) .
w = k , k = p / 2 q (15.14)
(16.1).

73

w=

p
.
2q

,
. ,
,
,
.

w( x1 , x2 ) = const, ,
( x1, x2 ) = const, ..
.

( x1, x2 ) = const, .

: ,

.

) .
( x1, x2 )
x12 x22
+
= 1.
a 2 b2

( x1, x2 ) ,
,
x12 x22
( x1 , x2 ) = A( 2 + 2 ),
a
b

A . ,
(15.14).
2 A(

1
1
+ 2 ) = 2,
2
a
b

a 2b 2
A= 2
.
a + b2

74

( x1 , x2 ) =

b 2 x12 + a 2 x22
.
a 2 + b2

(16.3)

(16.3) (15.13),
13 =

2a 2
2b 2

x
,
=

x1 .
2
23
a 2 + b2
a 2 + b2

h .

x2 = 0, x2 = 3x1 + h, x2 = 3x1 + h.


( x1, x2 ) = Ax2 [( x2 h) + 3x1 ][( x2 h) 3x1 ].

(16.4)

. ,
(15.14).
, A = 1/ 2h .
( x1 , x2 ) =

1
x2 [( x2 h) 2 3 x12 ].
2h

(15.13)
13 =

2h

[3( x22 x12 ) + h(h 4 x2 )], 23 =

3
x1x 2.
h

17.

,
:
u
=
,
t x

u
=a .
t
x

(17.1)

75

u ;
, ; x
( ) ( x) 0 > 0 a( x) a0 > 0
.
,
t .
,

x 0 , < y < , < z < , t = 0 x = 0
y z . (17.1).
,
. u
ux
x , a = + 2 ,
u y uz
xy xz , a = .
, x .
(17.1)
u p
+
= 0,
t x
p
u
+ c2
= 0.
t
x

(17.2)

,
. p =
, c = a/ .
c , , (17.1) 1/ c ,
,
X
X
+c
= 0,
t
x
Y
Y
c
= 0,
t
x


X =u

,Y = u +
.
c
c

(17.1)
,

76

c (
).
X Y . ,

X = f ( x ct ), Y = ( x + ct ),

(17.3)

f . (17.3) ,
X Y x ct = const
x + ct = const, (17.1).

. , l1 x l2
u t = 0
u( x, 0) = u0 ( x), ( x, 0) = 0 ( x)

(17.4)

u x = l1, x = l2
(1u + 1 ) x =l1 = f1 (t ),
( 2u + 2 ) x =l2 = f 2 (t ),

(17.5)

(1/ c 1 0, 2 / c + 2 0, + 0, + 0).
2
1

2
1

2
2

2
2

, u
, x, t
t = 0 x ct = const,
(l2 , 0) (l1, 0) (17.4).

. (17.1) :
(17.1) u
ux . u ,
1 u 2
u (u )

+
=
.
x
x
2 t

x,

(17.6)

= {l1 x l2 ,
t1 t t2 }

(17.6) :
t2 l2

t l

l t

2 2
2 2
1 u 2
u
(u )

dxdt

dxdt
+
=
t l 2 t
t l x
l t x dtdx.
1 1
1 1
1 1

(17.7)

77

(17.7)

[t1, t2 ] , ,
[t1 , t2 ] x = l2 x = l1 .
(17.7)
(17.1), (17.4), (17.5) 1, 2 , 1, 2 .
u1, 1 u2 , 2 ,
, u$ = u1 u2 , = 1 2
(17.1), (17.4), (17.5),
, (17.7).
u$/x (17.7)
(17.1) , :
l

2
2
1 2 2
1
(u + 2 2 2 )dx = u |x =l2 dt u |x =l1 dt.
2 l1
c
t1
t1

1 1 , 2 2 , ,
, , 1 0 2 0 ,
u |x =l1 =

|x =l , u |x =l = 2 |x =l ,
1
2
1

1 2 2
1
2
2
(u + 2 2 2 )dx = 2 |x =l2 dt + 1 |x =l1 dt.
2 l1
c
2 t1
1 t1

2 2 0, 11 0,

(17.8)

l2

(u$
l1

1
2
)dx 0,
2 2
c

:
u$ = 0, = 0.

(17.8) (17.5)
.

78

18.



,
x, y .
.
u ( x, y, t ) , v ( x, y, t ) x ( x, y, t ) y ( x, y, t ) , xy ( x, y, t ) ,
p:
u x xy
=
+
,
t
x
y

v
= xy + y ,
t
x
y
x
u
v
= c 2p ( + ),
t
x
y
y
u v
= c 2p (
+ ),
t
x y
xy
u v
= cs2 ( + ),
t
y x

(18.1)

, c p , cs ,
; = 1 2cs2 /c2p . u v
;
x , y , xy
.
,
( t = 0 ):
u ( x, y, 0) = u ( x, y ), v ( x, y, 0) = v ( x, y ), x ( x, y, 0) = x ( x, y ),

y ( x, y, 0) = y ( x, y), xy ( x, y, 0) = xy ( x, y)

(18.2)

,
:
(ai1u + bi1 x ) |x =li = f i1 , i = 1,..., N ,
(ai2v + bi2 xy ) |x =li = fi 2 ,
ais + bis 0, s = 1, 2

(18.3)

79

p p y;
(c1j u + d 1j xy ) | y =l j = g 1j ,

j = 1,..., M ,

(c 2j v + d 2j y ) | y =l j = g 2j ,
cis + dis 0, s = 1, 2

p p .

( cs = 0, = 1 ). x = y = ,
xy = 0 (18.1)
u
=
,
t x
v
=
,
t y

u v
= c 2p ( + ),
t
x y

(18.4)

.
, p p ,
p p p (
) , p,
p p
, pp p
p p r, , z , z
p.
,
,
z ,
,
" ".
.
p p p ur (r, z, t ) ,
uz (r, z, t ) p p r (r, z, t ) , ( r , z, t ) , z (r, z, t ) ,
rz (r, z, t ) , p p:
r

ur (r r ) ( r rz )
=
+
,
t
r
z

(18.5)

80

u z ( r rz ) ( r z )
=
+
,
t
r
z
r
u
u
= c 2p ( r + z + ur ),
t
r
z r
z
u u
= c 2p ( r + z + ur ),
t
r
z r

u
u 1
= c 2p ( r + z + ur ),
t
r
z r
rz
u u
= cs2 ( r + z ).
t
z
r
r


u r z ,
:

t
r
t

r
r

+2

= cs2 (

z
r

r
r
z
u
= cs2 .
t
r

),

(18.6)

(18.5) (18.6) (
r, z ) , (18.1).

r ( r , z, 0) = r ( r , z ),..., u z ( r , z, 0) = u z ( r , z )

(18.7)


r (r, z, 0) = r (r, z ), z (r, z, 0) = z (r, z ), u (r, z, 0) = u (r, z )

(18.8)

,
:
[ai1ur + bi1 (r r )] |r = Ri = f i1 (t , z ), i = 1,..., N ,
[ai2u z + bi2 (r rz )] |r = Ri = fi 2 (t , z ),
[c1j ur + d 1j (r rz )] |z = z j = g 1j (t , r ), i = 1,..., M ,
[c 2j u z + d 2j (r z )] |z = z j = g 2j (t , r ),

(18.9)

81

[ai3u + bi3 r ] |r = Ri = f i 3 (t , z ), i = 1,..., N ,


[c 3j u + d 3j z )] |z = z j = g 3j (t , r ),

(18.10)

j = 1,..., M ,

.
, .. ,
r = 0 :
ur |r =0 = 0, rz |r =0 = 0.
u |r = 0 = 0, r |r = 0 = 0.

(18.11)
(18.12)

(18.1),
.
. ,
(18.6), ,
,
, .


.
, u, v :
= u /r, u = r 2 r , v = r 2 z .

(3.6)
u
v

u u v
= r 3cs2
, = r 3cs2
, r3
=
+
t
r t
z
t r z

, = 1/ r 3cs2 ,

u
v u
u v
=
,
=
,
= cs2 ( + ).
t r
t z t
r z

(18.13)

,
(18.4) ,
r .

t = 0u(r, z, 0) = u (r, z ), v(r, z, 0) = v (r, z ), (r, z, 0) = (r, z ),

, r = 0 :

82

[ai3u + bi3 ] |r = Ri = fi 3 (t , z ),
u |r =0 = 0,
[c 3j v + d 3j )] |z = z j = g 3j (t , r ).

(18.1) u v ,
,


u

[ u t + v t +

= [

u
v
u v
+ y
+ xy ( + )]d =
x
y
y x

( xu + xy v)
x

( y v + xy u )
y

(18.14)

]d .

[u

ur
u
u
u
u
u u
+ u z z + r r + z z + r + rz ( r + z )]rd =
t
t
r
z
z
r
r
(r r ur + r rz u z ) (r rz ur + r z u z )
= [
+
]d .
r
z

(18.15)


(18.14), (18.15).
, (18.5),
r , .
.

.

83

3.
19.



f ( ij ) = 0.

(19.1)

f ( ij ) .

ij .
,
ij .
ij
ij .
, ij ,
,
ij .
(19.1)
,
. Q, ,
. ,
Q, ,
.

: (
), ,
, .
, ..
, ,
Q, .

: ,
, , . .
,
.
. (19.1)

.
,
( ),
.

84

,
,
, .

,
.

, . . .

.
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
ij "
:
ij = ij + ij1 , ij = 1 i = j, ij = 0 i j,

(19.2)

= ii / 3 = ( 11 + 22 + 33 ) / 3 ,
; ij (

).
=
1
ii

11/ + 22/ + 33/


3

=0

(19.3)

(19.2) (19.1)

f , ij/ = 0,

(19.4)



, (19.1), (19.4)

85

( )

f ij/ = 0,

(19.5)


ij = ij + ij/ , =

ij
3

(19.6)

, ij/ = 0.

= 0.
,
, , ,
,
.
-
, . 19.1..

2
)

. 19.1 -

86

,
(. 19.1.) ,
- .
. , -
,
.
,
Q < ,
(. 19.1.). ,
Pi = + Q = 1 ;
,
2 = Q = 2 .

-.
,
,
.

f ( ij ) = 0.

(19.7)

f ( ij ). -
, ij , ,
. f ( ij ). < 0.
,
,

f ( ij ) = 0, p = 1,2,..., n

(19.8)

: f ( ij ). < 0.
,
(19.8),
:

( )

f ( ij ) = 0, p = 1,2,..., ; f ij < 0 , = + 1,..., n.


=1.

87

f ( ij ) = f p , q / , r / = 0

q' ij/ ij/ , r / = ij/ ij/ , ki/ -


;
.

;
,

f ( ij ) = f p , q / , r / = 0,

(19.9)

, q 1 r 1 ,
.
,
,

f ( ij ) = f p , q / , r / = 0,

(19.10)


i (i = 1,2,3) ,

.
(19.10)
,
1 = 2 = 3 .
(19.10)
( ),

1 + 2 + 3 = 0 .

1 , 2 , 3 ,
.
, , .
8.
60.


. 1 , 2 , 3
1 , 2 , 3 , , ,
,

88

, . 9.
30.

:
(
),
.

.19.2


()
max =

1
max{ 1 2 , 2 3 3 1 } = k
2

(19.11)

tmax .

, (. 19.3).

.19.3. - -

89

2 = ij/ ij/ = k

()
(19.12)


,
.


smax = max { 1 , 2 3 } = k

(19.13)

smax .

,
(. 19.3).
20. .


. :
- ;
- ,
:
= 3K ;

(20.1)

-
D = D .

(20.2)

,
,
. ,
,
:
ei = sii = 1, 2, 3.

= const = 1/ (2 ) , .

(20.3)

90

, , = 1/ (2 ) + ,
ije
ijp = eijp = sij .

(20.4)

(20.4)
eij = sij .

(20.5)

(20.1) ,

ij = K ij + sij .

(20.6)

:
ij =

3K

ij +

eij .

(20.7)

= 2 T .

(20.8)

,
.
:
T =s.

.
2 s

(20.9)


ij =

3K

ij +

2 s
eij .

(20.10)

, , ,

91

,
.

,
.
. ,
,
,
, .

,
.
:
- ;
-
, :
= 3K .

(20.11)

d = 3 Kd ;

ij
ije
ijp :
d ij = d ije + d ijp .

-

d ije =

1
3
ij d );
(d ij
2
1 +

(20.12)

(20.13)

- D
Ddp , ..
Ddp = d D ,

(20.14)

92

d .
(20.13)
d ijp = d sij .

(20.15)

,
dAp = ij d ijp = d ij sij = 2d T 2 .

(20.16)

(20.16) ,
,
,
.

-.
21.


x, y z :
u x = u x ( x, y ), u y = u y ( x, y ), u z = 0.

(21.1)

,
, z
.
.
,
,
.
- ,
,
. ,
- .
(21.1) , z = 0 . ,
,
z = 0,

93

1
2

= ( x + y ).

(21.2)

z .

xy
x i
det
y i =0.
xy

max ,min =

x + y
2

1
( x y ) 2 + 4 xy2 .
2

(21.3)

,
1
2

max = ( max min ) =

1
( x y ) 2 + 4 xy2 = .
2

max
:

T = max .

(21.4)

,
1 = + , z = , 2 = ,

..
.
, ,

( x 1 ) cos(1, x ) + xy cos(1, y ) = 0,

xy cos(1, x ) + ( y 1 ) cos(1, y ) = 0.

1 ,
tg2(1, x) =

2 xy

x y

(21.5)

,
, / 4 .

94

.
,
. ,
,

x = x ( , ), y = y ( , ),

(. 21.1).

. 21.1

dy
dy
= tg ,
= ctg .
dx
dx

(21.6)

.
.

= const = s

max min = 2 s .

s k ,
( x y )2 + 4 xy2 = 4k 2 .

(21.7)

95


:
xy y
x xy
+
= 0,
+
= 0.
x
y
x
y

(21.8)

,
,
.
,
.
,

x y
v v
v v
= ( x y ) / ( x + y ).
x y
y x
2 xy

(21.9)

,
vx v y
+
= 0.
x y

(21.10)

, x , y , xy , vx , v y
(21.8) (21.10).
.
x
.
x = k sin 2 ,
y = + k sin 2 ,
xy = k cos 2 .

(21.11)

= (1, x ) / 4 . ,
. ,

( x, y ) ( x, y ) :

2k (cos 2
+ sin 2
x
x

2k (sin 2
cos 2
y
x

) = 0,
y

) = 0.
y

(21.12)

96

,
. ,
, ,
,
:
dy
dy
= tg ,
= ctg .
dx
dx

(21.13)

(
):

2k

= const = ,

(21.14)

2k

+ = const = .

(21.15)

,
. (21.14), (21.15), .,
.
,
.
.
,
:
1.
x .
2.
,
.
3. -
, .
4. ,
, , , x , y , xy .
,
.

.

97

(21.12)
.
, :
1
2

= k ( + ), = ( ).

(21.12),
tg ctg
,


+

tg = 0,
ctg = 0.
x y
x y

(21.16)


.
x = x ( , ), y = y ( , ),

:
( , ) =

D ( , )
=

0.
D ( x, y ) x y y x

0
y x
y x
+

ctg = 0,
tg = 0.

(21.17)

.
, .. ,
x = x cos y sin , y = x sin + y cos ,

x , y , (21.17)
:
y x
x y
= 0,
= 0.
2
2

(21.18)

,
,
2 y 1
y = 0.
4

98

, ,
(21.16), ,
( , ) . ("
"), ,
.
(21.12) , ( , ) = 0

( , ) =

2
2
=
= 0.
sin 2 x x
sin 2 y y

, (21.16)
:
1) = const = 0 , = const = 0 .
2) = const = 0 .
3) = const = 0 .


.
.
(21.16) .
, .
.
. .

(21.16),
.
.
,
-
.
22.


, .
.
.
R n R r - , - ,
, B R r . f: R n B R n ,
R n :

99

x = f ( x , a ) = Ta x ,

x, x R n , a B .

(22.1)

= (1,..., r) (22.1).
.
, 1,..., r .
,
. , (22.1)
. :
Ta (Tb ) = f ( f ( x , a ), b ) = f ( x , ( a , b )) = Tc ,

(22.2)

c = ( a , b ) , i = 1,K, r .

(22.3)

:
f ( x ,0) = x ,

( a , a 1 ) = ( a 1 , a ) = 0 ,
( a , (b, c)) = ( ( a , b ), c) ,

(22.4)

a , b, c B , x R n .
, ( a , b ) .
R n ,
Gr . Gr
R n
, Gr
R n .
22.1. R 2 G3
x 1 = x 1 + a
x 1 = x 1
x 1 = x 1 cos + x 2 sin
Ta x =
T
x
=
T
x
=
,
,
.
2
2
b

2
2
2
1
2
x = x
x = x + b
x = x sin + x cos

(22.5)

Ta () 1, Tb 2, T - (0, 0).
22.2.
R 2 : Ta , Tb , T ,

G3

x 1 = e x1
T x = 2
2 .
x = e x

T .
,

(22.6)

Gr

100

Lr. Lr
.
Gr :
df i
da

= i( f ) ,
a=0

i = 1,K , n .

(22.7)

, ( 1 , K , n )

X

= ai

[X

, X b = X a ( bi )

,
Xa ,

( = 1,K , r; i = 1,K, n) .
Xb

(22.8)

i
i
i
.
i X b ( a )
i = ( X a ( b ) X b ( a ))
x
x
x i

(22.9)

,
.
22.3. G3
22.2., R 2 R 2 : Ta , Tb , T .
, Ta Tb = Tb Ta , Ta T T Ta .
(0,0) Ta T . A = T A , A = Ta A .
a , T . B = Ta A ,
B = T B . "-" - (. . 22.1)

. 22.1

101

,
Ta , Tb , T ,

a = (1,0) , b = ( 0,1) , = ( x 1 , x 2 ) .

,
- , :
X

x 1

, X

, X

= x1

2
1 + x
x
x 2

Ta Tb = Tb Ta , [ X a , X b ] = 0 .
[ X , X a ] .
q = Ta T (Ta ) 1 (T ) 1 = Ta T T a T .

( x 1e a )e + a
.
x2

q ( x ) =

x 1 se s + s
.
= s , s 0 , q ( x ) =
x2

q
1
1 1 1 1

e s e s

=2 s 2 s
2
=

S =0
0

S =0
1
1 1 1 1

1 + s + 0( s ) 1 + s + 0( s )

=
2
2
2
s
s

0
0

S =0
dq
ds

[ X , X b ] .
L4,

[X

, X]= Xa ,

[X

, X = Xb,

[X

, Xb] = 0 .

Gr .
. Lr
Gr.
. X 1 ,K , X r Lr

1 , K , r

102


df
= ( f ) , f
da

a = 0

= x.

(22.10)

Gr

.
1,...,r
Gr Gr ,
.
22.4. L4
X

x 1

, X

, X

= x1

2
.
1 + x
x
x 2

Gr.
1
df
=
da
0

,f

df
=
db

,f

a =0

b= 0

f 1
df
= 2 , f
d
f

x1
= 2 ,
x
x1
= 2 ,
x

=0

x1
= 2 .
x

,
x 1 = x1 + a
x 1 = x1
x 1 = x1e
=
=
Ta = 2
T

,
,
2
2
b

2
2
2
x = x
x = x + b
x = x e

.
i
. X = ( x ) x i , i = 1,K, n
y1 ,K, y n ,
X = y n .
.
22.5. X = x x + y y .
J1 = / , J2 = 1 J 2 = ln x .
1 = / , y 2 = ln x .
X = y .
2

23.

103

.
,
,
. , R N , N = n
+ m, ( x 1 ,K, x n ) - ; (u1 ,K, u m ) -
.
u

k
i

k
i

, k = 1,K , m , i = 1,K, n .

,
, .

R N
x i = f i ( x, u, a) , f

k
u = g ( x, u, a) , g
k

a =0

a =0

= xi ,

(23.1)

= uk

(23.1)

X = i (x,u)

(x,u)

(23.2)

R N + nm

( x , u, p) .
(23.1)

p i k = hik ( x , u , p , a ) ,

hik

a=0

= p ik ,

(23.3)

, ,
p ik =

u k
,
x i

(23.4)

u k = u k ( x) .
(23.4) G
(23.3).
G , R N + nm ,
1
(23.1).
G1

104

X = X + i k
1

k
i =

dhi
da

p ik

(23.5)

a =0

, - (20.12).
a=0

, , - hik
i k . hik
.
23.1. R N , = 2, = 1. h11
. (23.1) :
x = f 1 ( x, y, u, a) ,
y = f 2 ( x , y , u, a ) ,
u = g ( x , y , u, a )

Dx g D y f 2 D y g Dx f 2
u
=
,
h =
x
Dx f 1 D y f 2 Dx f 2 D y f 1
Dx = x + u x u , Dy = y + u y u .
1
1


,
. ,

.
,

.
(1-)
k = du k pik dx i ,

(23.6)

(23.4)
k = 0.

(23.7)

(23.1), (23.3) (23.7)

k = du k pi k dx i = 0 .


f
g k
g k j
f j
k
(23.8)
p h
p = 0.
+
+
x i
u j i
u j i
x i
(23.8) = 0.

105

k
k j
j
k
=
+
p p
+
p .
x i
u j i
u j i
x i

(23.9)

(23.9)

i
j

a=0

i
j

- .
i

Di =

+
p
+
p
+K ,
i
ij
x i
u
p j

(23.10)

(23.9) :
i k = D i ( k ) p k D i ( ) .

p ij , p ijk ,

p ijk

= 0,

= 0,
1

...

p ij

2u
=
,
x i x j

3u

=
= d p i p ij d x j , = d p ij p ijk
d x k , ...
i
j
k , ... ,
1
2
x x x

, ,
,

X = X + i
2

pi

+ i j

p ij .

(23.11)

i (23.9),

i j
i j = D j ( i ) p i D j (

) .

(23.12)

r - Gr
Lr .

106

, .
23.2. G3 , , - .
:

X1 =

= X2 = X2 .
= X1 = X1 , X 2 =
y
x
1
2
1
2

x
x
y .

dy
X 3 = X 3 (1 + p 2 )
, p =
.
p
dx
1

X 3 = y

d2y
X 3 = X 3 3 pr
r =
.
r ,
dx 2
2
1

(23.13)

GS
, .
. GS

s0

( s)
G.
, ?
,
(23.7) = N r* , N = n + m - ,
r* = rank [i ( x )] . k- r* ,
, ,
G
.
,

..
23.3.
G3 - ,
G3 .
= N r* = 2 2 = 0 . G3 = 0
1

.
G3 -

, = 1 .

107


J = 0 .
X 3 J = y
x
(1 + p 2 )
3 pr
y
p
r
2
x

.

J
J
(1 + p 2 )
+ 3 pr
= 0,
p
r
J =

r
.
(1 + p 2 ) 3 / 2

, J =

y
.
(1 + y 2 ) 3/ 2

.
24.


. ,

. ,
.

,
.

:
x x + y = 0, x + y = 0,

(24.1)

( x y ) 2 + 4 2 = 4k s2 ,

(24.2)

2( u x v y ) = ( v y + u x )( x + y ),
u x + v y = 0.

(24.3)

x , , y , u, v
, k s .
(24.1)-(24.3) ,
,

, , .
(24.1)-(24.3) .

dy/dx = tg , dy/dx = - ctg


:
/(2k) = const, du - vd = 0,

108

/(2k) + = const, dv + ud = 0.
(24.1)-(24.3).
:

,
(24.1)-(24.2),

(24.1)(24.2),


( ,
).


. ..
.
26 .

(24.1)-(24.2)
24-25.

.
,
(24.1)-(24.2), :
x 2k s ( x cos 2 + y sin 2 ) = 0,

x 2k s ( x sin 2 y cos 2 ) = 0.

(24.4)

x = 2k s sin 2 , y = + 2 k s sin 2 , = k s cos 2 , , -


.
(24.4)
, :
X1 = x ,

X2 = y,

X 3 = x x + y y ,

X 4 = x y + y x + , X 5 = , X = x + y ,

(24.5)

X + = 1 x + 2 y 2k / k ,

1 = x cos 2 y sin 2 y / k , 2 = y cos 2 x sin 2 + x / k , ( , )

109

2k s ( cos 2 + sin 2 ) = 0,
2k s ( sin 2 cos 2 ) = 0,


.
, ,
:
/(2k) = const, /(2k) + = const.
, (24.5)
X , X + J L, X 1 ,...X 5
L /J.
,
X 1 ,...X 5 . ,
(24.1)-(24.2).
X1 = x ,

X2 = y,

X 3 = x x + y y ,

X 4 = x y + y x + 2 x + ( y x ) 2 y ,

(24.6)

X 5 = x + y .


(24.1)-(24.2)
L5 (24.6).
(24.1)-(24.2) ,
.
:

1 : X 1 + aX 5 ,

X 4 + aX 3 + X 5 ,

2 : X 1 + aX 5 ,
X 3 + aX 5 ,

X 3 + aX 5 ,

X 2 + X 5 , X 1 + aX 5 ,

X 3 + X 5 ,

(24.7)

X 4 + X 5 .

,
1 .
:

110

, ,

.
.

(24.1)-(24.2)
X 1 + aX 5 (24.7).
x = x + F ( y ), y = x + G ( y ), = H ( y ),

(24.8)

F,G, H y. (24.8)
(24.1)-(24.2) :
x = p ks ( x / h 2(1 y 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ),
(24.9)

y = p ks ( x / h), = ks y / h,

= ks / h, h, p - .

. 2h
2l. ,
. ,

.
.
(24.9),
= ks cos 2 .

:
x = -ks( 2 sin 2 ) + C, y = h cos2,

x = ks( 2 + sin 2 ) + C, y = h cos2.
,
.

:
( u x v y ) y = ( u y + v x )( h 2 y 2 )1 / 2 ,

(24.10)
u x + v y = 0.

111

,
:

(24.10).

X 1 = x , X 2 = x u y u , X 3 = u ,

(24.11)

X 4 = v , X 5 = v v + u u , X 6 = v v + u u ,

u*,v* (24.10).
, X1,..., X 5.

X 4 , X1 + aX 5 , X 2 + aX 3 , X 3 + aX 4 , X 1 + aX 2 + X 3

(24.12)

,

1 + aX 5 , X1 + aX 2 + X 3
X 1 + aX 2 + X 3

:

u = axy + x + g ( y),
v = x 2 a / 2 + f ( y),

(24.13)

f, g - (24.10).
(24.13) (24.10)
, :
1
1
u = axy + x ah 2 arcsin( y / h) + ay (h 2 y 2 )1 / 2 (h 2 y 2 )1 / 2 + C1 ,
2
2

(24.14)
v=

a 2
( x + y 2 ) y + C2 ,
2

i . , a = 0, (24.14)
, , a 0
.

,

X 1 + aX 5 .

112

u = f ( y ) exp ax , v = g ( y ) exp ax.

(24.15)

(24.15) (24.10)
,
2 g ay = ( g ag )(h 2 y 2 )1 / 2 , af + g = 0.

.
,
.


X 3 + X 5
r, . (24.1)-(24.2)
.
+ r 1 + ( r ) / r = 0

(24.16)
(24.17)

+ r i + 2 / r = 0,
( r ) 2 + 4 2 = 4 k s2 .

X 3 + X 5 :
r r + ( + )

:
r = ln r + a( ), = ln r + b( ), = c( ),

(24.18)

(24.18) (24.16)-(24.17),

+ c + a b = 0, b + 2c = 0,
(a b ) 2 + 4c 2 = 4k s2 .

(24.19)


c ( )
c + = 2( k s2 c 2 )1 / 2

(24.20)

113

= 0 , (24.19)-(24.20)
c( ) = k s sin( 2 + A1 ), b( ) = k s cos( 2 + A1 ) + A2 ,

(24.21)
a ( ) = k s cos(2 + A1 ) + A2 ,

j .
0 = k s sin 2B , (24.20)
:
2k s cos 2BB + = 2k s cos 2B

2k

cos 2 B ( + 2k s cos 2 B ) 1 dB = 0

, 2 4k s2
B + ( 2 + 4k s2 ) 1 / 2 arctg ( 2k s ) ( + 2k s ) 1 / 2 tgB = 0

(24.22)

0
, (24.19) (24.22)
r =

ks a
ln + 2k s (1 2 / a 2 )1 / 2 ,
a r

(24.23)

ks a
ln , = k s / a
a r

, = k g / a
(24.23) ,

, 2 .
, =0.
a = p, b = p + 2k s , p const.


r = p + 2ks ln(a / r ), = r + 2ks , = 0.

(24.24)

114


a . (24.24)
,
.
(24.24)

r (ru) + v = 0, (ru) + r2 r v rv = 0

(24.25)

(24.25)

2

v = r 2 rr v r r v + v,

.
, c 0 , a ( ), b ( ), d ( ) ,
(24.12).
:
2r r u /( u + r r v v) = (a b) /(2c)

(24.26)

r u + u / r + r 1 v = 0 .

(24.26)

, :
Z 1 = r v , Z 2 = u u + v u , Z 3 = r r ,
Z 4 = u u + v v

(24.27)

u , v (24.26).
(24.26) Z 3 + Z 2 .

u = r f ( ) = r g ( ),

(24.28)

f ( ), g ( ) , - .
(24.28) (24.26)
2 f /( f + ( 1) g ) = ( a b) /( 2c ) = F ( )

(24.29)
g + f ( + 1) = 0

115

(24.29) , f g
.
, . (24.29)
1 .
= 1 ,
g = A, ( f 2 A) F ( ) = 2 f ,

(24.30)


, =0 , a ,
(24.30) (24.23)

u = r 1u0 (1 + 2( a 2 2 )1 / 2 ),

u 0 - .
= 1 , (24.29)
f /( 2 f ) = 2c /( f b), g = 2 f

(24.31)

f = A exp( 4c /( a b)d , g = 2 f

(24.32)

. , (24.20)
(24.32)
f = A exp(4a(1 2 / a 2 )1 / 2 ), g + 2 f = 0

(24.33)

(24.32) (24.33)
-
.
25. ()


.
,
,

116

.
.
,
. . .
.
,
aX3 + X 4 + X 5 .
r = + f ( ), = + g ( ), r = h( ),
(25.1)

= r exp a.

. = a = 0,
... :
r = q ( b r ) 2 , r = (k s2 r2 ),

( r 2 A)1 / 2 + ( r 2 + A)1 / 2 ( r 4 A2 )1 / 2 ( a 4 A2 )1 / 2

r = p k s 2 ln 2

( a A)1 / 2 + ( a 2 + A)1 / 2
r2
a2

q, b, a, A = a 2 q k .
s

(25.1) (25.16) (25.17),


,
:
f + ah + f g = 0,
h + + ag + 2h = 0,

(25.2)

( f g ) 2 + 4h 2 = 4k s2 ,

.
=0, (25.2)
f + f g = 0,
h + + 2h = 0,
( f g ) 2 + 4h 2 = 4k s2

(25.3)

117

(25.3)

h = c/ r2 / 2

(25.4)

.
:
f g = 2(k s2 h 2 )1 / 2

(25.5)

f
(25.3).
. =0,
, .
, =0,

(u r u / r v / r )(r (v / r ) r + u / r ) = (k s2 h 2 )1 / 2 / h,

(25.6)

u r + u / r + v / r = 0

(25.6)
X1 = , X 2 = uu + v v , X 3 = r v , X 4 = u* u + v v

u , v (25.6).
L3 = { X 1 , X 2 , X 3 } .
:
X 1 + X 2 , X 1 + X 3

X 1 + X 2 :
u = u ( r ) exp , v = v ( r ) exp

(25.7)

(25.8) (25.6),
2ru /(r 2 (v / r ) + u ) = ((k s2 2 / 2)r 4 + 2cr 2 c 2 )1 / 2 /(c r 2 / 2) = A(r ),
ru + u + v = 0.

(25.8)

v .

118

2 ru = A(r ) r 2 u ru + u (1 + a 2 )

=0,

u = c / r , v = r 2 dr /( r 3 A(r )) + b

,b .
X 1 + X 3 .
:
u = ( r ), v = r + ( r )

,
2r /(r 2 ( / r ) + r ) = A(r ),
(r ) + + r = 0

(r) (25.8).
:
= r / 2 c1 / r , = r (c1 r 2 )dr /(r 3 A(r )),
u = r / 2 c1 / r , v = r + r (c1 r 2 )dr /(r 3 A(r )),

c1 .
(25.2) a 0
a ( f g ) + (a 2 1)h + a( f g ) (2h + ) = 0

(25.9)

(25.2) f - g
(25.9) h
2 ah + 2 ( a 2 l ) h( k s2 h 2 )1 / 2 + 2 a ( k s2 h 2 ) ( 2 h + )( k s2 h 2 )1 / 2 = 0

a = 1
a=1, = 0. (25.10)
2hh + 2( k s2 h 2 ) 2h( k s2 h 2 )1 / 2 = 0

, :

(25.10)

119

h((k

2
s

(25.11)

h 2 ) h(k s2 h 2 )1 / 2 ) 1 dh = ln(c ),

.
(25.11) h = k s sin z .

sin z (k

cos z k s sin z ) 1dz = ln(c )


z 1
k s1[ + ln sin z cos z ] = ln(c )
2 2

.

c = cos z sin z

1
2k s

exp

z
2k s

c = ks = 1

h = cosz

1,5
1
h=cosz

0,5
0

-0,5 0

-1
-1,5

. 25.1.

r ,

(25.2)

r = f = h 21 (k

h 2 )1 / 2 d ,

.
= r 2(k

h 2 )1 / 2 .

(25.12)

120

. 25.1
= r exp .
= const ,
,
.
, .
:
2u (u v + v ) 1 = ( k s2 h 2 ) 1 / 2 / h,

u + u + v = 0.

:

.

:

x222
k(c

s+=

in)0
xo
ys
y=
222
k(s

os)0
xin
yc

(25.13)

(25.13), ,
X = ( , ) x + ( , ) y ,

(25.14)

, -
2k ( cos 2 + sin 2 ) = 0 ,
2k ( sin 2 cos 2 ) = 0 .

(25.15)

, (25.14)

121

x = x + a ( , ) ,

yya

=+(,)

(25.16)

(25.13)

1
=+
kxk1y, =2arccosy.

(25.17)

(25.14) (25.17).
= k [ x + a ( , ) + sin 2 ] ,

(25.18)

1
=arccos(ya
+(,)
).
2
, (25.9)
,

= f ( ) exp
2k

=g()e
xp

2k

f(
)c
=+
ossing(
)s
=
incos

,
.
(25.18)

cos2y
=+
kx f()+ksin2
g() ,

(25.19)

122

cos2=+
yag()exp
2k,

(25.13)
a. , a
, .
26.


24, 25.
.
.

max = const = k

(26.1)

2 max = ma ( , , ).
1


.

, .
,

, ,
.
.
. , ,

. ,

123

4u = (u + ) 2, u r + r 1u + z = 0.
r z
z
r

(26.2)

pr + qr cos 2 + q z sin 2 =
= 2q( r sin 2 z cos 2 ) r 1 (2k q + q cos 2 )

(26.3)

p z q z cos 2 + qr sin 2 = 2q( z sin 2 + r cos 2 ) r 1q sin 2 ,

= p + q 2k ;

r , z = p q cos 2 ,

rz = q sin 2 ,

(26.2).
. ,

, .

r , z = p m k sin 2 , rz = k cos 2 , = p + k ,

p,

:
pr 2k ( r cos 2 + z sin 2 ) = kr 1 (1 + sin 2 ),

(26.4)

p z 2k ( z cos 2 + r sin 2 ) = kr 1 cos 2 .


cos 2 (u r z ) + sin 2 (u z + r ), u r + r 1u + z = 0.

(26.5)

,
(26.2), :
X 1 = z , X 2 = , X 3 = r r + z z , X 4 = u u + .

(26.6)


:
X 1 + X 4 , X 1 + X 2 , X 2 + X 3 , X 1, X 2 , X 3 , X 4 .

124

X 1 + X 4 .

u = u(r ) exp z, = (r ) exp z.

(26.7)

(26.7) (26.2),

4u r = (u + r ) 2 , u r + r 1u + = 0.
X 1 + X 2 .

u = u(r ), = (r ) + z.

(26.8)

(26.8) (26.2),

4u r = ( r ) 2 , u r + r 1u + 1 = 0,
u = r / 2 + c / r , = 2 (1 / 2 c / r 2 )1 / 2 dr.
X 2 + X 3 .

u = u ( ), = ln r + ( ), = z / r.

(26.9)

(26.3) (26.2),

4u = (u + 1) 2 , u + u + = 0.
X 1 .
u = u(r ), = (r ).

(26.1
0)

(26.10) (26.2),

r = 0, u r + r 1u = 0,
.
X 3 .

125

u = u( ), = ( ), = z / r.

(26.1
1)

(26.11) (26.2),

4u = (u ) 2 , u + u + = 0.
,
(26.4).
X 1 = p , X 2 = z , X 3 = r r + z z .

X 1 + X 2 , X 1 + X 3 , X 2 , X 3.

X 1 + X 2 .

p = p(r ) + z, = (r ).
(26.4),

p r 2k r cos 2 = kr 1(1 + sin 2 ),


1 + 2 r sin 2 = r 1 cos 2 .

cos 2 = c / r + r / 2, pr = kr 1 (1 + 1 / sin 2 ) kctg 2 .

X 1 + X 3 .

p = p( ) + ln r, = ( ), = z / r.
(26.4),
p + 2k (cos 2 + sin 2 ) = k cos 2 .

p + 1 + 2k ( cos 2 sin 2 ) = k (1 + sin 2 ),

126

X 2 .

p = p(r ), = (r ).
(26.4),

pr 2k r cos 2 = kr 1 (1 + sin 2 ),
2 r sin 2 = r 1 cos 2 .

cos 2 = c / r , pr = kr 1 (1 + 1/ sin 2 ).
, r>c.
X 3 .

p = p( ), = ( ), = z / r.

(26.4),
p + 2k ( cos 2 sin 2 ) = k (1 + sin 2 ),
4.
27.



.
. ,
,
,
- , .
,
, . ,
, .

.

127
7

, ,

. 27.1.
() ().


t ,

(. 27.1-).
2



: I
, II
III
.





,
,

,

.


:




.

,

..

,

,,
. 27.1- (




).



. ,



12- .

:

;


;

;

128
8





-
.

300,
.




, ,



,
.

, , ,

.


.

. ,

,



(
).

, -




..

,,

,



, ,
,


, , ,


.

,

( .. . 27.22-).

e
= E , E ,

. 27.2.


())
().

129

& v = , . ,

& =

&

1
d
+ = et
et ,
E E
dt

(t ) = E e ( t ) d ( ).

(27.1)

= E , .
= 0t , (27.1)

= 0 , = E 0 e t ,
= 0 . , t =
e 2,71 .
. ,
E .

(. 27.2-).
, :

= & + E = e

d
et ,
dt

(t ) =

( t )

( )d .

(27.2)


= (1 e t ) 0 E,

(27.2) = 0 .
, 0 E t ,
. , = 0
E 0 .

,
.
. ,
.
, ,
.
, , .
, , ,
.
,
, .

130

,
.

t

( t ) = K ( t , ) ( )d ,

(27.3)

K (t, ) , ,
,
. (27.3)

( , t ) . ,
:

T , .
,
(27.3) (t + T ) = (t )
t +T

K (t + T , ) ( )d = K (t + T , '+T ) ( '+T )d ' =

K (t + T , '+T ) ( ' )d ' = K (t, ) ( )d ,

,
t

(K ( t + T, + T) K ( t, ) ) ( )d = 0.

, (t ) , T
K (t + T , + T ) = K (t, ) . T ,

K K
+
= 0,
t
K (t, ) = K (t ) .
. , (27.3)
.
,
, (27.2) K (t ) = e t .
,

131

K (t ) = (t ) E + 1 .
, (27.3)
t

1
1
1
1
(t ) = (t ) ( )d + ( )d = (t ) + ( )d ,
E

E

(27.1).
, ,
, (27.3)
. , :
,
.
.

. ,
f (t ) , t < 0 ,
p ,

f ( p ) = f (t ) e pt dt.
0

,
f (t ) g (t ) :
t

h (t ) = ( f g )(t ) f (t ) g ( )d = f ( ) g (t )d

h f g .
,
t = 0 , t < 0
(t ) = (t ) = 0 , (27.3)

= K .

(27.4)


= K ,
:

R = 1 K .
.

132


.
,
, (27.4)

= R ,

(27.5)

R(t ) , ,
1 K , , :
a + i

1
R(t ) =
R ( p ) e pt dp

2 i a i

a . ,
, ,
,
.
,

- .
,
.
,
, .
[1].
28.

,
,
, . 28.1-.
,

s ,
. ,
.
,
,
:

133
3

& 0, = s ,
& = 0, < s ,
& 0, = s .

. 28.1.
.

28.1-

. 28.1-

,

.

-
,

).


.

,
,

,

.


& s , = s ,
& = , < s ,
& s , = s .

(288.1)

134

& =

s ,

& = 0,
< s ,
+s
& =
, s .

(28.2)

. 28.1- - ,

.

s
, s ,
E

&
& = ,
< s ,
& =

&

E
& + s
& = +
E

(28.3)

s .

, -
, .


. -
.
, . ,
,

c = f ( , t ).

(28.4)

c
( creep ).
,
. , ,
, , ,
(28.4) .
()
, ,
, .

135
5

. 28.2.
2

(228.4)
f

.

(. 28.2).

t1 ,


( 0 , 0 ) , ( 1 , 1 ) , ( , ) .



t1 .


t2 , t3 .

,



. ,


.


,

( )
,
1+ t


, , .


:
,

= E + (t ) m .




(

)



(

).

= (t) 0m ,

(t )


.

= ( 0 (t ) )1 m .

136



,
, :

= E + ,

= B ( ) n 1d .

(28.5)

(28.5)

+ & + & = & + B n ,

& =


, , .
,

& c = f ( , t ) = B (t ) n .
n > 1 , 2 .

.

& = & e + & c = & E + B (t ) n ,

(28.6)


. B
t , (28.6) ,
, , .

& =

B 0n

= 0 E

+ 0n

B( )d = 0
0

E + B 0n t.

137

& = BE n
0 = E 0 .

d n = BEdt :

1 n 01 n = ( n 1) BEt ,

( t ) = ( 01m + (m 1)BEt )

1 (1 m )

( t ).

, B(t )
. ,
, ,
.

& c = f ( ) g ( c ).

(28.7)

f g ,
, :
f ( ) = K e

g ( ) = .

, f ( )
0 . ,

.

( c ):

& = K e 0 A ,

138

, (0) = 0 ,

(t ) = ( + 1) K e 0 At

1 ( +1)

&

0
= K e A ,
E E

(28.7) ,
c = 0 e = 0 E & c = & E .
t = 0 ,
: 0 = E 0 . ,
( 0 ) & = KE

+1 A

1
t=
( 0 ) e Ad .
+1
KE

,
K, A

.
, , , ,
. ,
,
(t ) = O (t m ) . ,
, ,
, 1 3 .
.

t m 1 .

& c = f ( ) ,
m 1 = m , ,

139
9

1
m 1 1 3

= 2.
m
13

& = B c B c .
( )

c

29.

,


.

).

,

. 299.1,



, ,
(0,2 ) , = E

,
0 ,
t = 2 .

. 299.1.
.

. 29.2.
.

E0


,
t (0,2 )

(t ) =

0
E0

(
1 e t ).
E

(299.1)

140

t 2 0 ,
,

E0

(
1 e 2 ).
E

E 0
, t 2 + 0

= 0 1 e2 E .

e = E ,

v = &,

e + v = 0,

e v
. ,

= C e ( t 2 ) .

& + = 0,

C
t = 2 . ,
(t) =

0
E

(e 2 1) e t .

(29.2)

(t ) . 29.2.
, (29.1), (29.2)
.
,
,

&

&


+ E
=
E0
E0

(t ) .
t t + t ,

141
t + t


= ((1 + E E0 ) ( ) E ( ) )d ,
E0



(t , t + t ) .


t 0 ,,

[ ] = [ ] E0 ,


t 2 + 0 .

).

l S ,

P (.
(
29.3
3).

,

2 3

. 29.3.

P
1S + 2 2 S cos = P :
1 + 2 = .
S
3

1 = E 1 ,

2 = E 2 :

1 + 2 =

P
.
ES


1 = 2 2 ,

,
. 29.3,
2

1, 1l ,
, 2,
2 l , ,

300 . ,
t =0

10 =

2P
,
3S

20 =

P
,
3S

10 =

2P
,
3ES

20 =

P
.
3ES
E

142

t > 0 .

& j = & j E + B 2j . ( j = 1,2)


1 = 2 2 , ,
2 = P S 1 ,
2

P
1
2
&1 + B 12 = &1 + 2 B 1 .
E
E
S


, :
d 1

2(P S 1 )2 12

BE
dt.
3

=
2 + 1) 1 2 P S ( 2 1) 1 2 P S

2 1
2 +1
S

=
2 2 P ( 2 1) 1 2 P S ( 2 1) 1 + 2 P S

((

)(

S
BEt
( 2 + 1) 1 2 P S
=
+ C,
ln
3
2 2 P ( 2 1) 1 2 P S
C .

1
2 + 1 + ( 2 1) e kt
=
.
10
2 + 4 3 + ( 2 4 3) e kt

2 2BEP
k =

3
S

1
2 +1

0,879,
2 +4 3
10

2
2 1
2 +2
=

1,243.
3
2 +4 3
20
10

143

,
: ,
.

1
3S
=
k 2 2 BEP

P S .
( ). ,
, l0 S0 ,

P .
.
,
,
.

& = B n .
.
: S l = S 0l0 ,
. :

P Pl
l
=
= 0 .
S S0l0
l0

t
,

& t =

l
:
l

,

l&
ln
= B 0n n :
l
l0

l&
l

& = =
l (t )

dl
l n +1

d
ln l.
dt

B 0n
dt.
l0n

144
4

l ( 0) = l0 ,
nB 0n t

l
=1 0 .
l

(299.3)



: l = l0 n 1 nB 0n .






,

(29.3)

t :

t0 =

. 29.4.

1
,
nB 0n

0 = n

1
.
nBt

,

. 29.4.

R ,

P = 2R coss = 2 R l 2 a 2 l.

R
0l 2
Pl
= =
=
,
S 2S l 2 a 2 l l 2 a 2
0

0 = P ( 2 S0 )

a = 0 .

l&
l 2n
= B 0n n 2
,
l
l0 ( l a 2 ) n 2


= l a

145

(2 1) n 2 d

2 n +1

B 0n

n0

dt.

(2 1) n 2 d2

2( n +1)

=2

B 0n

n0

t.

n = 2 , ,

(2 1)d2
6

1
1
1
1
= 4 6 d2 = 2 4 ,

0 20
0


t=

1
1
1 2 .
2
2 B 0 2 0


t0 = 1 ( 2 B 02 ) .
, ,

.
,
.
30.


, ,
.
,
,
0 = 3K 0 , 0 = ( x + y + z ) 3 , 0 = ( x + y + z ) 3 ,

(30.1)

K , 0 , 3 0
.

146
6





e
c

: = + .
,

e

.
c

&
c

& =
( i ) ,

i :
i
3

1
1
1
2
2
2
( x 0 ) 2 + ( y 0 ) 2 + ( z 0 ) 2 + xy
+ xz
+ yz
.
2
2
2

n +1

= Bi
( n + 1) .
& xc =
c
& xy

y + z

= B in1 x
2
x

, ...

= 3B in1 xy , ...
=
xy

(300.2)


,
x y z ,
xy
xz yz ,
.

(


).

( ) ,

h(r


.



.

. 30.1.

d
(rh r ) h + h 2 r 2 = 0.
dr

(300.3)

147

r .

v(r )

&r =

dv
v
, & = ,
dr
r

d&
dr

& &r
r

= 0.

(30.4)

(30.3) (30.4)
(30.2),
, ,
&r = B in1 ( r 2), & = B in1 ( r 2),

(30.5)

i = r2 r + 2 .

r = 0
r = a
r = 0 .
&z = h& h z
&z = &r & .
h(r )

.
,
i = q , .
r = = q ,
&r = & = B q n 2 , q

dh
+ h 2 r = 0 .
dr

h ,
2 r 2
.
h = h0 exp
2q

148
8



.
,


q = 0 .

(. . 288.1-),

&0 = 0,
x 0 2&x =

, ... , xy & xy =
, ...
&x
& xy

(300.6)



, = s 2&x2 + ... + & xy2y + ...


.
((30.6)
,


,
i ( x 0 ) 2 2 + ... + xyx2 + ... s .

a (. 30.2).
,

s .

r z


.

rz = ,

z ,

g :
30.2
.
1 d ( r )
g = 0 .
r dr


,
( C1 ))

149
9

r = gr 2 2 + C1 ,



r = 0 ,

:

= gr 2 .



a c 2 s ( g ) ,

,
,
a > c

.
c .

v z = v r > c
&rz = dv

d dr ,
(30.66):
dv s grr s
=
.
=
dr



v=

gr 2 s r

+ C2 .
4


C 2

: v = 0 r = a .

,
g ( r 2 a 2 ) s ( r a )

.
v=
4


r > c .

g (c 2 a 2 ) s (c a )
v (c ) =

.
4

. 30.2.

(
).

150

a b > a , ,
,
(. 30.3),
.
. 30.3 .


r = ,
:
d 2
+
= 0.
dr
r

:
d

C
2dr
, d ln = 2d ln r , = 21 .
r
r

, . ,
,
, .
C1
0 : C1 = 0 a 2 .
,
. 0
= 0 a 2 r2.

0 s ,
,
, . ,
0 > s . ( c ) = s ,
:
c = a 0 s .

c r b

& =

s
,

151


& =

dv v
d v
=r
dr r
dr r

&r , v = v
. &

r

d v 0 a2 s
.
=
dr r r 2

,
a2
v
= 0 2 s ln r + C 2 .

r
2 r

C 2
v(a ) = 0 :
1
v 0a 2 1
r
=
2 2 s ln .
2 a
r
r a

c r b
,
=

v (c ) 0 a 2 1
c
1
=
2 2 s ln = 0 1 s s ln 0 .
2 a
c
c a 2 0 2 s

(30.7)

,
0 s b 2 a 2
s . :
.
=

1
v(b) 0 a 2 1
b
=
2 2 s ln .
2 a
b
b a

(30.8)

.
. 0 s s b2 a 2 ,

a r c . , (30.7)

152

. 0 , s b 2 a 2 ,
(30.8).
0 , , ,
, (30.7) (30.8)
.

153

5.
31.

, ,
.
-
. ,
, .
,
.
: , ,
, ..
. , ,
: , .
:
;
;
( );
( ).
:
(, , );
(, , );
(, , ).
.
,

.

.
.

,
. .

,
. ,

,
.
( ,
, 10 8 ), .
, .
.

154


.
, ,
,
.
, ,
( !) .
, b 20 (
20 10 9 ), b 350 450 (
35 45 10 7 ).
20-

, ,
.
.

. ,
500- ,
( 20 40 2
).
, ,
. , ,

.
, ,
()
,
.

.

.
,

,
. 31.1.
, , , -
(. 31.1).
.
- (.
. 31.2).

155
5

. 31.2. .

(
) .

.


..


(.
. 31.3).

. 31.3.
.

, ,
. 31.4.

,

(.
. 31.5).

. 31.44.
.

. 31.5.

( ,
)
.




.



.

156


.
,
. ,
u( x, y)
xy . ,
,

(z ) z = x + iy .
u x y ,
,

u=

Re ( z ), x i y = ' ( z ).

(31.1)

( z ) = iA ln z iA ln | z | , , A
, = arg z , u = A .
z = 0 , 2 A .

x 0 . , A = b ( 2 ) .
w' ( z ) = iA z iA z | z |2 ,

x =

b y
b x
, y =
.
2
2
2 x + y
2 x 2 + y 2

(31.2)

, z = 0 ( )
.
.

r = x

x
y
+ y ,
r
r

r .
,


,
b -
(. . 31.6).
.
, xy
,

. 31.6.

157

b1 b2 . ,
= + i , , z = 0
. ,
(31.2).
, R

R

U = (y1) b2 dx.

R ,
.

R

b1b2
xdx
b1b2 R 2 + 2
ln 2
.
W =
=
2 x 2 + 2
4
+2

, ,
,

Fx =

U
bb

,
= 1 2 2
2 + 2
x

Fy =

U
bb
( 2 2 )
.
= 1 2 2
2 ( R + 2 )( 2 + 2 )
y

b1b2
. Fy Fx .
2 2 + 2
F , b1 b2 ,
, , b1 b2 .
,
. ,
.
-
.
.
.
.
, x 0 ,
b ,

R : Fy

158

(
).

(z ) (z ) :
2 w = ( z ) z ' ( z ) ( z ),

x + y = 4 Re ' ( z ),

(31.3)

y x + 2i xy = 2(z ' ' ( z ) + ' ( z ) ).

w = u x + iu y ,
,
= 3 4 . , ,
,
z 0 z1 :
z1

i ( X n + iYn )ds = ( z ) + z ' ( z ) + ( z ) ,


z0

X n = x n x + xy n y , Yn = xy n x + y n y
n ,
.

( z ) = A ln z, ( z ) = B ln z,
, ln z , 2i ,
z = 0 ( ).

i ( X n + iYn )ds = [ A ln z + A z z + B ln z ] = 2i ( A B ).
,
. , A = B .
w ib ,
(31.3)

2[ w] = [A ln z A z z B ln z ] = 2i(A + B ) = 2ib,

159

A = B =

b
.
4(1 )

x + y = 4 Re

A
iy
b
=
,
z (1 ) | z |2
zA B
b iy
+ =
.
2
z (1 ) z 2
z

y x + 2i xy = 2


x( x 2 y 2 )
x( x 2 + 3 y 2 )
b
b
, y =
,
x =
2(1 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2
2(1 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2

xy =

y( x y )
b
.
2(1 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2
2

(31.4)

,
, z = , (31.4)
z = 0 :
R

U =

(1)
y b2 dx

b1b2
x ( x 2 + 3 2 )
dx =
=
2(1 ) ( x 2 + 2 ) 2

b1b2
=
4(1 )

R
R dx 2
2 2 dx 2

=
+
x 2 + 2 ( x 2 + 2 )2

b1b2
=
4(1 )

R2 + 2
2 2
2 2
ln 2

2
+ 2
2
2
2
+
+
+

, :

U
U
b1b2 ( 2 + 3 2 )
b1b2
=
=

Fx =
F
,
y
2(1 ) ( 2 + 2 ) 2
2(1 )

(R2 2 )
2R 2
2 2

.
2
+ 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
+
+
+
+
R

(
)(
)
(
)
(
)

b1b2 ( 2 2 )
R : Fy
.
2(1 ) ( 2 + 2 ) 2

160
0


r,

(. 31.7)

b1b2 sinn 4
b1b2 (1 + 2 sin 2 ) cos
Fx =
, Fy =
.
2(1 )
r
8(1 ) r cos
c
.

31.8

Fx () F y ().
,
x

.

,
= 0 .


,

.

.





,
y .

, ,

, , .

. 31.7.
.

. 31.8.
3

..

,
,
,

32.




161

.
,
, .

.
(31.1)
.

( z ) = iA z = A r sin i cos .

u=A

= .
,
x < 0,

= 2u( r, ) = 2 A r .

' ( z) =

sin

iA
= x i y .
2 z

A K III = A 2 ,
,

x =

K III
K
K

sin , y = III cos , u = III


2
2

2r
2r

2r

(32.1)

( z ) = i z 2 c 2 ,
c .
[c, c] .
' ( z) =

i z
z 2 c2

= x i y .

z : x i y i , , x = 0 y = .

2c ,
. z = c + re i , r z
, r 0

162

c 2
e ,
2r

' ( z ) i

K III = c
,
(32.1).

.
[c, c]
,
.
y = 0 , ( z ) = z ' ( z ) + ( z ) . ' ( z ) = z ' ' ( z )

y x + 2i xy = 4 y ' ' ( z ),
y = 0 : xy = 0 .
( z ) = A z 2 c 2 .

' ( z) =

Az
z 2 c2

, ' ' ( z) =

(z

Ac 2
2

y ' ' ( z ) 0 . ,
z , ' ( z ) A
y x + 2i xy 0 x + y 4 A .
2 A = , ,
x = y = .
,
, , , x
x0 = .
.
(31.3) | x |< c
x + y = 0 ,
y = xy = 0 . | x |> c ( )

x + y =

2x
2

x c

x =y

x = c + r , r > 0

163

x = y

c
2r


(31.3). y = 0
| x | c
2 w = ( z ) ( z ) 2 y ' ( z ) =

( + 1)i c 2 x 2

= 3 4

uy =

(1 ) 2 2 (1 )
c x
2cr ,

r = c x > 0 .

K I = c ,

x =y

KI
2r

( r = x c ), u y =

K I (1 ) 2 r

( r = c x ).

(32.2)

,

.
,
. ( z ) = z ' ( z ) ( z ) .

' ( z ) = z ' ' ( z ) 2 ' ( z ) , y x + 2i xy = 4iy ' ' ( z ) 4 ' ( z )


, , y = 0
y x = 4 Re ' ( z ) = x + y , , y = 0 .
, .
( z ) = A c 2 z 2 .

164

' ( z) =

Az
2

c z

, ' ' ( z) =

(c

Ac 2
2

, z : ' ( z ) iA ,
, (31.3)

y ' ' ( z ) 0 .

x + y = 0, y x + 2i xy
= 4iA.

,
= 2 A . y = 0

xy = 2 Im ' ( x ) =

x
2

x c

( x > c),

2 w = ( x ) + ( x ) = ( + 1) c 2 x 2
2

K II = c ,

xy

K II
2r

( r = x c ), u x =

K II (1 ) 2 r

( x < c ).

( r = c x ).

(32.3)

(32.1)(32.3)
.

1 r ,
.
,
,
, , ,
,
.
:
K I = K Ic , K II = K IIc
() K III = K IIIc , K Ic , K IIc , K IIIc
, ,
.
, ,

165

( ).
.
,
,

, ,
1 2 , .
,
,
.
:

U = 4c

U
= 4 ,
c

(32.4)

W , .
, ,
4 ,
, , 4c .

, W (c)
. , ,
.
.
D
L ,
:
U

x + y y + xy xy )dxdy =

(X

u x + Yn u y )ds.


. ,
[c, c] [c c, c + c] ,
, (32.2), (32.2).
x = c
u y =

K I (1 ) 2( c r )

166
c

U = 4 y u y dr =

4 K I2 (1 )


r = c sin 2
U =

8K I2 (1 )

c cos d sin =

c r
dr.
r

2 K I2 (1 )

c.

(32.4)
K I = K Ic ,
2
(1 )
K Ic
=
.
2


(32.3).
U =

2 K II2 (1 )

c.

, ,
(32.2),
U =

2
2 K III

c.

2
2
K IIc
(1 ) K IIIc
=
=
.
2
2

,
,

. ,
,

. ,
, ,

167

2
(1 ) K I2 + K II2 + K III
= 2 .

(32.5)

.
,

.

:
2
K I2 + K II2 + (1 + ) K III
= E .

33. J


,
.
,
.
, .

J =

u y

u x

ds

Wdy
X
Y

n
L
n x
x

(33.1)

2W = x x + y y + xy xy
, X n = x n x + xy n y Yn = xy n x + y n y
, n .
,

(33.1)

,


.
, ,

, L
. 33.1. .
(. . 33.1).

168

,
.
ds = dx 2 + dy 2 , .
(. .
33.2)

:
dy
n x = cos =
,
ds
dx
n y = sin = ,
ds

J
. 33.2. .

u y
u y
u x
u x

dx

+
+
W

dy

x
xy
y
I

xy x

x
x
x


A
A

J=

J ,
.
,
. , ,

A( x, y )dx + B( x, y)dy
,
(x, y ) ,

Adx + Bdy = d(x, y ) ,

A=

.
x

B=

,
y

A B
=
.
y x
L , ,

,
Q

d ( x , y ) =
P

169

, , x

W x

u
u x
xy y
x
x

y xy

u
u x
+ y y ,
x
x

2u y
2ux xy u y
W x ux
xy 2 =
x 2

x
x x
x
x x
x
xy ux
2u y
2ux y u y
=
+ xy
+
+y
.
xy y x
y x
xy

,
,
:
x xy
x + y = 0
,

y
xy +
=0
x
y

xy
x
=

x
y

y
xy

=
x
y

,
2u y 2u x
2u y
2ux
W x W y W xy

+
+
=x
+ xy 2 +
+y
x x y x xy x
x 2
xy
xy
x



W
W
W
=y,
= xy
=x,
y
xy
x

,
,

x =

u y
u x u y
u x

+
=
, y
, xy
y
x
y
x

170


2 u x x
=
x
x 2

2u y
xy

2u y

x 2

2 u x xy
+
=
xy
x

, J .
,

U
,
l

J =

(33.2)

U , l ,
31 2c . ,
, (33.2) .
,
D L ,

U = Wdxdy + (X n ux + Yn u y )ds
D

D
l ,
l
:
x x l (. . 33.3).
L .


. 33.3. .

~
U = W
D

x l

dxdy + X n u x

x l

+ Yn u y

[ (

U = W x W xl dxdy X n ux x ux xl + Yn u y u y
D

x l

)]ds

x l

)ds ,

171

u y
u
U
W
dxdy X n x + Yn
=
ds,
x
x
x
l

D
L
l
(33.2)
,
J

J = 2

(33.3)

(32.5) (33.3)
.
. ,

.
, .

. , J
, ,
, ,
. , (33.3)
- (
),
:

x =

W
x

y =

W
y

xy =

W
xy

J.

.
,


~ 1 .

W ~ ~

+1

+1
~

,
. ~ r k ,

172

W ~r

+1

J
r ,

u y

u
1+ k +1
ds ~ r .
J = Wdy X n x + Yn
x
x

L
J ,
,
,
1+ k

+1
= 0,

k = ( + 1) .
,
= 1 ( ~ )
k=

1
1
, ~
2
r

,
31.
= 0 , , k = 0 ,

.
,
.
b = 2 ,
l = 20 . P = 1400
.
( ) K Ic = 25 .
?
. l << b ,

: K I = l 2 .
K I = K Ic .

173

lc =

2 K Ic2

,
(, ):

P = 1400 = 1,4 0,98 107 1,37 107 ,

P 1,37 107
=
69 .
bh
2 0,1


2 252
lc
0,085 .
3,14 69 2

. 4,25
, lc = 85 .
,
.
34.


, ,
-
.

.

.
.
. , ,
, ,
,
.
. ,

. . 34.1
,
.
. , ,
. 34.2. , ,

174

,
.

. 34.1. .

34.2.


a x a
,
y = p (x ) , .

KI =

p( x )

ax
dx ,
a+x

(34.1)

p(x ) ,
KI =

p( x )

ax
a2 x2

dx =

p( x )

a2 x2

dx = 2

p( x )
a2 x2

dx.

(34.1)

P ,
. P (x ) , (x ) ,

KI =

P
.
a

(34.2)

, ,
p( x ) = > 0 .

175

K I = 2

dx

x
= 2
arcsin
= a .
2
2

a
a x
0


0
= 0 ,
0y = x0 = xy
,
,
. ,
y = , y = + = 0 .
.
, p(x )

, | x | c,

p( x ) =
s , c <| x | a.
0y = ,
c <| x | a
y = s , y = .
,
,
.

a
dx
dx
s

KI = 2

0 x 2 a 2
x2 a2
c
a

= a 2

a
x
= a 2 s arcsin
=

a
c

c
s arcsin .
2

x = a ,
, .
,
. ,
.
J. , K I = 0 ,

c
= cos
a
2 s

(34.3)

176

cos z 1 z 2 2 ,
:

Ke
d a c I
8 s

2 2
c
= 1
a
8 s2

K Ie = a ,
.
,
,
,
.
K Ie
=s
2d '

1
d'=
2

K Ie

d d ' 2 4 2,46 .

-
.
K I = 0 , , ,

. J
.
,
, ,
Q

J = y
P

u y
x

dx = s u y

uy

)=

s c,

P Q ,
c , c
. , (33.3)

c = 2 s

(34.4)

177

,

,
( )
() .
1.

2c .
K = c

.

2c .
P
K
=

c
P ,
.

l,

.
K = 1,12 l
.
b
l
K = l Y ( ), = < 0,7
l,

Y ( ) = 1,99 0,41 + 18,72


.

38,483 + 53,854
.
2b
b
K
=

c
Y
(

),

=
< 0,7
2c ,

.
Y ( ) = 1 + 0,128 0,2882 + 1,5253

2.

, 0 K
213
233
253


10
70
092
65
3
54

71
61
55

71
59
56

273

293

70
58
56

68
57
56

178

20
51
152
102

10
23
092
39
3
24
20
20
152
58

35.

52
115

53
124

55
141

58
154

28
43
25
22
66

38
48
31
27
75

50
60
40
33
81

60
68
50
43
87

,
, .
, ,
10000 , ,
10000.
.
,
.


,
(.
. 35.1).

,
,
. 35.1. .
.
,
, , ,
,
.
, , ,

, .

,

:
dl
n
= A(K ) , K = K max K min
dN

(35.1)

179

A n , 2 n 7 .
, ,
.
,
()
,
, . 5.15. ,
.
(34.4),
:
K K th
dl

= A max

dN
K
K
max
c

(35.2)

K th
,

.
K max < K th ,
; K c
,

.
. 35.2,
. 35.2. .
,
, ,
,
.
(35.2).
(35.1)
.
, l0 = 7,6 ,
, .

:
2
s = 700 ,

min = 175
= 320 2 . , , n = 2,95

K c = 5300 3 2 .

max

A = 3,553 10 13 .
.

180

. 1
K = 1,12 l . ,
(35.1)

n
dl
= A 1,12 l n 2 ,
dN

, ,

dl
1
=

l n 2 (n 2 + 1)l n 2 +1 ,

1
l02, 47

1
lc2,47

= 2,47 3,533 1013 1,12 145 3,14

lc
:

lc =

K c2

2
max

2, 95

N.

5300
70 .
3202 3,14

l0 lc
N = 8200 .

.

, :
. ,

, .
,
: , , ,
.
:
;

;

.

181



: ,
. ,
.
,
, :

;


;

;
,

.
,
, ,
,
. ,
, x = l ,
x l :
K = lim 2 ( x l ) y ( x,0, t ).

1 2
v2
2
2

= 4 .

K
(
t
)
+

K
(
t
)
+
K
(
t
)
1
2
I
II
III
2
cs2 R (1 , 2 )

(35.3)

v ,

1 = 1

+ 2
v2
v2
, cs =
,

1
, c p =
=

2
2
2

cp
cs

( ),
R (1 , 2 ) = 41 , 2 (1 + 22 ) 2

182

,
( ),

.
R ( 1 , 2 ) = 0 .
(35.3) (32.5),

.
.
0 < v < c R
( cR ) > 0 ,
R < v < 2 < 0 .
,
, , .
,
2.
,
, 0,2s < v < 0,5s.

,
.
, ,
(35.3), .

.

K III (t ) =

2q

v
2cs t
cs

q , (
). (35.3) K I = K II = 0 ,

1 v cs

= 2 .
1 + v cs 2 q c s t
t ,

.

Q ( x + x0 ) .

183

K III (t ) = Q

2
v
1
( x + x0 ) c s

c s t > x0

(35.3),

1 v cs 2 ( x + x0 )
=
.
1 + v cs
Q2

(35.4)

, Q ,
,
(35.4) .
,
x* , (35.4)
.

. t

.
,
,
,
. ,

,
.


. .

,
.
, ,

,
.

: , .

. ,
,
.

184


.
,
. ,
,
.

:
1. .. , . .: , 1974.
2. .. , . .: , 1969.
3. .. , . . . 1971.
4. . , . ., ,1974.
5. .. , . .: , 1960.
6. .. , .
: , 2001.
7. .. ,
. : , 1997.
8. .. , .
: - , 1998.
9. .. . , .1. .: , 1976.
10. .. .
11. . .
. .: , 1975.
12. .. . . .: ,
1974.
13. .. . . .:
, 1977.
14. .. , .. , .. .
.
, - , 2001.
15. .. . . .: , 1966.
16. .. . : . .: ,
1990. 240 .
17. .. , . . .:
, 1885. 264 .
18. .. , .. . .
.: , 1887. 272 .