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DEDICATION This work is dedicated to God almighty, for his guidance and protection all through my training.

Mr and Mrs. G.O Nwachukwu and all my Sisters for their support Financially, Academically, Morally and Spiritually. This work is also dedicated to all staff of NOSDRA Port- Harcourt, Rivers state for their support and encouragement.

I want to express my profound gratitude to Engr. Chikwe, all my course Advisers since my first Year and all Petroleum Engineering lecturers of this Institution whose constant motivation and teachings have made me a better student.
I want to appreciate all the Staff of NOSDRA P/H for all their support, my SIWES supervisor, Mr. Isheke Godspower for his help, the Acting Head of P/H Zonal office Mr. Enyi for giving me the opportunity to go to the field and Mrs. Mariah

Dogo for helping me secure an IT place in this wonderful parastatal. God bless you all. A big thank you to all my friends; Inyang, Chinasa, Daby, Irem, Amaka, Frank, Solomon, Ifeanyi and all other special people whose names were not mentioned and to all colleagues both in the place of work and in school without whose help this work would have not being possible. I also want to acknowledge the federal government for setting up this SIWES programme. God bless you all.

Dedication Acknowledgement Table of content CHAPTER ONE History of the organisation NOSDRA Objectives of NOSDRA The Various Departments in the Organisation and their functions. Organisational Chart of the Organisation. CHAPTER TWO: The activities Engaged in during SIWES Oil spill in Nigeria Causes of Oil Spill Oil Spill Management Work Done/Jobs Engaged In During SIWES CHAPTER THREE: The problems I encountered during the course of my Training. CHAPTER FOUR: Conclusion and General Appraisal of the programme REFERENCES 35 36 34 10 10 13 18 23 1 2 3 5 i ii iii

HISTORY OF NOSDRA Nigeria is richly endowed with abundant human and natural recourses both renewable and non-renewable ; some of which include Forest, Water, Crude oil, Natural Gas and solid minerals. However the Nigerian environment today is faced with many problems arising from the impact of human activities and natural phenomenon in relation to these natural resources. The gravity of these problems led to the establishment of Federal Environmental Protection Agency(FEPA) by decree 48 1989 under General Ibrahim Babaginda after high toxic waste shifted to the shore in Koko in 1988, which adversely affected the vegetation and water body. Subsequently in a bid to make FEPA more effective the Federal Government under President Olusegun Obasanjo amended FEPA to be the Federal Ministry of Environment in June 1999 and its mandate was to implement the National policy on environment. The committee on oil spillage in FME drafted a National Oil Spill Contingency plan(NOSCP). The key recommendation of the committee was to implement the NOSCP. The committee drafted a bill for the creation of NOSDRA which was submitted to the National Assembly. The National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency(NOSDRA) which is now a parastatal under the FME was finally established by Act NO 15 of the National Assembly and was signed into Law by President Olusegun Obasanjo on the 18th of October 2006. NOSDRA is vested with the responsibility to coordinate the implementation of NOSCP for Nigeria in accordance with the international Convention on Oil Pollution (OPRC) 1990, to which Nigeria is a signatory. NOSDRA is also mandated to play a lead role in ensuring timely, effective and appropriate response to oil spill, as well as ensuring clean-up and remediation of all impacted sites to all best practical extent. It shall also identify High risk/priority areas in the oil producing environment for protection as well as ensure compliance of oil industry operators with all existing

environmental legislation in the petroleum sector. NOSDRA also has the clear mandate of monitoring the coastal areas of the Niger Delta to ascertain the possibility of oil spill, the degree of spill when it happens. Its vision statement is To create, nurture and sustain zero tolerance for oil spill incident in the Nigerian environment . OBJECTIVES OF NOSDRA The objectives of the Agency shall be to co-ordinate and implement the National Oil Spill Contingency Plan for Nigeria as follows:(a) Establish a viable national operational organization that ensures a safe, response to major or disastrous

timely, effective and appropriate oil pollution. (b) up; (c)

Identify high-risk areas as well as priority areas for protection and clean

Establish the mechanism to monitor and assist or where expedient direct to mobilize the necessary

the response, including the capability

resources to save lives, protect threatened environment, and clean up to the best practical extent of the impacted site;

(d) Maximize the effective use of the available facilities and resources of corporate bodies, their international connections and oil spill

cooperatives i.e. Clean Nigeria Associates (CNA) in implementing appropriate spill response;

(e) Ensure funding and appropriate and sufficient pre-positioned pollution combating equipment and materials, as well as functional communication

network system required for effective response to major oil pollution; (f) Ensure a programme of activation, training and drill exercises to ensure and the management of

readiness to oil pollution preparedness operational personnel;

(g) Co-operate and provide advisory services, technical support and equipment for purposes of responding to major oil pollution incident in the

West African sub-region upon request by any neighbouring country,



where a part of the Nigerian territory may be threatened;

(h) Provide support for research and development (R&D) in the local development of methods, materials and and response; (i) Co-operate with the International Maritime Organization and other national, regional and international organizations in the promotion and equipment for oil spill detection

exchange of results of research and development programme relating to the enhancement of the state-of-the art technology in oil pollution preparedness and response, including technologies, techniques for

surveillance, containment, recovery, disposal and clean up to the best practical extent;

(j) Establish agreements with neighbouring countries regarding the rapid movement of equipment, personnel and supplies into and out of the

countries for emergency oil spill response activities; (k) Determine and ensure pre-positioning of vital oil spill combat equipment at most strategic areas for rapid response;

(l) Establish procedures by which the Nigerian Customs Service and the Nigerian Immigration Services shall ensure support response equipment and personnel; (m) Develop and implement an appropriate audit system for the entire plan. VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS AND FUNCTIONS There are three (3) departments in NOSDRA i. ii. iii. Oil Spill Detection and Response (OSDR) Policy Planning Analysis and Research (PPAR) Administration and Finance (A&F) rapid importation of extra

Oil Spill Detection and Response (OSDR) This department is responsible for the following;

v Facility Assessment Oil spill contingency plan Review of NOSCP and industrial oil companies Inventory and monitoring of oil companies oil spill response equipment and material. v Operation planning and migration Oil spill evaluation, clean up and monitoring Oil spill post impact assessment and evaluation Oil spill data documentation and analysis Liaison with the PPAR department Evaluation of oil impacted sites Monitoring of remediation process Certification of remediated sites v Intelligence and spill control Community complaints Evaluation response Conflict resolution Liaison with legal unit and evolve programmes to enhance host community and oil companies co-operation


Policy Planning Analysis and Research (PPAR) v Policy planning Planning, training and manpower development International relations Organize and coordinate awareness program. v Research and Development Laboratory services Analysis of field samples Testing/Registration of oil spill products v Geographic Information System

Remote sensing Environmental Sensitivity index mapping Satellites imageries.

Administration and Finance Provides the admin frame work for the operation of NOSDRA Oversees personal establishment matters Participates in budget preparation Evolves in effective appraisal and system for the agencies pension scheme and salary matters. Coordinates the activities of the activities of the division which includes recruitment , promotion, staff movement as well as staff welfare. Regulate and sets standards to enforce harmonized bidding and tender documents for all NOSDRA contacts. Performs procurement audit, process and prepare all payment documents in respect of NOSDRA.

NOSDRA BUSINESS ACTIVITIES With the onerous task ahead, NOSDRA is intensively engaged with ensuring compliance with environmental legislation in the Nigerian petroleum sector with its mandate to play the lead role in ensuring timely, effective and appropriate response to oil spills by embarking on Joint Investigation Visits (JIV), ensuring clean up/post clean up inspection and Remediation of oil impacted sites to all best practical extent, monitors oil spill drill exercises and facility inspection. Also identify high risk/priority areas in the oil producing environment for protection. PENALTIES AS IN SECTION 6(2) OF THE NOSDRA ACT NOSDRA operates on Polluter Pay Principle with the penalties as follows;

An oil spiller is by this Act to report an oil spill to the Agency in writing not later than 24hours after the occurrence of an oil spill, in default of which the failure attract a penalty of N500,000 or for each day of failure to report the occurrence.

The failure to clean up the impacted site, to all practical extent, including remediation shall attract a further One Million Naria.

Such notice in writing is deemed to have been made if delivered at the nearest zonal office closer to the impacted site, and of the Agency, the National Control and Response Centre within the stipulated time in subsection 6.2(1).

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT (HSE) The HSE is aimed at instructing all employees to make every effort to protect themselves and their fellow workers by being conscientiously acting to the health and safety programme that has been developed and documented specifically for the work environment. The Agency has its policy SAFETY FIRST as such before any project or task is carried out both in the office and at the field. The Agency s HSE officer ensures that all workers put on appropriate personal protective Equipment (PPE) - coverall, Hand Gloves, Safety Boots, Safety Helmet, Eye Goggle, and also adheres to safety measures and rules and regulations.

DEFINITION OF HSE This is a quantity management system for managing the risk in the protection of its people, assets and reputation and the protection of the environment the company or organization operate on.

The vital element of HSE is the integration of safety into business through additional and unique element. These elements include; Leadership and Commitment Policy and Strategic Objectives Organization, Documentation Hazard and effort Management Planning and Procedures Audit Management Review Responsibilities, Resources, Standard and

HSE POLICY This is a definite course or method of action selected from alternatives and in line with given and determine present and future decision. Furthermore, it s a statement from management indicating the principle, guidelines and standards that establish the limits to choice and the rules to be followed by the organization. The requirement of the policies could be HSE policy Commitment to health, Safety and the Environment Community relation policies Company HSE and Community Statement

HSE RULES AND REGULATIONS They are meant to ensure that company s or organization s HSE objectives are realized. They enable the policies of a company to pursue the goals of no harm to the people, its staff, contactors employee or other persons, and to

protect the environment. These set of rules and procedures requires to be adhered while executing any work. Strict adherence will prevent any accident that could result in injury to people or loss of product, which can lead to environmental pollution, and exposure of person to hazard. HSE REGULATION In addition to company s rules and procedure, there are legislative regulations and as there supervised by the factories inspectorate of Federal Ministry of Labour, the Director of Petroleum Resources and Federal Ministry of Environment that must be complied with for the protection of the person and environment. Such legislative regulations include, the Mineral Oils (safety) regulations, the petroleum Degree N0. 51 1969, Explosive Decree N0. 38 1967, and Workman compensation Act, the factories Act 1999. There are also codes that regulate design and practices such as International Standard Organization, Nigeria Institute of Safety Professionals (NIP) etc.

CHAPTER TWO ACTIVITIES ENGAGED IN DURING THE SIWES PROGRAME OIL SPILLAGE The world today depends on petroleum products (Crude oil and Natural gas) for their energy. In the past those involved in the production of this natural resource were so engrossed in what they produce beneath that they paid little or no consideration to the volatile materials being released into the environment in the form of oil spill. During the period of my industrial attachment, I was placed in the Oil Spill Detection And Response (OSDR) department otherwise known as the Technical department as a result of my course of study. In OSDR, all activities are geared towards the response to oil spill and subsequent field investigations to determine the quantity of oil spilled, the type of material released (i.e. gas condensate or crude), the area of impact and the part of the environment impacted (either Land, Swamp, or Water), how the spill was cleaned and the necessary steps taken to return the environment back to its initial state before the oil was spilled. OIL SPILL IN NIGERIA Since the discovery of crude oil in Nigeria in 1956, by Shell British Petroleum (now Royal Dutch Shell) at Oloibiri, a village in Bayelsa State, the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the country has been suffering the negative environment consequences of oil development through the problems of Sabotage, fire, poor management and lack of maintenance of oil facilities. The growth of the country s oil industry, combined with a population explosion and a lack of enforcement of environmental regulations has led to substantial damage to Nigeria s ecosystem, especially in the above region. Presently, there are 500 oil fields in Nigeria, of which over 55% are on-shore and the rest are offshore i.e. shallow waters (less than 500 meters). Of these

fields, 193 are currently producing while 23 have either been closed-down or abandoned. and ranked the largest oil producer in Africa and the eight (8th) in the world. Estimated oil reserve is put at 25billion barrels and the average production of 2.3million barrels per day. The country has six (6) exports terminals as shown in Table 1 with their capacities EXPORT TERMINALS BRASS (AGIP) FORCADOS (SHELL) ESCRAVOS (CHEVRON) BONNY INSHORE (SHELL) BONNY OFFSHORE (SHELL) QUA IBOE (MOBIL) CAPACITY 3,558,000 BARRELS 6,000,000 BARRELS 3,600,000 BARRELS 4,794,000 BARRELS 2,729,000 BARRELS 3,500,000 BARRELS


1BBL =


1BBL = 1BBL = 1BBL =

0.1364256 tons 42 US gallons 0.158M2

In spite of the 80% revenue accruing from the oil industry since discovery of oil in Nigeria in 1956, the country has suffered problems arising from petroleum industry activities, these activities are sources of pollution and they include upstream and downstream such as drilling and development activities, production and terminal operations. These activities have caused several oil spill incidents in Nigeria which has high risk of adverse effect to the environment.

To reduce the rate of oil spill incidence in Nigeria, a number of Federal and State Agencies have been assigned to deal with the problems of oil spill. They include DPR, NOSDRA, State Ministries of Environment and the National Maritime Authority. OIL SPILL An oil spill is the release of a liquid hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activities. Oil spill is not limited to the release of crude oil but also refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, fuel or diesel etc), oily refuse or mixed oil in waste. This discharge of crude into the environment occurs during inland and offshore prospecting, production, movement and the transportation of the crude oil or refined petroleum products. CRUDE OIL COMPOSITION. The table below shows the composition of crude oil, PRODUCTS CARBON NUMBER BOILING POINT (0C) Methane Petroleum Ether Light Naphtha Petroleum(gasoline) Paraffin (kerosene) Diesel Fuel oil 1 4-6 6-10 3-8 10-14 15-20 20+ -160 20-60 60-100 40-205 165-200 175-365 350+ Methane Pentane Cyclohexane,Cycloheptane BTEX Polycyclic Hydrocarbon Polycyclic Hydrocarbon Polycyclic Hydrocarbon EXAMPLES

CAUSES OF OIL SPILLAGE 1). CORROSION-: This could be as a result of aging of the pipeline which have been in use for decades without replacement which may end up been ruptured. It is as a result of the reaction of the metal (Iron; FE) used in making the pipe and the moisture (H20) in the presence of oxygen (02). 2). EQUIPMENT FAILURE-: This result mainly due to lack of maintenance and overlook of oil pipeline facilities such as wellheads and valves, flow stations, flowlines, storage facilities to change their worn out valves or flanges. 3). SABOTAGE-: This is a deliberate or unauthorized tampering of oil facilities and pipeline by vandals via illegal oil bunkering for selfish interest. Presently this accounts for majority of spill in Nigeria. There are different ways used by saboteurs which includes By the use of Hacksaw on the facility. By the use of drilling machines to make a drill hole to siphon the products carried within. By the process of blasting with the use of explosive. By the use of Acidic substances that are capable of rusting metal which all most all oil facilities are made of. Any type of this acids is used by saboteurs by pouring it on the surface, allow for some times (days, weeks or months) depending on the reactive strength and type of metal in contact with it. 4). HUMAN/OPERATIONAL ERROR-: i.e. improper discarding of oily waste or overflow of oil from barges colliding and boosting due to worn out of the barges, and ineffective complete of maintenance during operations. CATEGORIES OF SPILL Oil spill are categorized in three Tiers which is summarized in Table3



INLAND (BBLS) <25 25-250


MINOR (Tier1) MEDIUM (Tier2) MAJOR (Tier3)

<250 250-2500




The Agency coordinates the Tier3 oil Spill response system, as well as monitors Tier 1 & 2 which are oil spill response system of individual oil companies and cooperatives (Clean Nigeria Associates) respectively. Note: MYSTERY SPILL:- Spill of unknown origin generally referred to as mystery spill could occur within facility operator area.


When oil is spilled on water, it is exposed to a variety of physical and chemical processes. Within the first 24 hrs; spreading, evaporation, dissolution and other processes take place. The behavior and fate of the oil depends on the Origin/Specific Gravity as well as the environment into which it is spilled into i.e. water and air temperature, wind, wave condition, but in very general terms the following will happen within hours. 1 SPREADING: Spilled oil spreads out rapidly across the water surface to form a thick layer OIL SLICK . As the spreading process continues, the layer becomes thinner and thinner, finally becoming a very thin layer called a OIL SHEEN which often like a rainbow. 2 EVAPORATION: This is the major process that reduces the quantity of spilled oil, spreading causes the lighter fractions in the oil to be lost rapidly leaving back in the water the heavier parts. The amount lost (evaporated) during a spill depends chiefly on the oil properties, the temperature, air pressure, wind speed etc.

3 DISPERSION: i.e. break up of oil by the driving waves into small droplets that are mixed into the water column. The smaller droplets that stay in the column are considered dispersed. The amount dispersed depends on the oil properties (Viscosity and Surface Tension) in particular. 4 DISSOLUTION: Dissolving of water soluble components of oil into the water. The most water soluble components of oil are most toxic. 5 EMULSIFICATION: This is the stage where water droplets are mixed into the oil, forming a water-in-oil emulsion or mousse . Formation of mousse depends on the water condition and the chemical properties of the oil. The emulsion can be 70-90% water so that the combined volume of oil and water mixture may be much greater than the volume of the original spill. 6 SEDIMENTATION: The adhesion of oil to solid particles in the water column, oil can be absorbed into sediments in the water and this leads to it settling at the bottom. This is due to change in gravity. 7 PHOTO-OXIDATION: A change in the physical and chemical

composition as a result of sunlight and temperature. The chemical combination of hydrocarbons with oxygen is known as oxidation. This process is limited to the surface of the oil. This can result in a thin, crusty Skin on slicks and tar balls. 8 BIO-DEGRADATION: The process whereby microbes that occur naturally in the environment degrade the oil. It is dependent on the properties of the water and microbial activity. NB: The process of spreading, evaporation, dispersion, emulsification and dissolution are most important during the early stages of the spill whilst photo-oxidation, sedimentation and biodegradation are most important at the later stages and they determine the ultimate fate of the oil.

OIL SPILL IMPACT The degree and duration of damage from oil spills is a function of several factors; I. II. III. The type of oil spilled The quantity and duration of the spill Seasonal, Oceanographic and meteorological conditions e.g. in swamping season or when concentrated for feeding or migration. IV. V. VI. VII. Nature of the exposed biota Habitat and Substratum Geographic location and Topography i.e. slope, steep or plane Type of spill control used.

HARMFUL EFFECT OF OIL SPILL IN THE ENVIRONMENT Land Degradation and Soil fertility loss which reduces land available for agricultural activities. Thus there is likely to be less food production as people farm on lower quality land that decrease yields. Water pollution from oil spillage kills plants and animals in the estuarine zone. Oil settles in beaches and kills organism that live there, it also settles in ocean floor and kill benthic (bottom dwelling) organisms such as crabs. Oil poisons algae, disrupts major food chains and decreases the yield of edible crustaceans. In birds it causes loss of insulation, impairs their flight thus making the birds more vulnerable to cold and it also causes mutation. In fish, oil endangers fish hatcheries; there is long term sub lethal effect such as reduced reproduction. When dissolved oil is taken up through their gills it accumulates in the liver, gall bladder resulting in tainting of the flesh thereby making the fish unacceptable for consumption.

Humans that feed on these affected fishes also become affected also and people who earn their livelihood from fishing activities lose their source of income. In fresh water environment spillage contaminates drinking water. The mangrove was once a source of both fuel and wood for the indigenous people and a habitat for the area s biodiversity, but is now unable to survive the oil toxicity of its habitat.


The management of oil spill is the responsibility of everybody involved in the oil business from the oil companies to the government and even the host communities. The management of oil spill entails the ability to prevent spills, the ability to combat the spill and the level of preparedness if it occurs. In order to make oil spill management more effective several laws have been put in place (both locally and internationally), Agencies and Groups have also been put in place to help manage oil spills (i.e. Agencies like

NOSDRA,DPR,FMENV,SMENV,NMA, etc and Groups like CAN) THE CLEAN NIGERIA ASSOCIATE (CNA) The CAN is a cooperative of eleven oil companies operating in Nigeria, including NNPC. The purpose of establishment of CAN is to maintain a capability to combat spill of liquid hydrocarbon or pollution which volume exceeds the volume that can be combated by individual company. Tier 2 spill require the CAN assistance. Members of the CAN are Chevron Nigeria Ltd, Total E & P Nigeria ltd, Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited, Shell Pet. Dev. Co of Nigeria Ltd, Nigerian Agip Oil Co Ltd, Pan Ocean Oil Company Nig Ltd, Agip Energy & Natural Resources (Nig) Ltd, Conoco Energy (Nig) Ltd, Dubril Oil Co Ltd, Addax Petroleum (Nig) Ltd and Nigerian National Petroleum Corpration.

STATE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT (SMENV) SMENV is expected to protect their state environment and population against possible damage resulting from industries including oil companies operations. DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM RESOURCES (DPR) The DPR is charged with the responsibility of regulating the activities of the oil and Gas industry operations in Nigeria. CREATING OF AWARENESS Awareness creation on the impacts of oil spill is an integral part of management programme for oil spill along the coastal of Nigeria. This is being carried out by government at different levels and Agencies such as the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC). INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION Tracking down on smugglers has proved difficult. To shore up the fight against oil smugglers in Nigeria, the US donated three 56 meters (180ft) refitted World War II era patrol boats to the navy. It helps in strengthening the country s preparedness and response capacity in dealing with the problems of oil spill in the Niger Delta. PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES IN COMBATING OIL SPILL INCIDENCE The use of SCADA System: - This means Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System. It refers to a system that collects data from various sensors at a terminal, plant or in other remote locations- offshore platform and then sends this data to a central computer which then manages and control the data. This SCADA system gathers information, such as where a spillage/leak on a pipeline has occurred, transfer the information back to a central site, alerting the home station that the spillage or leak has occurred, carrying out necessary analysis and control, such as determining if the leak is critical, and display s the information in a logical and organized fashion.

Installation of shutdown valves to allow early shutdown or isolation in the event of a spill and developing automatic shutdown system for significant spill scenarios so that the facility may be rapidly brought into a safe condition. Use of a catch basin around the fill pipe to collect spill Conducting periodic (e.g. weekly) reconciliation of tank contents and inspection of visible portions of tanks and piping for leaks. Use of double walled, composite or specially coated storage and piping system particularly in the use of underground storage tanks (UST) and underground piping. Use of primary and secondary containment devices such as booms, skimmers, barges to recover spilled oil and then transported to the nearest flow station for recycling into the system.
Putting an end to Oil Bunkering which is one of the causes of oil spills, by punishing those caught in the act.

LEGISLATIONS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OIL SPILL Several legislations have being put in place to reduce oil spill and ensure the readiness to combat and clean up when it eventually occurs, below are some of the relevant laws that are in effect now; OIL POLLUTION ACT (OPA) of 1990 - This is responsible for many of the nations improvement in oil spill prevention, mitigation, cleanup and liability. The majority of the provisions were targeted at reducing the number of oil spills followed by reducing the quantity of oil spilled. OPA 1990 also create a comprehensive scheme to ensure that sufficient financial resources are available to clean-up a spill and to compensate person damaged by a spill. It also ensure that the federal response system is adequately prepared to manage the impacts of oil spills that do occur; and mandates that industry implement preventive and preparedness measures. The OPA also mandates thatb tankers and inland oil facilities develop individual response plan.

MINERAL OIL(SAFETY) REGULATIONS, 1997 - This deals with safe discharge of noxious or inflammable gases and provides penalties for contravention and non compliance PETROLEUM REGULATIONS 1967 - This prohibits the discharge or escape of petroleum into waters within harbor areas and makes precautions for the conveyance of petroleum and rules of safe operations of pipelines. PETROLEUM DRILLING AND PRODUCTION REGULATION 1969 This requires license holders to take all practical precautions including the provision of up-to-date equipment approved by the appropriate authority to prevent the pollution of inland waters, river water courses, territorial waters of Nigeria or the high seas by oil , other fluids or substances. OIL IN NAVIGABLE WATER ACT 1968 which prohibits discharge of

oil or any mixture containing oil into the territorial or navigable inland waters. PETROLEUM REFINING REGULATIONS 1974 which deals among

other things with construction requirements for storage tanks to minimize damage from leakages. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) This is used in order to reduce the response time and qualify the decision-making process, it also provides Information on the exact position and size of the oil spill can be plotted on maps in GIS and the decisions on the priority of the combat efforts and means taken according to the identified coastal sensitive areas. The GIS offers opportunities for the integration of oil drift forecast models (prediction of wind and current influence on the oil spill) in the computer framework.

CONTIGENCY PLAN It is very difficult to generalize on oil spills. Each spill has its own set of characteristics; Location, distance from shore, degree of environmental sensitivity, shallow or deep water, waves current, wind speed and direction, temperature, size of spill, type of oil, time after spill, debris, soil permeability, soil aggregate size, color nutrient, etc. There are several factors which determine how effectively an oil spill can be managed and since no one knows when an oil spill will occur or the quantity that will be spilled, it is better to be prepared always, that is why a Contingency plan is needed in every petroleum company. A Contingency plan is that plan for what to do when particular event(Oil Spill) happens. Below are some of the factors that are incorporated in an appropriate contingency plan; Availability of properly maintained equipments and products (ships, skimmers systems, booms, pumps, storage tanks, dispersants, sorbents, etc.) Availability of manpower Environmental sensitivity index (what to protect first) Communication Information Surveillance Command Strategy/planning Health and safety Maintenance and training

ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY INDEX (ESI) Nigerian regulatory requirements specify ESI mapping as part of the contingency planning for oil exploration and production activities to better protect the deltas natural resources. Below are the basic contents/scope: F Soil and Sediment Attributes: Permeability, Aggregate size, colour, Nutrient etc. F Ecology: Biodiversity, Toxicological back of marine mammals/fish, floral & fauna. F Land Use: Human activities/Settlements, Present & Future

development, population structure/density, Adjoining uses and socioeconomic activities F Microbiology: Emphasis on regeneration ability and bacterial condition that aid natural attenuation F Cinematic and Weather conditions: Wind Direction, Speed, Pressure, Temperature, Precipitation, Humidity, And Air Quality Index etc. WORK DONE/JOBS ENGAGED DURING SIWES In the event of any oil spill to the environment, the agency in agreement with all the stakeholders involved i.e. the oil companies, the SMENV, and the DPR have drafted several field investigation techniques from the period the spill occurred through the clean-up then to the remediation of the impacted site. With special regard to oil spill on land because that was with I was involved in during the period of my stay, the order of event and actions is further explained below; OIL SPILL CLEAN UP

JIV (joint investigation visit) PCI (post clean up inspection)



JOINT INVESTIGATION VISIT (JIV) This is the first field investigation carried out within 48 hours after the spill has occurred. The JIV team comprises of NOSDRA who plays a lead role, DPR, State Ministry of Environment, Facility operator (Oil company) and the community representative, this is done to ensure transparency. The JIV is conducted to ascertain the cause of the spill (SAB, EQF, YTD, COR, OPF etc), the volume spilled, the impacted area, the position of the source (12, 1, 2, 3, or 6 O clock), the type of pollutant (crude, condensate, chemicals, refined petroleum products, gas etc), type of facility (well head, pipeline, flowline, flow station, manifold, storage tank etc), the type of containment in place and the properties at risk and effecting immediate repairs on the affected facility. After the visit a report is drafted which will feature mostly the observations on the site and the recommendations made. CLEAN UP AND POST CLEAN UP INSPECTION Clean up of oil spills is the process of removing or recovering the spilled oil from the environment. If an oil spill occurs the attempt to clean it starts immediately after the JIV has been conducted. Various clean up techniques are employed depending on the area of impact (land, swamp or water), The quantity of oil spilled, If the oil can be recovered or not. The first action taken when an oil spill occurs is to contain the spilled oil making use of booms on water or containment pit on land. Below are some of the clean up methods; ON LAND AREAS: - When oil is spilt on land surface, the following methods are applied; I. NATURAL ATTENUATION (BIODEGRADATION): This is a process whereby the contaminated soil is allowed for a period for time for natural degradation by hydrocarbon degrading micro-organisms in the site. It is the process of allowing nature to take care of itself. This method is mostly used when the quantity of oil spilled is minute and on land.


IN-SITU AND EX-SITU BURNING : This method especially the In- Situ burning can be used both on land and water surface. In-situ burning refers to when the spilled oil on the surface is subjected to incineration on the site on the site of spill while ex-situ refers to when the contaminant or the contaminated material is taken else where for burning (incineration). In-situ burning depends on the quantity of oil spilled and takes place when the spill is still fresh, this method is highly discouraged since burning will affect the surrounding environment i.e. the air, adjoining vegetation and soil fertility may be affected on land.


USE OF SORBENTS : They are materials that recovers oil through either Absorption in which the oil penetrates into the pores of the sorbent materials or Adsorption In which the oil is attracted to the sorbent surface and adheres to it . in general sorbents are big sponges used to absorb oil. Sorbents are generally marketed as Sheets, Rolls, Pillows and Pads. It can also consist of natural products such as peat or straw, mineral compounds such as ash, vermiculite, or perlite and most commonly synthetic products such as polyethylene, polypropylene or polyurethane foam. Sorbents are not used as the primary method of clean up in a large spill, rather they are usually used in the final stages to remove small amounts of remaining oil on the impacted land areas or especially along the shore lines. Its application can be on land and also in water.


CONTAINMENT PIT-: This is commonly used for large volume of spills. A containment pit is being used for containing an oil spill. When a spill occurs, you first channel the spilled oil from that point of spill, to the dug pit, so as to contain it for recovery purpose.













USE OF FOSTER TANKS/VACUUM TRUCKS-: This method is commonly used during recovery, for easy transportation of oil. The recovered oil in the containment pit is sucked out and channeled into the safely tanks or foster tanks or vacuum trucks with the aid of pumping machine, and finally transported back to the flow station for further treatment. The foster tanks are elastic and so can easily contain large volume of oils.

ON WATER BODIES:- In clean up contaminants on water bodies either on offshore or on major rivers, ocean tide, beaches, streams or estuaries. Current, wind condition and oil properties play an important role in deciding the type and level of response and clean up to be accepted. The following are used for recovery of oil and cleaning up; 1. USE OF BOOMS :- When oil is spilt on the water surfaces, its removal or deflection from sensitive areas is often required. Both operations, call for the use of floating barrier or booms. A containment boom is a temporary floating barrier used to contain an oil spill. The most important characteristics of boom is its oil containment or deflection capability determined by its behavior in relation to water movement. Booms are used to reduce the possibility of polluting shorelines and other resource and help make recovery easier. Booms also help to concentrate oil in thicker surface layers so that skimmers, vacuums, or other collection methods can be used more effectively. It is the first containment method to be used and the last equipment to be removed from the site of an oil spill and they come in many shapes and sizes with various levels of effectiveness in different types of water conditions. Some of the Booming tactics involved are; v CONTAINMENT BOOMING-: placing a boom in a body of contaminated water for the purpose of holding or slowing the movement of contamination.

v DIVERSION BOOMING-: Placing a boom in a body of contaminated water for the purpose of diverting the contamination to a collection point. v EXCLUSION BOOMING-: Placing a boom in a body of water for the purpose of blocking off a sensitive area from contamination. This method is not recommended for fast water operating environments. 2. USE OF SKIMMERS-: An oil skimmer is a machine that separates a liquid from another liquid. Skimmer can be classified into the following 4 groups on the basis of the operating principle; v WEIR SKIMMERS-: This function when the force of gravity causes oil floating on the water to flow over a weir positioned as precisely as possible at the oil/water interface to minimize the flow of water along with the oil. A refinement of the simple weir the addition of rotating blades under the water to induce the flow thus encouraging the oil to the weir edge. v OLEOPHILIC SKIMMERS-: These include ropes, disks, and belt skimmers. The oleophilic surface moves through a slick and the retained oil is subsequently scoped or squeezed from the surface into a collection area. v VACUUM SKIMMERS-: This functions either by the use of vacuum pumps, or an air venturii system to suck oil from the water surface directly into a containment vessel. Specially designed skimming heads may be fitted to the ends of the suction hoses to increase efficiency. The pumping of viscous material is possible by allowing the induction of water to act as a fluid medium. v MECHANICAL SKIMMERS-: These include belts with vanes on, metal tooth discs, grab buckets and drum separators. They all rely on a physical action to draw the oil in. by matching them with a suitable pump; they should be capable of accepting and transporting viscous oil, stable water in oil emulsions and solid debris.

3. IN-SITU BURNING-: This method involves burning of freshly spilled oil on water after it has been contained by the use of barriers or booms, or while it is still floating on water. The use of this method depends on the quantity of oil spilled i.e. the quantity must be small. Although, this method is no longer recommended any longer due to the adverse effect it has on the water bodies and the surrounding environment. 4. USE OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANT-: A dispersant or a dispersing agent is either a non-surface active polymer or a surface active substance added to a suspension, usually a colloid, to improve the separation of particles and to prevent settling or clumping. Therefore, a chemical dispersants can be used to dissipate oil slicks. They may rapidly disperse large amount of certain oil types from the sea surface by transporting it into the water column. They will cause the oil slick to break up and form water soluble micelles that are rapidly diluted. The oil is then effectively spread throughout a larger volume of water than the formation of persistent oil-in-water emulsions. However, laboratory experiments showed that dispersants increase toxic hydrocarbon levels in fish by a factor of up to 100 and may kill fish eggs. NOTE: The decision whether to or not to use dispersants must be taken by the HSE manager with the approval of DPR and NOSDRA depending on the type of chemical dispersant and its characteristics. For coastal and inland waters, the use of chemical dispersants is highly prohibited as it can affect the water body. POST CLEAN UP INSPECTION (PCI) The PCI is conducted after the cleanup operation has being completed, the cleanup of oil impacted site is not deemed complete until DPR, NOSDRA and state ministry of Environment officer says he is satisfied. The PCI is conducted to ascertain if the cleanup is satisfactory or not and also to help determine if the contaminated site needs remediation or if it is fit for closeout. Incident can only be closed when the following conditions have been satisfied.

WATER: There shall be no visible oil sheen after the 1st 30days of occurrence of the spill. SWAMP AREA: No trace of oil in sediments after the 1st 60days of occurrence of the spill. LAND: The oil content of the soil shall not be more than 30ppm by the end of the 1st 6months of occurrence of the spill incidence. After the visit a report is drafted which will feature mostly the observations on the site and the recommendations made. A prototype of NOSDRA form C (PCI & Remediation form) is attached as appendix 2.

REMEDIATION Remediation is a process whether artificially or naturally of reclaiming or restoring a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site or environment to its original capacity to support life before pollution. Remediation of a contaminated site is dependent on the quantity of oil spilled, nature of contaminant, where the oil was spilled and how satisfactorily the clean up is i.e. the PCI determines if there will be any remediation. This is usually carried out on land.

TYPES OF REMEDIATION Below are some of the methods of remediating impacted sites; 1. Land Farming 2. Bioventing 3. Phytoremediation 4. Bioremediation

BIOREMEDIATION It is important to define bioremediation within the context of biodegradation, a naturally occurring process. Biodegradation is a large component of oil weathering and is a natural process whereby bacteria or other microorganism alter and break down organic molecules into other substances eventually producing fatty acids and carbon dioxide. Bioremediation is the acceleration of this biodegradation process through the addition of exogenous microbial populations, through the stimulation of indigenous populations or through manipulation of the contaminated media using techniques such as aeration, temperature control etc. Therefore, bioremediation is any process that uses microorganism, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the natural environment altered by contaminants back to its original state/condition. It accounts for 5-10% of all pollution treatment. Bioremediation works best on natural carbon-containing substances called hydrocarbons or on chemicals resembling natural substances, such as certain petroleum products are wide spread in the environment. Microorganism whose perform the function of bioremediation is known as Bioremediators, some of the bacteria employed in bioremediation include members of the genera Pseudomonas, Flaro bacterium, Arthrobacter, and Azotobacter. An example of a more general approach is the addition of nitrate and/or sulfate fertilizers to facilitate the decomposition of crude oil by indigenous or exogenous bacteria. PHYTOREMEDIATION: Phytoremediation combines the greek word "phyto" (plant), with the latin word "remedium" (restoring balance or remediation) to describe the treatment whereby certain plants, working together with soil organisms can transform contaminants into harmless and often valuable forms. It refers to the natural ability of certain plants called hyperaccumulators to bioaccumulate, degrade, or render harmless contaminants in soils, water, or air. Contaminants such as

metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, and crude oil and its derivatives, have been mitigated in phytoremediation projects worldwide. Phytoremediation is considered a clean, cost-effective and nonenvironmentally disruptive technology as opposed to mechanical methods such as soil excavation etc. over the years, this technology has become increasingly popular however one major disadvantage of phytoremediation is that it requires a long term commitment, as the process is dependent on plants growth, tolerance to toxicity and bioaccumulation capacity. Some of the plants used for phyto Remediation are: Alfalfa (symbiotic with hydrocarbon degrading bacteria) Arabidopsis (carries a bacterial gene that transforms mercury into

gaseous state) Bamboo family (accumulates silica in its stalks and nitrogen as crude

protein in its leaves). Bladder Campion (accumulates zinc & copper). Ordinary tomato and alpine pennycress (accumulates lead, zinc and

cadmium) Popla (used in absorption of the pesticide, altrazine)

LAND-FARMING/ REMEDIATION BY ENHANCED NATIONAL ATTENUATION (RENA) Also known as "Remediation by Enhanced National Attenuation" or "Land application", is an above ground insitu remediation technology for soil that reduces concentration of petroleum constituents through biodegradation. This technology involves spreading excavated contaminated soils in a thin layer on the ground surface and stimulating aerobic microbial activity within the soils through aeration and in addition of minerals, nutrients, and moisture. The equipment employed in RENA is typical of that used in agricultural operations.

These RENA activities cultivate and enhance microbial degradation of hazardous compounds. As a rule of thumb, the higher the molecular weight (i.e. the more ring within a polyclclic aromatic hydrocarbon), the slower the degradation rate. Also, the more chlorinated or nitrated the compound, the more difficult it is to degrade.

CHAPTER THREE THE PROBLEMS AND BENEFITS OF MY TRAINING THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING THE TRAINING 1. Difficulty of securing a place of training was the first challenge faced. 2. Accommodation Problems after securing a place. 3. Financial Constraints i.e. no allowance was paid by the firm 4. Lack of trust by the firm for the first 3 months 5. Transportation

THE BENEFITS OF THE TRAINING TO MY FIELD OF STUDY 1. It increased my knowledge about oil spills, its causes, clean up and the remediation of impacted sites. 2. The various contingency plans of oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria 3. My frequent visits to site showed the devastating effect of oil spills on land. 4. The various causes of oil spill and how the compensations are paid 5. The different methods of remediating impacted soil was learnt 6. The control measures taken to prevent the occurrence of oil spills. 7. The method of surveillance used by the oil firms in that region 8. Some of the methods of repairing the source of the spill i.e. the pipeline 9. The various clean up method and the way the waste is disposed of. 10. 11. The harmful effects of oil spills on land and water HSE seminar was organized for the SIWES personnels.

CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION CONCLUSION The SIWES programme is of great importance to the student. In the course of my training I was put through a lot of experiences and training, I was involved in the Oil Spill Detection and Response (OSDR) department where everything about oil spills in Nigeria was taught to me in the course of my training. The programme gave me an opportunity to learn how to effectively relate with people and to face some challenges that were tough. It gave me a reason to appreciate my course of study and to become a better engineer with a vision of making life saving inventions and innovations. It showed me what oil spill in Nigeria was, the main cause of this spill which happen to be bunkering (sabotage), the way they are being cleaned up and some of the steps taken by the Government and Oil Firms and how they have affected the spill occurrence.

RECOMMENDATION 1. The Government and the universities should sensitize the Firms and Agencies operating in the country about the SIWES programe. 2. Placement should be given on the basis of merit rather than friendship. 3. Financial support by the firms for the trainees 4. The University should help students secure placement. 5. The Firms should be encouraged to take trainees to the field for better experiences and knowledge.

REFRENCES 1st Responders course on Oil spill Addax Contingency Plan 2010 Agip Contingency plan 2010 John Gibson .H., Bioremediation of marine oil spills












SPDC IMORIV W57 F/L (vandalized P/L)