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TEACHING CARE PLAN FOR CANCER A.

DESCRIPTION OF THE LEARNER: The learners are the inmates and the detainees of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology located at Justice Hills, La Trinidad, Benguet. The population of the learners is composed of approximately 40-50 inmates and detainees aging roughly from 18-65 years old. B. LEARNING NEED: To know the Signs and Symptoms, Causes and Prevention of Cancer C. LEARNING DIAGNOSIS: Knowledge deficit: Information about cancer related to lack of knowledge. D. GOAL: The pupils will have a grasp of knowledge about cancer, its signs and symptoms, causes, and prevention. E. TEACHING PLAN PROPER: BLOS: Upon completion of the topic on cancer, the client will be able to: After 5 minutes of discussion, the learners will be able

LEARNING CONTENT

TEACHING STRATEGY/ METHOD AND ACTIVITIES

TIME ALLOTMENT AND RESOURCES NEEDED 5 minutes of discussion with participation of learners. Use of visual aids: pictures and brochures.

EVALUATION

Definition of: Discussion a. Cancer any disease characterized by excessive, uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells, which invade and destroy

Instant oral feedback: Learners will be able define cancer and

to define cancer correctly. After 15 minutes of group discussion, the learners will be able to enumerate 6 to 8 signs and symptoms of cancer. After 15 minutes of group discussion, the learners will be able to enumerate 5 to 7 common causes of Cancer. After 15 minutes of group discussion,

other tissues. b. Cancer cells abnormal cells which are rapid in multiplying and contributes in the destruction of other normal body tissues. Common Signs and Symptoms of Cancer: 1. Persistent Fatigue 2. Unintentional Weight Loss 3. Pain 4. Fever 5. Bowel Changes Discussion 6. Chronic Cough 7. Blood in stool 8. Unexplained anemia 9. Abnormal Lumps 10. Color changes: wart, moles, skin 11. Non healing sores Common causes of Cancer: 1. Radiation 2. Tobacco 3. Microorganisms 4. Aging Process 5. Physical Inactivity 6. Alcohol Use 7. Genetics 8. Environmental Factors 9. Unsafe Sex Prevention of Cancer 1. Avoid smoking and exposure to smoke. 2. Practice sun safety and notice

cancer correctly.

cells

Fifteen minutes of discussion with the participation of the learners. Use of visual aids such as pictures and brochures.

Instant oral feedback: The learners will be able to identify 6 to 8 common signs and symptoms of cancer.

Discussion

Fifteen minutes of discussion with the participation of the learners. Use of visual aids such as pictures and brochures. Fifteen minutes of discussion with the participation of the learners.

Instant oral feedback: The learners will be able to identify 5 to 7 common causes of cancer.

Discussion

Instant oral feedback: The learners will be able to identify 4

the learners will be able to enumerate 4 to 6 ways to prevent cancer.

skin changes. 3. Eat fruits and vegetables. 4. Limit red meat and animal fat. 5. Limit alcohol intake. 6. Exercise. 7. Know your medical and family history. 8. Be aware of your environment. 9. Practice safe sex. 10. Get screened for cancer.

Use of visual aids such as pictures and brochures.

to 6 ways to prevent cancer.

LEARNING CONTENT Cancer is any of more than 100 diseases characterized by excessive, uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells, which invade and destroy other normal tissues. Cancer develops in almost any organ or tissue of the body, but certain types of cancer are more lifethreatening than others. All cancers begin in cells, the body's basic unit of life. To understand cancer, it's helpful to know what happens when normal cells become cancer cells. The body is made up of many types of cells. These cells grow and divide in a controlled way to produce more cells as they are needed to keep the body healthy. When cells become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with new cells. However, sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. The genetic material (DNA) of a cell can become damaged or changed, producing mutations that affect normal cell growth and division. When this happens, cells do not die when they should and new cells form when the body does not need them. The extra cells may form a mass of tissue called a tumor. Not all tumors are cancerous; tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancerous. They can often be removed, and, in most cases, they do not come back. Cells in benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Cells in these tumors can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Some cancers do not form tumors. For example, leukemia is a cancer of the bone marrow and blood.

Common Signs And Symptoms of Cancer Persistent Fatigue: Fatigue is one of the most commonly experienced cancer symptoms. It is usually more common when the cancer is advanced, but still occurs in the early stages of some cancers. Anemia is commonly the culprit -- a condition that is associated with many types of cancer, especially types affecting the bowel. Fatigue is a symptom of both malignant and nonmalignant conditions and should be evaluated by a physician. Unintentional Weight Loss: While it may be a welcome surprise to lose weight without trying, it can be a red flag for many illnesses, including cancer. Losing 10 pounds or more unintentionally definitely warrants a visit to the doctor. This type of weight loss can occur with or without loss of appetite. Remember, weight loss can be a symptom of cancer, but is also a symptom of many other illnesses, too. Pain: Typically, pain is not an early symptom of cancer, except in some cancer types like those that spread to the bone. Pain generally occurs when cancer spreads and begins to affect other organs and nerves. Lower back pain is cancer symptom that is associated with ovarian cancer and colon cancer. Shoulder pain can also be a symptom of lung cancer. Pain in the form of headaches can be associated with brain tumors (malignant and benign). Stomach pains can be related to types of cancer, like stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, and many others. Stomach pain can be a very vague symptom because so many illnesses can cause stomach pain. Fever: A fever is a very non-specific symptom of many mild to severe conditions, including cancer. In relation to cancer, a fever that is persistent or one that comes and goes frequently can signal stress on the immune system. Fevers are commonly associated with types of cancer that affects the blood, like leukemia and lymphoma, but are also common in people whose cancer has spread. Bowel Changes: If you experience constipation, diarrhea, blood in the stools, gas, thinner stools, or just a general overall change in bowel habits, see your doctor. These symptoms are most commonly associated with colon cancer, but are also related to other cancer types. Chronic Cough: A persistent, new cough or a cough that won't go away or becomes worse needs to be evaluated by a doctor. Blood and/or mucus may accompany the cough and can be caused many conditions. In relation to cancer, a chronic cough with blood or mucus can be symptom of lung cancer. Blood in the Stool: Hemorrhoids may exist with cancer. Colonoscopy may be recommended to clarify a diagnosis. Unexplained Anemia: Anemia is a condition wherein people have fewer than the expected number of red blood cells in their blood. Many cancers can cause anemia, but bowel cancers most commonly cause iron deficiency anemia. Evaluation should include endoscopy or X-ray studies of the upper and lower intestinal tracts. Persistent Lumps: Lumps most frequently represent harmless conditions such as a benign cyst. However, a doctor should examine any new lumps that wont go away. Obvious change in skin color, wart color, or mole color: Multicolored moles that have irregular edges or bleed may be cancerous. Larger moles are more worrisome and need to be evaluated, especially if they seem to be enlarging.

Non-healing

Sores: If sores fail to heal, you may have cancer and should see a doctor. Non-healing sores in the mouth or persistent white or red patches in the gums, tongue or tonsils also should raise concerns.

Common causes of Cancer


Radiation: Radiation causes ionizations in the molecules of living cells. These ionizations result in the removal of electrons

from the atoms, forming ions or charged atoms. The ions formed then can go on to react with other atoms in the cell, causing damage. An example of this would be if a gamma ray passes through a cell, the water molecules near the DNA might be ionized and the ions might react with the DNA causing it to break. At low doses, such as what we receive every day from background radiation, the cells repair the damage rapidly. At higher doses (up to 100 rem), the cells might not be able to repair the damage, and the cells may either be changed permanently or die. Most cells that die are of little consequence, the body can just replace them. Cells changed permanently may go on to produce abnormal cells when they divide. In the right circumstance, these cells may become cancerous. This is the origin of our increased risk in cancer, as a result of radiation exposure. Tobacco: Smoke contains several carcinogenic pyrolytic products that bind to DNA and cause many genetic mutations. Microorganisms: Microorganisms or pathogens may cause certain cancers: a) Viruses: hepatitis B and liver cancer, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Kaposi sarcoma. b) Bacteria: Helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer. c) Parasites: schistosomiasis and bladder cancer. Aging Process: The incidence of cancer rises dramatically with age, most likely due to a buildup of risks for specific cancers that increase with age. The overall risk accumulation is combined with the tendency for cellular repair mechanisms to be less effective as a person grows older. Physical Inactivity: Exercising at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week greatly reduces your cancer risk. Exercise like yoga, aerobics, walking and running are great activities to lower your cancer risk factor. Not only is physical activity important to preventing other diseases, it reduces the chances of becoming obese. Obesity is a major cause for many cancers. Exercising on a regular basis can preventprostate, colon, breast, endometrial and lung cancer. Alcohol Use: Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol regularly increases your risk factor for many types of cancer. Studies suggest that men who consume 2 alcoholic drinks per day and women who have 1 alcoholic drink per day significantly increase their risk factors for certain types of cancer. Genetics: Genetics can play a big role in cancer development. If you have a family history of cancer, such as breast cancer, taking extra precautions is vital. When cancer is genetic, a mutated gene has been passed down. Genetic tests are available for many

hereditary cancers. Keep in mind that if you have a family history of cancer, it does not mean you will develop it. You only have a greater chance of developing it. Environmental Factors: The environment you are in can cause cancer. Exposure to asbestos, a group of minerals found in housing and industrial building materials can cause a variety of medical problems. Studies have shown that people who are exposed to high amount of benzene are at risk for cancer. Benzene is a chemical found in gasoline, smoking, and pollution. Unsafe Sex: Practicing unsafe sex can increase your risk of developing a virus called HPV. HPV is a group of over 100 viruses, medically known as human papillioma virus. HPV increases your risk factor for cervical, anal, vulvar and vaginal cancer. PREVENTION OF CANCER 1. Avoid smoking and exposure to smoke. 2. Practice sun safety and notice skin changes. 3. Eat fruits and vegetables. 4. Limit red meat and animal fat. 5. Limit alcohol intake. 6. Exercise. 7. Know your medical and family history. 8. Be aware of your environment. 9. Practice safe sex. 10. Get screened for cancer. REFERENCES: Peterson, Karen R. "Cancer (medicine)." Microsoft Student 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008. http://www.medicinenet.com/cancer/article.htm http://www.emedicinehealth.com/cancer_symptoms/page2_em.htm http://cancer.about.com/od/causes/a/symptomscancer.htm http://cancer.about.com/od/causes/a/causesrisks.htm http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/risk.htm