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Physics 31 B5 Answer Key 1. In thermodynamic processes which of the following statements is not true?

(1) In an isochoric process pressure remains constant (2) In an isothermal process the temperature remains constant (3) In an adiabatic process PV = constant (4) In an adiabatic process the system is insulated from the surroundings The only statement which is not true is statement (1). A process in which the pressure remains constant is called isobaric process (and not isochoric process). [Note that an isochoric process is one in which the volume remains constant]. 2. The internal energy change in a system that has absorbed 2 Kcals of heat and done 500 J of work is: (1) 6400 J (2) 5400 J (3) 7900 J (4) 8900 J When a quantity Q of heat is supplied to a system it is used to do an amount of work W by the system and to increase the internal energy of the system by U: Q = U + W Note that Q given in kilo calories is to be converted into joule which is the SI unit of heat. Therefore Q = 210004.2 J = 8400 J (remembering that 1 cal = 4.2 J very nearly). The increase the internal energy, U = Q W =8400 500 = 7900 J. 3. The average translational kinetic energy of oxygen molecule at a temperature T is 610-21 J. The average translational kinetic energy of helium atom at a temperature 2T will be (a) 3.610-21 J (b) 7.210-21 J (c) 2.8810-20 J (d) 610-21 J (e) 1.210-20 J Since the translational kinetic energy is (3/2)kT for all types of gas molecules, it depends only on temperature and the answer is 1.210-20 J [Option (e)]. 4. The ratio of the total kinetic energy of all the molecules in one mole of hydrogen at temperature T to the total kinetic energy of all the molecules in two moles of helium at temperature 2T is (a) 5:6 (b) 5:12 (c) 5:3 (d)1:2 (e) 1:4 The total kinetic energies per mole in the case of hydrogen and helium are, respectively, (5/2)RT and (3/2)RT since hydrogen is diatomic and helium is monoatomic. Hence the required ratio is [(5/2)RT] : [2(3/2)R2T] = 5:12 [Option (b)]. 5. The average translational energy and the rms speed of molecules in a sample of oxygen gas at 300 K are 6.2110-21J and 484 m/s respectively. The corresponding values at 600 K are nearly (assuming ideal gas behavior) (a) 12.4210-21J, 968 m/s (b) 8.7810-21J, 684 m/s

(c) 6.2110-21J, 968 m/s (d) 12.4210-21J, 684 m/s Average translational energy per mole = (3/2)RT . When the temperature changes from 300 K to 600 K, the energy is doubled. The rms speed of gas molecules = (3kT/m) where k is Boltzmans constant and m is the molecular mass. So rms speed becomes 2 times when the temperature changes from 300 K to 600 K. The correct option is (d). 6. When an ideal diatomic gas without vibrational modes is heated at constant pressure, the fraction of heat energy supplied which increases the internal energy of the gas is (a) 5/7 (b) 3/5 (c) 2/5 (d) 2/3 (e) 1/3 In the case of a diatomic gas, the molar specific heats at constant volume and constant pressure are respectively (5/2)R and (7/2)R. This means that the increase in internal energy of one mole of the gas when we supply (7/2)R joule of heat at constant pressure is (5/2)R joule. The remaining R joule of heat is spent on doing work during the expansion of the gas. The fraction of the total energy supplied which increases the internal energy of the gas is therefore (5/2)R/(7/2)R = 5/7 [Option(a)]. [Note that this fraction in the case of a mono atomic gas will be 3/5]. 7. Two moles of an ideal mono atomic gas is heated from 20C to 120C. The increase in internal energy of the gas is nearly (Universal gas constant = 8.3 J mol1 K1). (a) 1660 J (b) 2490 J (c) 3320 (d) 4150 J (e) 4980 J Some of you may be inclined to wonder which molar specific heat you have to use here (Cp or Cv?). Dont have any doubt. The increase in internal energy depends on the temperature rise and not on the conditions of constant volume or constant pressure. When you heat a gas at constant volume, the entire heat supplied is used to increase the internal energy. When you heat the gas at constant pressure, a part of the heat supplied is used for doing external work since the gas has to expand to keep the pressure constant. In both cases, the increase in the internal energy of the gas is the same if the temperature rise is the same. You have to use the molar specific heat at constant volume, which is equal to (3/2)R in the case of a mono atomic gas, for calculating the increase in internal energy. So, increase in internal energy = No. of molesCvTemperature rise = 2 (3/2)R(12020) = 2490 J, on substituting the value 8.3 for the universal gas constant R. 8. In the cyclic process shown in the PV diagram for an ideal gas, the net work done by the gas during one cycle is (a) 24P0V0 (b) 24P0V0 (c) 6P0V0 (d) 6P0V0 (e) 4P0V0 The area enclosed by the closed curve gives the work done. Since the cycle of operations is clockwise (in the PV diagram with P on the Y-axis), the net work done by the gas is positive. Therefore net work done by the system

during one cycle = Area of circle.Since the quantities on the two axes are different, the shape is not really a circle. The scales of the quantities could have been changed to make it an ellipse. So, treat it as an ellipse and calculate the area as ab where a and b are the semi-major and semi-minor axes respectively.So, work done = [(5P0 2P0)/2] [(10V0 2V0)/2] = 6P0V0 [Note that if the arrow in the diagram shows the processes in the anticlockwise direction, the net work done by the system will be negative]. 9. A refrigerator removes 1000 calories of heat from the ice trays. The coefficient of performance of the refrigerator is 10. Then the work done by the compressor motor is at least (a) 240 J (b) 420 J (c) 4200 J (d) 42000 J (e) 0.042 J Coefficient of performance, = Q2/w where Q2 is the quantity of heat removed from the cold body (inside the refrigerator) and w is the work needed to transfer this heat to the hot body (outside). Therefore w = Q/ = 1000/10 = 100 calories = 420 J, approximately. This is the minimum work to be done by the compressor motor. 10. An engine takes in 10000 J of heat and rejects 8000 J while operating between temperatures of 900 K and 600 K. The actual efficiency is (a) 1/5 (b) 2/5 (c) 1/3 (d) 2/3 (e)4/5 The actual efficiency is given by = (Q1 Q2)/Q1. Note that this will be less than (T1T2)/T1 in practical heat engines. The efficiency given by the two expressions will be equal in the case of the ideal, perfectly reversible Carnot engine only. Actual efficiency = (100008000)/10000 = 1/5. 11. At 10 C the value of the density of a fixed mass of an ideal gas divided by its pressure is x. At 110 C this ratio is (1) 383x/283 (2) 10x/110 (3) 283x/383 (4) x We have PV = rT where r is the gas constant for the given mass. Since the volume V = M/ where M is the mass and is the density, we have P/ = rT/M. Since r and M are constants for a given mass of gas, we have (1/P1) /(2/P2) = T2/T1 where the suffix 1 is for the quantities at temperature 10 C and suffix 2 is for the quantities at temperature 110. It is given that (1/P1) = x. Therefore x/(2/P2) = 383/283 since the temperatures are in degree kelvin. From this (2/P2) = 283x/383 12. On a new scale of temperature (which is linear) and called the W scale, the freezing and boiling points of water are 39 W and 239 W respectively. What will be the temperature on the new scale, corresponding to a temperature of 239 C on the Celsius scale? (1) 117 W (2) 200 W (3) 139 W (4) 78 W We have 0 C = 39 W and 100 C = 239 W. A temperature difference of 100 C is therefore equivalent to a temperature difference of 200 W. A temperature difference of 1 C is thus equivalent to a temperature difference of 2 W. Therefore, a temperature 39 C is equal to [39 + (392)] W = 117 W

13. A sample of an ideal gas initially having internal energy U1 and pressure P1 expands adiabatically and performs work W. Heat energy Q is then added to the gas at constant volume so that its pressure is increased to the initial value P1. As a result of the above processes, the internal energy of the gas (a) decreases by Q W (b) increases by Q W (c) decreases by Q (d) increases by Q (e) remains unchanged Since the gas expands adiabatically and outputs mechanical energy, the internal energy of the gas is decreased. [Remember that during adiabatic process there is no heat transfer between the gas and the surroundings]. On adding heat energy to the gas at constant volume the internal energy of the gas is increased. There is no work involved since the volume is constant (isochoric process). Evidently the internal energy of the gas increases by Q W. [You will obtain the answer from the mathematical statement of the 1st law of thermodynamics: Q = U + W where Q is the heat energy supplied to the system by the surroundings, W is the work done by the system on the surroundings and U is the increase in the internal energy of the system]. 14. In the given PV diagram, I is the initial state and F is the final state. The gas goes from I to F by (i) IAF (ii) IBF (iii) ICF. The heat absorbed by the gas is (a) the same in all three processes (b) the same in (i) and (ii) (c) greater in (i) than in (ii) (d) the same in (i) and (iii) (e) greater in (iii) than in (ii) We have Q = U + W. Since the same initial point (I) and the same final point (F) are given for all the three paths, the change in the internal energy (U) is the same for all the three processes. During the path IAF the net work done by the gas (W) is positive since the work done on the gas during the compression IA (given by the area under the line IA) is less than the work done by the gas during its expansion AF. No work is involved during the process IBF since the volume is constant (isochoric process). During the path ICF the net work done (W) by the gas is negative since the work done by the gas during its expansion IC is less than the work done on the gas during its compression CF. Therefore, the heat absorbed by the gas (Q) is greater in (i) than in (ii). 15. If the pressure on a gas is doubled at the same time that its absolute temperature is doubled, its volume will be a. one-fourth as great b. half as great c. twice as great d. four times as great e. unchanged Answer: e 16. In an experiment, a belt is rubbed against the outside of a can containing water. To calculate the mechanical equivalent

of heat, one must measure the work done by the frictional force between the belt and the can and must also measure which of the following? I. Quantity of water in the can II. Initial and final temperature of the water III. Coefficient of friction between the belt and the can a. I only b. III only c. I and II only d. II and III only e. I, II, and III Answer: c 17. A region of the earths atmosphere contains n molecules (treated as ideal gas molecules) per unit volume. The temperature of air in the region is T. If k represents Boltzmanns constant and R represents universal gas constant, the pressure of air in the region is (a) nT/k (b) nkT (c) RT/n (d) nRT (e) nRkT Since PV = RT where is the number of moles in the volume V of the gas at the pressure P and temperature T, we have P = (RT)/V Since k = R/N where N is Avogadro number, R = Nk. Therefore, P = (NkT)/V. But (N)/V = n, the number of molecules per unit volume so that P = nkT. [The expression for the pressure P of a gas according to the kinetic theory is P = (1/3) nmc2. The r.m.s. velocity c of the molecule is (3kT/m) where m is the molecular mass. On substituting for c in the expression for P you can easily obtain the expression P = nkT]. 18. An ideal monoatomic gas is heated so that it expands at constant pressure. What percentage of the heat supplied to the gas is used to increase the internal energy of the gas? (a) 100 % (b) 0 % (c) 60 % (d) 50 % (e) 40 % Since a monoatomic gas molecule has 3 degrees of freedom, the molar heat capacity (also called molar specific heat) of the monoatomic gas at constant volume (CV) is (3/2)R where R is universal gas constant. Its molar heat capacity at constant pressure (CP) is (5/2)R . This follows from Meyers relation, CP = CV + R. This means that when heat energy equal to (5/2)R joule is supplied to one mole of a monoatomic gas to make it expand at constant pressure, (3/2)R joule is used to increase the temperature by 1 K and the remaining R joule is used for doing work against the forces which oppose the expansion. 3/2 is 60 % of 5/2. So the correct option is (c). 19. Oxygen and nitrogen in two enclosures have the same mass, volume and pressure. The ratio of the temperature of oxygen to that of nitrogen is (a) 7/8 (b) 8/7 (c) 1 (d) 49/64 (e) 64/49 We have PV = RT where is the number of moles in the volume V of the gas at the pressure P and temperature T. Since P and V are the same for the two gases, PV = 1RT1 = 2RT2 where 1 and 2 are the numbers of moles of oxygen and nitrogen and T1 and T2 are their temperatures respectively. Therefore, 1T1 = 2T2 so that T1/T2 = 2/1 The samples of the two gases have the same mass (say, m).

Therefore, 1 = m/0.032 and 2 = m/0.028 since the molar masses of oxygen and nitrogen are 0.032 kg and 0.028 kg respectively. Therefore, T1/T2 = 2/1 = 0.032/0.028 = 8/7. 20. In a Carnot engine 7000 J of heat is absorbed from a source at 400 K and 4900 J of heat is rejected to the sink. The temperature of the sink is (a) 200 K (b) 220 K (c) 260 K (d) 280 K (e) 340 K We have Q1/T1 = Q2/T2 with usual notations. Substituting the given values, 7000/400 = 4900/T2. Therefore, T2 = (4900400)/7000 = 280 K 21. Three moles of an ideal monoatomic gas is initially in the state A shown in the adjoining pressure-temperature graph. It is taken to state B without changing its pressure. If R is the universal gas constant, the work done by the gas in this process is (a) 200 R (b) 300 R (c) 400 R (d) 500 R (e) 600 R The work done by the gas in taking it from state A to state B = PV where V is the increase in volume at constant pressure P. We have PV = RT where is the number of moles in the sample of the gas and R is the universal gas constant. Therefore we have PV = R T = 3R(450 250) = 600R [Option (e)]. 22. Even carnot engine cannot give 100% efficiency because we cannot (a) prevent radiation (b) find ideal source (c) reach absolute zero temperature (d) eliminate friction The correct option is (c). The efficiency is given by the expression, = (T1T2)/T1. The percentage efficiency is [(T1 T2)/T1] 100. This shows that the efficiency is 100% only if either the source temperature T1 is infinite or the sink temperature T2 is zero. Both are impossibilities. 23. In a Carnot engine 800 J of heat is absorbed from a source at 400 K and 640 J of heat is rejected to the sink. The temperature of the sink is (a) 320 K (b) 100 K (c) 273 K (d)250 K (e) 200 K In a Carnot engine, Q1/T1 = Q2/T2 so that the temperature of the sink, T2 = T1Q2/Q1 = 400640/800 = 320 K. 24. A heat engine undergoes a process in which its internal energy decreases by 400 J and it gives out 150 J of heat. During the process (a) it does 250 J of work and its temperature rises (b) it does 250 J of work and its temperature falls (c) it does 550 J of work and its temperature rises (d) it does 550 J of work and its temperature falls (e) 250 J of work is done on the system

The internal energy of the system will decrease when the system does work and/or gives off heat. Since the heat given out is 150 J and the reduction in internal energy is 400 J, the work done by the engine is 400 150 = 250 J. When the internal energy is reduced, the system is cooled. So, the correct option is (b). 25. The temperature inside a refrigerator is 4C and the room temperature is 27C. How many joules of heat will be delivered to the room for each joule of electricity consumed by the refrigerator?( Treat the refrigerator as ideal). (a) 1 J (b) 12 J (c) 8.3 J (d) 13 J (e) 6 J The coefficient of performance of the refrigerator, = Q2/W = Q2/(Q1 Q2) = T2/(T1T2) = 277/(300277) = 12. [Note that we have converted the temperature to the Kelvin scale]. Therefore, Q2 =12 W. Heat delivered to the room is Q1 = Q2+W = 12W+W = 13W. Here W is the work done by the pump. So for each joule of work done (for each joule of electricity consumed), the quantity of heat pumped out in to the room will be 13 joule. 26. An ideal gas is taken through a cycle of operations shown by the indicator diagram. The net work done by the gas at the ed of the cycle is (a) 6P0V0 (b) 4P0V0 (c) 15P0V0 (d) 10P0V0 (e) 3P0V0 The work done in a cyclic process indicated by a PV diagram is the area enclosed by the closed curve. The area under the slanting curve showing the expansion of the gas from volume 2V0 to volume 5V0 gives the work done by the gas. This is greater than the area under the (horizontal) curve showing the compression of the gas (from volume 5V0 to volume 2V0), which gives the work done on the gas. The vertical portion of the curve is an isochoric (volume constant) change which involves no work since the area under it is zero. The area enclosed by the closed curve gives the net work done by the gas. The triangular area enclosed is 3V02P0 = 3P0V0 [Option (e)]. [ Note that in problems of the above type, the work is done by the gas if the arrow showing the cycle is clockwise. If the arrow is anticlockwise, work is done on the gas. In either case, the work done is the area enclosed by the curve]. 27. In the PV diagram shown, points A and B represent two states of a given mass of an ideal gas. This gas is taken from state A to state B in two different ways: (i) An isobaric process first and an isochoric process next. (ii) An isochoric process first and an isobaric process next. If the work done by the gas in cases (i) and (ii) are respectively W1 and W2, pick out the most suitable statement: (a) W1> W2 (b) W2> W1 (c) W1= W2 (d) W1= W2/2 (e) W1= W2/3

In both cases the gas expands and therefore work is done by the gas. You should remember that no work is done in the case of an isochoric process. So, no work is done in the processes indicated by PB and AQ. Work is done by the gas during the processes indicated by AP and QB. Since the work done is equal to the area under the PV curve, more work is done during the process AP. Therefore, W1> W2. 28. In the cyclic process on an ideal gas shown in the adjoining PV diagram, what is the net work done on the gas during the cycle? (a) 2PV (b) 4PV (c) 2PV (d) 4PV (e) zero This is a simple question of the type often asked. You should note that in a cyclic process the gas is taken through a cycle of operations and brought back to the original state. If the cycle is clockwise as in the present case, work is done by the gas. So the work done on the gas is negative. Further, the area enclosed by the closed curve gives the work done during one cycle. Therefore, work done on the gas, W = area of the rectangle ABC = 2P2V = 4PV. 29. A sample of gas (assumed to be ideal) is adiabatically compressed to have its volume reduced to 20% of its initial volume. If the internal energy of the gas is increased by 200 J, the work done on the gas must be (a) 40 J (b) 100 J (c) 200 J (d) 400 J (e) zero Since the process is adiabatic, no heat energy flows from the surroundings to the gas or from the gas to the surroundings. So, the entire work done in compressing the gas is utilised in increasing the internal energy of the gas. The work done on the gas is therefore equal in value to the increase in internal energy, which is 200 J. 30. The figure shows the variation of the pressure of a gas with temperature (and not volume) of a given mass of an ideal gas subjected to various processes starting from the state represented by point A. Which graph represents an isochoric process (a process in which volume is constant)? (a) AB (b) AC (c) AD (d) AE

(e) AF

Some of you may be baffled on seeing this simple question since most of you are accustomed to PV diagrams only. The required graph is AB [Option (a)] since the pressure of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is constant (in accordance with Charles law). This type of pressure-volume relationship exists only in the case of the process shown by graph AB.

31. The volume of a gaseous sample is reduced from V1 to V2 in three different ways: (i) isobaric process (ii) isothermal process and (iii) adiabatic process. Then the work done by the gas is (a) minimum in the isothermal process (b) maximum in the isothermal process (c) minimum in the isobaric process (d) maximum in the isobaric process (e) maximum in the adiabatic process You can easily obtain the answer by referring to the PV diagram showing the three processes (Fig.). Since the area under the PV curve gives the work done, the maximum work is for the isobaric (constant pressure) process indicated by the curve AB. So the correct option is (d). The isothermal curve is AC and the adiabatic curve is AD. (Note that the adiabatic curve is steeper than the isothermal curve. The slope of the adiabatic curve is times the slope of the isothermal curve where is the ratio of specific heats of the gas) 32. Three rods made of the same material and having the same cross section have been joined as shown in the figure. Each rod is of same length. The temperature at the junction of the three rods is (a) 45 C (b) 90 C (c) 30 C (d) 20 C (e) 60 C The quantity of heat flowing through the two hotter rods has to flow through the colder rod so that we have 2KA(90 T)/L = KA(T 0)/L where K, A and L are respectively the thermal conductivity, area of cross section and the length of each rod and T is the temperature of the junction in degree Celsius. This gives 180 2T = T from which T = 60 33. The PV diagram of a gas undergoing a cyclic process (ABCDA) is shown in the graph where P is in units of Nm2 and V is in cm3. Identify the incorrect statement (a) 0.4 J of work is done by the gas from A to B (b) 0.2 J of work is done by the gas from C to D (c) No work is done by the gas from B to C (d) Net work is done by the gas in one cycle is 0.2 J (e) Work is done by the gas in going from B to C and on the gas fromD to A BC and DA represent isochoric processes (in which volume does not change) and hence no work is done. So, the incorrect statement is (e).

34. The plots of intensity of radiation versus wave length of three black bodies at temperatures T1, T2 and T3 are shown. Then (a) T3> T2> T1 (b) T1> T2> T3 (c) T2> T3> T1 (d) T1> T3> T2 (e) T3> T1> T2 According to Wiens law the product mT is a constant (equal to 0.29 cmK) in the case of any black body (where m and T are respectively the wave length of emitted radiation of maximum intensity and T is the temperature of the black body). Obviously, option (d) is correct. 35. A bubble of 8 moles of helium is submeged at a certain depth in water. The temperature of water increases by 30 C. How much heat is added approximately to helium during expansion? (a) 4000 J (b) 3000 J (c) 3500 J (d) 4500 J (e) 5000 J The heat Q added to helium is given by Q = mCPT wher m is the mass of helium, CP is its specific heat at constant pressure and T is its rise in temperature. [You have to use CP (and not the specific heat at constant volume CV) since the bubble absorbs the heat at constant pressure. Further, since we are given the amount of the gas in moles, the molar specific heat is to be used in the above relation]. Therefore, Q = 8(5/2)R30, noting that helium is mono atomic so that its CP = (5/2)R where R is universal gas constant which is approximately equal to 8.3 J mol1K1 Thus Q = 8(5/2) 8.330 = 5000 J, nearly.