Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 325

SESSION - I

EMERGING TRENDS IN SIGNALLING


ON INDIAN RAILWAYS

by

Shri K.K.BAJPAYEE
Adviser (Signal),
Railway Board

Railway Signalling systems world over are provided not only to make optimum use
of the existing line capacity , but also to provide safe train operation by reducing
human dependence. Now in the 21st century , modern signalling systems provide an
answer for a reliable, safe and viable train operations. Large scale induction of modern
signalling systems for train control are expected to pave the way for higher levels of
speed, safety and passenger comforts in train operations. It is expected that important
routes on IR will be equipped with ATP system or its variants like ATC, ETCS etc
during the next decade or so. These routes will be worked on automatic block signalling
system with majority of the stations equipped with solid state interlockings. This
paper briefly outlines various safety related signalling systems, which play a
significant role in safe, speedier and efficient train operation.

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Railways started in India with the first historical train journey between Bori Bunder
and Thane in 1853. The railway network thereafter was gradually introduced in
many other parts of the country. However, initially for about 40 years the trains
were run on messages or candle light signals without any signalling and interlocking
arrangements. The concept of signaling and interlocking was first introduced on
28 crossing stations between Lahore and Ghaziabad in the country in 1892. Colour
light signaling was introduced on Indian Railways by GIP Railways in 1928 between
Bombay VT and Byculla stations. The pace of modernization of signaling , however,
picked up only after independence.
1.2 Today, over 82% of total 6853 stations on Indian Railways are provided with some
form of signalling and interlocking arrangements. Over 54% of total interlocked
stations on Indian Railways are now provided with colour light signalling. Indian
Railways have a multiple gauge network of 63,028 route kms., out of which about
16001 route kms. is electrified.
1.3 With the rapid growth of passenger and goods traffic and its requirement for
speedier and safe movement, the need for a modern railway signalling system has
become imperative. Today signalling arrangements are required to provide,
inter alia, the following :-

1
SESSION - I

i) Safety enhancement and efficient and safe train control


ii) Line capacity Enhancement
iii) Real time train running information
1.4 With the increasing role of railway signalling in train operation and availability of
modern technologies, the signalling arrangements are poised for a quantum jump
in the next 20-25 years. Many a new device and system are being contemplated. In
this paper, an attempt has been made to present glimpses of various modern
signalling arrangements which are currently being considered/provided and which
are likely to be introduced in a big way in signalling installations in next 20-25
years.

2. SAFETY ENHANCEMENT BY SIGNALLING


2.1 Today, Indian Railways (IR) have a multiple gauge network of 63028 route kms,
of which 16001 route kms is electrified. The total investment in the system is
Rs.633410 Millions ( about $ 1.32 Billion) . During the last 50 years, passenger traffic
has increased by 350% and freight traffic has increased by 450% whereas the route
length has increased by only 17%. This has been achieved by steady increase in
productivity of assets wherein capacity enhancement measures, signalling and
telecommunication has played an important role.
It is a well known fact that application of modern signalling enhances safety by
reducing human element in train operation.
Signalling systems can be of great help in preventing accident at stations, level
crossings and in block sections.
The areas wherein Signalling can prevent accidents are as follows:-
i) Accident prevention at station.
ii) Accident prevention in Block Station.
iii) Accident Prevention at Level Crossing.
2.2 Analysis of accidents in the last 5 years shows that about 54 % of aacidents due to
collisions, occur at stations. However many serious collisions have also taken
place in block sections. Accidents at level crossing gates are other area of concern
for Indian Railways. Signalling systems that can prevent these incidences are as
below:
(i) Components of Safety Systems at Stations:
• Interlocking Systems - Panel/RouteRelay/Electronic
• Track Circuiting (D.C as well as Audio Frequency T.C.)
• Colour Light Signalling

2
SESSION - I

• Cab Signalling
• Axle Counters
• Integrated Power Supply
• Data Loggers
• Auxiliary Warning System (Automatic Train Protection Systems)
(ii) Components of Safety Systems at Block Sections
• Conventional Block working systems
• Continuous Track Circuiting in block sections (using D.C./A.F.T.C./Axle
Counters)
• Block Proving by Axle Counters (BPAC)
• Automatic Block Signalling
• Auxilliary Warning systems
• Anti Collision Device
(iii) Components of Safety Systems at L xing gates:
• Interlocking
• Telephones
• Train Actuated Warning devices
• Gate protection using AWS and ACD
Over the past few years introduction of modern signaling systems have resulted into
reduction in accidents specially collisions at stations and at L.C gates

3
SESSION - I

TABLE below shows the progress made and action plan for next 5 years in respect of
induction of modern signaling systems on IR

4
SESSION - I

2.3 Track Circuits:


2.3.1 Conventional Track Circuit:
Track circuit is a device which detects presence or otherwise of a train on a portion
of rail track. It consists of an insulated portion of track with rails forming a part of
an electrical circuit. The presence or otherwise of a small current in the track is
detected to determine whether or not the portion of the track is occupied. It is also
helps in detection of rail/weld failures.

Insulation joints

Feed End
Relay

A typical D.C. track circuit

Track circuit or a similar track detection device is an essential requirement for any
modern signalling system. In the earlier days, in the absence of track circuits, the
occupation or clearance of a track was physically checked before permitting a train to
approach. Human error in ensuring occupation or otherwise of the track often led to
accidents.
REDUCTION IN COLLISIONS DUE TO TRACK CIRCUITING AT STATIONS

100
90
80 Total T.C.
70 locations (in
'000)
60
Collisions
50
40
30
20
10
0
80
82
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
99
00
01
02
03
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
20

5
SESSION - I

After the tragic accident at Ferozabad station of Northern railway in 1995, a high priority
has been given by Indian railways to provide track circuiting of station yards, prioritizing
it route wise. The provision of track circuiting is being done through regular Works
Programmes and also through a Special Railway Safety Funds created for this purpose.
A brief position of progressive induction of track circuiting in station section is given
below:-

1000
900
800
700 FM-FM
600 FM-BSL(st)
500 FM-BSL(T/O)
400 Home-FM
300 Loop Line
200 Total
100
0
1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03

2.3.2 Audio Frequency Track Circuit (AFTC)


Maintenance of insulated joints of D.C. track circuits is a tedious and labour oriented
job. The failure of insulated joints affects the reliability of DC track circuit
considerably and experience shows that it is one of the main factors in DC track
circuit failures. On advanced railway systems, joint-less track circuits are
extensively used as they need less maintenance, equipments are centralized etc.
On IR, AFTC started first as an alternative to axle counters for automatic signaling.
First AFTC was introduced on Tambaram-Beach section of Southern railway for
replacing 83 1/3 Hz AC track circuits in early nineties. Since then, 627 locations
have been provided on all the railways except NER and NFR with AFTCs of various
designs and makes, viz : Adtranz, Siemen's, US&S, Alsthom etc.
2.3.3 Axle counter:
The maintenance of track circuit poses problems in station yards where track
maintenance and drainage is poor. Besides provision of track circuit necessitates
use of insulated sleepers. The length of conventional track circuit is also limited.
To overcome these shortcomings, axle counters have been employed. A set of axle

6
SESSION - I

counters placed at two ends of a portion of track count-in and count-out respectively
the number of axles of a train. A zero resultant count indicates by inference that
the portion of the track is clear.
More than 3000 nos. axle counters for track circuiting and 220 nos. for block working
(last vehicle proving) are installed on Indian Railways. These are based on analog
technology and reliability is limited also their acceptability by the user is limited.
Modern systems using digital technology and telegram transmission from track
device to the evaluator, based on microprocessors are now available offering high
immunity to interference and consequently very high reliability. In addition to
imported version, a version developed by M/s. CEL in collaboration with IR has
also been developed. Adoption of this new technology of digital axle counter on
Indian railways have started picking up and 21 nos of systems have been installed
for trials. In future it is expected that these intelligent digital axle counters will
play a very important role in building up a modern and efficient railway signalling
network.

2.4 COLOUR LIGHT SIGNALS:


2.4.1 Multiple aspect colour light signals are now provided as a standard in lieu of
existing semaphore signals. The advantages of multiple aspect colour light
signalling over semaphore signals are well known. In multiple aspect colour
light signalling installations, each signal is pre-warned and its aspect is conveyed
at signal in rear. This enhances safety and boosts confidence of the driver. Colour
light signalling improves night visibility of signals and improves line capacity of a
section. Besides, colour light signalling installations unlike semaphore signalling
are much less prone tovandalism. On sections where electrification is carried out,
colour light signals are invariably provided. The same is true for new signalling
with replacement and Gauge conversion.
2.4.2 Surveys amongst loco drivers have suggested that provision of second distant
signal not only improves line capacity, but gives a driver greater confidence in
driving, as he is now able to get pre-warning about the signals ahead at 2 kms from
home signal. Inter signal distances on most of the Railways (abroad) are based on
SBD (Service Braking Distance). On Indian Railways, the Inter signal distance of 1
km is based on EBD (Emergency Braking Distance) leaving virtually no margin for
error in train control by a driver. By the provision of 2nd distant signal a braking
distance of 2 km is available between YY aspect of outer distant signal and R
aspect of home signal.

7
SESSION - I

Provision of Second Distant Signal

New Delhi
Sighting
Board Distant Home ALD

KGP Howrah

0.4 KM 1 KM Nagpur
Mumbai
Wadi
(a) Existing signalling SC
arrangement 2nd Distant
‘A’ Route
nd ‘B’ Route
2 Distant Distant Home
Chennai

2.4.3 Cab Signalling


Over the years lot of aids have been provided to Station Master operating the
signalling equipments for controlling train movement. However, no significant
aid has been given to the driver to operate his train under adverse visibility
conditions. Cab signalling is an aid by which signal aspects are displayed inside
his cab indicating the speed at which the driver should drive his train. Cab
signalling is the perfect answer to provide adequate safety and maintain efficient
operation even under dense fog conditions as driver is not dependent on visibility
of track side signals. Other safety features like auxilliary warning system and
automatic train protection are other add on features with cab signalling to further
improve safety. So far, Cab signaling is proposed only in metro system of Delhi &
Kolkata. In future, Cab signaling shall become the norm for metros and high speed
lines.
2.4.4 Signal Lamps:
(a) Conventional filament type lamps:
Currently in CLS system conventional filament lamps are used, they have got
limited life and luminous intensity which also decreases with age. Biggest
disadvantage with them is that they can fuse without any alarm pre-maturely.
Earlier parallel filament lamps were in use. Now more reliable triple pole
double filament lamps are being used in big way. However, still considerable
efforts is required for their maintenance, replacement and visibility
adjustments. The present life of signal lamps in use on IR is 1000 hrs., it is
desirable that lamps with 10,000 hrs life, which will reduce maintenance efforts
considerably, are developed.

8
SESSION - I

(b) LED based signal lamps:


Development of reliable and highly safe LED based signal lamps is in progress.
LED lamps apart from better visibility, consume less power and have a very
high reliability and life cycle. Life of a LED signal lamp is about 1 lac hours as
compared to 1000 hrs for a conventional filament lamp. So far about 3000 signal
aspects has been provided with LED based signals. Work is in progress at
about 5000 signal aspects. Development of new source for supply of LED lamps
is a prime need, if we are keen on taking full advantage of the LED lamps.

2.5 INTERLOCKING SYSTEMS


2.5.1 Conventional Interlocking and PI/RRI systems.
There are a large number of orthodox mechanical signalling installations on Indian
Railways. The signals and points at such installations are operated mechanically by
means of wires and rods from cabins using lever frames. These installations suffer from
frequent failures and are prone to miscreant activities. Besides, multiplicity of cabins at
a station causes avoidable delay in train operation.. During mid-sixties, electromechanical
relay based interlocking systems with colour light signals were introduced. In modern
panel/route relay installations, operation of points and signals and interlocking thereof
is achieved by electro-mechanical relays from a central locations. So far relay based
interlocking system is available at 2698 stations, and is sanctioned for 1290 more stations.
2.5.2 Solid State Interlocking:
Lately, with the development of electronic and solid state technology, the use of such
devices in signal and interlocking installations has also been adopted. Presently, there
are over 2698 stations, which are provided with panel/ route relay interlocking system.
23 stations have also been provided with electronic interlocking and another 500 or
more electronic interlocking installations will be provided in the next decade or so.
Solid State Interlocking also called electronic interlocking is an interlocking system
which employs micro processors and software for interlocking functions. SSI has the
advantage of smaller space, power, cabling and maintenance requirements besides fast
software based upgradation facility and flexibility to meet the changes in the yard layouts.
SSIs provide a high level of reliability, availability and fail safety. The system has
built-in data logging facility for effective off line failure and operation analysis. The
system also provides a highly sophisticated on line diagnostic facility. The high speed
of operator data exchange permits SSIs to be compatible with other related systems like
AWS,ATC, ETCS etc.

2.6 AUXILLIARY WARNING SYSTEMS (AWS):


Sikri Committee in 1978 recommended provision of AWS on all trunk route with speed
level of 100 kmph and above to cover all passenger and goods trains.
Track magnet based AWS was tried on Howrah-Mugalsarai section of Eastern Railway.
But, this system could not succeed due to large scale theft. However, AWS of this design

9
SESSION - I

is currently working satisfactorily in suburban section of Central and Western Railways


on 329 Route km, where high frequency of train services make the theft of track magnet
very difficult.
Since the last many years, IR had been searching for a suitable pilfer free automatic
train control system. Railway Safety Review Committee headed by Justice H.R. Khanna,
have also recommended the use of AWS system on IR.
Ministry of Railway had in fact decided in the past , in principle, to adopt a radio based
automatic warning system on IR. A pilot project of radio based automatic train control
system (similar to ETCS level II) under the technical guidance of International Union of
Railways (UIC) was also sanctioned for Mathura-Palwal section. However due to high
cost the project has been kept on hold for the time being. In the mean time Indian Railways
is further considering other proven AWS systems world over for its network. It is also
being planned to provide AWS system along with the continuous track circuiting with
ABS work , which has been sanctioned at 2000 route kms during the year.

2.7 SAFETY ENHANCEMENT SYSTEMS IN BLOCK SECTIONS


2.7.1 Conventional Single/Double line instrument:
From one station to next station, the trains are controlled through block signaling on
space interval system . In conventional system of train operations, this control is achieved
through "absolute block system". In this system, control is exercised by station masters
such that at a time only one train can be sent in a block section.
2.7.2 Block proving by Axle Counter (BPAC)
At present at most of the stations on IR, verification of clearance of block section is done
by station staff manually except under automatic block signalling system. With more
and more emphasis on safety & increased traffic density, manual verification of last
vehicle has become increasingly difficult. Block proving through axle counter is a system
which provides automatic clearance of block section, by using axle counter to define
and clear the block section. The in count of axles at advanced starter signal of the sending
end station and out count at Home signal of receiving end station provides a check of
complete arrival of a train and proves block clearance automatically. . It has been
experienced that provision of block proving by axle counter not only enhances safety
but also increases line capacity. Presently, 220 block sections on IR have been provided
with BPAC and works are approved for about 1000 block sections more.
2.7.3 Anti-Collision Device (ACD) :
An Anti-Collision Device (ACD) has been developed by Konkan Railway Coprn. to
prevent collisions like situation, e.g. head-on collisions, side and rear-end collisions
and those caused due to infringement by derailed vehicles on adjoining tracks. This
device also helps in detecting train parting, and provides audible and visual warning at
level crossing gates when trains approach.

10
SESSION - I

First proto-type of ACD was demonstrated by KRCL in December,1999. After limited


trials, the device was put on various tests and trials.
ACD works on a satellite based Global Positioning System (GPS) and Angular Deviation
Count principle for identification of track lay out. The ACD is an intelligent micro-
processor based equipment. It consists of a central processing unit, a global positioning
system and a digital modem for communication with other ACDs. When installed on
locomotives, brakevans and at stations and level crossing gates, these ACDs network
among themselves to prevent accident like conditions.

ACD

Radio Modem
Antenna
GPS
Radio modem
ABU Industrial PC

Hardware Software/function
486 Industrial PC, Operating system- DOS
Data Radio Radio protocol- CSMA/CD
GPS Latitude/ Longitude/speed/direction from true north
Automatic braking Unit Normal braking and emergency braking

There are two types of ACD equipments viz. mobile ACDs for locomotives and brakevans
and stationary ACDs for stations and level crossing gates. All the ACDs interact with
each other and exchange information when they are within their radio zones upto 3
kms., and results of ACD interaction lead to a decision whether the loco ACD shall
apply brakes or not. If yes, then whether to stop or to reduce its speed to a pre-determined
value. While approaching a station, loco ACD gives station approach warning to the
driver. In the event of not acknowledging this warning, the speed of the train is regulated
automatically. While entering the station area, if loco ACD detects a train on the main
line then also the speed is regulated. In the mid section, loco ACDs remain in look out
position to detect the presence of other trains in a radius of 3 kms. In case, another train
is approaching on the same track, the ACDs apply brakes in both the trains to bring
them to a stop thereby reducing possibility of head-on collisions. When a train is
approaching a level crossing gate, visual and audio warning is initiated by the ACD
systems for the road users.
Extended field trials started on Jalandhar-Amritsar section of Northern Railway w.e.f.
15-8-02. The trials have been completed on 19th January,2003 and the device have been
found technically suitable for adoption after certain software and hardware modifications

11
SESSION - I

To start with, provision of ACD on about 1800 Kms BG section of N.F. Railway has been
taken up in hand. Simultaneously, GPS and route survey works in connection with
provision of ACD on 849 RKms of non-electrified route of SC railway on Vasco-da-
Gama-Madgaon-Londa-Hubli-Guntakal-Renigunta section and 792 RKms of electrified
route of SC railway on Ernakulum-Shoranur-Palghat-Erode-Chennai & Bangalore-
Jolarpettai-Chennai sections have also been sanctioned.
Further works of provision of ACD on addl section of about 1750 RKms and ACD route
survey on about 10,000 RKMs has also been sanctioned during the current year.

2.7 SAFETY ENHANCEMENT AT LEVEL CROSSING GATES:


2.7.1 Safety Systems at level crossing gates:
Nearly 10% of the total accidents take place at level crossing gates. There are 16549
manned and 22389 unmanned level crossings on Indian Railways. Signalling provides
cheap and safe solutions to contain accidents taking place at level crossings. Safety at
level crossings gets enhanced by providing measures like manning of unmanned level
crossings, interlocking of level crossings and provision of telephones at manned level
crossings. Interlocking of level crossings and provision of telephone at level crossings
are the thrust areas for enhancing safety at level crossings.
Recently an action plan has been formulated for the safety enhancement at level crossings.
Important components of this action plan are :
i) Provision of interlocking
ii) Provision of telephones
iii) Provision of train actuated warning devices (TAWD)
Reduction in Accidents at L.C.Gates

100
90
80
No. of interlocked
70
gates(in '000)
60
No. of L C gates with
50 telephone
40
Accidents
30
20
10
0
80

84

88

92

95

97

99

01

03
19

19

19

19

19

19

19

20

20

12
SESSION - I

2.7.2 TAWD
Development of a reliable train actuated warning device (TAWD) for giving audio/
visual warning to road users about an approaching train is under process on I.R. to
reduce accidents at level crossings. Field trials were carried out on a few Railways to
identify suitable technologies, well proven for its reliability and fail safe feature apart
from suitability in Indian condition as well as under miscreant prone environment. Based
on these trials TAWD system of two makes viz. i) based on axle detector and ii) open
track circuit has been shortlisted for further extended field trials at 100 LC gates before
large scale induction on Indian Railways.

3.0 LINE CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT SYSTEMS:


Many sections of Indian Railways have now reported to be saturated with line capacity
utilization being over 100% of its chartered capacity. The system reliability of
infrastructure and rolling stock may be affected due to less time given for maintenance,
thus we need more cushion in chartered capacity to meet various speed restrictions and
system break down eventualities. With growing demand for introduction of additional
long distance and inter-city passenger services, and anticipated growth of freight traffic,
the need to create the line capacity on high density routes is urgent.
It is a well known fact that signalling improvement is the most economical way to increase
the line capacity. Therefore under the present financial crunch on Indian Railways, it is
essential to consider Signalling improvement for increasing line capacity instead of
straightway investing in new infrastructure like third line. Important systems to improve
line capacity are:
Components of Line capacity Enhancement:
• Continuous Track Circuiting with Automatic Block Signalling
• Automatic Train Control System
• Train Management System/Centralised Traffic Control System
• Moving Block
• Radio Block
• Radio Based AWS
3.1 Continuous track circuiting with Automatic Block Signalling:
In automatic block signalling, more than one train can be sent in a block section between
two stations. The space intervals between trains are secured automatically by the use of
train detection devices continuously. Automatic signals are provided at fixed interval,
whose aspect change automatically by train movement ensuring safety and at the same
time saving time on signal and block clearance, enabling closer spacing of trains,
facilitating optimum utilisation of infrastructure. The system requires
i) Continuous train detection device like track circuit or axle counter

13
SESSION - I

ii) Protection by multiple aspect colour light signalling.


Being the most effective tool world over for enhancing line capacity with minimal capital
expenditure, this system is going to play a very important role in railways endeavor to
augment its capacity at least cost. At present only 2.7% of total route km. (63028 RKms)
of Indian Railways is provided with Automatic signalling as compared to over 84% in
China, 67% in Japan, 90% in U.K. Thus the potential of capacity improvement with
provision of Automatic Signalling on double line sections of Indian Railways is still
largely untapped.
On Indian Railways, essentiality and usefulness of automatic signalling for train
operations in suburban section of metropolitan cities viz.Calcutta, Delhi, Mumbai,
Chennai etc. is well established. A headway of 3 minutes has already been achieved.
Automatic signalling on entire 'A' route is feasible with an investment of only Rs. 15000
million.
After the unfortunate accident of Rajdhani Express last year, work of providing
continuous track circuiting with automatic block signaling has been sanctioned at about
2000 RKms, as a line capacity & safety enhancement measure.
3.2 ATC
An automatic train control (ATC) system essentially consists of the following three sub-
systems :
i) Automatic Train Protection (ATP) - safety sub-system.
ii) Automatic Train Operation (ATO) - Train driving sub-system.
iii) Automatic Train Supervision (ATS) - Supervision sub-system.
ATP performs functions of train detection speed measurements, transmission of speed
command from track to train, decoding of speed command and displaying in the cab
(cab signalling), over speed protection, brake assurance etc. ATP is the watch dog of all
sub-systems and ensures that there is no unsafe condition. It checks efficiency of service
brake and keeps on monitoring at all times that the actual train speed does not exceed
speed command picked up from the track.
ATO performs the train driving function. This sub-system performs following functions
viz. traction, service braking, automatic station stop, coasting.
ATS supervises train running from a central location. The trains are identified by
means of train numbers, linked numbers or rake numbers. Various time tables can be
stored and chosen as required. The train runs automatically as per the time table. The
controller however has the over riding control.
Functioning of these sub systems require provision of track side equipment e.g. track
circuits, train borne equipment and a communication network. So far no such system is
in operation on Indian Railways. But keeping in view safety requirements and line
capacity enhancement requirements, induction of such technologies seems to be in
escapable in near future, around metro town and very busy trunk routes.

14
SESSION - I

3.3 Train Management System/ Centralised Traffic Control System:


Modern signalling system have solution for providing efficient train traffic management
system. A Train Management System is under installation on Churchgate-Virar (60 kms.)
suburban section of Western Railway. The system on completion will enable the
Railways to provide efficient rail services giving the commuters information on a real
time basis about the status of train services. Under this project all train movements are
displayed on a real video projection screen in the control room. Live signalling
indications and train movements are also displayed in front of controllers of various
departments enabling them to take prompt action in case of equipment breakdowns.
All EMU trains are especially provided with mobile communication such that the train
crew can communicate with controllers from any location on the section. The train
running information of the next two trains arriving on each platform is displayed on the
VDUs provided on the platforms. Further, all announcements at the stations are done
automatically. Similar system is proposed on the Central Railway. It is very likely that
improved version of Train Management System will be provided in the next 20-25 years
on suburban sections serving other metropolitan towns like Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai. A
work of providing improved version of TMS, also called Centralised Traffic Control
System has also been planned for provision on Ghaziabad - Kanpur section under KFW
funded modernization scheme.
3.4 Moving Block
The moving block is one of the modern block signalling systems for traffic management,
in which block section is not fixed but varies with the movement of train/trains. In this
system, the physical separation between two trains, running in a block section is not
guided by track side signals or some other fixed structures but it depends on various
dynamic para meters of train running like length of the train, braking distance, gradient,
braking power, speed restrictions and braking curve of the train in question.

M o v in g B lo c k

B A
D ire ct io n o f T rav e l

T rai n B T rai n A

A TR A I N

34 34

O cc u p a n c y b y T ra in B M o v e m e n t Au th o r ity as s ee n b y Tra in B O cc u p a n c y b y T ra in A

S a fe ty M a rg in

15
SESSION - I

Train integrity checking is continuously done by on board computers and this


information is transmitted through radio to another train running on the same track and
accordingly the safe distance is calculated and trains are controlled accordingly by on
board computers. The moving block allows better use of line capacity with smaller
headway. For moving block there is no need of providing track circuits for train detection
as the train detection is a continuous feature of the system. For high speed lines/high
density routes such type of systems are of immense help for maintaining headway of
less than 2 minutes. Such systems have not been planned for IR so far.
3.5 Radio Block
In low density lines, provision of full fledged signalling systems at stations and block
sections are not remunerative. There may be difficult terrain also where provision of
conventional block working systems and subsequent maintenance may not work reliably.
Radio block provides answer to these problems as on the lines with low traffic density,
headway is not critical. The system uses line sides signals and radio block communication
for train operation. The system consists of a control center which gives movement
authority to trains to be worked in a section and train is controlled by radio block.
Speech communication is added to the system for further safety needs.
3.6 Radio Based AWS:
Auxiliary warning system prevents accidents due to driver ignoring a red signal .In the
past a number of parliamentary committees have recommended the provision of AWS
on all trunk route with speed level of 100 kmph and above to cover all passenger and
goods trains.
Track magnet based AWS was tried on Howrah-Mugalsarai section of Eastern Railway
in 1980s. But, this system could not succeed due to large scale thefts. However, AWS of
this design is currently working satisfactorily in suburban sections of Central and
Western Railways on 329 km, where high frequency of train services make the theft of
track magnet difficult.
For the last many years, IR had been searching for a suitable pilfer free automatic train
control system. Earlier Ministry of Railway had decided, in principle, to adopt a radio
based automatic warning system on IR. A pilot project of radio based automatic train
control system (similar to ETCS level 2) under the technical guidance of International
Union of Railways (UIC) was also sanctioned for Mathura-Palwal section.

16
SESSION - I

Radio Based AWS

GSM-R RBC
INTERLOCKIN

TRAIN
BORNE

BALISE

Based on the success of this pilot project which includes trials and technical validation,
its application on high density routes of Indian Railways was to be considered. With
this state of art technology it was expected that not only very high levels of safety
would be achieved on Indian Railways, but at the same time this system would help to
provide an effective train traffic management system, which will make train operations
more efficient, faster, safe and profitable. The system basically consists of
(i) Automatic train protection and speed control
(ii) Approach warning at level crossings.
(iii) Approach warning to work men at site
(iv) GSM-R based mobile train radio communication.
(v) Temporary speed restriction enforcement
As on date the pilot project has been kept on hold due to high cost. But it is felt that with
large scale induction of such system in near future on developed railways, cost may
come down and systems shall also become a proven system. At that stage the system
can be considered for adoption on Indian Railways.

4.0 CONCLUSION AND VISION FOR FUTURE:


Provision of modern Signaling systems and introduction of new technologies are playing
a vital part in safe and speedier train operations. With more and more Signaling works
getting implemented with state of art technologies and new systems under introduction,
these systems are going to provide the most vital solutions for optimal Signaling n of
railway assets besides improving efficiency in train operation with a high level of safety
and passenger satisfaction within the next 20-25 years. It is expected that all stations on
Indian Railways will be provided with complete track circuiting of passenger running
lines and colour light or LED signals. All important routes especially the golden
quadrilateral will be equipped with AWS or its variants like ATC, ETCS etc. Besides
these routes will be worked on automatic block Signaling system & CTC. Majority of

17
SESSION - I

the stations will be equipped with PI/RRI with SSI being used predominantly especially
at way side stations. Large scale use of modern Signaling systems enumerated in this
paper pave the way for higher levels of speed, safety and passenger comforts in train
operations.
Following major areas in the field of railway Signaling are likely to witness introduction
of new techniques and technologies in a big way in the next 20-25 years

18
SESSION - I

TELECOMMUNICATIONS ON IR – THE PRESENT STATUS


& A VISION FOR THE FUTURE

by

R.C. Sharma
Additional Member (Telecom.),
Railway Board.

A reliable telecommunication network is an operational necessity for a vast and


geographically spread out organization like the Indian Railways. It provides an
effective tool for planning, control and coordination of various functions and
departments of the Railways and for the optimum utilization of their precious assets.
For meeting the telecom. requirements IR, until early 60s, were largely dependent on
Department of Telecommunication (DoT) but since then over the years, have built up
their own nation wide telecom. network, basically consisting of multi-hop microwave
in SHF band supported by UHF spurs, copper quad cables, optical fibre cables,
overhead line wires, telephone exchanges and trunk systems. Mobile communication
and Internet services on a limited scale have also been introduced in recent past and
these are now on threshold of expansion.

In late 90s, Indian Railways took a primer decision, on techno-economical


considerations, to provide optical fibre cable system on RE sections for train control,
operational and safety circuits. Owing to large-scale use of OFC worldwide and
consequent reduction in costs of OFC based systems, Indian Railways have extended
the use of OFC & Quad cables on busy non-electrified territories also. As a fraction of
the available capacity of OFC system was only being utilized for Railways’ own
needs & enough surplus capacity was available in the links already commissioned, in
the year 2000, formation of a telecom. Corporation - the RailTel – was conceived of to
build nation wide broad band & multimedia network with twin prime objectives of
modernising the Railways’ communication systems & networks and earn revenues
by marketing the surplus capacity.

This paper presents glimpses of developments done in the arena of telecommunication


on IR since its inception, provides a window for what the future holds - keeping in
view the developmental trends, and paints a realistic vision of potent communication
system (s) in different facets of Railways’ operations and maintenance, which should
be available in near future on IR on demand for all concerned, at any time & any
where.

19
SESSION - I

1. BACKGROUND
1.1 During the first 7 years, trains on Indian Railways were run only on hand signals.
It was in 1860, when for the first time, communication equipment using Morse
telegraphy were provided between stations on section ‘Mumbai-Thane’ for Block
Working. With increase in traffic density and introduction of telephone system by
the Post and Telegraph Department, voice communication was made possible in
Railway Operations, through telephone instruments provided in conjunction with
Block instruments, in 1910.
1.2 In the year 1940, Anglis Appleton Committee was appointed to recommend the
requirement for modernisation of Railways communication system. The Committee,
inter-alia, recommended erection of Section and Deputy Control circuits and use
of wireless communication between Zonal and Divisional Headquarters. As a result,
HF links were for the first time set up on Southern Railway during 1943-44 for
sending messages by wireless. Similarly, landline communication was constructed
by Post and Telegraph Department for the Railways for the first time during 1945-
46.
1.3 In the beginning years, the requirements of control communication & long-haul
communication for Indian Railways were met by leasing circuits from DOT.
Gradually, the increase in traffic and expansion of Railway network necessitated
efficient and reliable communication facilities. Department of Telecom was neither
able to maintain the communication network to the standard and efficiency required
by Railways nor was in a position to meet the Railways’ stringent requirements on
demand basis. This necessitated Railways to develop captive Telecom network to
suit their special operational needs. The Railway Reforms Committee of 1962 also
strongly recommended a dedicated Telecommunication network for IR. Indian
Telegraph Act, however, permitted only DOT as the sole provider of the
Telecommunications in the country. An amendment in this Act, therefore, became
necessary to pave the way for IR to build and maintain their own captive
telecommunication network. After long and protracted discussions, this was
permitted and in 1969, necessary provisions to this affect were made in Indian
Telegraph Act as well as Indian Railway Act.
1.4 In 1980s, German Consultants – M/s DETECON were appointed by IR to prepare
a blue print for modernization of IR Communication Network. The Plan worked
out by M/s DETECON basically envisaged provision of integrated long-haul 34
MB Digital Microwave system and Mobile Train Radio Communication (MTRC)
on Golden Quadrilateral & Diagonals, supported by existing Analog Microwave
& existing / redeployed short-haul Digital UHF / TDMA links on spur routes.
This blue print did form an important constituent of the basic frame work for the
planning of Telecommunication works on IR.

20
SESSION - I

1.5 The implementation of Five Year Plans by IR also did greatly help modernize the
Railways Communication Network by introduction of new technologies such as
Microwave communication, Digital Electronic Exchanges, Telecom Quad cables,
Optical Fibre Cable (OFC), and wireless based control communication.

2.0 INTRODUCTION:
2.1 Communication, on Railways, is used for the following applications:
(i) Control Circuits.
(ii) Long Haul Administrative Circuits.
(iii) Switching Network.
(iv) Passenger Amenities.
(v) Emergency Control Circuits.
(vi) Train Radio Communication.
(vii)Data Networking.

3.0 CONTROL AND EMERGENCY COMMUNICATION:


3.1 Station to Station and Station to Control communication is the backbone of Railway
operations. Following are the types of systems which are presently available on
Indian Railways for Control and Emergency communication:
3.2 Control and Emergency Communication System on Non-Electrified sections:
3.2.1 In non-electrified Railway territories, most of the control communication
systems are on overhead alignment and consist of omnibus telephone circuits
for Section control, Deputy control and Block circuits. These circuits were, in
the beginning, leased from DOT. In the late 60s, when DOT could not maintain
these alignments to the desired efficiency and reliability, Railways started
building their own Iron wire and ACSR alignments. Railways own overhead
alignment grew from 5680 RKms at the end of 4th Plan to 26946 RKms by the
end of 8th Plan. The growth of Railway owned overhead alignment and the
decrease of DOT owned overhead alignment during the preceding decade is
illustrated in Fig. ‘1’.
3.2.2 In case of emergencies, communication between the Driver/Guard of the train
and the control is made possible by hooking the Portable Control Phones (PCP)
available with them on to the overhead control wires.
3.2.3 On overhead alignment, number of control circuits are limited. Reliability of
communication is also poor, owing to vagaries of nature. Indian Railways have,
therefore - as a policy, now switched over to 6-Quad cable to provide control

21
SESSION - I

and emergency circuits on busy routes, having line capacity utilization of 80%
and above.
3.3 Control and Emergency Communication System on Electrified sections:
3.3.1 On Electrified territories, control communication is provided through
underground cables. Control communication circuits working in RE territories
include Section control, Deputy control, Traction Power control (TPC), Traction
Loco control (TLC), Engineering control and Remote control circuits for traction
switching. Initially paper quad cables to configuration 0+18+2, 0+12+2 and
0+6+2 were provided. These cables were aluminum sheathed to screen the
effect of electromagnetic interference of 25 KV AC Electric Traction. In the
beginning years, the RE telecom cables were laid and commissioned by DOT
but subsequently, Railways gained the expertise and now have been laying
these cables themselves along with the Electrification works. Instead of
composite telecom cable, 4-Quad cable is now-a-days being used in
conjunction with OFC for extending the control circuits from the control office
to the stations and other locations in the section as well as connecting to the
way side sockets (provided at every kilometer) for enabling emergency
communication. The growth as well as decline in use of RE Quad cables
provided by Railways and rented from DOT in the preceding decade is
approprately represented in Fig. ‘2’.
3.3.2 In case of emergencies, the communication between the driver/guard of the
train and the control is made possible by hooking the Portable Control Phones
(PCP) and Portable Electronic Control Phone (PECP) available with them, to
the Emergency Sockets provided at every kilometer along the route. Distinct
marking with regard to location of nearest socket is displayed on OHE Masts.
Train crew in this case, may have to walk a distance of about 500 m to plug his
emergency control phone and to talk to the controller, should his train gets
disabled in the section. This is a serious limitation as instant communication
in case of emergencies is not available to the train crew.
3.4 Optical Fibre Cable (OFC) Communication System:
3.4.1 Railways for the first time introduced OFC communication system for station
to station and station to control communication in lieu of conventional
underground RE quad cable on 63 KMs of Churchgate -Virar section in 1988.
This was followed by provision of OFC on Itarsi-Nagpur (297 RKms), Itarsi-
Bhusawal (328 RKms) and Nagpur- Durg (265 RKms) sections of Central &
South Eastern Railways in the year 1989. Initially, 8 fibre OFC was used on
Indian Railways. In the year 1996, Railway Board issued directives for use of
18 fibre OFC which was later on standardized to 24 fibre in 1997. From a
beginning of 63 Kms. in 1988, Indian Railways have laid OFC over 20,000 RKms
by 30.04.03. About 12,000 Rkms of OFC out of total laid has been already lit.

22
SESSION - I

The growth of OFC communication on Indian Railways in the preceding years


is shown in Fig. ‘3’. Status of OFC network on Golden Quadrilateral & Diagonal
routes connecting Metros, Mini Metros and other important stations is given
in Fig. ‘4’. Route-wise summarized position is indicated in following Table 1’:
N Routes Total OFC Balance Progress
connecting Length Laid Left
Metros & Mini
Metros (Rkms.) (Rkms.) (Rkms.) (%)

1. Delhi-Mumbai 1,540 1,517 23 98.51%


(CR)

2. Delhi-Mumbai 1,391 1,233 158 88.64%


(WR)

Note: ‘Delhi-Mumbai’ connectivity is complete via ‘Bhopal-Bhusaval-Jalgaon-Surat’ section.

3. Delhi-Kolkata 1,526 1,379 147 90.37%

4. Mumbai- 1,281 1,182 99 96.49%


Chennai

5. Chennai- 1,669 1,669 - 100%


Kolkata

6. Delhi- 2,209 1,762 447 79.76%


Chennai

7. Kolkata- 2,183 2,183 - 100%


Mumbai

8. Secunderabad- 755 755 - 100%


Bangalore

9. Mumbai- 500 500 - 100%


Ahemedabad

10. Mumbai- 193 193 - 100%


Pune

Total 13,247 12,373 874 93.40%

TABLE ‘1’
3.4.2 OFC network diagrams as planned in Phase-I by RailTel, depicting STM-1/4
and STM-16 long-haul links are shown in Fig. ‘5’ & ‘6’. This network is envisaged
for commissioning by Nov., 2003 and when commissioned would provide
connectivity between 4 Metros at Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai and 4
Mini Metros at Secunderabad, Bangalore, Ahemedabad and Pune.
3.4.3 In Phase-II, RailTel are planning to provide additional 2.5 Gbps OFC
connectivity links, as shown in Fig. ‘7’.
3.5 Radio Control / Block Communication System:
3.5.1 In the mid-80s, when the train operations in Eastern Railway were crippled
due to rampant theft of copper quad cables, a new system for station-to-station

23
SESSION - I

communication based on 18 GHz Digital MW technology was introduced. The


system was commissioned for the first time on rail road systems on Indian
Railways on ‘Mughalsarai-Gaya’ section (150 RKm) in January, 1987. By the
end of 8 th Plan, this system has been provided on 967 RKms covering
‘Mughalsarai-Howrah’ & Sealdah South sections of Eastern Railway. System
provided caters for highly available and reliable control communication. Block
circuits are worked through Radio adopting Radio Block interface.
3.5.2 Emergency communication is through VHF sets provided to driver & guard
of the trains. These VHF sets get hooked to 25 Watt VHF system provided at
stations which in turn are connected on dedicated channels to 18 GHz System.
The driver of the train can talk to TLC, nearest station master or to the guard.
3.6 Other Systems for Emergency Communication:
3.6.1 Train Radio Communication:
3.6.1.1 Along with Railway Electrification works around Nagpur area on ‘Itarsi-
Nagpur’, ‘Itarsi-Bhusaval’ and ‘Nagpur-Durg’ sections, OFC without copper
quad cable was laid to provide control communication and a full duplex multi-
channel (4) mobile train radio system was installed to cater for emergency
communication requirements. The system provided direct duplex
communication between the driver and the Control office and through control
to the stations. Additional channels were provided to facilitate communication
between driver & guard. With this, instant communication became available
even while the train was on the move. The system was based on Analog
technology – working in 314-322 MHz band and had certain limitations on that
account. Driver to Guard communication also could not function smoothly in
the system due to the problems of frequency switching. The utilization of the
system was also limited due to the fact that the equipment could not cover all
the locos running / passing these routes. System, however, has proved its
usefulness in cases of emergent situations like accidents, mid-section loco and
C&W problems etc. Analysis of the data pertaining to system utilization does
indicate that, on an average, 25-30 minutes of time per emergent situation could
be saved on account of instant communication being available between the
train crew & controller.
3.6.1.2 Train Radio provided on the above two sections, though, ushered an era of
mobile communication on IR, in reality it was not so as the system was provided
as an alternative to emergency communication. It was not a Mobile Train Radio
Communication (MTRC) in its true sense.
3.6.1.3 The first mobile communication on Indian Railways in real sense was
provided on ‘Delhi-Mughalsarai’ section of Northern Railway. The system
caters for full duplex communication between driver/guard and controller. It
operates in 314-322 MHz. Band and the backbone was initially provided in

24
SESSION - I

2.1-2.5 GHz., which has now been shifted to Digital Microwave in 7 GHz. Band.
The system is similar to that provided on ‘Nagpur-Itarsi-Bhusaval’ section.
The system, during its initial period of working played a vital role in giving
advance information in a number of cases, contributing towards reduced train
detentions & accidents but now is practically in dis-use due to non availability
of loco equipment in all the locos passing through / running in the section.
3.6.1.4 At present, Analog Mobile Train Radio Communication system is available
on a total of 1749 RKms on Indian Railways:
SN Railway RKms Section Brief Details

1. CR 599 Nagpur-Itarsi-Bhusawal 4 Channel duplex system,


operating in Frequency
Band 310-330 MHz.

2. CR 265 Nagpur-Durg 4 Channel duplex system,


operating in Frequency
Band 310-330 MHz.

3. NR 780 New Delhi-Mughalsarai 4 Channel duplex system,


operating in Frequency
Band 310-330 MHz.

4. SER 105 Rajkharaswan-Gua 134-174 MHz. Trunked Radio,


Protocols & Facilities based
on MPT 1327 & MPT 1343
Standards.

Total 1749

Table ‘2’
3.6.2 Satellite Communication:
3.6.2.1 Satellite Communication is being used on Indian Railways to provide
communication in cases of emergencies. Satellite phones - 2 on each Division
and 2 in each Zonal Headquarter have been provided for establishing
communication in case of emergencies. With this arrangement, it should be
possible to deploy ‘8’ satellite phones at an accident site – 2 from the affected
Division, 4 from two adjacent Divisions and 2 from the Zonal Headquarters.
3.6.3 VHF Communication:
3.6.3.1 5W VHF sets have been provided to Driver and Guard of all the trains and
25W VHF sets on stations of double line and multiple line BG sections. The
system caters for enabling low mobility communication between Driver /
Guard of a train and the nearest Station Master in case of emergency / out of
course stoppages. These VHF sets provide for only simplex type of
communication between connected parties.
3.6.3.2 The feedback about the utility of 5 W sets to driver & Guard and 25 W sets
at stations has been very positive. Board are, therefore, considering extension

25
SESSION - I

of this facility at all stations of BG, MG and mixed two line sections. A total of
2,381 stations will have to be additionally provided with 25 W VHF sets as per
following details to cover the requirement stated above:

SN Section Total Number of Number of


Number of Stations Stations yet to be
Stations provided provided with 25
with 25 W W VHF sets

1. BG Single line 2,640 1,167 1,473

2. MG Double line 3 - 3

3. MG Single line 1,125 274 851

4. Mixed Two line 157 103 54

Total 3,925 1,544 2,381

Table ‘3’
Approximate financial implication for provision of 25 W 2,381 VHF sets would
be Rs. 8.33 Cr.
3.6.3.2 On ‘Mughalsarai- Howrah’ section of Eastern Railway, the 25 W sets at
stations and 5 W sets of Driver / Guard are utilized in conjunction with the 18
GHz system.
3.6.4 Subsequent to the experiences of Analog based train radio communication
and considering the deficiencies and high cost of the then available Analog
systems, need for a low cost solution for providing emergency control
communication for low traffic sections was felt. Accordingly, RDSO developed
a Universal Emergency Communication (UEC) System in close collaboration
with Bharat Electronics Ltd. (BEL), using a single VHF frequency for all the
users namely the driver, guard and the Station Masers and working in Simplex
mode. Another frequency was allotted for sending out an ‘SOS’ signal in case
of an emergency or an accident. The system was designed to provide emergency
communication between:
i) Driver & Guard of a train.
ii) Driver / Guard & station master of the nearest station.
iii) Driver / Guard of a train to another Driver / Guard in vicinity of 5 Kms.
iv) Driver / Guard of a train to section controller through manual switching at
base station.
v) SOS signal to all trains / stations equipped with mobile sets, in the vicinity
of 5 Kms. of distress signal.
3.6.5 The UEC system consists of suitable VHF base with suitable mobile and
handheld sets provided to Drivers & Guards respectively. Mode of

26
SESSION - I

communication is simplex. The system operates in VHF frequency range i.e.


146.2-151.45 MHz. or 159.6-162.45 MHz. band with one channel for voice
communication and one for SOS. The base station consists of 40 W VHF
equipment along with omni-directional antenna fixed at a suitable height.
Features for manual patching with control circuit have also been provided in
the system.
3.6.6 Since such a system had not been used anywhere so far, it was decided to
introduce the system initially on three pilot sections, namely ‘Chennai – Gudur’
on Southern Railway, ‘Mumbai – Vadodara – Ahmedabad’ on Western Railway
and ‘Delhi – Ambala’ on Northern Railway, to ascertain its suitability and
acceptability by the user departments, particularly Traffic, Safety, Mechanical
and Electrical. The trials of the system have not been very encouraging.
Limitations of the system primarily are on account of ‘Simplex’ mode of working
and use of single frequency. Further extension of the communication to control
office require patching at stations which is time consuming, cumbersome and
is available only when the train is in the vicinity of a station. Users have felt
that the system may not be suitable for medium to high traffic density routes
but may work where traffic densities are low.

4.0 MOBILE TRAIN RADIO COMMUNICATION (MTRC):


4.1 Train Radio systems working on ‘Itarsi-Nagpur’, Itarsi-Bhusawal’ & ‘Nagpur-
Durg’ sections of Central & South Eastern Railways are of Analog type as this
was the technology available in mid 80s and early 90s. These systems have
now become obsolete but nevertheless functioning to provide emergency
communication on these routes. What Indian Railways need today is an
integrated communication system, which could fulfill the existing requirements
as well as emerging needs of mobile communication and Communication
Based Signaling (CBS) applications. This need has now been fully recognized
and its inescapable importance to provide a reliable and all time available
communication system amongst train driver, guard, adjacent station masters,
approaching trains and control office has been fully established.
4.2 Subject matter of MTRC has also been examined by the high power Railway
Safety Review Committee (RSRC) of 1998. This Committee have,
unambiguously, visualised the role of MTRC in train operation and in their
Part-I report, submitted in 1999, recommended as under:
“A reliable Train Radio Communication facility between driver, guard, ASM,
level crossing gate and approaching trains should be provided as a first step
within 3 years on ‘C’ and ‘A’ routes and in another 3 years on ‘B’ route. Once
optical fibre backbone is in place, the communication facility should be
extended to control office. The system should have in-built call override,
broadcast and SOS facilities”

27
SESSION - I

4.2.1 RSRC, in their final Part-II report, submitted in February, 2001, have reiterated
the earlier recommendation regarding provision of MTRC made in Part-I of
their report, and assigned it a very high priority. The relevant extracts of the
RSRC report (Part II) are reproduced below:
“……….. Implementation of our Committee’s recommendation on Mobile
Train Communication should he given a very high priority by IR and the
usual reason of ‘non availability of funds’ should not apply to this
device………..”
4.2.2 The importance assigned to the MTRC system by the Justice Khanna Committee
can be appreciated from the fact that the Committee stressed that
recommendation regarding MTRC be implemented by making available the
funds needed for the purpose and ‘non-availability of funds’ should not be
the reason to defer its implementation.
4.2.3 Committee, nominated by Railway Board, to identify works/projects to be
executed against newly created Special Railway Safety Fund (SRSF), also
recommended provision of MTRC on 15,225 Rkms on ‘A’, ‘B’, & ‘C’ routes,
utilizing funds from this special fund.
4.2.4 Railway Board have accepted the recommendations of RSRC for
implementation, subject to availability of funds.
4.3 The works for provision of MTRC are sanctioned on following sections:

Railway Section Km Cost


(Rs. in Cr.)

CR Delhi-Jhansi 340 39.37

ER Howrah-Mughalsarai 666 39.03*

NR Ludhiana-Pathankot-Jammu Tawi-Amritsar 410 30.89*

NR New Delhi- Ambala-Ludhiana 311 23.14*

NFR New Jalpaiguri-Bongaigaon-Guwahati 425 29.97*

NFR New Jalpaiguri-Barsoi-Malda Town-Katihar 263 23.42*

* Detailed Estimates sanctioned.

Total 2415 185.82

TABLE ‘4’

4.3.1 Section wise details of MTRC systems available on IR, as also those sanctioned
for execution are shown in Fig. ‘8’.
4.4 In some quarters, there is a growing contention that Walkie-Talkie sets in
conjunction with 25W VHF set at station is a replacement to the MTRC. This is
factually not correct. In this connection, it is mentioned that:

28
SESSION - I

i) While Walkie-Talkie is a Simplex communication i.e. only one party can talk
at a time, keeping the talk switch pressed, the MTRC as envisaged is a Duplex
communication, where both the parties can talk simultaneously.
ii) Communication system built around VHF sets is not reliable as 5W VHF sets
are not designed for safety systems requiring high level of reliability.
Therefore, in such systems, there is no in-built redundancy. Contrary to this,
MTRC duplex system is built on redundancy, designed specifically for Railway
safety system and therefore, is highly reliable. MTRC also caters for secure
communication.
iii) In the case of Walkie-Talkie, the communication is limited between the Driver /
Guard to the Station Master only and cannot be extended to the control office,
while in MTRC the communication can be established with any functionary
having a mobile phone.
iv) MTRC can also be connected to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
or any other voice / data communication network and therefore, can be used
by officials at accident sites to communicate with anyone. This cannot be done
with Walkie-Talkie sets.
4.5 As could be seen from the above, provision of Walkie-Talkie to driver / guard
and VHF sets at stations can at best be considered as an interim arrangement
provided to give immediate relief and cannot, and should not, in any case, be
considered a substitute for an established duplex, reliable and secure MTRC system.
It is, therefore, essential that an state-of-art MTRC system is planned and provided
on heavy traffic density ‘A’, ‘B’, & ‘C’ routes of Indian Railways. The existing systems
built around VHF sets, thereafter, could be deployed on other low and medium
traffic density routes.
4.6 Implementation Strategy:
4.6.1 Works of MTRC should be planned in following three phases:
Phase-I: sections, where OFC backbone connecting base stations is available.
Phase-II: sections, where OFC works are sanctioned or are in progress.
Phase-III: sections, where OFC works are also required to be sanctioned along
with MTRC works.
4.6.2 Funds requirements for the three phases enumerated above and covering ‘A’,
‘B’, & ‘C’ routes shall be to the tune of Rs. 742.32 Cr., Rs. 193.62 Cr., and Rs.
131.88 Cr. respectively. Railway wise details are indicated in Table ‘5’ below:

29
SESSION - I

A. Golden Quadrilateral & Diagonal Routes:

Railway Cost of MTRC Funds


(in C’ . of Rs. - route wise) requirements
‘A’ ‘B’ ’C’ (in Cr. of Rs.)

Central 129.67 66.44 - 196.11

Eastern - 44.94 63.49 108.42

Northern 54.60 - 5.40 60.00

Southern 9.66 47.60 - 57.26

South Central 52.36 48.09 - 100.45

South Eastern 79.38 53.62 - 133.00

Western 87.08 - - 87.08

Total 412.75 260.69 68.88 742.32

B. Important ‘B’ routes where OFC works are in progress:

Railway Route Kms. Cost of of (in Cr. of Rs.)

Central 614 42.98

Eastern 142 9.94

Northern 686 48.02

Western 949 66.43

Southern 375 26.25

Total 2,766 193.62

C. ‘B’ routes where OFC works are to be sanctioned along with MTRC works:

Railway Route Kms. Cost of of (in Cr. of Rs.)

Eastern 305 32.03

Northern 318 33.39

Southern 633 66.46

Total 1,256 131.88

Table ‘5’
4.6.3 Works of MTRC should be sanctioned on contiguous sections, connecting
terminal stations / junctions in one go to facilitate concurrent execution from
the two ends.
4.7 Available Technologies:
4.7.1 While different types of Mobile Train Radio Communication Systems are
available, 2 systems namely TETRA and GSM-R have been commonly utilised

30
SESSION - I

on Railway systems. Both are based on digital technology. International Union


of Railways (UIC), the Institute, which defines standards for Railway, has
advocated the use of GSM-R standard for MTRC. GSM-R has following
additional advantages:
i) GSM-R (GSM for Railways) is proven technology in Railway environment
and also supports control applications. MORANE and many European
Railways, MORANE being the consortium of Railway Operators, GSM
manufacturers and Research organizations have also validated it.
TETRA is yet to be standardized for signalling control applications.
ii) GSM-R has already been tried in Germany, Italy & France and trial results
haven quite encouraging.
iii) GSM-R is an extension of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)
standard GSM has been adopted by the industry as a standard for cellular
telephone network. Even in India, most of the cellular operators have
provided GSM Networks. Provisions of GSM-R for MTRC will, therefore,
reduce the possibility of technological obsolescence and thereby premature
replacement. GSM-R also has modular upgrade and migration path to
GPRS & UMTS have been well defined.
iv) European Train Control System (ETCS) which is the Radio version of
Automatic Train Protection and Warning System uses GSM-R as the basic
communication infrastructure for transmitting information. Provision of
Automatic Train Protection and Warning System is also one of the
recommendations of RSRC which has been accepted by Ministry of Railways
and as and when the same is provided, GSM-R based MTRC
communication infrastructure will be utilised as carrier of safety signals
for ATP and AWS.
v) GSM-R works in 900 MHz. Band, which is not sensitive to the sparks caused
in the electrified sections.
4.7.2 IR have chosen GSM-R platform for installation of MTRC system on ‘A’, ‘B’, &
‘C’ routes and also as a carrier for pilot ETCS Project on ‘Delhi-Mathura’ section.
The choice has been on some very robust considerations in favour of GSM-R,
important ones having been listed in para 3.7.1 above.
4.7.3 For GSM-R, following 9 spot frequencies in 900 MHz. band have been allocated
to the Railways:
‘907.8/952.8; 908.0/953.0; 908.2/953.2; 908.4/953.4; 908.6/953.6; 908.8/953.8;
909.0/954.0; 909.2/954.2; 909.4/954.4’
Though, these 9 pairs of frequencies would suffice the requirement of most linear
networks, additional spots may be required for junction & other major stations

31
SESSION - I

when several links around those locations are planned for implementation. Efforts
to get the additional spots are, therefore, being made.

5. ACCIDENT RELIEF & DISASTER MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION:


5.1. Railways telecom network has been largely meeting the specialized
communication requirements needed for rescue & restoration activities during
the occurrences of un-usual incidences / accidents. However during recent
times, the limitations in this respect have been increasingly felt in cases of
serious accidents, as comprehensive information in respect of those involved
and for rescue & restoration data has not been possible to be made available in
real time from the disaster site. On the other hand, with advancement in the
broadcasting technology and on-coming of private news channels, the
information of the disaster from the site now becomes possible within the reach
of the public through the media almost in real time. Railways in such situations
having only distorted or limited information find themselves handicapped
and become a target of severe criticism of the public. The real need is to set up
audio-visual communication facilities from the disaster site in quickest
possible time to ensure availability of comprehensive information in an on-
line & real-time manner.
5.2. In the present set up, the first communication from the site of the disaster is
established on control circuits. The set up is then augmented by establishing
dedicated line(s) from the site of the accident to the control office through
OFC or copper cable, where available and extending DOT/BSNL and Railway
phone(s) to the site of accident. In areas where control circuits are on overhead
alignment, a separate line cannot be established up to site due to limitation in
the number of circuits available in overhead alignment. In addition, with the
help of BSNL (earlier DOT), BSNL telephone lines through local exchanges
are also extended to the site of accident, by laying cables temporarily. In the
present set up, depending upon the gravity of the accident, the communication
arrangement at disaster site include extension of 6-8 BSNL / Railway telephone
lines. However, these lines are normally provided at a central point at the
site, where passengers / railway personnel have to come to use the same.
This provision is made possible in a time span of 2-3 hours or earlier,
depending upon the location of the site.
5.3 The high level committee constituted to review the disaster management system
over Indian Railways have, inter-alia, deliberated over the communication set
up needed to tackle major accidents. Recommendations made by this
committee are summarised below:
(i) Walkie-Talkie & VHF sets – ARTs at Divisional Headquarters to be
provided with 30 Walkie-Talkie sets and two 25 W VHF sets.
(ii) WLL exchange having 50 lines capacity – ARTs at Divisional Headquarters
to be provided with one WLL exchange having 50 lines capacity.

32
SESSION - I

(iii) Video conferencing facilities from the site of accident – Railway Board &
Zonal Railway Headquarters to be provided with video conferencing
facility from the disaster site.
(iv) PC & high speed satellite modem for Internet connectivity – Divisional
ARTs to be provided with one PC along with high speed satellite modem
for Internet connectivity at site through which the details of site including
information about the passengers can be updated directly.
Directives in this regard have been issued to the Railways. Recommendations,
when implemented shall surely augment the communication arrangements to
enable passing of needed data for effective decision making at the Central Control.
Even the rescue and restoration operatio can then be monitored from a remote
location.

6.0 RAILWAY’S INTRANET - THE RAILNET:


6.1 Indian Railways have established their own nation-wide Intranet, known as
RAILNET. In phase-I of the project ‘RailNet’, Railway Board, Zonal Railway
HQs, Production units, CORE - Allahabad, MTP - Kolkata, RDSO, Centralized
and other major training institutes were to be covered. In addition, Railway
Board had also decided to include Passenger Complaint Centres at 150 locations
in this phase for providing dial-up access to Railnet. All locations envisaged
in the scope of this work have since been covered and connected to RailNet.
6.2 At each location, 10 Mbps Ethernet Local Area Net work (LAN) of varying
number of nodes and Server has been installed. These LANs are connected
amongst each other on Wide Area Network (WAN) on 64 / 9.6 Kbps data
circuits, using Routers of appropriate port capacities. In addition, Internet
connectivity of 2 Mbps bandwidth has been provided at Railway Board,
Mumbai (WR), Chennai (SR) and Kolkata (ER) for providing access to Internet
to Railnet users connected either on LANs or through dial-up on selective
basis. Firewall has been provided at all these 4 Servers to ensure access to
Railnet from authorized users only. General arrangement of equipments at
main server locations is shown in Fig. ‘9’. The connectivity diagram of Railnet
System is shown in Fig. ‘10’. The main four servers of the Railnet at Railway
Board, Mumbai, Chennai & Kolkata are presently connected through 64 Kbps
circuits in mesh configuration to provide ‘route diversity’.
6.3 In phase-II of the project, Railnet has been extended to Divisional headquarters,
using 64 Kbps / 9.6 kbps data links. The work of extension of Railnet to
important railway workshops / stores depots on IR (including accounting
system for Internet) has also been sanctioned. This work is in progress and
targeted to be commissioned during the current year. 30 such locations have
been identified to be provided with the RailNet connectivity.

33
SESSION - I

6.4 The architecture of the system has been broadly designed to serve the following
objectives:
i) Exchange of quick and efficient information updates amongst servers placed
in Railway Board, Zonal HQs / Divisional HQs. and important activity
centers in a hierarchical manner.
ii) To provide high speed Internet access at 4 key locations i.e. Delhi, Mumbai,
Chennai & Kolkata.
iii) To monitor and Control usages of Railnet and Internet.
6.5 RailNet is a corporate wide Information highway, which can be used for
running various applications by different departments. At present, only one
server is installed at each hub, which is used as ‘Mail server’ as well as ‘Web
server’. However, separate servers will have to be provided for various
applications when number of users/applications increase. Presently, the
RailNet is being used mainly for E-mailing and web page applications. In
fact, exchange of electronic mails by Railnet users was one of the prime
objectives of the Railnet system, when it was conceived of and to that extent,
the purpose has been exceedingly served.
6.6 Of late, frequent failures of the Servers handling E-mail and the Railnet system
both at Railway Board and Zonal levels have been reported. In addition, the
Bandwidth crunch in the Railnet network to handle the traffic between the
Zonal Railway headquarters and between Zones and Divisions has also been
noticed, resulting in the unreliable and sluggish functioning of the Railnet.
6.6.1 So as to overcome these problems, the RailNet is being updated in respect
of following:
i) Improving the access & connectivity:
a) Increase in Bandwidth of the link between the locations forming the
RailNet backbone at Zonal/Divisional levels.
b) Upgrading of the existing Routers.
c) Provision / up-gradation of Remote Access Servers (RAS) and additional
telephone lines in different Nodes so as to strengthen the dial up network.
d) Provision of independent Web servers, wherever required.
e) Augmentation of existing LANs.
ii) Improving the security against against un-authorised access:
a) Updating of Firewall, wherever external (Internet) access has been
provided.
b) Provision of Intrusion Detection System (IDS).

34
SESSION - I

c) Provision of anti-virus solution both at server and client level.

7.0 CONVERGENCE OF NETWORKS ON IR:


7.1 Several transaction processing and management information systems have
come up independently over a period of time on Indian Railways which have
their own dedicated hardware / software and telecommunication infrastructure.
These are Passenger Reservation System (PRS), Freight Operation & Information
System (FOIS), Unreserved Ticketing System (UTS), National Train Enquiry
System (NTES), Corporate Wide Information System (RailNet), and
Management Information System (MIS). Board have recently sanctioned
projects for computerization of Coaching Operation & information System
(COIS), Crew Management System (CMS), and Control charting. Another project
for providing electronic tags on wagons and coaches and their integration with
FOIS & COIS is under consideration of the Board. In addition, work of
computerization of Material Management & Inventory Control System is likely
to be taken up in coming years.
7.2 PRS system has ‘5’ regional servers located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and
Secunderabad, which are connected to each other in a mesh topology using
dual 2 Mbps / 64 Kbps data links. On an average, 200 PRS locations are
connected to each of these ‘5’ Regional Computer Centres using 64 / 9.6 Kbps
connectivity. To computerize Unreserved Ticketing segment, Indian Railways
have already implemented a pilot project on Northern Railway with centralized
accounting features on the lines of PRS and similar work has also been
sanctioned on Eastern Railway, East Central Railway and North Eastern
Railway. Indian Railways have also implemented NTES system for providing
real time train running information to public. NTES system has already been
deployed in all control offices of Indian Railways, for feeding train running
data and this data is then disseminated through IVRS, Enquiry terminals at
stations, passenger information boards and public announcement systems.
7.3 FOIS Phase-I has already been implemented at 234 locations. Servers for this
application are centralized at CRIS, New-Delhi and remote locations have been
connected through 64 Kbps links in mesh topology. Another 314 locations are
to be added in Phase-II and Phase-III in next two years.
7.4 Scope of MIS project includes provision of WAN connectivity between field
units & Divisional Headquarters and between Divisional & Zonal
Headquarters, development of application modules for all the departments of
Indian Railways and augmenting the existing LAN infrastructure in the
Divisional & Zonal Headquarters.
7.5 On date, there are over 1500 end-to-end data channels in PRS network, over
600 data channels in FOIS network and another 500 data channels are in pipe
lines for implementation of TMS module of FOIS. There are over 100 channels
in RailNet and many more are in pipelines for UTS network, which should

35
SESSION - I

ultimately grow to have more number of data channels than even existing PRS
network. More than 50% of these channels are BSNL leased.
7.6 A large number of data channels already working on Indian Railways in an
un-folded manner not only makes the data networks cumbersome and un-
manageable but also a significant amount of revenue outflow takes place in
the form of channel rentals. With the emergence of broadband OFC network of
RailTel, it is the opportune time to integrate entire data transmission load of
Indian Railways on OFC pipes on the network laid by Railways & RailTel.
Integration of data links on OFC network is all the more required to meet with
the rapidly rising demands of data channels for expansion of UTS, PRS, FOIS,
COIS, CMS, Control Charting and other MIS applications. Integration of data
channels on one network will, in addition, facilitate sharing of composite band
width amongst various above referred IT driven services.

8.0 FUTURE SCENARIO :


Future needs of IR can be broadly classified into the following categories:
i) Operational circuits.
ii) Administrative circuits.
iii) MIS circuits.
iv) Disaster Management circuits.
8.1 Operational Circuits :
8.1.1 Operational circuits include the Train Control Circuits, Block Circuits,
Emergency Communication Circuits, and maintenance management circuits.
The future trend is to cater for all these circuits through Optical Fibre and 4/6
Quad cables. Plans are to cover ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ routes by OFC, which would
not only meet the requirement of operational circuits but also to develop the
links for commercial exploitation. For this purpose, Ministry of Railways
have set up RailTel Corporation of India Ltd. to create a nation-wide broad
band telecom and multi-media network by utilising Railways’ Optical Fibre
Cable assets and Right of Way (ROW). The formation of RailTel has really
accelerated the growth of optical fibre cable communication systems on Indian
Railways. During last year, 9503 Rkms of OFC has been laid which is almost
equal to 9,950 Rkms of OFC cable which was available on IR system on
31.03.2002. As on 30.04.2003, OFC has already been commissioned on 12,167
Rkms, works are in progress on 15,122 Rkms and future plans are to lay OFC
on further 12,640 Rkms. This would make OFC availability on nearly 40,000
Rkms on Indian Railways.
8.1.2 24 fibre optical cable will only be laid and equipment will be of SDH technology.
In the beginning, STM-1/4/16 equipment will be provided which may, perhaps,
be needed to be up-graded to have DWDM end equipment in long run. At its

36
SESSION - I

simplest, a Dense wavelength Division Multiplexed (DWDM) system can be


viewed as a parallel set of optical channels, each using a slightly different
light wavelength but all sharing a single transmission medium. DWDM will
increase the capacity of existing networks without the need for expensive re-
cabling and thus significantly reduce the cost of network upgrades.
8.1.3 Overhead alignments on important sections of ‘D Spl.’, ‘D’ and ‘E Spl.’ Routes,
having line capacity utilisation of more than 80%, will be replaced by 4/6
Quad cables.
8.1.4 For emergency communication on ‘A’, ‘B’ & ‘C’ routes, primarily full duplex
MTRC system may be provided. The work will include setting of radio base
stations along the track and the base stations connected to each other through
the backbone of OFC. On other routes (‘D’ & ‘E’), the emergency communication
shall be through 5-W walkie-talkie sets with Driver / Guard, supported by 25-
W VHF sets at stations and emergency sockets along the track.
8.2 Administrative circuits :
8.2.1 Starting from sixties and until now, 7 GHz. Microwave links formed the main
backbone for the long distance administrative circuits. This role is now
gradually being taken over by OFC. It is, however, visualized that on critical
sections of strategic importance, the MW links might have to be replaced on
age-cum-condition basis to ensure a pilfer-proof, integrated and reliable
communication system.
8.2.2 For meeting the ever increasing demand of long distance circuits and STD
telephone facilities, the carrying capacity of backbone will have to be suitably
augmented, which should be easily possible through links in broad band OFC
network, being created by RailTel.
8.3 MIS circuits:
8.3.1 For the Management Information System (MIS), the main carrier of information
and data will be the ‘RailNet’.
8.4 Networks for FOIS & PRS:
8.4.1 Networks of FOIS & PRS shall get required high speed connectivity through
OFC network of RailTel.
8.4.2 FOIS/PRS locations where neither communication network of Railways has
the requisite penetration nor the BSNL / MTNL network has the coverage,
shall be connected through VSAT terminals with Shared / Captive Hub option,
depending upon the number of such locations. It has, however, been estimated
that the ‘Captive Hub’ option will be a preferred option for providing VSAT
connectivity at or around 200 locations.

37
SESSION - I

8.5 PIS circuits:


8.5.1 For the Passenger Information System (PIS), an integrated approach will have
to be developed so that all enquiries about status of reservations, train running
etc. and also information about choice of the routes, concessions available etc.
could be made available through IVRS or through INTERNET. Necessary and
adequate security measures will have to be built in to safe guard vital
information against attack by hackers.
8.6 Disaster Management Circuits:
8.6.1 A multi-layer approach for providing communication needs to manage major
accidents is envisaged, as detailed in Para 5.3.
8.6 A Vision:
9.1 Operational Communication:
9.1.1 Future should witness the controllers becoming omni present and always
approachable by any railway personnel working along the route / track or
traveling in the train. The emergency sockets will virtually disappear as there
will be no occasion for the driver / guard, physically moving to search the
emergency socket and set up the communication with the controller. This
emergency communication will not be on VHF walkie-talkie sets but shall be
on regular duplex mobile phones. Most of our tracks will get covered with
invisible web cells of mobile radio network, which could also be seamlessly
connected to networks of other mobile service providers.
9.1.2 Communication on demand – any time, any where and by any body should
become a reality, which means that it will be possible to provide
communication facility any where in the railway area – be it station section or
block section or for that matter any where within about 5 Kms. radius of rail
track.
9.1.3 It will be possible to set up audio-visual communication including video-
conferencing facilities at the disaster site in quickest possible time to broadcast
comprehensive information to all concerned in an on-line and real time manner,
which should facilitate monitoring of rescue & restoration operation from a
remote location.
9.2 Administrative Communication:
9.2.1 Strowger exchanges will turn out as antiques for museums. All exchanges
will be of digital type and shall also be equipped to handle VoIP traffic. The
connectivity between the exchanges will be at least on 2 Mbps E1 stream.
9.2.2 On demand availability of STD lines and close numbering scheme having
been already introduced at different levels will eliminate the trunk boards.
STD on Railway network will be available on all India basis i.e. from anywhere

38
SESSION - I

to anywhere. The codes will also be limited to Zonal Headquarter level and
within a zone, each subscriber will have a unique number, perhaps, easily
identifiable without the need of a directory through standard numbering plan.
9.2.3 Video phones will become a common communication facility with senior
Managers.
9.3 The Backbone:
9.3.1 The backbone of communication network will be primarily OFC based,
supported by Jelly filled Quad cables and Digital Microwave / UHF links.
OFC backbone, presently being provided with STM-1 / STM-4 / STM-16
equipment will be needed to be upgraded to have DWDM end equipment on
the long run.
9.3.2 RailTel will roll out India-wide robust & high speed OFC back bone network
and will bring to the market high bandwidth availability through out the
country. Its services for enterprises will include Bandwidth on demand, IP &
VPN services.
9.4 Convergence of Networks :
9.4.1 Today Indian Railways have a number of discrete data networks. Future will
see convergence of networks with a common backbone infrastructure. Future
applications will require rich media having route diversity / protection rings,
and low network delays.

10.0 CONCLUDING REMARK:


10.1.1 Telecommunication technology is, at present, a fastest changing technology.
The basic components are becoming more complex with application specific
chips, forming the nucleus of the equipment. Size of the components is reducing
but their capabilities are becoming more potent. Voice is moving over the
data links in packets and the data is flowing in the form of light. The prices per
unit capacity / capability of the equipment are falling by day. Navigating in
this fast current of telecommunication growth will not be easy for Indian
Railways, where the gap between market trends and existing infrastructure is,
rather, wide and financial demands to fill this gap are enormous, keeping in
view the current financial crunch. A way, therefore, is required to be carved
out to cope up with the changes occurring in this field and update our telecom.
infrastructure to make it an effective one, which would enable Indian Railways
to maintain its mark as an efficient, dynamic and vibrant organisation.

39
SESSION - I

ACSR OVERHEAD ALIGNMENTS

40,000

35,000

30,000

25,000
RKM

20,000

15,000

10,000

Fig. ‘1’ 5, 000

-
198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 2 000 2 001 2 002

Mar -80 Mar -85 Mar -90 Mar -95 Mar -96 Mar -97 Mar -98 Mar -99 Mar -00 Mar -01 Mar -02

Rly Owned 10, 780 13, 601 17, 359 14, 991 14, 874 16, 231 15, 032 15, 073 14,855 14, 058 14, 819

DOT Rente d 35, 000 33, 000 30, 914 34, 157 34, 938 26, 697 25, 762 25, 593 27,805 26, 913 27, 467

YEAR

RE QUAD T EL ECOM CABL ES

16, 000

14, 000

12, 000

10, 000
RK M

8, 000

6, 000

4, 000
Fig. ‘2’
2, 000

-
19 9 0 19 9 1 19 9 2 19 9 3 19 9 4 19 9 5 19 9 6 19 9 7 19 9 8 19 9 9 200 0 200 1 200 2

Mar -90 Mar -95 Mar -96 Mar -97 Mar -98 Mar -99 Mar -00 Mar -01 Mar -02

Rly Owned Rkm - 6, 440 6,551 8,949 9,547 9,983 9,983 11, 015 11, 803 13, 692 13, 692

DOT Rented Rkm - - 2,750 1,986 1,793 1,612 1,612 1,467 1, 476 801 801

YEA R

40
SESSION - I

OPT IC A L FIBRE C A BL E SYST EM ON INDIAN RA IL WAYS

1 4, 00 0

1 2, 00 0

1 0, 00 0

8 , 0 00
R KM

6 , 0 00

Fig. ‘3’ 4 , 0 00

2 , 0 00

-
19 9 0 19 9 1 19 9 2 19 9 3 19 9 4 19 9 5 19 9 6 19 9 7 19 9 8 19 9 9 2 00 0 2 00 1 2 00 2 2 00 3

M a r - 90 M a r - 95 M a r - 96 M a r - 97 M a r - 98 M a r - 99 M a r - 00 M a r - 01 M a r - 02 M a y- 03

R km - - 93 9 53 9 53 1 ,0 1 6 1 ,4 7 3 1 ,7 3 0 2 , 7 37 4 ,4 8 7 5 ,7 8 2 1 2, 0 00

YEAR

Chandigarh Saharanpur
Ambala
45 RE Moradabad PROGRESS OF OFC WORKS
81
193
197 RE/RC IL
325 (324)
(Metros, Mini Metros & Other
Delhi Important Routes)
RCIL 84 (83) 105 (102) RE/RCIL Lucknow
Rewari 143 Tundl a310
72
RCIL 225 31 (28) Kanpur Patna
Mathura 192 Varanasi 260
Jaipur 54 Agra
Madhupur
RCIL 136 (24) 324 Allahabad 153
15 212
73
Fig. ‘4’
Ajmer 216 172 (11*) Mughal
Sitarampur
Kota
150
Jhans i Satna sarai
221 (11 / 78*)
RCIL 491 (36) 266 (127) 189 (96)
Bina Chakradharpur 63 Tatanagar
Ratlam Ujjain . 139 Jabalpur
Bhopal 135 Howrah
260 (247) 95 101 121
Ahmedabad 145 80
91 245 Bilaspur
Vadodara
In dore Kharagpur
135
Bhusawal Itarsi 114 206
Rourkela 323
Jalgaon 101
Surat
301
297 Nagpur
307 184 264 34 Raipur Bhubhneshwar
203
73 315( 90)
Manmad 98(42.5)
Jharsuguda
51 Nasik Durg
Vira r
60
84
(80)
Igat pu ri Wardha 133
Ballarshah 441
Churchgate 54 Kalyan
235 RCIL
139 Visakhapatnam
CSTM Pune Kazipet
Kurl a-Panvel RCIL
Secunderabad
220 RCIL 351 RE/ RCIL
( Pan vel - 60 415 (370)
From CS TM) 195 RCIL
Wadi 314 RCIL
Vijaywada
228 RCIL
920
295 Legen d:
30 RCIL
Guntkal Gooty Complete d Works :
123
280
Dharmavaram Gudur Works in Progress:
Mangalore RCIL
RE/RCIL Renigunta 68 Te n ders yet to be floated/un de r Finalisation :
Sakleshpur 209
221 146 (38)
RCIL 67 Tada Note :
70
Calicut 86
161 (101) 140 Bangalore 68
Chennai
Figures give n are Rkms. Figures in Bracke t show physi cal

Shoranur Mysore
RCIL Arakkonam 63 59
progress. Figu res in RED sh ow link as commissione d.
107
180 Chengalpattu
Ernakulam RE 155
Tiruchchirapalli
300 (285) * OFC/HDPE pipe laid
Trivandrum Madurai

41
SESSION - I

PHASE - I OF BROADBAND LONG HAUL


TELECOM NETWORK OF RAILTEL ( 11000 Kms)
Delhi
Ring 3
Fig. ‘5’
Patna
Kanpur Allahabad
Jaipur Agra
Ajmer Mughalsarai
Ring 1 Gwalior •11000 Kms Phase-I
Ring 2 Howrah Backbone network of
Ahmedabad Jhansi 2.5 GBPS, STM-16
equipments.
Vadodara Bhopal
•Total of 74 ADMs and
Jalgoan Nagpur Kharagpur
Surat upgradable regenerators
Itarsi Raipur and rest non-upgradable
Kalyan Titlagarh Cuttak regenerators.
Pune •Will act as the
Sholapur
Secunderabad Vizianagram
backbone transport
network for STM-1
Vishakhapatnam
access network , being
Mumbai Ring 4 provided at every
Ring 6 Wadi station.
Guntakal
Vijayawada
•Connects about 90
Ring 5 LDCAs (Long Distance
Ring 7 Charging Areas)
Bangalore Chennai

EDGE / ACCESS LAYER NETWORK OF


New Delhi RAILTEL FOR STM – 1 / 4
Fig. ‘6’

Jaipur Secunderabad Guntur

Vijayavada
Vadodara
Vikarabad
Igatpuri
Mumbai
Kalya n Wadi
Panvel
Pune Sholapur Guntakal Gooty

•3200 KM. Backbone network of


155/622 MBPS , STM-1/STM-4 Gudur
equipments.
•Total no. of stations: 411 Dhamavaram Renigunta

•Will work as Edge / Access Arkonam


network and traffic from this
layer to be aggregated to Chennai
backbone network.
Bangalore

42
SESSION - I

Jammu Tawi PHASE-II OF BROADBAND


Ludhiana Gorakhpur
Amritsar Ambala Bagha LONG HAUL TELECOM
Moradabad NETWORK OF RAILTEL ( 12000
Delhi Lucknow Muzzafarpur Kms.)
Kanpur Samastipur
Mathura
Katihar Guwahati
Kiul Barauni
Ajmer Kota
Asansol
Ratlam Ranchi Adra
Howrah
Ahmedabad
•Phase-II of Broadband
Vadodara Indore Bilaspur system will be installed on
Rourkela Kharagpur 12000 Kms. with 86 ADMs
Rajkot Surat & 150 Upgradable
Raipur Vizianagra m regenerators. to be
Titl agarh provided.
Mumbai Vishakhapa tnam
•At every 60-80 Kms .,
Panvel ADM node to act as the
backbone transport for
Londa Guntakal STM-1, being deployed at
Vijayawada every station.
Vasco
Hubli Bangalore •Connects about 85 LDCAs
Mangalore Mysore
Chennai (Long Distance Charging
Areas).
Erode
Shoranur Legend :
Tiruchchirapalli
Fig. ‘7’ S TM-16 of Phase II
Madurai S TM -4 of Phase II
Trivendrum

Jammu Ta wi
98
Pathankot
STATUS OF MTRC WORKS
10 5
11 5 Legend :
Amrits ar Completed Wo rks:
85 Jal landhar
Works in Progress:
52
Lu dhiana
Tenders yet to be floated/
under Finalisatio n:
11 4 Section fo r provision o f ETCS
Ambala Note:
19 8 Fig ures given are Rkms. Figures in B racket
show physical prog ress. Figures in RED show
Delhi 20 Ghazi a ba d link as commissioned.
57 106 Ali garh Bongaig aon
Pal wal Ne w 130 143
84 78 Tundl a Jal paig uri 185
Ma thura Katih ar Ne w
54 145 Ali purdu ar Guwah ati
229 Kanpur 180
All ah aba d Barauni 28
Patna 3 30 Bars oi
194 Kume dpur
324 212
216 153 101 Garhara 41
Mug hals arai 98
Mal da To wn
Ko ta 202 Ga ya 233
Jhansi Go moh
170
266 150
88 As ans ol
Bina
Ratlam
Tatan agar 212
139 135 Ho wrah
260 63 121
Bh opal 91
Kh aragp ur
Vad od ara Itars i Ch akrad h arpu r
301 101
135 Bhus a wal
Su rat 184 297 Bilas pu r
206 101
73 114 Ro u rkela
203 Man mad
51 Nas ik
Virar 34 Jharsu gud a
264
Raipu r
60 84 Ig atpu ri Nag pur Durg
CCG
54
Kaly an Fig. ‘8’
CS TM

43
SESSION - I

RAILNET: GENERAL ARRANGEMENT


NODE
HUB

SERVER
SWITCH HUB

ROUTER

MODEM HUB
FIREWALL

INTERNET To WAN Fig. ‘9’


ACCESS

RAILNET CONNECTIVITY MAJOR TRG CENTRES

IZN
DLW LJN
MAJOR TRG CENTRES
CORE NCR NER
BSB
RDSO SEE

ALD SP J
4 X 64 KBPS BKN
IRIC EEN DCW
IRIEEN DLI
Railway Board
FZR
BB RCF JU
BSL
NR LKO
BP L
MAJOR TRG CENTRES
S M MB
JHS UMB
JBP
CR H D AD M D L
W A S N G H D CKP
NGP H H NR S N T KGP
SUR
RSC NGP
BCT BSP
ECoR ADA
BRC
WCR AII
KUR
WAT
RAK
ER SER SBP
KTA WR
RTM KIR
JP APDJ
BVP T SK
NFR LMG
MAJOR
NWR CLW TRG
MAJOR TRG CENTRES MAJOR TRG CENTRES MAJOR CENT RES
MAS TRG
SBC CENT RES
MYS
T VC IRIM EE
LEGEND: P GT SR SC
MDU HYB
9.6 kbps (Railway) TP J GTL
9.6 kbps (DOT) SCR BZA
WAP MAJOR TRG CENTRES
64 Kbps(Rly) UBL

64 Kbps (DOT) ICF MAJOR TRG CENTRES


Dial up Connection IRIS ET
LAN SANCTIONED SWR
LAN COM ISIONED Fig. ‘10’

44
SESSION - I

SAFE TRAVEL & IMPROVED CUSTOMER


SATISFACTION

By

A.K.CHOPRA
Managing Director
RailTel Corporation of India Limited

The rapid strides in Signaling & Telecom. world over are enabling the railway system
to increase their earnings and also to ensure safe travel in the train journey. Indian
Railways have yet to fully tap this vital input. In this paper the author brings out
the new technologies where application can bring appreciable improvement in the
earning and safety on Indian Railways.

Indian Railways, in its 150th year, is still a vibrant and an efficient organization.
Any organization, however, big or small, has got life cycle. Initial period of growth is
due to the innovation, followed by a rapid growth, than sustained continued business.
If the innovative inputs at the sustained business level are not made, the organization is
sure to decay.
First 100 years of the Indian Railways have seen the growth in network to almost 53,600
RKMs ( a period of growth). The past 50 years growth of railways network has although
slowed down (63,000 RKMs), but various innovations like change from steam engine to
diesel and to electric, new and comfortable coaches, induction of high speed trains,
induction of high capacity wagons and also rapid strides in signaling and
telecommunication, have kept the Indian Railways on the path of growth.
In the past 50 years substantial inputs by way of improvement in the interlocking
standards from Non Interlocked stations to Standard-III interlocked stations: from
Semaphore Signalling to Colour Light Signalling; from overhead wires for communication
to underground cable communication etc. have been made in Signaling &
Telecommunication department as well. It has contributed significantly for the safe
and efficient running of the Railway system.
Today Signalling & Telecommunication is the lifeline of Indian Railways. Can we
perceive running of trains from on station to next by obtaining line clear on a Morse
telegraph system or have non-interlocked stations permitting train speed of 15 Km. per
hour in station yards or run suburban trains in cities like Mumbai on Absolute block
system or book a trunk call and wait for hours to do the conversation? The answer is
no. Signalling and Telecom has become an integral part of the Railway system and it
is its lifeline for safe and efficient working.

45
SESSION - I

The rapid strides in Signaling & Telecom world over are enabling the railway systems
to increase their earnings and also to ensure safe travel in the train journey. The Indian
Railways have yet to tap this vital input although they have been inducted in a limited
way in various sections.
The manner in which the technology induction of modern Signaling & of modern Telecom,
which can bring in a sea change for increasing earning and safe travel are discussed in
the following paragraphs.

A. SIGNALING
It is generally perceived that the Signaling is only to permit reception and dispatch of
the trains at the stations and to ensure movement of trains from one station to another.
Signaling, however, has got many other features wherein it can increase the line capacity,
reduction in human interaction to improve the train safety.
Increase in line capacity enables management to increase their earnings. At present, in
trunk routes, the number of trains being run on the absolute block system of working
is about 2 to 2.8 trains each way per hour. Internationally, with the appropriate inputs
from the signaling side, the line capacity of the order of 15 to 20 trains per hour is quite
normal. In Channel Tunnel connecting UK and France, the best of the signaling system
provided has enabled a capacity of 30 trains per hour each way.
The achievement of a capacity of 15 to 20 trains per hour is practicable with the induction
of Automatic signaling and Computerised Centralized Traffic Control system. With
the rapid strides in the technology, the centralized traffic control system, which was
earlier perceived to be ideal for single line sections only could now be very effectively
used for double line sections as well.
The Most ideal arrangement in any of the double line section would be to use both the
lines as reversible double line with fully Automatic Signaling System provided with
high speed turnouts at the stations. This can be controlled centrally from a centralized
controlling system. The system of this type ensures that the trains with varying speed
are allowed to run and the central computer decides, depending upon the current speed
of the train, about the precedence for the following high-speed train. The moment the
high-speed trains has overtaken the slow speed trains; the slow speed trains can
immediately follow. This ensures least detention of any train.
Induction of such technology on long routes can enable reducing the running time of
the goods trains and even passenger trains. The coaching and wagon stock can thus be
utilized for additional runs.
The average speed of goods trains in the country has improved from 17.4 KMPH in
1990-91 to 24.1 KMPH in 2000-01.
With the induction of the above technologies, it should be practicable to improve the
speeds of such trains from 24.1 KMPH to 50 KMPH (107% improvement) and in case the
wagons fit for 100 KMPH are inducted, this could be increased to 70 KMPH (190%

46
SESSION - I

improvement). Obviously, the wagons would remain idle for least time and railways
can manage with the less number of coaching and wagons fleet; or make additional
runs to earn more revenue. Similarly the turnover of locomotives would also improve
substantially.
The system of computerized centralized traffic control and automatic signaling with
high speed turnouts have been very effectively utilized in Sweden, wherein even with
the 4 differential speeds of trains, the line capacity in the range of 15 to 20 trains have
been generated. The speeds in Sweden are 100 KMPH for goods trains, 130 KMPH for
passenger trains, 160 KMPH for inter-city trains and 200 KMPH for super fast trains.
With a computerized centralized traffic control system, the road-side station staff are
not normally required to operate the signaling systems and such staff, which is spared
from operational duties, can be utilized for providing better commercial services, thus
improving the railways image.
The signaling system at stations, which was erstwhile provided with semaphore signals,
has now been the upgraded with Colour Light signals with Panel Interlocking, route
Relay Interlocking and Solid State Interlocking at more than 2300 stations where the
entire yard is fully track circuited. Most of the future installations will be with solid-
state interlocking, which of course, have yet to find a rapid growth.
The installation of solid-state interlocking at stations with a combination of automatic
signaling and centralized traffic control is the most ideal signaling system the Indian
Railways should have.
The present cost estimates of Computerised Centralised Traffic Control System and
automatic signaling Control is less than Rs.50 crores for 100 Kms.
An investment of only Rs.5000 crores for the golden quadrilateral and diagonals can
generate sufficient capacity of 15-20 trains against 2-2.8 trains per hour on these so called
congested trunk routes.
Indian Railways, then would be in a position to carry all the offered traffic whether
goods or passenger. Today during the busy season, the Railways are unable to carry
the offered gods traffic due to non-availability of the stock and during the summer rush;
the railways are unable to carry all the offered passenger traffic.
The induction of the above technologies would definitely ensure a change to improve
the railways’ earnings & safety and railways can have a visionary statement that ‘WE
WILL CARRY ALL THE OFFERED TRAFFIC MAY BE FREIGHT OR MAY BE
PASSENGER.’
To improve the safety of the trains and also to provide information to the passengers,
the induction of our indigenous technology of Data Loggers has proved to be extremely
effective.
The Data Loggers costing nearly Rs.1.5 lakhs for each station, when networked centrally
in the control office have ensured reduction of signaling incidences due to wrong

47
SESSION - I

operation, detection of system deficiencies, improvement of maintenance of track circuits


and points and crossings and also putting a deterrent check on the running staff as cases
of signals passing at danger or over speeding can be noticed by the administration very
conveniently.
The system has already been installed at more than 600 stations and has enabled Indian
Railways to improve the cases of signaling incidences and also improve the safety
records.
This technology has further been utilized in drawing of Automatic Control charts in
the control office, thus relieving the Section controller of the arduous duty of manually
drawing the train movement chart and continuously speaking with the Station Masters
to check the train position. Since all the running lines at station are track circuited, the
Data Logger enables the controller to know that the train is either at stations or in the
block section.
The Automatic Control charting has been successfully introduced in six-control office
of Western Railways and South Central Railways. The induction of this technology
has reduced considerably the pressure on the section controllers and also the station
staff for reporting the train information telephonically. It has also made drivers more
cautious, as over speeding and passing of signal at danger can be detected immediately,
as it gives immediate alarm in the Control Office even if there is no accident.

B. TELECOMMUNICATION
The Railway system necessarily is 100% dependent on telecommunication system to
enable the train to movement from station to station. Without this basic
telecommunication, the trains cannot move from one station to the next.
For more than 100 years it has remained dependent on the overhead wires, which were
maintained by the Department of Telecommunications. The growing traffic and the
need for efficient communication system forced Indian Railways to provide their own
underground telecom cables and microwave system after mid 60s. All the important
routes are now well equipped with efficient telecommunication system, but the demand
for more and more communication has also continued from the various users in the
Indian Railways.
The Indian Railways were the first to provide Optic Fibre Cables, which was introduced
on 3rd December 1988 between Churchgate to Virar of Western Railway.
With the rapid strides in the Optic Fibre Cable technology, the Indian Railways decided
in 1996 to provide Optic fibre Cable system as a part of Railway Electrification.
The telecom capacity generated by this technology is quite high and is much more than
what the Railways can use for themselves. The Indian railways have decided to set up
a separate Corporation with a view to earn additional revenue after meeting its own
demands of the train operations.
The RailTel Corporation of India Limited has came into being on 26th September, 2000,

48
SESSION - I

and is in the process of providing 40,000 RKMs of Optic Fibre Cabe throughout the
country in the next 4 years.
20,000 Rkm’s of cable has already been laid.
Although RailTel will commercially utilize the OFC for earning revenue, but the benefits,
which Indian Railways will get from this new technology are only discussed further:-
For having station-to-station communication, the minimum size of electronics
equipments available is of 155 Megabits, STM-1, which has to be installed at each station.
The Railways requirement is between 2 to 10 Megabits only.
Visualizing that in the next 3 to 4 years time almost 4000 stations, more than half of the
7000 stations of Indian Railways, on all important routes would be provided with such
bandwidth, even at road side stations, the following new technologies need to be
considered by the Indian Railways for improving their operations and providing better
passenger amenities.
The availability of bandwidth at each and every station can ensure provision better
passenger information system at any station when connected to the mainframe computer.
The Railways are handicapped today as the connectivity of the stations with the
mainframe computer is available at only selected locations or they were dependant on
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.
Provision of Optic Fibre Cable at all stations will enable traveling public make
reservations from the nearest place. In fact it should be possible to extend the Passenger
Reservation System into the city rather than keeping it only at the station premises, so
that this facility is available for the public at a walking distance from the place of their
living.
The system of card tickets for unreserved sectors has become fairly cumbersome. The
tickets have to be printed, stocked and accounted for manually, the available bandwidth
at the stations can enable provision of ‘Computerized Ticket Printing’ at stations. This
can be networked with the mini computer in the divisional headquarters. This would
ensure that the management at divisional headquarters and also at the zonal headquarter
is able to monitor ‘Online Sale of Tickets’ at each and every station for every train, class
and destination. With such a system, the management can also decide regulating the
trains by increasing or reducing the coaches much more effectively and without any
representations being given by the public.
The passenger reservation system in the present form provides reservations up to 3
hours before the departure of the trains. Between 3 hours of the departure of the trains,
till the actual departure and enroute, the cancellation of the reservations is not accounted
for and the traveling public is solely at the mercy of the train conductors. The available
bandwidth at the stations supported by wireless technology can change this seen
altogether.
The PNR number on the present ticket can be changed into Bar codes. The passenger

49
SESSION - I

when he comes at stations either for boarding the train or cancellation of the booking or
to get his reservation re-confirmed if he is on the waiting list, can be advised by the
Commercial staff of their current status by scanning of the hand-held wireless Bar Code
machines, which are linked to the mainframe computer by wireless. These hand-held
bar coded machines will be linked through wireless to the nearest station (8-10 Kms.
Apart) and from their through the OFC to the mainframe computer.
The TTE’s even on the running trains can check the train as occupied by the passengers
and the same information would get automatically update in the mainframe computer.
The information of vacant berths can thus be conveyed to the next stop, where the
station staff can allot these berths with the coach number and seat number without any
difficulty.
In regard to passenger information system, as mentioned in the signaling section, we
have the Data Loggers and automatic train charting system. Once it is continuously
available in a specified section, it will be possible to link the platform indicators and
the public address system at each and every station.
The train running data is collected from each station through Data Loggers and sent to
the central control office. It is processed and then sent to each and every station in the
section, wherein it can be linked to the platform indicators, which can specifically indicate
the trains coming towards the station and display precisely that the train will arrive at
the station in so many minutes. Similarly, this data can trigger automatically the pre-
recorded public announcement system at the stations to announce the arrival of the
train at specified platform and the expected time.
Another application of this growing technology can be for issuing of passes and PTO’s
to the Railway staff and other complementary passes to public, freedom fighters, MP’s,
MLA’s etc. Today, records are maintained in the various offices about such pass holders
and also for issuing of duty passes to railway employees.
Each such eligible pass holder can be given a Smart Card, which should contain all the
information such as name, designation, service and eligibility. This information should
remain stored in the mainframe passenger reservation computer. Any employee when
he wishes to go on duty or otherwise will have to present this Smart Card at the booking
Office anywhere in the country and after checking his eligibility an appropriate ticket
gets issued. It is also accounted for in his account whether he is traveling on duty or on
privilege in the main computer.
An appropriate account for the system in this manner would ensure optimum utilization
of the berths, reduce lot of clerical works in the offices, and eliminate misuse of this
facility.
RailTel is planning to provide Internet/STD/ISD Kiosks at all the platforms at all
stations. It is perceived that 3 to 12 kiosks will be provided at each platform and similar
number of kiosks in waiting halls and other public places to enable the public to make
use of the communication revolution in sending messages or speaking for their business

50
SESSION - I

or personal requirements. The Kiosks will be manned as well as unmanned. At least


one manned kiosk will be available at each station for those who are not conversant
with use of these facilities on their own.
The Kiosks can also provide the facility for Internet Phone video conferencing and
sending fax messages. In a 40,000 RKMs of OFC, it is proposed to provide 30,000 to
35,000 kiosks in the next 3 to 4 years.
It is also proposed to provide similar kiosks on the running trains as well. A successful
trial on tower wagon has already been done between Faridabad – Tughalkabad in April
2003. This scheme visualises connectivity from each and every manned coach in the
train to the nearest station on wireless and link it with the OFC as back bone. In the air-
conditioned coaches, apart from unattended kiosks, it should be possible to provide
connections for linking the personal Laptop computers from each seat for the traveling
public by paying usual charges. This technology should enable the traveling in higher
classes much more comfortable and enable public to remain in touch with the world.
There are large numbers of trains running across out country for 12 to 80 hours
continuously, where the traveling public has nothing to do except to read newspapers
and magazines and talk to the co-passengers. This technology will enable connectivity
for their business and personal requirements even when they are on the move. This
would certainly attract more number of passengers on such trains.
The RailTel is encouraging all the cellular operators in the various states to utilize the
OFC bandwidth and also would facilitate in fixing and operating cellular transmitter
equipments at the stations. This would ensure that the public when traveling on the
trains would have continuous coverage on the cell phones in their journey.
Another application for this technology would be for providing such cell telephones as
a group for the railway supervisors and other staff, who are involved with the train
operation. Many companies are offering the fixed charge per month for group telephone
system, wherein all the supervisors/officers within the group can speak with each other
for unlimited time and are able to receive incoming calls without any extra charge.
Apart from the cellular telephones for supervisors and staff within the Railways,
telephones can be extended to the staff concerned with the train operations in their
offices and residences throughout the country. The railway can network their exchanges
on the STD lines, so that they can communicate between each other without booking for
the calls anywhere in the country.
Another application for the communication revolution is for controlling the maximum
demand for a Traction Substation. Many divisions are losing heavily when they exceed
the maximum demand and railways are required to pay the penalty.
In the proposed scheme being worked out by Railway Electrification, when a maximum
demand in any TSS exceeds, the information will come to the traction power controller
in the divisional headquarter through the dedicated channel on OFC. With the available
information of train position from train charting with section Controller separately

51
SESSION - I

available in the control office through Data Loggers, it would be possible for the TPC to
know the various types of trains running in the jurisdiction of that TSS.
Automatically a message can get generated and sent to the stations in the jurisdiction of
that TSS and in that station it gets transmitted by wireless through the pager system to
the driver of the least important train and directing him to go on coasting for about 30
seconds to one minute. Such trains normally would be the loaded goods trains and
when they go on for such a short coasting and before they come to a halt, they can be put
back to the supply. In this process the cycle for exceeding the maximum demand will
be broken. After the cycle is broken, he can continue with the train running. This will
ensure savings in the operational expenses by avoiding payment of excessive electricity
bills due to exceeding the maximum demand limits. If appropriately implemented,
reducing the maximum demand at various Traction Substations after gaining experience
and confidence can do further optimization.
One another application, which is being considered, is to have a Moving Display in
each coach of the passenger trains. With the available data from Data Loggers, and
train charting, the information of the train running can be passed to the respective stations
and a wireless paged message can be given to each and every coach of various trains,
wherein it is displayed to the passengers in the coaches.
The conveyed information can be the ‘station where the train is passing at present’ and
‘how much late it is running’. It can also indicate the reasons for delayed running of the
train. In between such information, advertisements can be displayed.
In controlling the freight information system, a new concept needs to be developed.
Electronic Wagon Identification Cards priced Rs.5,000 to Rs.7,000 are available.
All the Indian Railways rolling stock (Wagons, Coaches, Locomotives) can be provided
with these cards on both sides of the stock at a specified height from the track. These
electronic wagon identification cards have a life of 8-10 years and have got long lasting
sealed battery imbedded in them.
Wagon readers at entry and exit point at each and every junction station can be linked
with the OFC network and connected to the mainframe computer monitoring the
movement of all the Rolling Stock.
The automatic reading of the wagons will enable online tracking of each and every
wagon, coach and locomotive in the whole system. This would enable much more
effective use of the available stock of the railways and would enable management at
various levels to decide their optimum utilization. If provided effectively it can bring
in a dramatic change in the freight operations of the Indian Railways, wherein the
earnings for each and every wagon and the locomotives and its average running per
day would get available on line. The identification cards are priced between Rs.5,000 to
Rs.7,000 and readers are priced at Rs.10,000 to Rs.12,000. For covering a fleet of 2,00,000
rolling stock and approximately 200 junction stations the entire scheme may cost about
Rs.400 crores. The optimum utilization of the entire rolling stock will also provide
much more savings then the investment.

52
SESSION - I

The technologies mentioned above are only some of the ideas, where signaling and
telecommunication can bring in the inputs into the railway system and bring in more
innovations, which will ensure further growth of the Indian Railways.
Delay in inducting such technologies will reduce the expansion and limit the earnings
and can result in decay of the Indian Railway system. When the Indian Railways are at
150 years of age, it is necessary that a concerted effort be made to keep the Indian Railway
system more vibrant, efficient and profitable and continuously keep it on innovation
line of the life cycle and prevent its decay at any given time.

53
SESSION - II

GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION


(GSM-R) for Railways

by

Nortel

GSM-R has been developed as a communication system for railway networks utilizing
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) technologies and specific application
for railway operations. This paper describes the present status of GSM-R and its
various application on European Railways

INTRODUCTION
GSM-R stands for GSM for Railways, a communication system for railway networks
utilising GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) technologies and specific
applications for railway operations.
GSM-R is the communication standard chosen by EIRENE (European Integrated Railway
Radio Enhanced Network) to meet the evolving railway business challenges:
• Interoperability with national and international railway networks' communications
systems
• Improved operational performance to achieve higher efficiency, safety, reliability
thus passengers satisfaction
• Differentiating value added services to increase customer loyalty and explore other
revenue sources
The following figure provides a view of various applications that GSM-R can provide
for the Railways use among its functional groups.

GSM-R End-to-End Communication for Railways


Stationar
Dispatch-Centers Control-Centers
• • Trai n Protection and
• and • - an Information-

• • Resources Services

Voice Emergenc Data

Broadcasts ETC
Ticket-
Mobile C po y gri h ©
t 91 69 N o tr eh nr

Machines
Individual Calls
Time-Tables
Group Calls
Diagnostic

Logistic
Shunting Group Calls

55
SESSION - II

DRIVERS FOR GSM-R


Today, most railway telecommunications networks in Europe and other continents
utilize different systems for various types of applications and users. These systems
typically belong to an earlier generation of radio systems, utilizing analog technology
and different frequency ranges with limited applications and performance.

GSM-R - a Unified Network


Current System
Paging Shunting Radio
Track to Train Radio

Automatic Train Control


Tunnel
Radio Vehicle mounted Radio

Operation and
Maintenance
Radio

GSM-R System GSM-R infrastructure


BTS’s
Ot
Other
her EIRENE
EIRENE Netw
Networks
orks
Paging Track to Train Radio Shunting Radio

Tunnel Radio Automatic Train Control


Vehicle mounted radio
Operation and
Maintenance
Radio

To solve the inefficient use of radio frequencies, high operations & maintenance costs,
limited interoperability between railway networks, the concept of GSM-R was
introduced. The idea was to develop a pan-European radio system satisfying the mobile
communications needs of the European railways, using state-of-the-art technology and
an evolution path for future railway needs. The GSM-R system would encompass track
to train and on-board voice and data communications, together with the ground-based
mobile communications needs of track-side workers, station and depot staff and railway
administrative and managerial personnel. Furthermore, this system would facilitate
international interoperability between national railways utilizing the assigned 4 MHz
bandwidth (876-880 MHz uplink / 921-925 MHz downlink), thus freeing up much of
the previously occupied spectrum. The following figure provides a view of GSM-R
spectrum allocations.

GSM-R Frequencies

• Manual / automatic switch - over to public network


• Manual / automatic switch - back to GSM-R network

R- E-GSM P-GSM R- E-GSM P-GSM

87 0 88 0 89 0 90 0 91 0 92 0 93 0 94 0 95 0 96 0 97 0 f/MHz

4 MHz 10 MHz 25 MHz 4 MHz 10 MHz 25 MHz


Uplin k Downlin k

terminals operate in full 900 GSM frequency range

Users
Users are
are Always
Always Connected
Connected to
to the
the Network
Network

56
SESSION - II

GSM-R's enhanced infrastructure, features and wireless telephony applications would


enable railway operators to enhance O&M and emergency procedures to improve the
operational efficiency and safety of existing transport systems, and reduce the overall
cost of operations. Network performance will also be improved with GSM-R bringing
enhanced Quality of Service and reliability, and providing clear voice and data
communications for high speed trains which travels at the current speed of around 340
Km per hour. GSM-R will also bring applications geared towards providing
differentiating passenger services to increase passenger satisfaction and increase revenue
potential by leveraging existing full set of GSM services.
GSM-R was selected in 1993 as the standard for railways communication systems and
ETSI was requested by UIC at end of 1993 to introduce specific features (ASCI) within
the GSM Technical Specifications to help GSM cope with railway specific issues. EIRENE
and MORANE projects are now, after a successful specification of GSM-R functionality,
closed and the final GSM-R specifications are available to the public.
Also today, after the closure of EIRENE/MORANE projects, GSM-R standards are
evolving under the UIC ERTMS/GSM-R leadership. Nortel Networks is actively involved
in these standardization groups as a key Industry Partner.

GSM -R MOU AND CURRENT STATUS


In June 1997 the following European Railways signed the EIRENE MoU .

EIRENE MoU Members (32)

VR Track
RHK

ZSR
JBV
NSB SJ
BV MAV
DSB GySEV/ROeEE
BS
NS
SNCB
Railtrack
EUROTUNNEL
PKP
DB AG
CD
SNCF ÖBB
TAV CFR
CP
FS JZ
RENFE BDZ

BLS
SBB SZ HZ ZBH

In June 2000 the EIRENE Agreement on Implementation (AoI) came into effect. The
Railways who have signed this agreement have stated their intention to start planning
the implementation no later than 2001 and to begin GSM- R implementation by 2003 at
latest.

57
SESSION - II

Operation & Implementation Abroad Europe

Status North America


BNSF test track

VR China
RHK
First test track in
discussion

JBV SJ
NSB BV India
Railtrack
DSB

NS Africa
WCML SNCB

Australia
DB AG PKP
CTRL
CD Brazil
CHZ
SNCF SBB ÖBB
RFF MAV GSM-R in operation,
FS SZ CFR
REFER implementation or
RENFE tender process

TAV Planning / Study


GIF OSE

All important Railways are implementing it

GSM-R CHARACTERISTICS
The design of GSM-R is tailored for railway operators to achieve the goals of
Interoperability with other railway networks, increased operational efficiency and
reduced operational cost. All railway communications needs including voice and data
are to be supported within a complete and comprehensive GSM-R network as shown
below:

Railway Fixed Network

Data
Voice

Other
OtherEIRENE
EIRENE Networks
Networks
Co
py
r gi
National GSM-R Network
ht
©
19
96
No
r ht
er
Te
le c
om

International trains

Shunting communications

Voice and data communications,eg:


- driver
- ERTMS/ETCS
- other on-train users
- passenger information
Wide and local-area
communications
Train communications

58
SESSION - II

GSM-R utilizes standard GSM technology and the additional features customized for
railway operations. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a major part of GSM-R for
data transport supporting applications such as remote control, passenger services, e.g.
ticketing, reservation, and cargo data services, e.g. freight tracking and tracing.
The GSM-R users can be connected to the network via the base station subsystem of the
public operator provided that a roaming agreement exists between the railway operator
and the public operator(s). Within the roaming environment only the functionalities
supported by the public operator are possible.

Network Infrastructure
Service Builder IN

OSS SCP

OPTION
VMS EIR SMS B
B
OMC-S General Purpose Radio
T
B S
B Operational Radio
S
S B
C
VLR GCR C T
OMC-R
LAN S
S

AUC HLR B
B
T CAB RADIO
B S B Voice + Data
Data B
DMS-MSC S TT
Server S
C S
C
Data Network
B
B
T
Other
S
S
EIRENE
Telephone
system
Network
ATC Centers
PSTN/
Dispatcher Centers C po y igr h ©
t 1 9 69 N o thr e nr T le ce o m
PLMN/
PABX Data Network/
ISDN

2 RAILWAY REQUIREMENTS
Although GSM-R is entirely based on the GSM technology proven by many public GSM
operators and subscribers, many railway specific applications still require much
modification and enhancement to the existing GSM technology to support these
additional features and maintain high Quality of Service (QoS) for train communications
at high speed. Most importantly, the stringent reliability for railway operations and
emergency situations requires the already reliable GSM network to include further
measures in redundancy and network availability.

Communication Requirements for Railway


Operations
•• Dedicated
Dedicated Network
Network (( infrastructure
infrastructure ,, dial
plan,.)
plan,.)
•• Dedicated
Dedicated Applications
Applications ((shunting
shunting ,, ATC..)
ATC..)
Professional
Professional netw
network
ork
•• Continuous
Continuous Data
Data
•• Operational
Operational Efficiency
Efficiency

•• High
High Reliability
Reliability
Secured
Secured Operations
Operations
•• Emergency
Emergency Situations
Situations (fast
(fast call
call setup
setup ..)
..)

People
People working
working in
in teams
teams •• Group
Group communications
communications

•• Smooth
Smooth migration
migration from
from existing
existing railway
railway
com
communication
munication infrastructures
infrastructures
Interoperability
Interoperability •• International
International railway
railway communication
communication
networks
networks
•• Public
Public communication
communication networks
networks

59
SESSION - II

FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS


Railway communications networks require specific applications to support the safe
and efficient operations of the railways. A set of ASCI features and functions supporting
railway operation aspects are added on top of the standard GSM infrastructure to carry
out all the railway voice and data applications.

Network Features and Functions


Controller-Driver Operational Communications

Automatic Train Control Shunting

Remote Control Trackside Maintenance

Railway Applications Emergency Area Broadcast

Train Support Communications

Local Communications atStation and Depots

Wide Area Communications

Passenger Services

Railway Operation Presentation Location Separate Network,


Functional
of Functional Access Dependent separate Frequency
Aspects Addressing
Numbers Matrix Addressing range ( 4 MHz)
Telecommunication
eMLPP VBS VGCS
Services - ASCI

GSM Infrastructure (phase 2)

GSM-R services standardized within ETSI as part of GSM Phase 2+ are collectively called
the Advanced Speech Call Items (ASCI). ASCI comprises of the following three services:
• eMLPP (enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Preemption) allows resource
preemption for priority calls
• VBS (Voice Broadcast Services) allows groups of users to receive common
information
• VGCS (Voice Group Call Service) allows groups of users to make calls within/
among the groups
The specific services for Railway Operation Aspects are:
• Functional Addressing allows a user or an application to be reached by means of
a number which identifies the relevant function and not the physical terminal
• Presentation of Functional Numbers allows visual information about the call
destination and origination to be presented
• Access Matrix validates access capability for communications among users and
groups of users
• Location Dependent Addressing provides the routing of mobile originated calls
to the correct controller e.g. relative to the geographic area.

60
SESSION - II

• Confirmation of high priority call provides a record of any event marked as high
priority call

RAILWAY SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS


ASCI
ASCI services are defined in the Phase 2+ ETSI GSM specifications with additional
specifications refined by MORANE.
Enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Preemption (eMLPP)
By subscribing to eMLPP service, a user can explicitly or by default select a priority
value when originating a call. This priority value is used within the network to
provide calls of higher priority values precedence to network resources during
call setup. A high priority call may also pre-empt other ongoing calls of lower
priority, in case of congestion. The priority value shall be presented to the called
party during alerting. eMLPP shall be supported for the following call types:
• Point-to-point calls
• mobile-to-mobile calls
• mobile-to-land calls
• land-to-mobile calls
• VBS/VGCS calls
In addition, interworking with ISDN (ISUP and PRI) MLPP shall be supported.

BROADCAST SERVICE (VBS)


VBS is for speech teleservice calls only providing a user (service subscriber) the
possibility to broadcast a speech call to a pre-defined set of destination subscribers in a
pre-defined geographical Broadcast Area.
The set of destination subscribers is identified by a Group Id. Mobile destination
subscribers will only be involved in the call while they are located within the Broadcast
Area, unless they have been marked as dispatchers. Fixed line destination subscribers
and mobile subscribers marked as dispatchers may be located any where. The
information about registered destination subscribers, dispatchers and Broadcast Area
for Group Ids is stored in the Group Call Register (GCR).
A VBS call can be established by either a service subscriber (calling subscriber) or by a
dispatcher, while the call can be terminated by either the calling subscriber or any
nominated dispatcher. Other service subscribers can not terminate a VBS call. Only the
user who establishes the call can talk, the others have listening capabilities only.
A standard full duplex channel is provided to the calling subscriber and dispatchers,
while simplex down-link channels are allocated to all destination service subscribers,

61
SESSION - II

with one common down-link per cell of the VBS Broadcast Area.
Voice Group Call Service (VGCS)
VGCS is for speech calls only and has been standardized on the basis of VBS. VGCS
allows speech conversations between a pre-defined set of destination subscribers in a
pre-defined geographical area (Group Call Area). The set of destination subscribers is
identified by a Group Id. In general, mobile served subscribers will only be involved in
the call while they are located within the Group Call Area. Fixed line destination
subscribers and fixed line or mobile subscribers marked as dispatchers may be located
within or outside the Group Call Area. The information about registered dispatchers,
destination subscribers and Group Call Area for Group Ids is stored in the Group Call
Register (GCR).
A VGCS call can be established by either a service subscriber or by a dispatcher. The
call can be terminated by either the calling subscriber or any nominated dispatcher,
using an operator determined DTMF tone sequence or by detecting silence on the voice
channel.
A standard full duplex channel is provided to dispatchers and to the calling subscriber
during the call setup. Simplex down-link channels are initially allocated to all destination
service subscribers, with one common down-link per cell of the VGCS Group Call Area.
Once the call has been setup, dispatchers (both mobile and fixed) will keep the 2-way
speech connection. Mobile call originators may release their up-link to allow other mobile
users to talk. Once the up-link has been released, the calling subscriber and other mobile
users may talk only after requesting the up-link. Only one up-link is available for each
group, regardless of group area size. Dispatchers are allowed to talk anytime, and their
voice is broadcasted to all members.
When call originators and mobile destination subscribers who are not dispatchers move
out of the group area their call is dropped. Their call is resumed when they move back
into the group area.
The above features are included in the billing record and operational measurements for
required accounting and operation and maintenance purposes.

RAILWAY OPERATION ASPECTS


The following railway specific services are supported by GSM-R for Railway Operation
Aspects:
Functional Addressing
Functional Addressing is a service that will allow a call to be setup based on the function
of the call terminator, instead of the MSISDN of the equipment that the user is currently
using. Each user has to subscribe to the Functional Addressing service and register a
Functional Number for the mobile equipment that he/she is using at the commencement
of their functional task. A call originator dials a Functional Number of the call terminator,
which is translated to the actual MSISDN in the network.

62
SESSION - II

A call using Functional Addressing may be subject to access screening by the network
to allow calls between certain Functional Number user types only. As train crosses
international borders and roam into other railway networks, the functional addressing
feature must be supported for all inter-railway networks.
Access Matrix screening
Calls can be subject to Access Matrix screening based on the Functional Number and
the Functional Number Types of the call originator and the call terminator(s). The Access
Matrix screening limits the connectivity between different users of the GSM-R system.
The screening is based on the calling and called party's user types, which can be derived
from their Functional Numbers.
The Access Matrix screening logic is dependent on the customer's Functional Addressing
dial plan and shall apply to speech calls, data calls, broadcast calls and group calls. The
screening shall be performed during call setup, thus calls which have already been
setup shall not be affected by changes in the Access Matrix table. Although this feature
is not required for all GSM-R networks, some may find it beneficial to the railway
operations.
Location dependent addressing
Location dependent addressing shall be provided to route calls for a given function to
a destination address that is dependent upon the user's location.
The location can be provided to the network in different ways. A minimum requirement
is that the location shall be based on the cell from which the call is originated. This
solution is referred to as Cell Specific Routing. Advanced solutions include location
information provided by positioning systems external to the network.
Confirmation of high priority call
Confirmation of high priority call is used for post incident analysis. At the end of a high
priority call, the mobile generates an acknowledgment message to the acknowledgment
center connected to the MSC for storage and further analysis. Although this feature is
not required for all GSM-R networks, some may find it beneficial to the railway
operations.

RAILWAY APPLICATIONS
The following set of railway applications are defined to support and enhance railway
operations for the trains, drivers, controllers, on-board and ground based staff, as well
as passenger services.
Controller-driver Communications
Controller-driver communications provides communications between the controller(s)
and driver to control and enhance the safety of train movements.

63
SESSION - II

DMS-MSC
DMS-MSC

VOICE
Data Network

Supports voice communication flows from one controller to one or a group of drivers
or, from one driver to one or more controllers (controller may change depending on
position of the train). Controller driver communication also supports point to point
data communication between drivers and controllers. Users include Primary train
controller, Secondary train controller, Traffic controller, Electricity Power supply
controller, Catering controller, Maintenance controller and Station controller.
Automatic Train Control / ETCS
Automatic Train Control is the process by which some movements of a train are
influenced without any action by the driver.

DMS-MSC
DMS-MSC

Data Network

ATC centre

Supports data communication for the sending of Position Information Messages from
the Train to the Train Control Center and the sending of Movement Authority Messages
from Train Control Center to Train (giving target speed, distance/time to travel,..)
Remote Control
Remote Control supports bi-directional data flow between fixed center and the train or
other fixed location for management of on-board or ground based equipment.

64
SESSION - II

DMS-MSC
DMS-MSC

Data Network

ATC centre

Supports data communication for remote management of equipment such as air


conditioning, brake testing equipment, shunting locomotives, cranes and gantries,
unmanned multiple locomotives by a single driver, fixed installations such as points
or level crossing barriers
Emergency Area Broadcast
Emergency Area Broadcast is required to alert other railway staff in a specific area of an
emergency situation.
DMS-MSC
DMS-MSC

Supports voice communication only and Fast Call Setup, Area definition, Single
emergency key stroke: Red button, Origination from controllers or other wireline
subscribers, train driver, shunting, trackside worker or any other type of user at risk
Shunting
Provides radio communication for a shunting team or among different shunting teams.
Shunting involves a locomotive pushing at the back of a train with the driver receiving

65
SESSION - II

instructions from the head shunter who is at the front of the train. The objective of
shunting is to align all the coaches of a train together.

Co
pyr
igh

19
96
No
r ht
er n
Tel
ec
om

DMS-MSC
DMS-MSC

Supports voice communication for shunting preparation :


• low priority group call and shunting movement
• high priority group call
• link assurance signal
• possibility of emergency shunting call
Trackside Maintenance Communication
Trackside maintenance communication provides communication for Trackside
Maintenance staff .

Co
py
r ig
ht
©
19
96
No
r th
er n
Te
le c
om

Supports voice communication only for voice group calls between workers at a site and
wide area communication: workers at a site, distant workers or fixed network positions
(e.g. controllers, stations and technical department).
Train support Communications
Train support communications provides communication for on board Staff to increase
efficiency of operations.

66
SESSION - II

On- li ne
Au tom at ic Od r er r eser vat ion
r et ur n
t icket ing
Copyr i hgt © 1996 Nor ht er nT le ecom Ti cket : se rvi ce

Copyr i hgt © 1996 Nor ht er n


Tel ecom Copyr i hgt © 1996 Nor ht er nT le ecom

Supports voice and data communication for on board staff and passengers including
customer support services such as public addresses by voice, seat reservation and
timetables information.
Local communications
Local communications provides communication for a wide range of personnel at a single
site e.g. at stations and depots.

Co
py
igh

19
96
No
r ht
er
Te
ec
om

Copyr gi ht © 1996N or ht er n

Train
Station
Copyr gi ht © 1996N or ht er n

Copyr gi ht © 1996N ort hern

Supports voice communication for reporting train composition data and brake tests
and communication between driver and station manager's office and other groups of
users at the station or depot.
Wide Area Communication.
Wide Area Communication supports track side, non train-originated communication
and railroad maintenance communication.

DMS-MSC
DMS-MSC

PSTN

Supports voice and data communication for Road vehicles, track inspectors, railway
police and access to private network or PSTN.
Passenger services communication.
Passenger services communication provides services such as coin operated telephone
or telefax communication and internet access for on board passengers. This service has

67
SESSION - II

strong potential for revenue generation but may be subject to national regulation.

Copyr i hngt ©
N ort her Tel1996
ecom Copyr i hgt © 1996
N ort hern Tel ecom

Supports voice and data communication for on board passengers.

3. NORTEL NETWORKS' GSM-R SOLUTION


Nortel Networks' Experiences
As active member of MORANE, Nortel Networks was committed to defining and to
continuously refining the GSM-R standards and specification through ETSI and
MORANE. Since the closure of the MORANE project in 2000, Nortel Networks is actively
involved in the successor specification projects under the UIC ERTMS/GSM-R group.
Nortel Networks has been selected to supply all four of the MORANE/DIBMOF test
lines in Germany, France and Italy with terminals and infrastructure for voice and EMC
measurements and validation. Nortel Networks was also the first to demonstrate ASCI
(Advanced Speech Call Items) features tests and is the only supplier to perform tests for
high speed trains. Through these experience gained from test trials Nortel Networks
has further enhanced current product and defined future product plans and equipment
requirements.
Today Nortel Networks is one of the GSM-R Industry Group members with the aim to
support Railways with technical and economical information during feasibility studies
and implementation phase and work together with ERIG (successor of EIRENE) to perfect
the GSM-R standard.
Full Turn Key Solution
GSM-R is a standard defined technology supporting common interfaces between all
network elements but a GSM-R network operator can save much time and cost if the
right partner is chosen from the beginning. Nortel Networks has combined its skills and
leadership in the telecommunications arena with strategic partners to form a business
unit offering a complete end-to-end turnkey solution and a century or railway
communications experience to the railway network operators.
Our GSM-R solution is approved, fulfils EIRENE / MORANE and is in service or in
implementation in different GSM-R projects, e.g. for German Railways, WCML/ UK,
and Italy and covers more then 25,000 km track currently including the first GSM-R
controlled and commercial operated high speed link between Cologne - Frankfurt.
Nortel Networks provides a complete portfolio of equipment for the GSM-R
infrastructure including BSS (Base Station Sub-system), NSS (Network Switching Sub-
system), Operations and Maintenance Center (OMC) and Intelligent Network (IN) which

68
SESSION - II

are based on the industry leading Nortel Networks' GSM system supporting advanced
services for voice and data and the unique GSM-R terminals which are the first ones to
be launched in the market and proven in all MORANE test trials.

GSM-R End to End solution


BSS portfolio NSS portfolio
S8000 BTS family VMS SMS EIR OSS
BSC 12000 TCU
portfolio

OMC-S
DMS-MSC
IN
HLR
PCUsn
OMC-R

OMC-D

Handset SGSN
Cab-Radio IWF
Dispatcher
GGSN

Terminals portfolio Data portfolio Dispatcher portfolio

GSM--R compliant system delivered in 2001 and certified in 2002


GSM

The key advantage of Nortel Networks' full turnkey solution lies in the services which
ensures the smooth integration of the GSM-R network with the existing networks through
a set of standard procedures such as network design, interoperability tests, installation,
commissioning and system verification. After the initial network implementation stage,
network optimization and applications customization to support, training are all
standard services provided by Nortel Networks.
Railway customers are thus guaranteed unmatched communication quality to further
improve the railway business and operations with seamless convergence with existing
and other communications systems in the shortest turnaround time.
GSM-R Terminals
For railway operations and services the railways use different types of terminals. These
various types of GSM-R terminals have to fulfil not only the GSM-R specific functions
like ASCI, these terminals have to work in railway specific environment which requires
high speed function, an extended temperature range, shock resistant housing, specific
MMIs,. Following figure presents the three categories of terminals defined by EIRENE
plus a fixed trackside MS solution:

69
SESSION - II

4. NORTEL NETWORKS REFERENCES


Presently Nortel Networks is selected from different Railways to deploy GSM-R systems
on about 25.000 track km with more than 3.000 BTS, which brings Nortel Networks in
the leading position for this particular railway wireless technology. Our GSM-R "end to
end" solution is in successful operation as well as on conventional lines or on high
speed lines with speed beyond 300 km/h.
Existing GSM-R contracts
Deutsche Bahn (Germany)
Nortel Networks has been selected as the GSM-R supplier for the national GSM-R
network in Germany. This represents the largest and most significant project with
this technology to date with a planned coverage of about 24.500 km. 2.700 Base
Stations. Nortel Networks is working very closely together with DB Telematik, the
System Integrator, to provide the complete fixed and wireless communication
system. Delivery and implementation commenced in 2000 and will continue until
2004. To date all MSC, BSC and TCU have been installed and accepted and the
program for BTS installation is underway with over on-air covering 9.446 km.
On August 1st, 2002 the high-speed train route between Cologne and Frankfurt
was officially put in service. On this 180 km long " InterCity Express " line with 30
tunnels runs 56 new high speed trains equipped with GSM-R cab radios with a
standard speed beyond 300 km/h. This did represent a major milestone for GSM-
R by being the first line worldwide that operates solely on GSM-R technology. All
required approvals by the railway regulatory body in Germany ("Eisenbahn
Bundesamt") have been granted.
West Coast Main Line (UK)
On the WCML contract Nortel Networks is working together with Marconi Services
who has taken the role of the System Integrator responsible for providing the
complete fixed and wireless communication system. The contract deals with a
complete GSM-R network for Railtrack West Coast Main Line as a part of the West
Coast Route Modernization project. Nortel Networks is providing a complete GSM-
R system including BTS, BSC and MSC for voice and data transmission for the line
with a total length of 700 km. Starting with the first BTS in March 2001 the complete
equipment for the Test Track has already been installed and commissioned with
the 1st call achieved in May 2001. Final acceptance of the network is targeted for
2003.
The WCML network will form part of the nationwide GSM-R solution in the UK
and is scheduled to go into live operation in 2005.
Interim Voice Radio System (UK)
This Interim Voice Radio System is an early implementation of the full WCRM
TCS Communications Network. For coverage of the IVRS network in the North

70
SESSION - II

Staffordshire area .
The IVRS network has gone into live operation in November 2002.
TAV (Italy)
Nortel Networks and SIRTI have been awarded the TAV contract for the 218 km
high speed line Rome-Naples running through a hilly Apennine area, very complex
from the topographic point of view. The actual roll-out process has started for the
53 km pilot network.
The core elements have already been installed and installation and commissioning
of the remainder of the pilot network is well on it's way for the scheduled first
GSM-R call in March 2003. The further planning on that project does foresee low
speed train tests until May 2003, extensive various speed testing until September
2003 leading to final acceptance with high speed train by the end of 2003, unless
delay on civil work along the track.

Slovakian Railways

Kapsch CarrierCom AG, the general contractor to supply the entire infrastructure, the terminals and the
optical cable connections along the route, has selected Nortel Networks for the supply of GSM-R infrastruc-
ture equipment. The first stage of the project involves equipping sections in international corridor IV with
GSM-R technology.

71
SESSION - II

THE WINNING GSM-R SOLUTION

by :

Ola Bergman
SIEMENS

Agenda

• The GSM-R vision


• GSM-R - the market, the standard, Siemens position
• GSM-R - features, LDA, FA, VGCS, VBS
• GSM-R - infrastructure & applications
- GSM-R infrastructure - Siemens products and roadmap
- Siemens GSM-R infrastructure option
- ETCS concept - Siemens projects
- Value adding applications on the GSM-R platform
• Siemens support & service portfolio for GSM-R
• Siemens leading role in the GSM-R community
- Co-operation with UIC, ETSI and industry partners
- GSM-R interoperability (IOT), ETCS QoS, ASCI Late Entry
• Siemens world-wide GSM-R references

73
SESSION - III

“ADAPTATION AND CONSOLIDATION


OF SSI TECHNOLOGY”
Experience at Chakulia, Gidhni and Lotapahar stations of A
Route of South Eastern railway

by

Sanjay Dungrakoti
Dy.CSTE/KGP
G. K. Bhadra
ASTE/C/KGP.

The pioneering work done by South Eastern railway in inducting Solid State
Interlocking (SSI) technology on their network and steps taken thereof had been
discussed in the IRSTE Seminar- 2001. Since then, SSIs have been installed at Chakulia,
Gidhni and Lotapahar, all on A Route. The successful implementation of the project
from concept to commissioning is an achievement worth mentioning in this forum.
The various pre and post commissioning stages undergone over the year are –
inspection, design, power supply arrangements, execution, feedback, software
modification and protection from lightning and surges. This paper discusses the
experiences gained by S.E. Railway and further challenges ahead. While discussing
the experiences the data of CKU has been taken in particular, it being the first and
most revealing experience.

1. INTRODUCTION:
The Chakulia station of Kharagpur Station has been selected for commissioning of first
SSI of SE Railway. This was an ideal station having all sorts of Signalling Gagdets to test
the new technology under extreme circumstances. It is a double line station on electrified
HWH-Bombay trunk route, having IBS on both sides, Point zone, loop line and IBH axle
counters, Digital Axle counter for LVCD, LC gate in the yard, siding point etc.
The outdoor signaling and building construction works were completed in early 2001.
The major activities are listed below;

75
SESSION - III

LOA issued on May,2001


Inspection of Cards October 2001
Completion of Design at Bangalore January 2002
System Level Insp and testing January 2002
Material Received at site Mid Feb 2002
Installation completed 7th March 2002
Testing consisting of simulation and other
test for Panel and VDU with both the system completed 14th March 2002
Commissioning 20th March

2. INSPECTION
Dir/Signal/RDSO and Dy. CSTE/KGP carried out the card level inspection and study
of documentation for Microlok-II. At that time CENELEC Validation for the Microlok-
II was going on and papers regarding that were seen. Since then CENELEC Validation
for the system has been obtained by the firm.

3. DESIGN
The design of circuits was done as per SE Railway practice. The design was categorized
into Indoor and Outdoor circuits. The indoor design comprises of Application logic
consisting of interlocking and hot standby logic and also interface design. And Outdoor
design consist of point control circuit, signal control circuit and axle counter circuit etc.
To prepare these designs, typical circuits were issued to the firm. Following are the
salient feature of design:
a) Application logic for Interlocking and hot standby
b) Interface Design
c) Route setting type panel operation
d) IBH through SGE block instrument/Axle counter
e) Provision for Block proving axle counter
f) ECRs for lamp circuits
g) 24v Point contactor unit for Point Operation
The block diagram of the system is shown in Fig 1.

76
SM's ROOM

C OM2
OPERATOR PC M
CONTROL CUM
(STANDBY
INDICATION PANEL C OM1
TO PANEL) M

I2 I2

MICROLOK II ROOM

TERMINATION
RACK
(T1)
I2 I2

N VL PC (A) N VL PC (B) D -CON N EC TOR


BOX

N VL MP(A )

N VL MP(B )

10 16 10 16

S S S S
P4 P3 P4 P3
INTERLOCKING 1
INTERLOCKING 3
MICROLOK II MICROLOK II C OM1
P5 D P5 D I1 M
A1 B1 MAINTENANCE
P2 P1 P1 P2 C OM2 PC
5 17 05 5 17 05 I1 M
M - - M

D -CON N EC TOR
BOX

77
D IA GN OSTIC L IN K

Fig. 1
20 20
IVSL (A) IVSL (B)
SESSION - III

2n 2n

S - - S
P2 P4 P4 P2
I/O GATHERER 2
I/O GATHERER 4
MICROLOK II P5 D
MICROLOK II P5 D
A2 B2 NOTE:
5 17 06 P3 P1 5 17 06 P3 P1
SYSTEM A - A1, A2
- - - -
SYSTEM B - B1, B2

VITAL SERIAL LINK (VSL) ADDRESS


Xn
[n - NUMBER OF ADDRESSES AS MAY BE NECESSARY]

NON-VITAL SERIAL LINK (NVL) ADDRESS


Xn
[n - NUMBER OF ADDRESSES AS MAY BE NECESSARY]

X CARDFILE NUMBER

I1 ISOLATOR (RS-232)
RELAY RACK RELAY RACK TYPE TO BE ANNOUNCED
(R1) (R2) I2 ISOLATOR (RS-485)

SERIAL COMMUNICATION LINK

PARALLEL WIRING

M MASTER PORT
C.T. RACK1 C.T. RACK2 S SLAVE PORT
D DEBUG PORT

TO / FROM FIELD
SESSION - III

4. CIRCUIT DESIGN :
The drawings for Chakulia were submitted by the firm on Aug 2001. The Railway
approved the circuits in the same month. Then firm started detailed design for Chakulia
and it was submitted on Nov 2001, which was approved immediately. The system for
CKU was installed at Bangalore and application logic for CKU uploaded in the month
of January for testing by Railways at Bangalore. The program was checked, corrected
and approved for final testing at site. The circuits are written in the Boolean Logic in the
text file format. The application Boolean logic has been developed similar to the
conventional relay circuits with commonly used relay name assigned to the bits in the
Microlok. The Boolean Logic file can be converted to the drawings in the form of
Conventional relay circuits with the aid of software in AutoCAD. This conversion is
done before submitting the circuit to Railways for approval, as railway designers are
more familiar with conventional form of circuits. After the circuits are approved, the
Boolean Logic file is compiled using the specific compiler before loading it to Microlok
CPU Card. The uploading is done using laptop computer connected through a COM
port to Microlok. For loading the file special protections have been included in the
system. This include both hardware as well as software protections such as specific
jumper setting for loading the file on the CPU Card, ID nos, Password Protection etc.
After uploading the program, the first level of the testing was done at firm’s premises
itself by railways team with the help of simulation panel; and corrections in the circuits
and VDU display design were carried out.

5. MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE DESIGN


The system is capable of interfacing with both PC based VDU Display as well as
Conventional Indication cum operating Panel. But the system can be operated by one
means at a time, which is selected by using a key on the panel and transferring the
control from one mode to other using a password. There is a difference in the mode of
connection for both the device. The PC based VDU can be interfaced through a COM
port without the need of any additional hardware and is operated through user-friendly
mouse driven menu. The Conventional panel requires additional hardware, almost as
much as required for interlocking purpose.
The VDU Display Design was finalized as per the prevailing practice of the railway for
conventional panel and all the functions except counters are available. The operating
menus are very simple and user-friendly but cater for all operational requirements.
Counters provided on the panel are common for both Panel and VDU as it is not
appropriate to provide separate counters for the same function. The Panel Room is
more than 50 m away from the relay room, which is more than specified distance for
COM port communication. This was overcome by providing Modem cum Isolator. The
power to VDU was given from IPS using separate inverter for PC. A 19” Compaq Monitor
was used for the display which was sufficient to display entire yard lay out and IBH
portions on both the sides of CKU.
The panel is interfaced using non-vital cards. In CKU a separate Microlok rack
encompassing two card files (Two each for both the systems A & B) containing non-vital

78
SESSION - III

cards along with CPU card and Power supply card have been provided. The indoor
cable has been drawn from panel to Microlok. Panel used is standard domino type
panel. However on both sides of the panel, Axle counter block panel is integrated at an
angle making it a novel design. The axle counter block will be commissioned as a next
phase of work. The interlocking logic has been incorporated in the SSI system and has
been disabled for the time being. At present SGE block instrument is being used for
DLBI working which is interfaced with SSI. Except three-position relay all the relays
have been eliminated and has been incorporated inside SSI.

6. OUTDOOR GEAR INTERFACE AND CONTROL


The points are being operated from end goomties where group relays are kept. The
point controlling relays are repeated from SSI to end goomties. The detection relays at
central relay room are directly fed from point machine detection contacts.
For signal circuits final relays (HR/DR) are picked up from SSI at central relay room
and repeated to respective location to extend supply to the signal. The 110V AC for
signal circuits is coming from central location proving HR/DR and then proving contacts
of repeat relay HPR/DPR at the location for lighting the signal.
For Axle Counter the final relay ACPR (Axle counter proving relay) is fed to Microlok
for further interlocking. For reset circuit output (ACRSR) from Microlok is taken to reset
the axle counter. Before resetting zone verification relay is fed to Microlok.
For IBH output from Microlok taken to control IBH signal which were taken to IBH
through quad cable.

7. HOT STANDBY SYSTEM DESIGN:


SSI at Chakulia has been commissioned with hot standby system so as to make both
system available on-line at all time. The system configuration is shown in fig. 1. The
input from Panel/PC is received by both the system at a time and compared for mismatch.
Similar comparison is done for vital input also.
With the same executive software and identical interlocking software, both A and B
Microlok II systems are operated in a Hot standby mode. Both of the system will be
running in parallel and “online” during normal operation. All vital input and output
bits status within a system are compared with the input and output bits status of the
other system. If any one of the vital input bit does not correspond, then the system that
reads “1” state “picked up” will be disabled as this will take care of false feed
eventualities but the other system will continue to be “online” performing the interlocking
application as intended except for that particular input bit “0” state (not picked up).
Outputs are also crosschecked before delivering the final output. If there is a mismatch
than NO output will be delivered for that particular bit. And locally picking up of any
output relay will disable both the system to take care of the interlocking of any sabotage.
In case of non-vital inputs intermediate stage bit (processed internal bit; one level higher
after the receipt of non vital bit either from panel and pc) is compared to detect the
mismatches. If any mismatch is found than that particular command is neglected in

79
SESSION - III

both the system. Any such failure condition in the vital input, vital output and the non
vital input will generate the audible warning along with visual indication to alert the
operator for the notification of the maintainer’s immediate action to diagnose the cause
and remedial measures to fix the problem (There could be a input mismatch due to
loose connection or wire cut or false feed etc). After the problem is fixed a “manual
reset” is to be applied to the disabled system. After it passes through its own internal
diagnostic routines, the status of interlocking functions from the “online” system will
be mapped to this system to ensure that the interlocking status in both systems is
synchronized.
Initially at Chakulia on introduction of mismatch at panel input level, it is observed that
non-vital input mismatch being generated often leading to one system shut down. The
system needs to reset manually to bring it online back. It is identified that the non-vital
input comparison for mismatch was ineffective as the non-vital inputs are available
only for few seconds. Therefore at next station Gidni, the non-vital inputs are compared
at their stick level instead of comparing at the push button level. This prevented the
shut down due to non-vital mismatch. The comparison is now done at the route initiation
stage. This is shown in the drawing below (Fig 2).

8. POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS:


Integrated Power supply arrangement has been selected with SMPS based charger. The
scheme for the IPS has been designed and approved based on the basic requirement of
the installation. The IPS has following features:
a. 4 SMPS chargers of 20 Amps capacity with N+1 spare.
b. DC-DC converter of 10 Amps capacity each with current sharing arrangement for
all 24 and 12 volt supply including block.
c. Inverter of 1.5 KVA capacity for signal circuit. Initially the capacity planned was 1
KVA but it was giving frequent tripping problem after commissioning so capacity
was increased to 1.5KVA.
d. Inverter of 1KVA for Operator and Maintainer PC.
e. CVT of 3.5 KVA as stand by for AC supply to signal and circuits.
f. DC-DC converter of 10 Amp capacity for Point control and External relay Circuit.
g. Two sets of batteries of 120AH capacity connected in parallel.

80
SESSION - III

GIDNI HOT STANDBY SYSTEM

SYSTEM - A SYSTEM - B
MAINTENANCE
PC

PANEL/PC

YES
NON-VITAL NON-VITAL NON-VITAL NON-VITAL
OUTPUT INPUT INPUT OUTPUT

MISMATCH
#
NO

VITAL INTERNAL INTERNAL VITAL


OUTPUT PROCESS PROCESS OUTPUT

NO NO

YES YES
MISMATCH MISMATCH

VITAL VITAL
FROM FIELD
INPUT INPUT

FCOR FCOR COMPARISON LINK FAILURE

SYSOK MISMATCH SYSOK MISMATCH


RESET KILL

A1-A2 COMM. LINK FAILURE B1-B2 COMM. LINK FAILURE

FINAL
OUTPUT

TO O/P RELAYS
NOTE:
NON-VITAL INPUTS ARE ANDED AT THEIR STICK STAGE.
# MISMATCH COMPARISON IS DONE AT STICK STAGE OF NON-VITAL INPUT.
NON-VITAL OUTPUT WILL BE DELIVERED BY ONLY ONE SYSTEM AT ANY TIME.
*

Fig 2

81
SESSION - III

9. EXECUTION
The pre wired racks were sent to site in Feb and installation completed in the same
month. The simulation testing was conducted from Panel and VDU for each system
separately and then testing was done with combined system. The NI started on 15.3.02
and station was commissioned on 20.3.02. The NI was taken for slightly higher duration
to test and observe the system after connecting with ground gears as this was the first
installation.
It is clear that the installation time required as compared to PI is less. As is evident from
Chakulia that the entire process from installing the racks in the relay room to testing
and commissioning took just one month. However it requires completion of design and
testing prior to it. Being the first station, utmost care was taken in design and checking.
This process will have to be further optimized as we gain experience. As compared to
PI the time taken in wiring and testing of wiring can be reduced by 75%. Manpower
required for testing is also reduced. Similarly time required for circuit modification is
almost negligible.
Some of the other advantages, which were experienced during commissioning, are

a) All the testing was logged, so it was easy to analyze any anomaly.
b) Chances of short-circuiting due to wrong wiring as experienced in PI are not there
during testing.
c) Failures on account of relay contacts are minimal and not experienced so far.
d) Circuit energisation time as compared to PI is very less during testing.
e) All the yard indications are given in maintenance VDU hence easier to maintain.
f) Indoor maintenance is less.
g) Adopting the shortcut method is prevented in the relay room to a large extent.
Any tempering on output side is totally eliminated due to feed back of output
relay to the Microlok.

10. VITAL STATISTICS:


10.1 Statistics of the station:
Chakulia station is a four-line station having one common loop. The station comprises
of following signalling gadget for interlocking purpose.
1. No. of points 13
2. No. of signal : i) Main 13
ii) Shunt 08
iii) Calling On 02

82
SESSION - III

3. No. of Signalled routes 35


4. No. of Axle counters: i)Analog for point zone and IBH 11
ii) Digital for LVCD 02
5. No. of track circuits 20
6. IBS-Both sides of station
7. Block control—DLBI with both end block section
8. No. of LC gate 01
9. No. of siding point 02
10. No. of crank handle group 03
11. Length of cable laid(in km. approx.) 40
12. Source of power supply— Up AT, Dn. AT & Local
13. Power Supply—Integrated Power Supply
10.2 Statistics of the component of SSI
SSI system at CKU consists of the following components

1. No. of Microlok Rack 02


2. No. of card files each including 04
one CPU & Power Supply Card
3. No. of non-vital cards 11+11
4. No. of vital cards 15+15
5. No. of relay provided 235
(double coiled relay in single base)
6. No. of non-vital rack 01
7. No. of vital rack 01

11. PERFORMANCE:
The system has performed well and no failure on unsafe side has occurred since its
commissioning on 20.3.02. There has been 3 cases of failures due to heavy lightening
during monsoon, protection for which has been taken as mentioned in the para below.
There has been few cases of system shutdown due to mismatch at input level. The actions
for eliminating these problems have been discussed in the para dealing with hot standby
in brief. There are 7 failures at CKU since 20.3.02 and 5 failures at GII since 16.9.02.

12. PRECAUTIONS:
12.1 Cross talk-minimization : Connection to external equipment have been separated

83
SESSION - III

as much as possible from the wires carrying electronic data signal to minimize
cross-talk.
12.2 Noise elimination:
a. Length of wires and cables has been made short and twisted wires have been
used to minimize noise.
b. Wires carrying power for various circuits have been made short and kept
isolated from all wires connected to MicrolokII to minimize noise.
12.3 Surge Protection:
To protect Microlok from external induced voltages and surge, various precautions
are taken as detailed below.
a. Kharagpur-Tata section is a lighting prone area, hence five no. of earth around
the building with ring made arrangement has been provided to prevent
equipment damage due to lightening.
b. Protection has been taken by connecting opto-isolator between the serial port of
PC and MLK to avoid any chance of surge passing through the ground of PC
COM port to MLK COM port.
c. Surge protection devices has been added to the different circuits to save the
equipment from the lighting surge. SPDs have been provided at the input
point for the 12v DC power supply for MLK Card file, 24v DC for indication
and 220v AC for PC.
d. GD tubes have been connected at the input and the output for all the wires
coming from panel to SSI Non-Vital Card wherever the equipment room and
panel room are not in the same building i.e. indoor wiring is not possible.
e. Repeater Relays have been used to connect external circuits like track, point,
axle counter, IBH etc to isolate the Microlok equipment from external induced
voltages and surges.

10. CONCLUSION:
S. E. Railway has made pioneering efforts in finalizing contracts for supply and
installation of SSI systems to RDSO standards meeting international safety norms.
Railway is now making intensive efforts with RDSO’s support to commission these
systems paving the way for bright and safe future. Success of this project on S. E. Railway
will provide an effective way of clearing the backlog of replacement works specially in
the backdrop of stiff time frame of 5 years and one time grant of funds, which is now
likely to be available. This will in turn –
a) Enhance safety levels of train operation.
b) Improve reliability of signalling system.

84
SESSION - III

c) Provide date for analysis and investigation.


d) Create infrastructure for yard remodeling.
e) Provide capability for CTC.
Commissioning of Chakulia is the first step in this regard. Many more stations will be
commissioned this year. The process of evolving, correcting and perfecting the technology
to suit the local conditions and needs, will go on with every station and will culminate
into a reliable and state of the art digital system, ready to meet the technical challenges
of tomorrow.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT:
We are indebted to Sri S.C.Gupta, Ex CSTE and Sri V.Shankar, CSTE/SE Railway for
their valuable guidance and encouragement. We acknowledge the direction and support
given by Sri Arun Saxena, CSTE/Proj, Sri M. Alam, CSTE/Plg and Sri A.K. Haldhar,
CSTE/Con at SE Railway. We acknowledge the cooperation of the other officer and staff
of S&T dept. of Kharagpur division who gave valuable suggestions. We also like to
mention M/s Union Switch & Signal, who worked tirelessly along with the railway
team, for their help in this endeavour.

85
SESSION - III

SAFETY CERTIFICATION OF RAILWAY SIGNALING


PRODUCTS TO CENELEC STANDARDS

by

Chinnarao Mokkapati,
Vice President, Quality & Systems Assurance
Union Switch & Signal Inc.
Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA

This paper first presents a practical approach to obtaining safety certification of


railway signaling products to known international standards. One set of such
standards is the CENELEC standards prEN50126 [1], prEN50128 [2], and ENV50129
[3]. Then, lessons learned from first-hand experience of the author at Union Switch &
Signal Inc. on the Copenhagen Metro project are presented for the benefit of procuring
Railways and Metros (customers), as well as prospective suppliers.

INTRODUCTION
Modern safety-critical signaling products that use microprocessor-based architectures
can become very complex as a result of increasing levels of functionality demanded of
them. The safety performance of these products should be carefully and thoroughly
assessed for the obvious reason that the safe movement of people and goods, as controlled
by these products, can not be compromised. Also, the reputation, survival and
profitability of a Railway or a Metro are directly affected by the safety record of the
products used on the Railway/Metro.
Suppliers of safety-critical products take their responsibility for safety (in design,
manufacturing, and installation) seriously. However, safety assessment and certification
by a competent, independent third party provides an additional level of confidence in
the product’s safety performance. Also, when the assessment of competing products is
carried out in accordance with well-known international standards, it brings a certain
level of uniformity in compliance, provides a level playing field for all suppliers, and
many customers can benefit from a single assessment.
Union Switch & Signal Inc., a world-wide supplier of signaling control products and
systems has recently obtained safety certification from an Independent Safety Assessor
(ISA), of its Automatic Train Control (ATC) system and the key safety-critical platforms
used in that system as furnished to the Copenhagen Metro. The author shares his
experience from this project, which uses fully-automated driver-less trains and has just
started 24-hours-a-day, 7-days-a-week revenue service. Based on this experience, a
practical approach to obtaining independent third-party safety certification of signaling
products is presented. It is hoped that the Indian Railways adopt this approach for
their current and future procurement of safety-critical products.
87
SESSION - III

A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO SAFETY CERTIFICATION


A systematic Life Cycle approach should be followed for the development of the product.
Typically, the life cycle shown in Figure 1, taken from prEN50126 [1] is found to be
suitable for safety-critical products.
Table 1 that follows Figure 1 indicates the phases in the above life cycle. The principal
development and V&V activities are summarized, and the main input and output
documents related to each phase are listed.
The table includes the documents that are typically submitted for assessment by the
Independent Safety Assessor. Other documentation such as design standards and
manufacturing process descriptions are generally proprietary property of the supplier
and need not be submitted to the Assessor.
Note that the exit criterion for each phase is the acceptance of the phase-related documents.
This is also the entrance criterion for the next phase.
Also note that document groups such as hardware and software detailed design
descriptions, test specifications and reports, etc. contain many sub-documents, usually
at the printed circuit board and software module levels.
1
Concept

2
System Definition and
Application Conditions

3
Risk Analysis

4
System Requirements

5
Apportionment of
System Requirements

6
Design and
Implementation

7
Manufacture

8
Installation

9
System Validation
(including Safety
Acceptance and
Commissioning)

10
System Acceptance

12 11 13
Performance Monitoring Operation and Modification and
Maintenance Retrofit

14 Re-apply Life cycle


Decommissioning (See note)
and Disposal
Note: The phase at which a modification enters the life cycl e will be dependent upon both the sy stem being
modified and the s pecific modification under c onsideration

Figure 1: Product/System Life Cycle (from prEN50126)

88
SESSION - III

89
SESSION - III

90
SESSION - III

ORGANIZATION/RESOURCE ALLOCATION
FOR SAFETY CERTIFICATION PROJECT
An organization of the type shown in Figure 2 below has been found to be suitable for
completing the design, verification & validation, safety analysis, and independent safety
assessment of a safety-critical product. Note that the Independent Safety Assessor, either
a third party or a government agency, effectively works for the procuring Railway or
Metro, just like the Supplier working on a contract from the Railway or Metro. The
Assessor is completely independent of the Supplier, both financially and contractually.
The project is handled by project managers in the Supplier and Assessor organizations.
Both of these project managers are accountable to the Customer. All communications
and submittals flow through them. They are also responsible for the planning, scheduling
and cost control activities on the project.

Customer
(Procuring Railway or Metro)
Project Manager

Supplier Independent Safety Assessor


(Product Desgin, V&V, Safety Responsibility) Project Manager
Project Manager

Planner/Scheduler Planner/Scheduler
Cost Controller Cost Controller

Independent Verification & Validation Systems Assurance Team Design Team Quality Assurance Assessment Team
Team (Safety, R&M, EMC Analyses) Technical Team Leader Configuration Control

Hardware V&V Hardware Design Team

Software V&V Software Design Team

Figure 2. Typical Safety Certification Organization


At the Supplier organization, the design is handled by a technical manager or team
leader with the help of hardware and software engineers. Note that the verification and
91
SESSION - III

validation activities and the safety assurance activities are handled by teams independent
of the design team.

LESSONS LEARNED
The Copenhagen Metro project is perhaps the first project in the world where the
emerging CENELEC Standards (1997 versions) were applied rigorously for safety
certification of the ATC System and associated vital products used on that Metro. Many
lessons were learned on this project:
• The suppliers must follow a structured process of documenting the requirements,
design, verification & validation, and safety analysis of the products and system.
• Clear forward and backward traceability must exist between requirements, design,
V&V and safety analysis.
• A Hazard Log that shows clear evidence of how each and every hazard associated
with the products/system is eliminated/controlled should be maintained.
• All credible failure modes of both Class I and Class II hardware should be analyzed
and tested, following the guidelines in [3].
• Undetected failure modes shall be analyzed in combinations of up to three or until
it can be shown mathematically that the wrong-side failure rate is well below the
target hazardous failure rate.
• The supplier must have a strong quality management system and a safety
management process to ensure that the systematic failure integrity targets
(representing specification, design, manufacturing, installation and maintenance
errors) are met.
• The Independent Safety Assessor must have the right competencies and resources,
and must be willing to use some engineering judgement in the assessment process
while maintaining complete independence from the supplier.
• The procuring Railway/Metro must recognize that safety certification adds
substantial cost to the procurement process and must make cost-benefit decisions.
The Author hopes that the Indian Railways and the associated agencies will be benefitted
from our experinces of safety certification of Railway Signalling product to CENELEC
standard from the Copenhagen Metro Project.

REFERENCES
1. prEN 50126: September 1999- Railway Applications - The Specification and
Demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS).
2. prEN 50128: March 2001-Railway Applications - Software for Railway Control and
Protection Systems
3. ENV 50129: May 1998 - Railway Applications - Safety Related Electronic Systems
for Signalling

92
SESSION - III

WESTRACE NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS


ADVANCED INTERLOCKING TECHNOLOGY

By

Charles R Page,
Director of Marketing & Sales
Wayne McDonald,
Manager Technology & Training
Invensys Rail Systems Australia-Westinghouse Signals Australia division

New WESTRACE Solid State Interlocking systems utilize powerful, industry-standard,


Information Technology networks for most of its vital and non-vital communications.
Standard protocols, through off the shelf communications hardware, provide
unprecedented flexibility in designing large, complex, interconnected vital interlocking
systems. Serial communications paths, previously the most vulnerable parts of a
system can be integrated into a simple, redundant network. These networked
connections open up new possibilities for hierarchical interlocking systems while
simultaneously giving flexible control powerful diagnostics.
This paper overviews the basic WESTRACE solid state interlocking and explains
how railways can benefit from transferring the vital data over networked
communications to provide the maximum total system availability.

1. INTRODUCTION
The world’s leading railways are almost universally turning to solid state interlocking
for new and renewal signalling projects. Their flexibility, ease of modification and
advanced control and diagnostic features make them ideally suited to meet the business
needs of the modern railways.
WESTRACE is one of the solid state interlocking available from the Invensys Rail Systems
group. It is our most popular model and is well suited a wide range of small to large
installations. The world’s first revenue service WESTRACE was installed on a passenger
and freight line at Dry Creek in South Australia in 1990. WESTRACE has continually
evolved to increase logic capacity, enhance its functionality and add new features.
The latest enhancement, the WESTRACE Network Communications (WNC) model, was
released in mid 2002, with 10 installations being commissioned in Europe as of mid
2003 and many more in the design phase. This paper describes the WESTRACE WNC
system and highlights how this modular interlocking solution helps deliver safe, flexible
and reliable signalling services to the railway.

93
SESSION - III

This paper will use the term WESTRACE rather than WESTRACE WNC for convenience.

2. WESTRACE OVERVIEW
WESTRACE is a modular solid state interlocking that provides all the standard features
expected of such a system, as well as several unusually advanced features. It takes vital
parallel inputs from local track equipment (point detection, track circuits, relays, etc),
vital inputs from nearby interlocking (e.g. block circuits) and non vital controls and
logically manipulates this according to safe application data designed by Signal
Engineers to generate vital parallel outputs (e.g. to signals and point contactors, relays),
vital serial output (e.g. block circuits) and non vital indications.

Unusually, WESTRACE is complemented with fully integrated, non-vital logic


processing, diagnostics and communications. The huge non-vital logic capacity frees
the vital logic of all but essential vital tasks and is typically used for route setting, route
availability checking, panel processing and sometimes alarm monitoring. Additional
features and logic constructs that cannot be executed in vital logic ease the design. Any
logic state can be transferred between the vital and non vital logic. Comprehensive
diagnostics timestamp and record every vital and non-vital change of logic state. All
WESTRACE vital, non vital and diagnostic communications are by default routed using
industry standard UDP/IP (a subset of TCP/IP) over an industry standard 10 BaseT
Ethernet port. Serial links can also be used where Ethernet is not practical. These features
are described in more detail later in this paper. WESTRACE’s inherent power and
flexibility has allowed it to be applied in several related applications. The WESTECT

94
SESSION - III

Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system uses the standard WESTRACE platform as its
heart. A trackside Encoder that transmits data to the train informing it of signal states is
simply a WESTRACE with an additional module. The WESTECT ATP On Board
Computer is also WESTRACE based. WESTRACE’s inherent vital telemetery has been
used without the associated logic to safely communicate relay states over both radio
and PCM channels, including as a vital Token Block interface system.
Some railways, such as in the UK, have particularly complex requirements of level
crossing control. WESTRACE has been configured as a flexible level crossing controller,
with many standard crossing configurations built in.
WESTRACE forms a key part of Invensys Rail’s pilot line ERTMS systems.

3. WIDELY ACCEPTED AND PROVEN IN SERVICE


WESTRACE has become one of the worlds most popular solid state interlocking since
its introduction in 1990. Over 1,000 installations are now in operation including several
very large installations with multiple WESTRACEs.
It has been applied to almost every conceivable type of railway;
• Australia • Germany
• Indonesia • Ireland
• Malaysia • New Zealand
• Norway • Philippines
• Portugal • Romania
• Spain • Thailand
• United Kingdom.
on mainline and subway systems, in freight and passenger service as well as in both dc
and ac (up to 25 kVac) electrified territory. It has gained safety approval, and is in use,
in the following countries; Each and every railway feels the need to conduct its own
safety assurance of the system. Some of these have been extremely rigorous and onerous.
Independent safety assurance consultants, recognised industry safety experts and railway
staff have audited and reviewed the thorough in-house safety assurance program that
has always been integrated throughout each phase of the development lifecycle.
WESTRACE safety architecture is based on
• appropriate development environment
• appropriate development processes and tools
• comprehensive diversity (and where possible, diversity between hardware and
software)

95
SESSION - III

• demonstrable fault negation (and anti-de-nega-tion) systems


• comprehensive testing of memory, hardware and stored data
WESTRACE either uses inherently vital hardware or at least two diverse processes to
ensure the system integrity. Different software programs using diverse code
independently evaluate the logic and compare the result. All system data is both stored
and communicated in diverse forms—all the way from the input modules, through
processing, to the output modules and the results are compared at each phase. All vital
modules continually check themselves, cross check each other and the VLM (including
the correct operation of the processors) to ensure error free and totally safe operation.
It is particularly interesting to note that WESTRACE has passed some of the most
demanding safety approval processes in the world, such as those of BR-RailTrack-
Network Rail, London Underground and the EBA in Germany.
It has been assessed as compliant with RIA23, CENELEC EN50128, EN5029 and other
recognised safety standards.
Invensys Rail member company Westinghouse Rail Systems of the UK has just been
awarded a £850M contract for the resignalling of approximately two thirds of the whole
of the London Underground network using WESTRACE. London Underground is one
of the world’s busiest metro systems. They already have extensive experience of this
system as it is in use on the Central and Jubilee Lines and is currently the only solid
state interlocking of its type approved by London Underground. WESTRACE also fully
complies with the RDSO standard for solid state interlocking for use on Indian Railways
WESTRACE continues to undergo continual improvement and evolution since its
introduction to increase its capacity, do more and be easier to use. This evolution rather
then revolution approach maintains the basic system architecture and therefore the
maximum backward compatibility to preserve a railway’s investment in the large
installed base. The evolution includes
• major increases in logic capacity
• specialist input and output modules to interface with coded track circuits,
WESTECT, etc
• enhanced diagnostics
• addition of non vital logic processing
• communications, especially the IP based network communications
• design, testing and maintenance tools
Unchanged modules can continue to be used with the new modules. A relevant case
occurred in mid 2002 when the first ever WESTRACE, installed at Dry Creek in South
Australia in 1990, was significantly expanded to meet new operational requirements. In
the process, the size of the installation approximately doubled. All the existing input
and output modules from the original installation were re-used in the new application.

96
SESSION - III

We were also able to transfer the original application logic for use as the starting point
for the upgraded system.

4. THE MODULAR INTERLOCKING


WESTRACE is a modular interlocking. Every installation requires the Vital Logic Module
(VLM) and the non-vital logic, communication and diagnostic module (NCDM), as well
as a power supply module. Other modules are added as necessary to provide the
required quantity and type of inputs or outputs.
Most systems need only one type of input module and one or two types of output
module. The Vital Parallel Input Module (VPIM) is the general purpose input module.
It detects the presence of 50 Vdc from external detection circuits or existing relays (eg
track relays). Twelve fully isolated input circuits are provided per VPIM module. Two
inputs may be combined in antiparallel to detect polarised inputs.
The Vital Relay Output Module (VROM) is the general purpose output module,
sourcing 50 Vdc outputs to drive point contactors, Q relays or similar. Eight isolated
outputs are provided per VROM module. They can be wired in anti-parallel to drive
polar circuits. Signals may be directly driven by the Vital Lamp Output Module (VLOM).
This module can directly drive 110 Vac LED or transformer coupled incandescent signals
(including those with filament changeover relays). The module has an integral steady
or flashing aspect control with all flashing outputs from an interlocking synchronised.
The VLOM incorporates both hot filament proving and cold filament checking. This
enables it to check lamp circuits, re-gardless of whether the aspect is currently energised.
The cold filament checking pulse is so short that it won’t produce a visible output from
a de-energised aspect.
The VROM and VLOM outputs incorporate a Graceful Degradation feature. If a fault is
detected in an output circuit it is safely disabled but the remainder of the interlocking
continues operating normally. A fault bit is cleared and this may be used in the logic.
Graceful degradation limits the impact of any failure to the directly affected area—most
of the railway continues operation until the fault is repaired.
Each WESTRACE uses between one and four, 6RU high 19 inch housings that are
normally installed into a 19 inch rack. The VLM and NCDM must be installed at the
right side of the top housing but other modules can be installed anywhere. Only the
number of housings required to contain the modules required for an installation need
be provided.
The WESTRACE design has paid particular attention to immunity to both conducted
and induced electromagnetic interference. The housing itself is fully shielded and all
circuits entering or leaving the enclosure pass through carefully designed isolation filters.
High immunity to interference is not just a matter of shielding and filtering. It is a system
issue that involves many disciplines. Therefore the WESTRACE system documentation
includes the appropriate recommendations on primary protection, earthing and cabling
that ensure it is always applied in ways that maintain this high inherent immunity.

97
SESSION - III

WESTRACE is successfully operating in many areas of extremely high incidence of


lightning, such as central Java in Indonesia and Northern Queensland in Australia. These
installations demonstrate the extremely reliable operation of a correctly installed system.
Recently there have been several cases where lightning has struck near a location where
a WESTRACE has been installed alongside other solid state interlocking technologies.
The high immunity of the WESTRACE was then impressively demonstrated as it was
the only unit to continue operation unaffected.
The system has been designed for use over an extended temperature range of up to 70
°C ambient. Air conditioning of the equipment room or location case is not a requirement.
For example, in Indonesia and Malaysia we have successfully provided a total of 123
WESTRACE installations and none of the equipment is in an air-conditioned
environment.
Overall, this extensive in service experience has resulted in an exceptionally reliable
design. For example, as of the date of this paper all of the 600WESTRACE systems
installed in Malaysia have been continuously operated for over 18 months without a
single failure of WESTRACE equipment of any kind.

5. WESTRACE SYSTEM CAPACITY


A common question is, “How powerful is WESTRACE, how much railway can it control?”.
That is often a difficult question to answer because it depends on a local signalling
practice. For example, it depends upon the complexity of the signalling principles of
the railway and whether the tracks are bi-directional. However, a general sense of its
capacity can be gained from the following vital statistics.
A single VLM can handle;
• 3,357 Internal Vital Latches (relay equivalents)
• 300 Internal Vital Timers
• around 1,800-2,600 rungs of vital logic, with up to 50 relay equivalent ‘contacts’ in
each rung.
The non-vital logic has about 10 times this capacity.
This is typically sufficient processing capacity for 175-200 Routes.
Processing capacity is only part of the answer and there is a physical limitation in the 4
available housings for input and output modules. Up to 28 input and output modules
can be used across 4 housings.
Larger systems may use multiple racks of WESTRACE, often with all the processing
executing in a single VLM. This keeps all the interlocking logic in one processor and
eliminates the ‘cross-boundary’ issues that would complicate the design if the logic
were distributed across several processors. It simplifies design and maintenance, and
minimises response time. It may also be used, as described later, to segment the railway
for availability.

98
SESSION - III

WESTRACE has features that makes it particularly simple to link multiple systems
together. To understand how this is done we will now describe some of the wide range
of available interlocking configurations.

6. INTERLOCKING CONFIGURATIONS
Many of the interlocking configurations rely on the effective network communication
architecture that allows multiple vital and non-vital, high capacity, communication
sessions to be established between in-terlockings and the associated control and
diagnostic systems. A subset of the configurations is possible using serial point to point
or point to multi-point communications although these are mostly retained for interface
to legacy or hard wired systems.
6.1 Communication Network
WESTRACE uses the network to exchange most of the vital and non-vital data in
the system. This is a powerful and flexible feature that opens up many possibilities
and some of these are discussed below.
The network is based on the industry standard UDP/IP protocol (a subset of TCP/
IP selected used to comply with safety restrictions), over 10 BaseT Ethernet with a
RJ45 connection. All data is coded and fully protected against all forms of
corruption, delay or transformation during transmission. The vital data messages
containing the true and complement data and CRCs are assembled and checked in
the VLM and simply encapsulated in an IP packet by the NCDM for transport.
Non vital data and diagnostic IP packets are assembled in the NCDM. All data can
transferred over industry standard networks using industry standard IT hardware.
Good network design will usually include network segmentation and redundant
routing paths and can utilise existing infrastructure.
High bandwidth links is generally not required outside a local area and typically
a 64 kb/s circuit is adequate for multiple interlockings along a railway. Proper
separation should be maintained for vital data and we recommend physically
restricting the access from an organisation’s general network. Some data may be
made more widely available via an appropriately safety rated firewall that can
also prevent network congestion from external sources.
Each WESTRACE can simultaneously run 16 vital and 16 non vital communication
sessions.
6.2 Stand-alone interlockings
The most basic WESTRACE configuration is a stand-alone interlocking as shown
in Figure 2 :

99
SESSION - III

Remote or local controls and indications are exchanged over a serial link with external
non-vital I/O to interface a push button local panel (not shown) or over the network
with a PC based control panel or a remote (CTC) control centre. Logic can be configured
in the NCDM to handle all local and remote control, so that control authority can be
passed between the systems as required or under fault conditions. Indications are sent
to all control points but the logic ensures that control is only accepted from one.
The network is used to interface local and remote diagnostic systems.
Vital data (eg block information) may be exchanged with adjacent interlockings over
the network.
VLM6 NCDM VPIMs VPIMs VROMs VROMs VLOMs VLOMs WESTRACE Railway
Signalling Equipment VLM6 NCDM VPIMs VPIMs VROMs VROMs VLOMs VLOMs
WESTRACE Railway Signalling Equipment Adjacent WESTRACE (via WAN) Adjacent
WESTRACE (via WAN) (via WAN) (via WAN).
6.3 Linked WESTRACE systems
The vital communications over the network become particularly powerful, yet
simple, where multiple WESTRACEs need to be connected for capacity or
distributed input and output purposes. The most common application is within a
single station area to link a master WESTRACE containing interlocking logic to
one or more ‘dumb’ WESTRACEs that don’t contain active logic. These are then
called Object Controllers and only the central WESTRACE with the logic is referred
to as an Interlocking. There may also be links to adjacent interlockings for block
working. Figure 3:shows an example of a master WESTRACE and 4 object
controllers. Only the prime sources of control and diagnosis are not shown for
simplicity.

100
SESSION - III

This technique may be used to expand input and output capacity but it is a powerful
cost saving feature as well. The central WESTRACE can now be located
conveniently, perhaps in existing accommodation or where maintenance access is
best. The Object Controllers can be in the same place. However, they can also be
fitted closer to the equipment under control, such as in trackside location cases or
other conveniently located accommodation. By putting the Object Controllers close
to the relevant equipment, considerable savings can be realised by reducing cabling
and the associated trenching costs. As the interlocking logic is all located centrally,
this approach doesn’t increase the complexity of the logic design. Although other
solid state interlocking technologies can appear to approximate to this approach,
the flexibility of WESTRACE makes it so much easier. The unusually large
processing capacity ensures that the central WESTRACE can handle more Object
Controllers before having to resort to splitting the logic across additional
interlockings and introducing boundaries. The networked architecture permits a
particularly simple single point interconnection approach over industry standard
media rather than using multiple, proprietary, point to point links with associated
line interfaces. This Object controller approach can also be combined with another
outstanding WESTRACE feature to provide an even more cost effective solution
as described below.
6.4 WESTRACE Hot standby Systems
Hot standby is an integral feature of WESTRACE. It is not an application engineered
feature and no location specific logic design is required. The Hot Standby option
only needs to be selected in the configuration and the configuration logic prepared
as normal.
Hot Standby, as an integral feature, has been subjected to the same rigorous design
and safety approval process as the rest of the design. This is important as bolt-on
hot standby can introduce a safety risks. The WESTRACE hot standby system

101
SESSION - III

connects two separate, identical, standard WESTRACE systems by high speed fibre
optic links. The VLM and NCDM each have separate fibre optic connections. The
off-line system is completely updated with an identical image of every internal
logic state once every processing cycle. Even the software version in use and the
interlocking unique address is checked during the update. There is no possibility
of the two available systems being out of correspondence at any time. There is no
possibility of both interlockings have safe but different logic states due to slight
differences in timing for reading inputs (this situation that could give an unsafe
result on changeover cannot occur with WESTRACE)

Figure 4: Hot Standby Connection

One system is biased on-line at start up by system configuration. A switch is normally


installed that allows a technician to permit automatic changeover, inhibit changeover or
request changeover. Each system monitors the other and will effect a changeo-ver if the
on-line system fails or if requested and the off-line system is available.
A system changeover will take between one and two processor cycles with the off-line
system taking over with identical outputs to the former on-line system— true hot stand-
by.
The off-line system receives all the same inputs as the on-line system and is fully
operational, complete with its internal diagnostics. If the off-line system develops a
fault this is flagged to the diagnostic system in the same way as the on-line unit.
The off-line system can read inputs but its outputs are disabled and cannot drive loads.
Many installations also use relay contact isolation between the main and stand-by systems
to permit independent testing of the off line system and additional isolation of between
the two systems from potential dangerous transients in the field.
The expense of hot-stand-by is hardly justified if both systems are likely to fail from the
same electrical disturbance. The off-line system can be powered down for maintenance

102
SESSION - III

or upgrade. If it is just for maintenance, then the repaired system can powered up again
and seam-lessly brought back into standby. The on-line system need never be interrupted
and the railway operates non-stop.
If a logic change or I/O modification has been made, to the off-line system, then the
same change must then be made to the on-line system before they can work as a hot-
stand-by pair. However, this approach still allows upgrade work to be undertaken more
quickly with the absolute minimum of system down time.
No additional hardware is required to link two standard WESTRACEs as a hot-stand-
by pair apart from the optional relays, the manual control switch, the associated wiring
and the fibre optic update cable. Standard network techniques are used to provide
separate and isolated network connections to each WESTRACE.
There are different options of implementing hot stand-by for an installation comprises a
central WESTRACE interlocking and one or more Object Controllers.
• The Interlocking WESTRACE could be a hot-stand-by unit with no local input and
output and the Object Controllers could be single units (non hot-stand-by).
• Critical inputs and outputs could be driven directly from the hot-stand-by
interlocking with the remainder driven from non hot stand-by object controllers.
• Some or all of the Object Controllers themselves could be hot-stand-by units. Any
combination is possible. As much or as little hot-stand-by input and outputs
justified can be provided.
This flexibility can be very cost effective. One approach is to only provide hot-stand-by
inputs and outputs for the main lines through a multitrack station, either directly from
a hot-stand-by interlocking or via a hot-stand-by Object Controller. The loops could be
controlled by a separate, non hot-standby, Object Controller. This can save costs on the
loop lines whilst providing the highest possible availability to the more important main
lines. Alternatively, the Object Controllers could be judiciously connected each to a
separated part of the trackside so that a failure of a single Object Controller would not
prevent running trains through the controlled area.

7. DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS
Users can select basic and enhanced diagnostic features. A WESTRACE NCDM stores
the most recent 2.5 Lakh events in a circular buffer. This information can be accessed by
a text based program using a Laptop PC over a local serial port or the network. The
same computer can set local parameters, clear buffers and request communication status.
A dial up connection allows password protected access to diagnostic information from
standard telephone lines or even from a mobile phone. A remote maintainer could
investigate a fault beforehand, confirm its nature and arrive equipped with any necessary
spares or tools. It also allows WESTRACE to call a fault centre when a fault occurs or
periodically to report faults.

103
SESSION - III

Users can obtain more information in an easily used format with a separate Windows
based tool called MoviolaW. Moviola is Spanish for ‘Replay’. A PC is used at each site
to log the data from one or more WESTRACEs, via the network (or one of the serial
ports.) Each interlocking change of state is stored as it is received. A new file is created
every few days (user configured). Files older that 30 days are deleted or separately
archived.
Users can configure the PC displays to show:
• track diagrams with signal, point and track occupancy status shown by colour and
shape;
• state of any nominated latches or inputs in the system in a separate window
• status of selected (DOS wildcards are supported) mnemonics (eg all points) in a
separate window
• all or selected mnemonic changes of state on a cycle by cycle basis in a separate
window
• Reports on selected mnemonics (eg the number of changes for a set of points) in
the logged period
• A diagram of the housing showing each of the modules—the module will be shown
in red if it is faulty.
• english text messages describing any configured, external failures (eg, lamp fail,
loss of detection) MoviolaW can also execute logic to generate alarms.

Presenting the data in the form of a graphical track plan is extremely powerful, especially
when combined with the report generation facility. It assists the maintainer to quickly

104
SESSION - III

and accurately understand what is going on. This is particularly useful when some
faults may be external to the interlocking, such as those caused by lost points detection
or bobbing track circuits. With the track plan view, the maintainer can clearly see the
relationships between what is happening in the field and the interlocking’s response.
MoviolaW normally displays current (real time) data but can also be requested to display
and replay any of the stored data (while continuing to log real time data). The user has
a ‘VCR’ type control to select a start time to examine and then replay forward or back-
wards at fast, normal or slow speed.
The underlying database is in standard Microsoft Access format and can be separately
analysed if required.
The graphical view coupled with the advanced logging and replay features has made
MoviolaW a useful tool for investigating incidents such as Driver passes a signal at
Danger. The relationship between the track circuit and the signal aspect can be clearly
seen and understood by all. Even the simple exercise of showing this to just a few drivers
can create a noticeable improvement in driving practices and culture across the whole
fleet.
MoviolaW can be accessed remotely via the network, dedicated serial port or dial in to
view or replay and has become a very important diagnostic tool. Logged data may be
extracted over this connection for local replay

8. DESIGN & TEST TOOLS


WESTRACE has been developed so that signal engineers, who are competent to design
relay based circuits, can apply the system with the minimum of additional training.
Our customers have confirmed that typically only 5 days of system design training is
required for such staff. Additional training is only required to fully use some of the
more advanced productivity and test tools. However the standard system design training
is entirely sufficient for a signal engineer to design and test a WESTRACE interlocking.
Figure 6: overviews the design and test tools available and the design and test process.

105
SESSION - III

8.1 Graphical Configuration Sub-System (GCSS)


GCSS is the primary design tool. It is a Windows based PC program that allows the
signal engineer to.
• select and place modules
• define each input or output for a module
• define the data carried over any of the serial links or network sessions and to
define the sessions
• Design the signalling logic
• Manage the design through input, check, test, approve and maintenance phases
It uses relay equivalent design concepts including a graphical drag and drag approach
from a palette of standard icons. This is equivalent to drawing relay circuits using
the familiar relay contact notation. PLC style ladder logic notation is also available,
the user can switch freely between the two. Figure 7: is an example of familiar
signalling logic.

Figure 7: GCSS Logic Design Screen

GCSS also performs consistency checks to ensure that syntactical and semantic
errors such as unused or duplicated mnemonics and configuration rule violation
are detected. Full version control ensures changes are properly authorised and
controlled. Difference lists can be automatically produced to highlight or verify
any changes undertaken during a modification cycle. Wide usage of cut and paste
and find and replace can save on design time.
It prints a graphical module layouts in the rack, link settings and terminal allocations
to assist in the construction, test and maintenance of the relevant racks.
A template tool allows the user to construct a library of standard circuits functional
elements. These can then be pasted into the design and used repeatedly. Design

106
SESSION - III

aids are included to automate some of the renaming and renumbering commonly
required when designs are reused eg when points #13 become points #15 all the
contact mnemonics will require changing from 13XXX to 15XXX and the tool assists
this process.
The same GCSS tool is used in a similar way to design the integrated non-vital
logic.
8.2 Installation Check Sub System (ICS)
It is vitally important that the right version of the correct data is installed error free
in the intended system. WESTRACE inherently checks the version and ICS confirms
what is actually in the target WESTRACE by uploading, decompiling and validating
against the source data.
8.3 Graphical Simulator (GSIM)
WESTRACE interlockings can be tested in the traditional manner, using the control
panel a custom switch panel to simulate field equipment. MoviolaW must be used
to view the internal states and assists by giving a railway view of the testing.
However, this approach requires the actual interlocking, completed control panel
(or even CTC) and expensive, custom made field simulation. It is relatively
inconvenient and time consuming. GSIM is a windows based software tool that
provides
• a control centre mimic diagram for controlling the simulated railway
• a track based mimic diagram and underlying logic to simulate field equipment
(points, signals, etc)
• one or many instances of the same logic evaluation engine as is used in
WESTRACE
• optional interfaces to a WESTCAD control system and a MoviolaW system to
enable all components to be tested together
• logging and script generation (for repeated test setups) facilities.

Figure 8: GSIM relationships

107
SESSION - III

A signal engineer can fully functionally test an interlocking or a set of interconnected


interlockings through the windowed environment. The engineer always has full
visibility of the control, the track outputs, the internal states and the field detection.
The engineer can even initiate failures of field equipments to ensure safe
interlocking response.
Please refer to Figure 8:.
All test inputs, internal states and outputs are continuously logged. Test sequences
can be recorded and run as a script. A library of standard tests can be constructed
making the majority of testing and test record keeping automated. GSIM is suitable
for safety proof testing of the interlocking when used as specified. Once tested,
only correspondence (or connectivity) testing, is required on site.
The combination of GCSS and GSIM means that the required construction and testing
time on site is very short and new installations can be commissioned in a matter of
hours. Similarly stage-works can be introduced quickly and smoothly.
Modifications to an interlocking can be executed with minimum down time because
the modification can be fully tested in the office. Apart from potential cost savings,
this also helps maintain safety. This is because all the time the interlocking is
unavailable during a commissioning or stage-works the railway is likely to continue
to operate using emergency procedures. This can introduce many safety risks as
the railway is not enjoying the full protection of the signalling. Keeping this time
as short as possible reduces the risk of related safety incidents to a minimum.
8.4 Training, Manuals & Support
WESTRACE is supported by a comprehensive set of user documentation that is
sufficient for the design and maintenance of the system. The main documents
include;
• WESTRACE System overview manual
• WESTRACE Application manual
• Graphical Configuration Sub-System manual
• Installation Check Sub-System manual
• First line maintenance manual and are supplemented by manuals for GSIM
and MoviolaW

Figure 9: Documentation

108
SESSION - III

Overview and competency based training courses available (often delivered to site staff)
include
• Appreciation Course (half day)
• First Line Maintenance Course (5 days)
• System Design Course (5-7 days)
• Set to Work Course
• Graphical Simulator Design
• MoviolaW Design
Design and maintenance courses are competency based with a significant hands-on
component. The training materials are of a high quality and professional training
specialists are used to deliver the courses. A ‘Train Your Trainer’ service is also available
so that customers can subsequently deliver training courses to their own staff
independently. Invensys Rail recommends a 1 day refresher version of the maintenance
courses is because the system is so reliable that staff do not have the need to practice
their skills.
The whole aim of the tools, training and support model is to enable customers to
competently implement WESTRACE based systems without direct support from the
supplier. Of course, such support is available if required but the customer can have a
high degree of independence if desired.
Part of the support available includes the provision of maintenance services, and module
repairs as a minimum. A wide range of services can be made available as required;
• Repair or Exchange—From a local base
• Spares on Consignment
• Guaranteed stock holdings
• Extended Warranties
• Long term pricing agreements
• Full on-site maintenance services
• Any combination of the above

9. SUMMARY
The interlocking is the heart of the railway. Its performance and safety are critical to the
performance and safety of the railway as a whole. The modern railway is also a business
and requires cost effectiveness in everything.

109
SESSION - III

ATP TECHNOLOGY FOR INDIAN RAILWAYS

by

CHANDRIKA PRASAD
FORMER ADL. MEMBER (SIGNAL)
INDIAN RAILWAY BOARD

IRSTE SEMINAR 2003 NEW DELHI

INFRASTRUCTURE SCENARIO IR & RAIL WORLD

Aspects IR Rail World


D/L Services 65 trains/way over 130 trains/way
Automatic Signali 2.7% network 90% UK, 84% China
67% Japan
Speed 130Kmph over 300 Kmph
ATP on M/L nil commonly adopted
"our trains do not collide, we have systems to prevent that"
"99.9999% safety will never be acceptable to us"

111
SESSION - III

ATP IN EUROPE – THE PAST


COUNTRY ATP SYSTEM
AUSTRIA LZB
BELGIUM TBL
DENMARK ZUB
FINLAND EBICAB
FRANCE KVB, TVM
GERMANY LZB
HUNGARY EVM
ITALY BACC/SCMT
NETHERLANDS ATB
NORWAY EBICAB
PORTUGAL EBICAB
SPAIN ASFA
SWEDEN EBICAB
SWITZERLAND ZUB
UK AWS/TPWD
15 DIFFERENT ATP SYSTEMS FROM PAST

RESULT

• EUROSTAR – CAB 6 DIFF. ATP UNITS


FOUR CAPITALS – CAB 8 DIFF. ATP UNITS
VENDOR MONOPOLY
MAINTENANCE?
RELIABILITY?

• MISSION -BY 2020 ALL HIGH SPEED LINES AND MOST CONVENTIONAL LINES
IN EUROPE WILL BE OPERATIONAL USING ETCS

112
SESSION - III

ETCS TECHNOLOGY

GSM-R

ETCS Level 1 ETCS Level 2

ETCS IN EUROPE – PRESENT & FUTURE


TO INCREASE SAFETY OF EXISING LINES CENTRAL & EASTERN EUROPE &
LUXEMBOURG ARE PRESENTLY ADOPTING ETCS LEVEL 1 .

Silistr a

Kos hav a

Vi din

RUSE
Lom
Kar da m
Dimovo Or ya hov o
Ch er kvitsa
Ivanovo
Brusartsi Bele ne
Oreshet s
Svish tov Dve mogil i Do br ci h
Or es h Ra zgr ad
Sam u li
Boi chinovtsi Byala
Yasen Borovo
Pl even
Montanu No vi Paz ar
Pol ski Popovo
L EVSKI
Trambesh Shum en Kaspichan
T CHERVEN
BRI AG
Targovisht e Belo slav
Vrat sa St razhi tsa
Berkovitsa Pavlikeni Provadiya VARNA
Han Povelyanovo
Pre slav Krum
M EZD RA Si ndel
Roman Velik o GO RNA ORI AHO VIT SA Dalgopol
T ar no vo
Slav yan tsi Z latn a Pane ga
Kal otina Kom unari
Sta ro Or yah ov o
Dragom an Svoge T sar ev a
Liv ada
Al domirovtsi Elen a
Ga br ovo
T ro yan
Bols hev ik
Sof ia-N.
Zlat it sa Kop rivs htit sa Tvarditsa
Ban kya Pod ue ne
Ayt os
Sl iven
Pi rdop KAR LO VO
PERNI K SOFIAIskar M usa che vo Kl isura St raldzha
KAR NOBA T
Kazanlak Dabovo Pom o rie
Vakarel Hisa r
Kal ofer Tulovo Nova Kerm en
Radomir Pan ag yur isht e Z IM NIT SA
Ch uku ro vo Zagora
Yam bol Vlad imir Pa vlov
STARA BURGAS
Ha n
Bob ov Dol
ZAGORA Asp ar uch
Kost enet s Cherna Svo bod a
Kyu ste ndil DUPNI CA Gora
M an ole Bel ozem Mi haylovo
PAZ ARDZ HI K
Gy ue she vo
SEPT EMVRI Or izo vo Chirpan Elho vo
Var va ra
St amboli ski
Si meonovgrad
BL AG OEVGR AD Pes hte ra
PLOVDIV DIM IT RO VGRA D
Ase nov gr ad
Ha skov o

Do br n
i ish te
SVIL ENG RAD

Kar dz hali To be i nstal led b y BDZ


Sandanski PH ARE Proj ect
Ge ne ra l T od oro v Exi sti ng
Pod kov a
Pet rich Kul ata

SOFIA–BURGAS

113
SESSION - III

SOFIA–BURGAS LEVEL 1 IN COMMERCIAL SERVICE


ATHENS SURBURB LEVEL 1 (TRAIN BORN & TRACK
SIDE MAY 2004)
VIENNA–HUNGARY LEVEL 1 DEC 2001
CZECH PENDOLINOS LEVEL 1 & 2 (TRAIN BORN MAY 2005)
SLOVAKIA–SLOVENIA LEVEL 1 PROGECTS (COMING)

ETCS IN EUROPE – PRESENT & FUTURE


COUNTRY ETCS STATUS
ITALY ROME-NAPLES (HIGH SPEED) BY 2004
END BOLOGNA-FLORENCE
MILAN-BOLOGNA TURIN-MILAN
(WORK IN ADVANCE STAGE OF
PROGRESS)
SPAIN - MADRID-LLEIDA (HIGH SPEED) TO BE IN
OPERATION 2003 LEVEL 2 AS MAIN
(LEVEL) 1 & EXISTING ATP AS BACK UP)
- ZARAGOZA-HUESCA
LEVEL 1; IN 2003
SWITZERLAND - LEVEL 2 ON DENSER TRAFFIC LINES
40% OF ROUTE K.M. ON OTHER LINES
LEVEL 1 WITH “LIMITED SUPERVISION”
MOST ROLLING STOCK TO BE EQUIPPED
WITH LEVEL 2 TO OPERATE
ANYWHERE BY 2017
UK - WEST COAST MAIN LINE
-  EPT RECOMMENDATIONS LEVEL 2 FOR
MAIN LINES, LINE SIDE SIGNALS TO BE
REMOVED IN LONGER TERM
- FITTING OF TRAINS WILL BE
PRIORITISED.
………………………

114
SESSION - III

OLTEN-LUCERNE ETCS LEVEL 2

SYSTEM OVERVIEW

Siemens
Dispatcher MM I

Bombardie r

Maintenance
Driver Driver MMI Traffic Manageme nt
Service MMI

150200
4000
2000
Shnt
System
Supr
100
300 1000 Data
50 500
400 4000 Test Shnt
0 500150
200 2000 Misc Supr Service-
100
103
50
300
0 1000
5
500 Mesg Data Service-
0
400
500
Spec Test
Part Misc
PC
103 0
5 Mesg PC
Spec
Part Radio Block
Center
Bombardie
Bombardie r r
Interlocking
Siemens
Alcatel

Control
Control ETCS+GSM
ETCS+GSM

ETCS DEVELOPMENT WORLD WIDE


• USA
Amtrak activates ITC on Chicago- Detroit line, PTC project in progress on Chicago-
St. Luis line.
• CHINA
In UIC & CR Seminar held at Beijing Dec 2002 Chinese Railways announced taking
up projects of
ETCS – 0
ETCS – 1
ETCS – 2
ETCS – 3
and named this technology CTCS = Chinese Train Control System.

115
SESSION - III

ETCS DEVELOPMENT WORLD WIDE……..CONTD.


After a Decade of Development
• ETCS technology is a Reality
• Commercial use has already begun
• UIC has made ETCS an open specification
• It is manufactured by Multi Vendors (Six-UNISIG) to same specification
• interchangeable
• price competitiveness
• Indigenous production ?……Possible!

WHAT ETCS SIGNALING CAN DO ON IR


Application of ETCS Technology on IR will make a major breakthrough in the following
areas
• SAFETY ENHANCEMENT
• CAPACITY INCREASE
• OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT
• MAINTENACE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT
• REAL TIME TRAIN INFORMATION TO PUBLIC

SAFETY IMPROVEMENT

OFC OCC
GSM-R

INTELLIGENT
TRAIN PI/SSI
o 0 0

Accidents Prevention- by Full ATP protection, Mobile Train radio communication,


Approach warning to road users at L- xings... .
• SPAD driver passing signal at Danger

116
SESSION - III

• Collisions
• L-Xings accidents , Work site accidents...

CAPACITY INCREASE

ETCS TRAIN ETCS TRAIN


LOMA LOMA

CONVENTIONAL TRAIN

VIRTUAL SIGNAL
I-0 I-0

• Driver’s MMI shows LOMA-Distance to Go,Target speed


• Full ATP Protection & Continuous Speed Control
• Uses actual braking characteristic of the train
• Maintains Fixed ATC Block seperation (ETCS level 2)
• Mobile Radio Communication - driver & control
Result : Line Capacity Increase
Full Track Speed potential utilization

S&T INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ON IR

SANCTIONED PROJECTS ON IR
OFC – 35000 RK.m
GSMR – 2415 K.m
ABS – 2000 RK.m
ETCS (Level2) – 82 K.ms
ATP – 60 RKm.
ACD – 3500 RKm.

DELHI Metro
ATC&ATO- 62 Km

117
SESSION - III

Kolkata

CONCLUDING IDEAS
THERE IS NO NEED TO REINVENT THE WHEEL. ATC TECHNOLOGY SUITABLE
FOR IR IS ALREADY DEVELOPED . IT IS ECONOMICAL & SPEEDIER TO ADOPT IT
(AND NAME IT ITCS- INDIAN TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM)
1. FIRST STEP IS TO FIT ITCS LEVEL 1 TRACK SIDE EQUPTS AT VULNERABLE
LOCATIONS ON GOLDEN QUADRILATRAL
2. COMMENCE FITTING ITCS CAB EQUPTS ON PRIORITY
3. “VIRTUAL SIGNALS” WITH ETCS LEVEL 2 WILL INCREASE CAPACITY
WITHOUT PHYSICAL AUTOMATIC SIGNALS IN BLOCK SECTION
4. SO TO ENHANCE SAFETY & INCREASE THE CAPACITY BY 50% ON GOLDEN
QUADRILATERAL IN NEXT 5 YRS – ITCS LEVEL2 IS THE ANSWER .
5. DRAW CONSOLIDATED ACTION PLAN TO PROVIDE GSM-R,TC/
AxC,OFC,SSI,ETCS
6. ENTER JOINT VENTURE TO MANUFACTURE ETCS IN INDIA

118
SESSION - III

CAB SIGNALLING FOR DELHI METRO RAILWAY

by

RAJ KUMAR
Chief Signal & Telecom
Engineer/DMRC
VIJAY KUMAR
Dy. Chief Signal & Telecom
Engineer/DMRC

Delhi Metro Railway is designed for headway of 120 seconds for rail corridor and 90
Seconds for metro corridor. The train control & Signalling system consists of ATP,
ATO, ATS & CBI and provides Cab Signals to Train drivers. This paper describes the
state of art Train Control & Signalling systems being adopted for Delhi Metro and the
experiences during its design and implementation.

1. INTRODUCTION
The first phase of Delhi MRTS consists of two corridors, the underground corridor called
the Metro corridor (Approx I I Km) and, the surface & elevated corridor called the Rail
corridor (Approx 22 Km).
1.1 Headway
(a) The design headway of Rail corridor is 120 seconds for a sustained operating
headway of 180 seconds.
(b) The design headway of Metro Corridor is 120 seconds for a sustained operating
headway of 120 seconds.
1.2 Train Control & S ignalling System overview for Delhi Metro:
Delhi Metro railway system consists of 18 stations on Rail corridor and 10 stations
on Metro Corridor with two Depots, one for Rail Corridor at Shastri park and the
other at Khyber Pass for Metro Corridor.
The principal sub system for the Train Control & Signalling system for Delhi MRTS
are:
• Automatic Train Protection System(ATP) with Cab Signalling. The Track to
train communication is through Coded Audio frequency Track Circuits.
• Automatic Train Operation System (ATO)(Only for Metro Corridor)
• Automatic Train Supervision System (ATS)with Automatic Route Setting and
Automatic train Regulation.

119
SESSION - III

• Computer based Interlocking (CBl)both on the Main Line and Depot


1.3 The main function of the ATP system is to ensure safe train separation and safe
train movement. The ATP system’s intelligence and safety decision making process
is placed mainly on the on board ATP equipment. . Safety information is provided
by the Solid State Interlocking for track circuit occupancy and by the wayside ATP
equipment which performs the ATP block function using the status of the track
circuits Position of the point and the track profile e.g curves, gradients, permanent
& temporary speed restriction etc.
1.4 The main function of the Automatic Train operation system (ATO) is to run the
trains in between stations automatically without the intervention of Train driver.
The ATO system generates speed generates speed control to the traction and braking
system of the train with respect to the computed speed profile. The ATO system
ensures that the train achieves timely, accurate and smooth station stops or stopping
ahead of a restrictive point. The ATO system also controls the train doors during
station stops under the supervision of the ATP system without the intervention of
the train driver.
1.5 The main function of the Automatic Train Supervision system (ATS) is automatic
management of train movement with due interfacing with the ATP/ATO/SSI system
for Automatic Route setting and Automatic Train regulation. The ATS system
supervises the train movement continuously and optimizes the train movements
in case of abnormalities. This is achieved by assigning train identification (TID)
numbers, monitoring the operation of each train, modifying dwell times at each
station if required, modifying train operation to optimize headways, power
consumption, or run time and also provide outputs to the Passenger Information
Display System (PIDS) units at each station.

2. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
The Signalling system planned to be used for Delhi MRTS project are based on fail safe
computers and safety critical software. The Train Control Signalling system is configured
with the WAN as the backbone of transmission of both vital and non vital information
between CBl’s and Trackside ATP. The Trackside Systems are connected to the Central
ATS system at the operation control system through the fibre optic network for
performing the function of supervision and regulation of traffic on the line.
The following figures illustrates the overall architecture of the Signalling system and
the configuration of Main line and Depot.

120
SESSION - III

121
SESSION - III

122
SESSION - III

3. SAFETY STANDARDS
3.1 Safety is the primary consideration in the design and performance requirement for
the system. To meet these requirements, all safety critical equipment are designed
to fail safe principles conforming to CENELEC standard EN50126 for Reliability,
Availability, Maintainability and Safety.
3.2 The system shall conform to SIL4 in accordance with CENELEC standard EN50129
for safety related electronics system for Signalling and CENELEC standard EN50128
for software for railway control and protection system.
3.3 All safety critical equipment shall be designed, manufactured and validated to
Safety Integrity level 4 as defined in the CENELEC standard EN50126,EN50128,
and EN 50129

123
SESSION - III

4. AUTOMATIC TRAIN PROTECTION SYSTEM


The ATP system for DMRC is a Distance to GO” system.
4.1 Overall Schematic of Automatic Train Protection System of DMRC SYS1

The characteristics of the line i.e curves, gradients and the description of the track
with respect to the track circuits, points, signals etc is stored in the backside ATP
computer while the Rolling stock characteristics is stored in the trainborne ATP
computer. The CBI transmits to the backside computer the status of the route,
trackcircuits, points and signals which is then transmitted by the backside ATP
computer to the train through the Track circuits. The Signal is received by the train
through a pair of pickup coil mounted on both sides of the first bogie of the driving
car and processed by on board ATP system. The train also has an antenna for
transmitting and receiving messages to the Trackside ATP computer. The ATS
system at the operation control center sends the request for route setting

124
SESSION - III

automatically to the interlockings distributed in the line as required by the timetable


and mission defined in the timetable. The trains are identified on the ATS system
on the ATS workstations and the Mimic panel by a 4 digit Train ID, which is assigned
automatically by the ATS system in accordance with the timetable. The ATS system
also sends the regulation messages to the train through the backside ATP for
regulating the train to the defined headway and to adhere to the timetable.

5.1 PRINCIPLE OF AUTOMATIC TRAIN PROTECTION SYSTEM


The basic principle used is to transfer to the train the responsibility for train movement
definition and monitoring. The train borne equipment will act as a driver does. It will
receive simple information from which it deduces orders such as ‘stop at this point’ or
‘reduce the speed to this level at this point’ and will calculate the speed versus location
profile, which must be respected to obey these orders.
To be able to do that, static description of the track in which all the locations of the
critical points are indicated is necessary. This description can be named the Route map”.
Data contained in the route map are the Track circuits, points, signal etc.
The transmission between the train and the Wayside equipment consists of the three
type of transmission
a) Continuous Track to Train Transmission through AFTC
b) Spot Track to Train transmission through Beacons
c) Train to Track transmission through the Down link receptors
The train must be able to know at all times where it is located. To do that, an odometer
function calculates the train displacement. Absolute positions in the route map are
defined by the location of beacons. When the train passes over these beacons, it is capable
of relocating itself as the corresponding beacon possesses an unique identifier which
can be read by the train. This is required to correct any distance measurement error of
the train during its run along the line at specified locations.
The status of track circuit, route, signals and overlaps are transmitted to the train from
the wayside. The data transmitted to the train also contains the status of the stopping
points (stop or not), and the status (normal or reversed) of each set of points. From this
data, the train can deduce the orders it has to obey, and can follow its movement along
the route map. This dynamic data are called variable data.
The train transmits alarms and messages to the backside ATP computer for logging the
anomalies. The train to track communication is also used to transmit the positive train
identification to the ATS system.
The train on reception of the messages from the backside ATP computer calculates the
speed versus distance profile, which it must follow for safe movement of the train.
The diagram below illustrates the relative movement of two trains under ATP system
with the protection of the rear train through emergency brakes with respect to the target

125
SESSION - III

point which takes into consideration the safety margin from the next track circuit
boundary.

4.3 FIXED BLOCK ATP OPERATION


The ATP system for DMRC works on the fixed block operation system where each track
circuit is considered as a block for train movement monitoring. The fixed block system
is fitted with a continuous track-to-train transmission allowing the backside ATP
computer to continuously send to the train the track occupancy configuration.
Consequently, the intelligent ATP train borne computer continuously calculates its next
point to protect: in this case the beginning of next occupied track-circuit.

126
SESSION - III

5 MODES FOR TRAIN OPERATION


Operational Modes
5.1 ATO Mode
The normal mode of operation for the Metro Corridor is ATO Mode. in this mode the
trains shall operate automatically between stations while remaining within the safety
envelope calculated and enforced by the ATP and open its doors at the next station.
5.2 ATP Mode The normal mode of operation for the Rail Corridor is ATP Mode. This
mode will also be used on the Metro Corridor if the ATO equipment fails. In this
mode the train driver will operate the train manually. Indications shall be provided
in the cab of the train with onboard displays for Maximum Safe Speed (MSS) current
speed, target distance/speed as deduced from the most restricting ATP condition,
signalling mode etc. and routes established though interlocking. The braking curve
is to be computed continuously along the line, so as to enable a minimum safety
distance to be maintained.

127
SESSION - III

This computation is based on line characteristics as well as the parameters of the


train with dynamic monitoring and enforcement of the change of target distance
and speed. The maximum speed shown in the cab shall be enforced by the ATP
equipment. The ATP equipment shall also indicate which side doors may be opened
when a train enters a station. The ATP equipment shall not allow the doors to be
opened on the wrong side, unless an emergency override control is activated.
5.3 Cut-Out Mode
The Cut-Out Mode will be used when the on-board ATP equipment on the Rail
Corridor fails or both the on-board ATO and the on-board ATP equipment on the
Metro Corridor fails.
In cut out mode lineside signals will be used to provide information to the train
driver that the route is clear to the next interlocking or to enter the depot connecting
track. Accordingly the train driver will operate from interlocking to interlocking
following the aspects of the lineside signals. In this mode the train driver will
operate the train at a maximum of 25 km/hr and this speed limit enforcement will
be ensured by onboard rolling stock equipment.
5.4 RM Mode
RM Mode is used to drive the trains in the absence of any cab signal input. in this
position, the train will operate without any cab signal input, but the speed shall be
limited to 25 km/hr by the on board ATP equipment.

6. SUMMARY OF FUNCTIONS OF ATP


Reception of Messages from the Trackside ATP computers, Track-related Speed Profile
Generation, To monitor and enforce the change in target distance and speed, Maintaining
the safety distance between trains: Train separation shall be maintained by ATP system.
The movement authority to a train must only be given when relevant track section and
a safe distance beyond it is free, Continuous supervision of maximum permitted speed
on the line & maximum permissible train speed, Enforcement of Temporary speed
restriction, Continuous monitoring of a braking curve with respect to a defined target
point, Stopping point monitoring, Monitoring direction of travel and backward rolling,
Releasing doors on the correct side at stations when the train has come to a stop, To
ensure that no movement of train is possible until all train doors are closed and
Outputting basic data for the cab display.

7. SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS OF ATP FOR DMRC IN ACCORDANCE WITH ETCS


a) Use of Full service brake as a first level of intervention by ATP before Emergency
brakes are applied:
The use of service brake application to control the train before emergency brakes
are applied by the ATC system is normally associated with the ATO system. DMRC
faced a specific design issue of unnecessary application of emergency brakes each
time there is either a overspending by the driver from the permissible speed

128
SESSION - III

permitted by ATP system as the Rail corridor does not have ATO. DMRC designed
the use of service brake application as a first level of intervention before the
emergency brakes are applied in accordance with the FRS and SRS of ETCS.
The design solution adopted by DMRC is as below:
“ If the actual speed exceeds the permitted speed, a warning must be given to the
driver to enable him to react and avoid intervention from train borne ATC equipment
at least 2 sec. before the intervention of the full service brake until the actual speed
does not exceed permitted speed, then the driver must be capable of selecting
release of full service braking. The warning will continue until actual speed does
not exceed permitted speed”
b) Station stopping monitoring :
The station stopping monitoring is also a function associated with ATO. The ATP
only protects the train from a hazard ahead of the train. If the track ahead of the
station is not occupied then the ATP will only protect against the boundary of the
occupied track circuit ahead. This problem for Rail corridor was also obviated by
DMRC in accordance with the FRS and SRS of ETCS by the use of station stopping
monitoring with the use of advisory curve being presented to the driver along
with the intervention of Full service brake if the driver tries to pass the station
stopping point.
A typical example is illustrated below:

129
SESSION - III

8. MAN MACHINE INTERFACE OF ATP & ATO FOR THE TRAIN DRIVER
The Man machine interface for the driver has been designed with the same ergonomic
consideration as that of ETCS.
Interface with the driver is ensured in the cab with the following means:
• Key switches and mode selector,
• Push-buttons,
• LCD screen
• Loudspeaker

130
SESSION - III

The information provided to the driver includes the following


Actual speed, Target speed, Target distance, Operating mode, Brake details like service
brake, application or emergency brake application, warnings for overspeeding, advisory
speed, state of localization, station stop, departure, dwell time, alarms, and messages .

9. INTERFACE WITH ROLLING STOCK


The most vital interface of the ATP system to function properly is with rolling stock.
The interface with Rolling stock includes the following
a) Electrical interface: This is the interface with the vehicle control circuit and includes
the interface with the emergency brake circuit, service brake circuit, door control
circuit etc.
b) Mechanical interface: This interface is with respect to the fixing and mounting of
the coded odometer used for speed and distance measurement. The other interfaces
are the beacon antenna and the pickup coil used to receive the ATP messages from
the rail.
c) Interface with the TIMS ( Train integrated management system) of Rolling stock:
This interface is used for logging the alarms and events of the on board ATP system
on the TIMS.
d) Interface with On board Announcement system of Rolling Stock: This interface is
to provide the trigger signal from the ATP system for announcement of the arrival
of next station and the position of the platform.
e) Rolling stock characteristics: This interface is the basic ingredient for designing the
ATP blocks for a particular headway. This includes the length, mass of train, the
acceleration) and braking characteristics etc.

10. CONCLUSION:
The installation and testing of ATP system is in progress for the section from Shahdara
to Trinagar and is likely to be completed by September 2003 . The design adopted by
DMRC will be the trendsetter of all ATP system in India with its operational and safety
features for safe journey of passengers on the DMRC network.

131
SESSION - IV

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT


IN INDIAN RAILWAYS

By

Dr. P.K. Goel


DRM/Danapur.

The CRM technology is the state-of-the-art technology for customer facilitation and
inproving the bottomline of the companies and broading customer base. Indian
Railways have developed their own versin of CRM packages which are very effective
in the context and for the customer base in which the Inidan Railways operate. The
key platforms for Indian Railways systems are PRS, FOIs and Railnet respectively
for passenger business freight business and for management process. Thisj paper brings
out broad overview about various items which are either fully developed or in the
process of development. There are certain missing links which needs to be plugged
and the need of the hour is to coilate and integra all systems and process so that in the
entire organization all systems and process are IT enabled and which will bring about
qualitative improvement in the customer services and give long term dividends of
Indian railways.

133
SESSION - IV

TELECOM REGULATIONS & POLICIES


—BENEFITING THE CONSUMER

by

S.N.Gupta,
Advisor, TRAI
Manoj Arora,
Jt.Advisor, TRAI

By TRAI Act 1997 amended in the year 2000, TRAI was allocated with unambiguous
power to decide on tariffs, interconnection terms and arrangement, interconnection
revenue sharing, quality of service, ensuring licensing terms & conditions, ensuring
universal services obligation etc. It is mandatory to seek recommendations of TRAI
before introducing any new service. This paper brings out an insight in the working of
TRAI and their contribution in speeding up telecom revolution in India.

BACKGROUND:
Unlike other sectors, Telecom Sector in past was characterized as a monopoly of a state
organisation in India. Despite of all the efforts of the Government, telecommunication
was known as a service with poor quality, delayed provisioning and involving primitive
technologies. The penetration of telephones was much lower compared to other
developing countries also. To bring the industry to an acceptable state of affairs, heavy
investments were required particularly as telecom is a capital-intensive industry. In
WTO India has committed to establish an independent telecom regulator, who will
facilitate opening up of the sector for private competition to improve the service
provision, availability & technical upgradation in the overall interests of consumers.
Regulator role was important since the investors need confidence about expeditious
clearances and stability of “rules of game” & market supporting policies.
In India, Liberalization in Telecom Sector was started in 1994 by inviting private players
in cellular, paging and basic services. As a result two operators were introduced in
cellular services in each of the circle while, private basic operators were allotted licenses
in 6 circles.
Since then telecom liberalization have gone long way to have 4 cellular players in each
circle & unlimited competition in Basic, National Long Distance & International Long
Distance & Internet.

135
SESSION - IV

OBJECTIVE OF REGULATION
Telecom service markets in the initial stages are generally characterized with monopoly
where prices are not necessarily based on the cost, supply governs the demand,
supernatural profits by the service provider, poor quality of service etc. Even after
introduction of some new players in the market, the new entrant remains dependent on
the incumbent for interconnection and resources to extend their services since incumbent
controls a big subscriber base, network and resources. The incumbent player does not
easily give away its market dominance by adopting anti competition behaviour like
hindering timely interconnection, charging more than cost based interconnection fee,
influencing licensor, etc. The scenario becomes more complex when the policy maker
and incumbent operator are part of the same organisation.
This situation justifies the introduction of Regulator, who as a neutral party can control
the affairs and curb the anti-competitive practices adopted by the incumbent.
The pertinent role of the regulator is to bring benefits to customers in the form of
affordable service, good quality of service & on demand provisioning of service. The
customer will be benefited in short term & long term depending on the initial market
situation. Regulator has to facilitate accrual of benefits to society, which are desired as
well as justified. To achieve this objective, regulator addresses problems associated
with the market & service so that customer will get what should naturally come to him
from the market.
Regulation intervention is desired where the market fails in addressing the needs of
consumer. Since failure is a subjective term, it can be judged more objectively vis-à-vis
the customer benefit in quantitative terms when the market is having effective
competition. The ideal market situation can be characterized with multiple players in
market, demand and supply going hand in hand, prices being cost based, etc. Hence
regulation is desired when market process alone does not deliver all that should be
available in ideal market situation. Regulator also ensures that at least the minimum
services should be available to the society. One example is basic service, where the
regulator can establish a transparent subsidy mechanism to make these services
affordable. This subsidy may be flowing from the revenues generated from other services.
This is desired to bring the prices of the basic services to such a level, which is affordable
to consumer at large.
In short, Regulation can be seen as implementing policies related to preventing anti
competitive behaviour, promoting competition, protecting consumer interest and
achieving social objectives.

NTP’99 : TARGETS AND OBJECTIVES


The most important policy document, which governs the liberalization of telecom in
the country, is the New Telecom Policy (NTP) 99.
Some of the important objectives laid down under are given under:

136
SESSION - IV

• Make available telephone on demand by the year 2002 and sustain in thereafter so
as to achieve a tele-density of 7 by the year 2005 and 15 by the year 2010.
• Encourage development of telecom in rural areas making it more affordable by
suitable tariff structure and making rural communication mandatory for all fixed
service providers.
• Increase rural tele-density from the current level of 0.4 to 4 by the year 2010 and
provide reliable transmission media in all rural areas.
• Achieve telecom coverage of all villages in the country and provide reliable media
to all exchanges by the year 2002.
• Provide Internet access to all district head quarters by the year 2002.
• Provide high-speed data and multimedia capability using technologies including
ISDN to all towns with a population greater than 2 lakhs by the year 2002.
• Migration of Service Providers from fixed license fee to a revenue share regime
• In return, they agreed to loose their exclusivity
• As a result more competition
• A well defined USO regime
• Liberalized framework for Internet
To achieve all the above objectives, NTP 99 envisaged an important role to be played
by the Regulator. This is in form of recommendations, directives and other measures to
facilitate the implementation of policy.

TRAI ACT, 1997 & ITS AMENDMENT IN 2000


The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), a regulatory body for telecom sector
was formed in January 1997 by an act called TRAI Act, 1997. This was introduced with
a view to provide an effective regulatory framework and adequate safeguards to ensure
fair competition and protection of consumer interests. This has laid down various
functions of regulator, which encompasses from recommendatory role to policy maker
role. The Government constituted to make regulator further stronger and independent,
TRAI Act was amended in the year 2000 which provides regulator with more
comprehensive powers and clear authority to effectively perform its assigned functions.
TRAI Act 1997 defined Regulator functions as Adjudicatory Functions, Regulatory
Functions and Recommendatory functions. This was amended in year 2000, which has
divided the functions in two organisations i.e. TD-SAT (Telecom Dispute Settlement
Appellate Tribunal) which was assigned the adjudicatory functions while TRAI was
allocated with unambiguous powers to decide on tariffs, interconnection terms and
arrangement, interconnection revenue sharing, quality of service, ensuring licensing
terms and conditions, ensuring universal service obligation etc. This amendment also
make it mandatory to seek recommendations of TRAI before introducing any new

137
SESSION - IV

service. Time periods to submit recommendations on a reference received from the


Government, any further clarification desired by the Government and reply to such
clarifications were specified through this amendment.

REGULATION AS A WHOLE
Any company who wants to start its operations of providing telecom services has to
fulfill some regulatory requirements. Government has to keep in mind an objective to
fulfill investor’s dream to have their clearances through an efficient and responsive
system, there are multiple agencies involved in receiving the requisite applications and
allocating essential resources required by the company. In short, regulatory
requirements for a new entity can be summarized as follows:
1. Registration/incorporation of the company in India
2. Licensing
3. Tariffs
4. Interconnection
5. Spectrum
6. Numbering Plan
7. Universal Service Obligations
8. Monopoly Restriction or Competition
9. Technical Standards
10. Quality of Service
11. Carrier Pre-Selection (CPS)
12. Accounting Separation
13. Misc. other agencies such clearances of PWD for laying down cables, municipal
corporations to erect antennas, clearances from pollution control boards, filling of
direct and indirect taxes etc.
Licensing is the first and foremost requirement to start any telecom service in the country
as per the Indian Telegraph Act. This is assigning rights to the company to operate and
provide telecom services. India has chosen bidding process among various licensing
principles such as auction, First-Cum-First Service (FCFS), beauty parade, etc. An
elaborated licensing condition such as license fee, delivery of service, rollout obligation,
frequency allotment to operators, tariffs, interconnection, penalty clauses, specifications
of services, technology, etc are part of the license.
Any tariffs, which are offered to consumer, should have approval of TRAI unless it is
under forbearance. Important tariff issues need to be addressed by TRAI to facilitate
rollouts of services, tariff re-balancing to allow effective competition in each segment of

138
SESSION - IV

the license. Further costing methodology and whether tariffs are required to be forborne/
regulated vis-à-vis competition in the market are other important issues related to tariffs.
Interconnection is of significant importance to a new operator since this enable their
customer to access the subscribers/customers of incumbents’ networks. The issues
such as principle of interconnections like determination of access cost, number & level
of interconnection, charging principles, technical standards and quality of interconnection
are required to be dealt by the regulator in order to facilitate operators.
Resources like numbering & spectrum are important. These are essential resources
required by an operator to rollout their services. Allocation of numbering and spectrum,
principles of allocation, charging principles of such resources are required to be dealt
by the regulator.
Universal Service Obligations addresses subsidy needs in order to make the basic
services affordable. Regulator and Government has to define universal service, funding
requirements, determine collection and disbursement mechanism etc.
Carrier Preselection (CPS) and Carrier Access Codes (CAC) has to be incorporated by all
the access providers in their networks which will provide a choice to their subscriber to
access any NLDO or ILDO. Generic requirements for the same have been specified by
TRAI.
One of the issues against TRAI is to implement accounting separation based on structural
separation introduced through individual licensing to stop cross subsidization.
Open standard should be followed by all the operators which should not pose any
problem in inter-operability between the networks and interconnection between the
networks. TEC, ITU and ETSI are important standard making body which govern majority
of the standards used for Telecom Equipment and Networks. National standards are
also required to be followed by the operator to become part of National Telecom
Network. Acceptance Testing is also performed on a network at its introduction and
whenever interconnected with BSNL/MTNL’s networks.
MRTP (Monopoly Restriction and Trade Practices Commission), now Competition
Commission of India (CCI) governs mergers, acquisitions etc. Broadly it ensures that
companies should not resort on any anti-competitive practices such as collusions to
raise up the prices artificially and merger/acquisitions may not result in erosion of
competition in the market. Regulatory is also assigned with powers to ensure that
incumbent may not follow anti- competitive practices.
Besides above, all the other statutory needs are required to be fulfilled by the service
providers such as registration under Companies Act, 1956 with Registrar of Companies
are desired, taxes are required to be paid, tax returns are required to be filled with
nominated government agencies, clearances from Municipal Corporation, PWD etc as
applicable & desired for rolling out of the network, etc. List is not exhaustive. Company
Secretary of the company has to ensure each and every statutory requirement laid down
in legislation and government rules are fulfilled.

139
SESSION - IV

AVAILABILITY OF SERVICE :
NTP’99 has given utmost importance to penetration of services. TRAI since inception
has worked on this subject. The reduction in prices can only be possible through effective
competition, which can make the prices, cost oriented based. TRAI worked constantly
to bring competition in all segments of the telecommunication services.
Recommendations were sent to Government from time to time on this aspect for opening
up following segments of the services.
1. Basic Services
2. Cellular Mobile Services
3. National Long Distance Services
4. International Long Distance Services
5. Internet Services
6. Internet Telephony
7. Radio Paging Services
8. Public Mobile Radio Trunk Services
9. VSAT Services
10. GMPCS Services
11. Other Value Added Services (VAS)
As a result more than 31 private Basic Service licenses, 56 private cellular licenses, 3
private NLDO & 3 private ILDO Licenses have been allotted in addition to more than
400 ISP licenses. Open competition is available in almost all the segments. 4 operators
are right now allowed in Cellular Mobile Services, as constraint is available due to
spectrum.
Recommendation in Universal Service Obligation were sent to the Government in order
to establish a transparent subsidy mechanism in order to make the tariff lower for basic
services. The subsidy will flow from revenues of other services. The government has
established USF Administrator who ensures collection and disbursement of Universal
Service Funds. Recently tender for universal service has been finalised. This may
facilitate provision of telephones in rural and remote areas.
TRAI had also supported introduction of various new services such as Receive Only
VSAT Services, INSAT MSS Services, Internet Telephony, Voice Mail Services, Audio
Text Services and Other Value Added Services like unified messaging.
At the inception of TRAI, total number of DELs were around 15 million (i.e. 1.5 %
penetration) which is now 40 million (i.e. 4% penetration) while cellular mobile services
increased from 0.4 million (i.e. 0.04% penetration) to over 13 million (i.e. 1.3% penetration).

140
SESSION - IV

During last year, 20% growth rate has been registered in Basic Services while 90% growth
rate in cellular mobile services. Internet Subscribers, which were negligible in 1997, are
now around 36 million (i.e. 0.36% penetration).

TARIFF REDUCTION
Indian consumer as established through various studies, is more sensitive to price. TRAI
has worked on the issue that services should be affordable which will automatically
generate a demand.
There is drastic reduction in prices of cellular mobile services, it was Rs.16/- per minute
call to Rs.1.5 or 2 per call. Long Distance tariffs have also seen a reduction of around
60%.
TRAI ensures that the tariff offered by service providers should be cost based. Time to
time costing principles are laid down, studies are done for cost of services, rental and
usage charges in the form of Standard Tariff Packages which are specified in the Telecom
Tariff Order. It is essential for a service provide to offer Standard Tariff Package to
consumers. Besides this, the service providers were given flexibility to offer Alternate
Tariff Packages (ATPs) which can be suitable for a consumer with his/her usage pattern.
TRAI closely monitors tariffs offered by service providers. Every service provider has
to report the tariff 5 days before the implementation. This is done to ensure that the
tariff should be as per tariff order and regulations laid down by TRAI. Where TRAI
feels that enough competition is available or market is governing the tariff, TRAI allows
forbearance.

QUALITY OF SERVICE
TRAI had laid down QOS parameters related for Basic, Cellular and Internet Services.
It specifies benchmarks, values and target dates to be observed by the service providers.
These are monitored through performance monitoring reports, which should be
submitted by the service providers at the end of each quarter on regular basis. Besides
the above, TRAI recently did a survey for verifying the reported parameters through a
third party. The agency assigned with the task had performed measurements and did
verification of the parameters reported by the service providers. The agency also went
for survey of the consumers, collected their responses and further analyzed the same to
know consumer perception about the services. TRAI Regulation on Quality of Service,
2000 also covers values and target dates to be observed for such subjective parameters.

INTERACTION WITH CONSUMER ORGANISATION


TRAI regularly interact with consumer organisation to know problems of the consumers,
their expectations with regulator and suggestion to improve the services. These
organisations are also provided with consultation papers from time to time and they
are invited to give their comments which are considered while any regulation is finalised.
The meetings are called from time to time for such interaction. Under CIDA funding,

141
SESSION - IV

TRAI has also interacted with these organisations in various workshops. These
workshops were held with a particular theme like consumer linkages, Quality of Service,
Tariff etc.
Last but not the least, protection of consumer interest is utmost concern to the regulator
as also mandated through TRAI Act. The impact of this is visible through the reduced
tariff for telecom services, availability of more choices to customer and improvement in
the quality of service.

142
SESSION - IV

INFRA-RED (IR ) — THE SOLUTION TO


LAST MILE CONNECTIVITY

by

Shobhan Chaudhuri
Dy. Chief (S&T) Engineer/W.C. Rly.

The exploitation of full potential of OFC network being laid along the railway track
will depend on the final connectivity from OFC center near the railway track to service
provider situated in the city. In this paper, the author has brought out his experiences
of successful application of Infra – Red Technology for Last Mile connectivity on
Central Railways – therby opening a new vista of opportunity for revenue generation
on Indian Railway.

Railway’s have drawn an ambitious plan to hire / lease out the spare Optic Fiber for
commercial exploitation. Railway has a distinct advantage of the right - of - way since
land adjoining to the railway track can be used for laying under ground fibers. Other
service providers do not have this distinct advantage and they have to deal with various
agencies/ authorities, which is a time consuming process in addition to the increased
investment. Instead of this distinct advantage Railway’s have not been able to exploit
its full spare fiber potential due to the final connectivity from the OFC center typically
located near the track on the railway land to the service provider location, generally
located at the heart of the city. The problem faced by Railways is similar to the Last Mile
Bottleneck faced by the communication and networking world, as such it should be
studied in the same light.
The current fiber optic backbone runs to central offices in most of the large cities. There
has been much work done to upgrade the fiber optic backbone by both extending its
reach, and increasing its bandwidth. The high bandwidth capability of the fiber optic
backbone of 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps has been achieved by improvements in switching and
optical components, and with the implementation of technologies such as wavelength
division multiplexing (WDM). Most of the recent large effort of digging up the ground
and laying down new fiber has been directed towards extending the fiber optic backbone
to new central offices, and not laying fiber directly to the customer. In fact, a very
negligible percentage of buildings have a direct connection to the fiber optic backbone.
However, more than 75% of all businesses are within a mile of the fiber optic backbone.

143
SESSION - IV

Figure 1 : The last mile problem: Studies show that negligible % of buildings has a direct connection to
the very high speed (2.5-10 Gbps) fiber optic backbone, yet more than 75% of businesses are
within 1 mile of the fiber backbone. Most of these businesses are running some high-speed data
Network within their building, such as fast Ethernet (100 Mbps), or Gigabit Ethernet (1.0 Gbps).
Yet, their Internet access is only provided by much lower bandwidth technologies available though
the existing copper wire infrastructure (T-1 (1.5 Mbps), cable modem (5 Mbps shared) DSL (6
Mbps one way), etc). The last mile problem is to connect the high bandwidth from the fiber optic
backbone to all of The businesses with high bandwidth networks.

Within each of these businesses, high speed fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) or even Gigabit
Ethernet (1.0 Gbps) local area networks (LAN’s) are commonplace. While these data
networks meet the needs for local connectivity within a single floor or building, there is
a rapidly increasing need for similar high data rate connection speeds between buildings
either locally or nationwide. This demand for wide-area high bandwidth is fueled by
increasing commercial use of the Internet, private Intranets, electronic commerce, data
storage and backup, virtual private networks (VPNs), video conferencing, and voice
over IP. The key to high bandwidth wide-area connectivity is to make use of the
nationwide fiber optic backbone. However, access to the fiber optic backbone for the
majority of businesses, who are physically located within a mile of the fiber, is limited
to the current phone or cable TV copper wire infrastructure. Newer technologies, such
as Digital Subscriber Link (xDSL) or cable modems have increased the potential
bandwidth over copper to 5 to 6 Mbps over more traditional Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN) or T-1 (1.5 Mbps) lines. However, the copper-based transmission speeds
are still much lower than what is necessary to fully utilize the Gbps fiber optic backbone.
In addition, the ownership of the copper wires by BSNL requires leasing by any other
carriers or network service providers. As shown in Figure 1, the last mile problem or
bottleneck is to effectively provide a high bandwidth digital access and cost-effective
connection between all of these local businesses to the fiber optic backbone.
Possible solutions to the last mile bottleneck are:

(1) Deployment of fiber directly to all of these customers- Fiber run to every building
would be the ideal solution to the last mile bottleneck from the standpoint of system
availability. However, because of the high cost and the time to get right-of-way
permits and to trench up the streets, fiber is not a very practical solution.
(2) Use of wireless radio frequency (RF) technology such as Local Multipoint

144
SESSION - IV

Distribution Service (LMDS)- LMDS is a Wireless radio solution that does have
bandwidth capabilities in the 100’s Mbps, but its carrier frequency lies within
licensed bands. The additional large cost and time to acquire the license from the
WPC makes this alternative, less attractive. Also, just as with copper wire
technologies, the demand for bandwidth will increase, beyond, what is provided
by from RF technologies
(3) Use of free-space laser communication (IR) Figure 2 shows the third solution, which
uses free-space laser Communication or optical wireless links to quickly provide
local customers very high bandwidth access to the fiber optic backbone.

Figure 2 A high-bandwidth cost-effective solution to the last mile problem is to use free-space laser
Communication (also known as or optical wireless) in mesh architecture to get the high bandwidth
Quickly to the customers.

Free-space laser communication is very similar to fiber optic communication, except


that instead of the light being contained within a glass fiber, the light is transmitted
through the atmosphere. Since similar optical transmitters and detectors are used for
free-space and fiber, similar bandwidth capabilities are achievable. It has also been
demonstrated that WDM fiber technologies will also work in free-space, which further
increases the bandwidth potential of wireless optical links.
Some experts consider IR technology to be a sub-specialty of optical technology. The hardware is
similar, and the two forms of energy behave in much the same way. But strictly speaking, “Optical”
refers to visible electromagnetic radiation, while “infrared” is invisible to the unaided eye.
Unguided Infrared and millimeter waves are widely used for short and medium-range
communications and control since long. Some of its common usage are Remote control
of TV / AC units, Cordless microphones, Robot control systems, Intrusion Detectors
etc.
Unlike radio-frequency (RF) wireless links, IR wireless cannot pass through solids.
Therefore, IR communications or control is generally not possible between different
rooms in a house, or between different houses in a neighborhood (unless they have
facing windows). This might seem like a disadvantage, but it is used advantageously-
IR system of one room will not interfere with similar systems in adjoining rooms.
Precisely for this reasons the security of IR systems is better than the radio systems. For
this reason no Government licence is needed to operate an IR system

145
SESSION - IV

INFRA RED AS A COMMUNICATIONS MEDIUM


In the current trend of ever increasing carrier frequencies, to reduce range which allows
topographic isolation and permits the increase available bandwidths, Infra Red offers
short-range communications without any of the emission or susceptibility problems of
radio transmissions. When infrared is employed with digital encoding techniques and
incorporated with a distributed cellular approach, areas of thousands of square metres
can be covered with multi-channels full duplex mobile communications.
Digitally encoded infra red communications which, because of the use of low level
invisible light, have no ocular or health hazard, do not radiate radio waves and are
totally unaffected by high levels of electromagnetic radiation from electronic/electrical
equipment.
The quality of the transmitted signals even in close proximity to equipment, which is
radiating high levels of electromagnetic noise, is outstanding. The infrared systems can
be safely used adjacent to the most sensitive electronic equipment without any adverse
effect.
Thus IR based equipments can be used to solve the “Last Mile problem” to a large
extent. This will eliminate the “dead zones” and extend wireless networks without
incurring the costs of ground based cabling. High capacity IR wireless links to connect
cellular antennas back to an existing base station.

ADVANTAGES OF INFRA RED


The following list defines the advantages of infrared as a communication medium:
• Short range area of coverage, allows total security and the segregation of systems
by distance.
• No potential health hazard.
• RFI / EMI immunity.
• No license requirements.
• No cross talks.
• Transmits across difficult terrains.
• Flexible deployment and quick installation (2-3 hrs)
It can be used as a “Virtual Fiber”- through the air- the only technology that is transparent
to protocols.

COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
There are a large number of applications for these infrared systems where either there is
a significant level of electrical interference or where the emission of radio waves is not
permitted, such as-

146
SESSION - IV

• Public broadcast transmitters.


• Industry using variable speed drives.
• Ships with electrical propulsion.
• Power generation.
• Radar installations.
Locations where the use of radio emissions is inadvisable:
• In the close proximity of medical or life support equipment.
• The handling of explosives.
• Adjacent to sensitive industrial control systems.
• Control rooms and control towers.
• Security conscious areas, where information is to be contained within the venue.
• Aircraft.
Free-space laser communication is very similar to fiber optic communication, except
that instead of the light being contained within a glass fiber, the light is transmitted
through the atmosphere. Since similar optical transmitters and detectors are used for
free-space and fiber, similar bandwidth capabilities are achievable. It has also been
demonstrated that WDM fiber technologies will also work in free-space, which further
increases the bandwidth potential of wireless optical links. However, a significant
difference between free-space and fiber optic laser transmission is the un- predictability
of the attenuation of laser power in the atmosphere compared to fiber. Fiber optic cables
attenuate at a constant predictable rate. Current multimode fiber optic cables attenuate
at 2 to 3 dB/km, and single mode fibers attenuate at .5 to .2 dB/km. On the other hand,
the atmosphere’s attenuation of laser power is quite variable and difficult to predict.
Atmospheric attenuation can vary from .2 dB/km in exceptionally clear weather, to 310
dB/km in a very very dense fog. These large attenuation values in heavy fog are
important because they can reduce the uptime or availability of lasercom systems.
If proposed free-space lasercom systems, such as shown in Figure 2, are to be used in
telecommunication Applications, there will be requirements for very high availability.
By trading off more link margin and typically less extreme weather, the laser link range
requirement can be extended slightly. But to satisfy telecom requirements for availability,
the laser links ranges will still have to very short – on the order of 1500 m, or be backed
up by lower data rate microwave or millimeter wave links.

147
SESSION - IV

Figure 3 The bottom graph shows amount of atmospheric attenuation as a function of visibility. The top
Shows the weather conditions that correspond to the visibility.

For these short lasercom links, fog and heavy snow are the primary weather conditions,
which can cause Link outages. This is demonstrated in Figure 3. The bottom of Figure 3
shows a plot of the atmospheric attenuation as a Function of the visibility.

30 17 10
dB/ dB/ dB/ 3
dB/
Bandwidth km km km
km

155Mbps ATM, DC-3, STM-1


Fast Ethernet, FDDI
*
100Mbps

10Mbps Ethernet

2Mbps E1 / T1

1 km 2 km 3 km 4 km 5 km

148
SESSION - IV

RAILWAY’S PRESENT SCENARIO


On Central Railway IR has been used by RAILTEL (equipment procured by them) to
hire out Railway’s spare OFC channels / dark fibers for commercial use to private
operators. On Manmad – Igatpuri section of Bhusawal division last mile connectivity to
the operator’s premises has been extended from Rly’s OFC repeater station to service
provider’s premises deep in the city at Nashik & Manmad. This has helped in bringing
Manmad in the coverage area for cellular operations by AT&T. Buoyed by the success it
is now planned to install many more such IR equipments at other locations to fully
exploit spare OFC potential directly in the operator’s premises.
Railway’s should harness this technology and go all out in exploiting the full potential
of OFC.

149
SESSION - IV

ETHERNET OVER SDH

by

A.M. Gopal Krishnan


Associates Vice President FIBCOM

SDH networks for telecommunications applications are now catering for Ethernet
data services also. The author describes the various sub-system which are built into
the value chain to meet the services required by end customer.

Transport networks all around the world built on SDH and SONET technologies, over
the years, are getting upgraded. Gradually they are required to carry Ethernet data in a
big-way. Obviously, the equipment vendors have geared-up to face this challenge and
the equipments are ready to transport Ethernet in a very efficient way. This is in-addition
to supporting other carrier class telecommunication services. Ethernet over SDH
transforms a part of the network into invisible tunnels between LANs.
The big investments made in building SDH networks for telecommunication applications
are now catering for Ethernet data services also. This is adding more value to these
deployments. For new deployments also, the choice of transport technology should
depend on the services required by the end customers. It will be important to understand
the full value chain starting from the end customer to the transport technology.
A Local Area Net work (LAN) interconnection mechanism operating at Layer 2, ie, Data
Link Layer, offers the best interconnection of two LAN segments through Wide Area
Network (WAN). Ethernet over SDH offers this facility.
Ethernet is the most commonly used link layer protocol for Local Area Networks. Ethernet
supports Internet Protocol (IP), which is a network layer protocol. IP datagram are
encapsulated in Medium Access Control Frames (MAC) for transmission.
IP address is used to uniquely identify various network components. An IP address is
4 bytes long (32 bits). This is divided into two parts, a Network part and a host part. A
logical name translation can also be made for ease of use.
There exist two packet switching approaches. Datagram Switching (best effort network)
and Virtual circuits.
In datagram network, delivery is not guaranteed.
In virtual circuits, a route is set-up at the initial set-up between the end nodes through
intermediate nodes, if any, for packet exchange per session. This offers guaranteed
delivery.
Ethernet over SDH uses Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) for frame adaptation. GFP is

151
SESSION - IV

a robust and efficient packet transport procedure. ITU-T specification G.7041/Y.1303:


specifies the GFP. GFP provides a generic mechanism to adapt traffic from higher-layer
client signals over a transport network. Client signals may be Protocol Data Unit (PDU)-
oriented (such as Ethernet MAC) etc. There are other standards such as ITU-T X.86
specifying Ethernet over SDH mapping. Due to its inherent strengths, GFP is preferred
by vendors over X.86.
SDH virtual concatenations of virtual containers (VC) offer a powerful means of grouping
transmission bandwidth, as per requirements. Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
supports variable capacity use. As an example to state, flexibility is gained through the
use of VC-12 Xv (virtually concatenated VC-12s).
Ethernet over SDH can provide true Virtual Private Network (VPN) connectivity for
any-to-any connectivity between end-user locations in a secure way.
Ethernet over SDH can guarantee Quality of Service (QoS). Class of Services (CoS)
provisioning can also be done.
Pure IP and Ethernet networks typically use CoS mechanisms. There are so-called soft-
QoS where advanced queue handling, buffer etc. enables enhanced network performance
(e.g. IP-Diffserv etc.), But in general, some kind of signalling between the traffic source
and the network will be needed to ensure hard-QoS (absolute traffic guaranties). SDH
management system makes sure that traffic put onto the network will have guaranteed
QoS.
Diffserv (differentiated services) and MPLS (Multi-protocol Label Switching) are two
different standards to address quality problems. Diffserv operates at Layer 3 only. MPLS
specifies ways that Layer 3 traffic can be mapped to connection-oriented Layer 2
transports. MPLS adds a label containing specific routing information to each packet
and allows assigning of explicit paths to various classes of traffic.
Spanning tree limitations, collision problems, multicast “noise” problems and limited
number of VLAN tags can be solved by EoSDH Layer 2 VPN solution.
Carrier class Ethernet is thus achieved by EoSDH, which is an efficient combination of
data capabilities of Ethernet and high availability of SDH.
Compared to other technologies / networks, EoSDH has a clear advantage in its inter-
working capabilities with SDH as a transport medium.
Another approach to networking could be to put pure core router based solutions. It is
possible to design pure L3 networks with routers having optical interfaces, but it will
waste capacity, and thus will increase the network cost. There may be difficulty in
integrating links carrying other forms of traffic (i.e.. Voice) etc. EoSDH provides significant
cost advantages over competing solutions.
By introducing the EoSDH solution, the efficiency of backbone network could be
increased. EoSDH does propose a way of optimising existing transport networks while
at the same time ensuring scalability towards future needs and therefore should be of

152
SESSION - IV

great interest for network operators. We can see transmission network getting better in
this direction.
Layer 2 switching and guaranteed Quality-of-Service (QoS) in next-generation
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) equipments are already available.
operators can now offer advanced Ethernet Private Networks, providing differentiated
carrier-class data services to their business customers. These solutions incorporate Multi-
Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). The Layer 2 switching functionality enables network
operators to build large Ethernet networks over long distances. Operators can offer
highly flexible and differentiated services such as Ethernet VPNs or Ethernet Private
Lines for applications including Internet access, business intranets etc.
MPLS based Ethernet over SDH solution is expected to make a big impact on data services
in our country.
Fibcom India Ltd. (www.fibcom.com) is ready to offer these advanced Ethernet over
SDH Transport solutions.

Mapping data packets into containers

SDH

153
SESSION - V

ENABLING TWO WAY MOVEMENT ON EACH TRACK


OF A DOUBLE LINE CAN INCREASE CAPACITY

by

Dr. P.R. Goundan


Chief S&T Engineer,
South Central Railway, Secunderabad

Generation of additional capacity of the existing Indian Railways network with


minimum investment is the need of the hour. There are various techniques to enhanced
the capacity of the network. This paper examines a low cost of option of bi-directional
signalling on the existing double line. Results o f a simultaneous safety is presented.
Safety implication of tender signaling arrangement is also discussed.

1.0 SIGNALLING ON DOUBLE LINE


In a double line section, the traffic is directional, i.e., one track is exclusively used
for traffic in one direction and the other track for traffic in opposite direction. The
present arrangement of signalling is to cater to this directional traffic. There are a
few exceptions to this over short stretches adjoining major yards, where both the
tracks are signalled for traffic movement in both directions.
Even though, the tracks are signalled for uni-directional traffic, there is a possibility
of diverting traffic from one line to the other at stations in case of emergency under
special train operations procedure. This is done by provision of appropriate
switching arrangement.
A typical arrangement of station layout and signals for directional traffic.
In Figure 1, a train from Down direction can be received on Road 1 or 2 or 4 and
dispatched from these roads to the down direction. It can be observed that all
roads except Road 4 have only one side signals, whereas Road 4 has signals on
either end, enabling trains to be dispatched from Road 4 in either the Up or the
Down direction. The switch arrangement X and Y enables connectivity between
Up and Down tracks.
The block signalling for controlling movements between stations is done with the
help of special Block Instruments designed for double track operation.
These instruments cannot be used for signalling two-way train movements on a
track. Different type of Block Instruments and procedures are required for this.

155
SESSION - V

2.0 LIMITATIONS OF DIRECTIONAL SIGNALLING


The deficiencies of directional signalling are:
a) When maintenance work is taken up or when there is a break down on one of the
lines, the traffic movement is carried out through the second line, using an elaborate
and time consuming manual signalling procedure. This reduces the network
capacity. Fear of capacity reduction and hence delays induces tendency to postpone
the maintenance, which is a safety hazard. Two directional signaling would have
allowed better traffic handling in such a situation.
b) Stations are used to give precedence to high speed mail and express trains over
low speed freight trains. The low speed freight trains are detained at stations and
high speed mail and express trains are allowed to pass through. Many times one
may find that the other track is free and it would have been possible to move the
slow speed trains on the other line while the faster train crosses it on the main line.
This precedence in motion would enable better utilisation of assets. Thus, two-
way traffic movement on each track would help in enhancing capacity and better
capacity utilization. This would require only a marginal additional investment in
signalling.

3.0 INTRODUCTION TO BI-DIRECTIONAL SIGNALLING


A typical station with signalling arrangement for both directions.
A freight train received from section D, can be detained at the station to give
precedence to a high speed Mail/Express train following the freight train or can be
dispatched on the other track to section A towards the next station, if section A is
free. Some real life control charts given in Fig.3(a), (b) (c) and (d), shows the delays
when a slower train is detained to give precedence to a faster trains. All the stations
shown in the Figures are run through stations.
In Figure.3 (a), train 1 is detained at station 5 and train 3 is detained at station 3 to
give precedence to a faster train 2. Train 1 could have been allowed to proceed as
shown in the dotted line in the opposite track, which is free. Similarly, train 3
could have been allowed to proceed as shown in the dotted line instead of waiting.
In Figure.3(b) train 4 is detained at station 5 to give precedence to train 8. Train 1 is
detained at station 4 to give precedence to trains 2 and 3. Similarly, train 5 is detained
at station 3 to give precedence to trains 6 and 7. The dotted lines show possible
progress of the detained trains 1 and 5 using the second track in the opposite
direction, which is free at that time.
In Figure-3(c) train 1 is detained at station 4 to give precedence to faster trains 2
and 3. Train 4 is detained at station 1 to give precedence to train 5. Train 4 could
have been moved to station 2 using the second track, which is free of traffic, in the
opposite direction as shown by the dotted line.

156
SESSION - V

Between station 1 and 2, trains 4 and 5 could have progressed simultaneously


using the two tracks. Similarly, they could have progressed simultaneously
between stations 2 and 3 also as shown by the dotted line.
In each of these cases the second track was free but could not be used as the
signalling allows only one way movement on each track. As is discussed later,
there is a reasonable chance of finding a track free to give precedence in motion.
This would improve the capacity of the network. Moreover if any of the sections
A, B, C and D in Figure.2 was blocked for maintenance work, trains could be moved
on the other track without much delay.
Analysis of train control chart of a double line (unidirectionally signalled) control
section was carried out to identify situations. The number of precedences given
where freight trains were detained in a period of 72 hours was noted.
Also, the possibility of sending the freight train on the other track was studied by
checking whether the other line is free. The number of detentions for precedences
were 71 during test period. Out of these, 66 precedences could have been avoided
by using the other track. Further, study of control chart show that the probability
of both the tracks of a block section being occupied simultaneously was only 10-
20%.

4.0 EFFECT OF BI-DIRECTIONAL SIGNALLING ON LINE CAPACITY


If trains were dispatched at regular intervals and all trains were of the same speed,
capacity utilisation would be optimum. However, when different categories of
trains (slow and fast) are dispatched, slow trains would have to be detained at
stations to give precedence to fast trains as discussed earlier.
Today, fast Mail and Express trains are run as per time table. After fixing the paths
of these trains on the train chart, the slow freight trains are planned to be pushed
during gaps. When a precedence is given, the slow speed train would have to
wait at a station for a duration equal to the time taken by the fast train to cross two
block sections (one in rear of the station and the other ahead of the station).
Slow train S is received at the station B in the loop line and detained. The fast train
following is allowed to go through on the main line of the station B. Fast train
cannot enter the section between A and B, until the slow train is received at the
station B loop line (since only one train can be present between stations at a time).
Similarly the slow train cannot leave the station B until the fast train has reached
the Station C.
4.1 Simulation Study
To study the improvement that would accrue due to bi-directional signalling, a
simulation exercise was undertaken. For this study, a section of 200 km was
considered with 21 stations and 20 block sections. All block sections were assumed

157
SESSION - V

to have equal lengths of 10 km. Two types of trains were assumed, to move on the
section, one high speed mail train and the other low speed freight train. The
proportion of high speed train (P) to the total trains was a variable in the simulation.
A total of 200 trains (both high and low speed) were dispatched from one end of
the section to the other and the run time of each train was noted to get the total train
hours. The speed ratio (referred to as X) of the high and low speed trains was also
a variable in the simulation. The arrival time of the train at section head was
assumed to be uniformly distributed. Each station was assumed to have one loop
line to permit precedence of a high speed train.
The following assumptions were made in the simulation:
(a) No time loss in slowing and acceleration of trains.
(b) Operating procedure was considered ideal and operating time was taken as
nil.
(c) No speed restrictions in the block sections.
(d) For in motion precedence, the low speed train would be allowed to run on the
2nd track with a probability Q (which was also a variable with values between
(0 and 100%).
(e) Only one train could be in a block section at any given time.
The following parameters were obtained as output of the simulation exercise for
different values of P, Q and X.
a) Run time of each train for the 200 km section.
b) Number of times a train was stopped to give precedence to high speed train or
when the track ahead was not free.
c) Total detention time for each train.
d) Sum of run time of all trains.
e) Total number of stops for 200 trains.
f) Total wait period for all trains taken together.
4.2 Simulation Results
The sum total of run times (train hours) of all trains is a parameter which would
reflect the effectiveness of bi-directional signalling scheme. The true capacity or
the number of trains that can be run on the section per day could be expressed in
terms of the total train hours as follows.
Let the total train hours for 200 trains with Q=0 (bi-directional signalling dis-allowed)
be = TH

158
SESSION - V

Average run time per train for the section = TH 200 (a section of 20 Blocks)
Average run time of a train per block section = TH 200 x 20
Total number of trains that can be run per day or the capacity without bi-directional
signaling or (C 1 ) = 24 x 200 x 20 TH
The capacity (C 2) with the introduction of = 24 x 200 x 20(TH-£GTH) bi-directional
signalling
where £GƒnTH is the reduction in train hours as Q is made non-zero
Improvement in capacity £GC = C2-C1 C1 = £GTH (TH-£GTH)
(1) Simulation are carried out for the following parameters :
a) Speed of high speed trains = 120 kmph
b) Speed of low speed trains = 75 kmph, 60 kmph
c) P = 10, 30, 50, 80%
d) Q = 10, 30, 50, 80%
Table 1 provides the total number of stops that all trains had to go through for a specific
case of high speed train speed of 120 kmph and low speed train speed of 75 kmph
for Q = 30% and P taking on values 10%, 30% 50% and 80%.
Table 1 No of detentions Vs P for Q = 30%
S.No P(%) No of Detentions
1 10 470
2 30 835
3 50 1056
4 80 495
It is obvious that the number of stops go to a maximum when P = 50%, i. e, when
the number of high speed and low speed and are equal (maximum differential).
The runtime results obtained for speed 120 kmph and 60 kmph are given in Table
2 and in Figure 5, the data for Q = 0 represents the case of uni-directional signalling
and for values of Q other than zero represents bi-directional signalling.
Table ¡V2 Total Runtime Vs P for Different value of
Q, (X=120/60)
P Q 0 10 30 50 80
10 54420 45550 43370 40820 39130
30 51575 48660 44350 41065 37235

159
SESSION - V

50 48275 47540 44740 40725 34130


80 38270 37900 36030 32920 27150
Similar results for train speed 120 kmph and 75 kmph are given in Table 3 and
Figure 6. It is obvious that bi-directional signalling results in significant capacity
improvement.
Table ¡V3 Total Runtime Vs P for Different of Q
(X=120/75)
P/Q 0 10 30 50 80
10 42428 35180 33600 32822 31494
30 44625 37957 34840 33342 30476
50 43463 39864 36429 33046 29041
80 42428 35180 33600 32822 31494
Fig ¡V6. Total Runtime Vs P for Different values of Q (X=120/75).
The improvement in capacity calculated using equation ¡V (1) for train speeds, 120
kmph, 75 kmph is given in Table 4.
Table 4 Capacity Improvement £GC (%) vs P.
S.No. P £GC for Q= 10% £GC for Q= 30% £GC
for Q=
50%£GC for Q= 80%
1. 10 20.0 26.0 29.2 34.7
2. 30 17.5 28.0 33.8 46.4
3. 50 9.0 19.3 31.5 49.6
4. 80 20.0 26.0 29.2 34.7
The capacity enhancement amounts to a value in between 20-50% depending on
the value of Q and train mix value P. Q is typically very high and 40 ¡V 50% of
capacity enhancement can be typical.

5. IMPLEMENTATION AND SAFETY


Bi-directional signalling can be easily established with additional cross over at
stations and signals. The additional cost is only marginal. The block working can
be established through axle counters, for reduced operating time and increase in
capacity in line with latest policy.

160
SESSION - V

The proposed introduction of Anti Collision Device (ACD) on major routes will
also enhance safety in bi-directional signalling. There is also proposal for mobile
train radio communication on the golden quadrilateral which will also contribute
to enhanced safety of train operation with bi-directional signalling.

6 CONCLUSION
Bi-directional signalling on two way track and allowing of in motion precedence
has a potential of increasing the capacity by 20-50% during normal working. In
addition, this arrangement would enable use full capacity utilization of the available
single line during line blocks, which would otherwise be very insignificant.
Introduction of ACD, and radio communication with moving train will ensure that
safety is not sacrificed.

161
SESSION - V

LINE CAPACITY ON INDIAN RAILWAYS

By

N. K. Goel
Chief Signal & Telecomm. Engineer,
Northern Railway

The throughput on a section can be increased either by increasing the throughput per
train or by increasing the number of trains or a combination of both. This author
describers, the various solutions for increasing throughput and concludes that modern
signalling provides the most cost effective solution for increasing line capacity which
can be implemented as a short term solution.

INTRODUCTION
Economic reforms initiated by India in 1990 led to faster GDP growth from 3.5 to 4
percent in the past to 5.5 to 6 percent during 1990-2000. In terms of transport output, this
implies doubling of freight traffic every 9 to 10 years and doubling of passenger traffic
every 7 to 8 years. Government of India has fixed the target of 8 percent GDP growth
during 10th Five Year Plan which means faster growth in transport output.
Indian Railways’ market share of freight traffic is about 40 percent and that of passenger
traffic is about 20 percent. If IR has to maintain its market share, it should be able to
handle 7 to 8 percent annual growth in transport output. Such a growth rate will put
enormous pressure on the line capacity.
Long Range Decision Support system (LRDSS) has forecasted capacity constraints on
188 rail links in the year 2006-07 based on 5 percent growth in freight traffic and 6 to 7
percent growth in passenger traffic. Huge investments are required to address the
capacity issues on congested sections. Cost effective means of increasing capacity are to
be identified and implemented in time so that transport bottlenecks do not become
impediments in the economic growth of the country.

CAPACITY DEFINITION
Line capacity on IR has been traditionally calculated based on charted capacity. However,
in actual field operations it has been observed that IR is operating more trains than the
charted capacity in many sections. This brings out the fallacy in the methodology of
calculating the line capacity. In fact, the LRDSS team in a number of computer simulations
has found that the actual capacity of the sections is substantially more than the one
calculated based on charted capacity.

163
SESSION - V

In reality, there is no hard capacity of the section. If more trains are pushed in a section,
the average speed of trains reduces as due to increased interactions between the trains
the faster trains tend to slow down. In other words the transit time in the section increases
due to congestion. Broad principle is that if a train takes X minutes in completing its
journey in a section in case it is allowed to run freely without any hindrance from
other trains then the section is considered saturated if the same train takes more than
1.5 X minutes due to interactions with other trains in the section.

THROUGHPUT OF THE SECTION


The capacity of a section depends upon the amount of freight traffic or passenger traffic
carried through it. Throughput can be increased either by increasing the throughput
per train or by increasing the number of trains in the section or the combination of both.
There are basically three options available for increasing the throughput.
• Increasing the freight train weight.
• Increasing the number of coaches and/or extensive use of double deck coaches in
a passenger train.
• Increasing the number of trains.
For a hypothetical line of a freight carrying railway, output defined as Net Tone per
Year transported across the line can be grouped in five general components: -
a) The freight tonnage carried in an average wagon;
b) The proportion of loaded to empty wagons to be moved in each direction on the
route;
c) The number of wagons in the average train;
d) The number of trains which can pass over a line in a day; and
e) How many days per year this level of operation can be sustained.
This is summarised in the following equation:
×Net tons Net tons Loaded Wagon Total wagons Trains Operating days

——— = ———× ——————× —————× ————× —————-


Year Wagon load Total wagons Train Day Year

In case of passenger carrying section, the freight tons carried per wagon will be
substituted by number of passengers per coach.

HIGHER CAPACITY FREIGHT WAGONS


IR can increase the throughput per train by introducing high capacity wagons and
increasing the length of the train by adding more wagons. Introduction of high capacity
wagons calls for addressing the following issues: -

164
SESSION - V

i. Decreasing the tare weight of the wagon and increasing the pay-load thereby
increasing net to tare weight ratio;
ii. Decreasing the length of the wagon;
iii. Improving braking characteristics to keep braking distance within reasonable limits;
iv. Increasing axle load;
v. Increasing track loading density;
vi. Double stacking of container service;
vii. Customized wagons for transportation of road vehicles; and
viii. Reducing empty movement of wagon.
Higher capacity freight wagons are cheaper in terms of per ton of carrying capacity,
provide more tonnage per unit length of train and increase net to tare ratio for the train.
Equipment cost decline, crew and other train related costs are allocated to more tonnage
and fuel efficiency per net ton moved improves.
These advantages of high capacity wagons should be, however, compared with the
increase in infrastructure costs such as making track suitable for higher axle loads and
higher track loading density. Under heavier axle loads, some track components will
wear faster requiring frequent maintenance and replacements. The track itself will have
to be strengthened. Heavier freight wagons will also pose the risk of fatigue failure in
case of bridges. Shorter life cycle and frequent maintenance requirement will increase
track costs. In addition, longer/additional engineering blocks may be required for track
maintenance. Additional costs will also have to be incurred for improving braking
characteristics of the train.
High capacity wagons may not give the desired benefits if the length of the wagon is
increased for higher pay-loads as fewer wagons can be accommodated within the same
train length. Therefore, the track loading density is to be increased along with the increase
in axle load.

TRACK LOADING DENSITY


BOXN wagons have been designed to a maximum Track Loading Density (TLD) of 7.67
t/m. Major constraint in respect of TLD is on account of bridge design. In 1987, IR adopted
MBG loading standard for bridges which permits TLD of 8.25 t/m. The effects of MBG
loading were studied and guidelines for checking and strengthening of existing bridges
were issued. It may therefore be possible to adopt 8.25 t/m track loading density for the
future design of wagons.

HIGHER AXLE LOADS


With the introduction of higher axle loads, the rail stresses are expected to go up leading
to reduction of fatigue life of track components like rails, fastenings, sleepers, etc. The

165
SESSION - V

cost of track maintenance and inspection will also go up. The axle load of 20.32 ton for
general freight stock on IR is very low as compared to 33 ton presently permitted on US
rail roads. The new track being laid on Rajdhani route and on B routes having annual
GMT of more than 20 is of 60 kg 90 UTS rail, 1660 sleeper density and 300/250 mm
ballast cushion and on other low traffic density B routes the track is of 52 kg rails, 1540
sleeper density and 250 mm ballast cushion. In view of this there may not be much
difficulty in introducing 25 MT axle load and 8.25 t/m TLD on routes where 60 kg rails
have been laid. However, increasing the axle load further may require increasing the
poundage of rails and the sleeper density.

INCREASING THE TRAIN LENGTH


The trailing load will increase if the length of the train is increased. This will necessitate
use of multiple or higher horse power locomotives in order to keep the horse power to
trailing weight ratio same. Increase in the length of train will also call for longer loops
and high speed turn outs. For example, upgrading the existing rail line with 20.5 ton
axle load and 800 m siding to the heavy haul design with 25 ton load and 1600 m train
length will require the loop length of about 2000 m. 400 m extra loop line length is
required so that the train clears the main line at the maximum permissible speed of the
turn out and then safely decelerate to stop in the siding. In case the loop length of 400 m
more than the longest train is not provided, the driver will have to apply the brakes
much in advance to cater for longer braking distances and the train will take more time
in clearing the main line thereby reducing the line capacity.

INCREASING THE NUMBER OF TRAINS


The throughput can also be increased by increasing the number of trains in a day in the
section. This can be achieved either by laying additional track or by running more trains
on the same track through improved signalling.
In absolute block working system another train can not be sent into the block section
unless the previous train has completely arrived at the next station and the reception
signals are put back to normal. After complete arrival of last train the block section is
closed, a fresh line clear is taken, the dispatch signals are cleared and the next train is
dispatched. The next train, therefore, can be dispatched depending upon how fast the
previous train clears the block section and how fast the signals at the station are operated.
If t1 is the time taken by the slowest train for clearing the longest block section and t2 is
the time taken for clearing the reception and dispatch signals and for closing the section
and taking fresh line clear for another train then the minimum head way between trains
can be t1 + t2 . If the head way between trains is t then:
For preventing congestion t ≥ (t1 + t2)
In practice t = P (t1 + t2),
where P > 1 and ∝ 1/t, t1 is the block running time and t2 is the station operation time
If the number of trains in the section is to be increased then the head way t should be

166
SESSION - V

reduced or the station operation time t2 and block running time t1 should be reduced. P
is the efficiency factor that depends upon the ability to dispatch the train immediately
as soon as the previous train clears the block section and is normally more than one as
some delay can not be avoided. P is also inversely proportional to the head way which
means that more the congestion in the section greater will be the delay in dispatching
the next train. Efficiency in dispatching the train increases by providing Centralised
Traffic Control system since the controller comes to know instantaneously as soon as
the previous train clears the block section. He also gets the information about the
movement of other trains in the section and therefore the decision making process is
expedited.

BLOCK RUNNING TIME (T1 )


Block running time, which is the time taken by the slowest train to clear the longest
block section, can be reduced by the following: -
• Increasing the speed of the trains.
• Reducing the speed differential between the slowest and the fastest train in the
section.
• Reducing the length of the block section.
It is more important to reduce the speed differential between slow and fast trains rather
than increasing the speed of a few trains in the section thereby further increasing the
speed differential.
There are two ways of reducing length of the block section. The inefficient way is to
provide the stations at closer spacing. This will increase the expenditure in train operation
and will not be a cost effective solution. The other way is to split the block section by
providing Intermediate Block Huts (IBH) or Intermediate Block Signalling (IBS) or
Automatic Block Signalling (ABS). ABS is the most widely used system for increasing
the line capacity. It can increase the capacity by as much as 100 percent without increasing
the transit time through the section appreciably. On IR, ABS has been provided mostly
in suburban sections and covers about 2.7 percent of railway track as compared to 90
percent in UK, 67 percent in Japan and 84 percent in China. With ABS, Chinese
Railways are able to run 143 trains each way in a day on Beijing – Zhengzhou section
which is a double line section.

167
SESSION - V

STATION OPERATION TIME (T2)


Reduction in station operation time depends upon how fast the signalling system at the
station can be operated and how fast the line clear from the adjacent station can be
obtained. Centralised operation of point and signals with relay based or solid state
interlocking (PI) and axle counter block working are the fastest means of operation of
signalling system at the stations. Panel interlocking enables setting of points and clearing
of signals by one person from a central location at the station thus eliminating coordination
time between cabins and reducing the station operation time t2. A study of station
operation time for various types of signalling systems indicates that t2 reduces from 2
minutes 53 seconds to 1 minute 33 seconds if central panel is provided instead of end
cabin system. Keeping this in view, Railway Board has issued the policy directive that
in future central panel with axle counter block working should be provided wherever
new signalling is provided at the station.

CONCLUSION
The throughput on a section can be increased either by increasing the throughput per
train or by increasing the number of trains or a combination of both. Introduction of
high capacity wagons and double deck coaches and longer trains are the important
issues to be addressed for increasing the throughput per train. This is a time consuming
process and call for heavy investments in rolling stock and track infrastructure. These
issues therefore should be addressed in the medium and long term. Modern signalling
systems provide cost effective solution for increasing line capacity which can be
implemented as a short term measure so that rail transport system does not become a
bottleneck in the economic growth of the country.

168
SESSION - V

AUTOMATIC TRAIN CHARTING


(on Kota Division)

by

Piyush Mathur,
Sr. Divisional Signal & Telecom Engineer
Western Region, Railway

Topics Covered in the Presentation


• Limitations of Manual Charting
• Computerized Train Charting.
• Data loggers in Kota Division
• Features of Data logger based Train Charting
• Report Generation
• Financial aspects

LIMITATIONS OF MANUAL TRAIN CHARTING


• Timings for each Train & from each Station
• Human errors in plotting
• Charting is not neat & clean
• Only one copy is available for all purposes
• Forecasting is Limited & not precise
• Report generation require more man hours & may be inaccurate
• One has to go to the Controller to watch Train movement

Controller

169
SESSION - V

COMPUTERIZED TRAIN CHARTING.


• Controller feeds the information in computer rather than recording on Chart.
(Adopted at Chennai, Delhi & Palghat Divisions)
• This results in improved working and lots of benefits as experienced by the
Railways who have introduced computerised train charting.

LIMITATIONS OF COMPUTERIZED TRAIN CHARTING


• SM has to repeat train Arr/Dep or passing timings to Controller on control phone
• Controller has to enter this information on computer.
• Delay in giving information by SM to controller may be critical for taking decision.
• Controllers are reluctant in entering all information on computer particularly in
sections having more traffic.

DATA LOGGERS IN KOTA DIVISION


• Data logger networking was provided by Kota division for preventive
maintenance.
Kota - GGC Section : 25
GGC - MTJ Section : 19
Kota – NAD Section : 29
• On line & Off line Simulation of train movement ,signal aspects and point
position.
• Automatic train charting developed as spin off benefit.

Kota Gangapur Section

Monitoring system Microwave


Backup

KTT ‘A’ KTT ‘B’ NNW LRU GGCA

RE TELECOM CABLE

25 Data loggers , 23 stations ,

170
SESSION - V

T YARD LAYOUT & SIMULATION


R
A
C
K
S
I
M
U
L
A
T
I
O
N Signal positions, tracks, level crossings,
routes, knobs, etc.

171
SESSION - V

DATA LOGGER BASED TRAIN CHARTING ON


KOTA DIVISION
• Commissioned on
Kota-Nagda - Feb’2002
Kota- Gangapur City - Mar’ 2002
Gangapur City - Mathura - Dec’ 2002
Since then working satisfactorily

FEATURES OF DATA LOGGER BASED TRAIN CHARTING


Aid to the Controller.
ü It saves his time for drawing Chart and taking times.
ü It permits More time for better Planning and controlling train movement.
ü Automatic Forecasting of Train movement helps him for planning Maintenance
blocks.
ü Can monitor average speed in block section.
ü Can observe status all lines of all stations on line
Plotting is almost on real time basis
Seamless change over of trains to other control sec.

FEATURES ….CONT
• Controller can have adjacent control chart on his screen.
• Up & Down trains can be viewed separately
Possible to see the train timings in tabular form also.
• Useful tools.
ü Do & undo Linking /De-linking, drawing lines & blocks, highlighting trains,
searching trains.
• Entry Forms for feeding Train Details.
• Reminder of block completion by blinking.

172
SESSION - V

FEATURES ….CONT
• Predictions
ü Preferences of the Trains- (imp & less important trains).
ü Booked speed
ü Speed Restrictions
ü Train speed
ü Maintenance blocks
ü User friendly – Controller can Change preferences according to the situation.

FEATURES ….CONT
• Possible to put comments & directly recording unusual on chart.
• Master chart is mouse click away.
• Master chart can be mapped on to the actual chart.
• Schedule timings of trains can be seen in tabular form.
• Time lost/gained in block section is displayed on line.
• Caution orders are displayed on the screen.
• Dual monitors – 1. Dedicated to Chart
2. Showing Entry Forms
• In case of Auto mode failure ordinary computer charting is possible.

STATISTICAL REPORTS
• LTM Brief / Detail Report
• Train wise Punctuality Report
• Unusual Report
• Engine Utilization Report
• Caution Order Report

173
SESSION - V

• Block wise / Dept. Wise Block Report


• TOR Report
• WKM / NTKM Report

REPORTS

FINANCIAL ASPECTS
• Cost of one Data logger at station 1.6 Lakh
• For one Control section(about 20 station) 32.0 Lakh
• Control room Hardware&Software 3.4 Lakh
• Train charting Hardware at control office 8.0 Lakh
• Train charting software 2.0 Lakh
• Total cost for one control section 46.9 Lakh

174
SESSION - V

RAIL FRACTURE DETECTION USING SIEMENS AFTC TVPE


FTG S

by

Naresh T Advani
Siemens Ltd.

1. GENERAL
Rail fractures pose a serious threat to safe train operation, as past accidents on
Indian Railways are testimony to. In order to be able to avoid the occurrence of
dangerous accidents, arising out of rail fractures, it is imperative that rail fractures
are detected promptly and over the complete length of tracks on which passenger
trains ply.
Audio Frequency track Circuits (AFTC), of Siemens make and type FTG S. which
are primarily used for track vacancy detection, can also be used to detect rail
fractures on sections which are equipped with them. Since, however, these track
circuits are predominantly installed in electrified areas, where either an earth rail
is connected to the tracks or the tracks themselves are earthed to the OHE masts, it
is not possible to detect rail fractures at all locations on the tracks.
The Audio-frequency choke (TFG - acronym in German) ensures that every possible
rail fracture at any point on the tracks would get detected, so long as the fracture
results in an electrical isolation in the rail. The TFG can be used at all locations
which are equipped with the Siemens Audio Frequency Track Circuit type FTG S.

2. FUNCTION
The installation of the audio-frequency choke (TFG) requires a closed electrical
circuit. The essential components of this electrical circuit are the earth rail and the
isolated rail. One needs to differentiate between intermeshed and non-intermeshed
track circuits in connection with rail fracture detection.
Non-intermeshed Track Circuit:
- Detection of rail fracture as an electrical isolation in both rails resulting out of
substantial reduction of the received voltage
- Track occupied indication in case of rail fracture of the concerned track circuit
(Fig 1 )

175
SESSION - V

Fig. 1 Track Circuit without intermeshing and with rail fracture


Legend:
SV "S" Bond SB Rail Fracture
Erdschiene Earth Rail isolierte Schiene Isolated rail
Sender Transmitter Empfanger Receiver
Abstimm-BG Tuning Unit
Intermeshed Track Circuit:
- Unrestricted detection of rail fracture resulting out of an electrical isolation in
the isolated rail (electrical separation)
- Current flows over the intermeshing in case of rail fracture in the earth rail
(Fig. 2)
- Reduction in the receiver voltage is dependent on the intermeshing arrangement
- In case of rail fracture in the earth rail, the detection is limited and dependent
on the location of the rail fracture, topography of the track circuit and
intermeshing arrangement, and the adjustment of the track circuit
Track Circuit FTG S 46 / 917 with intermeshing

Fig. 2 Track Circuit with intermeshing and with rail fracture

176
SESSION - V

Legend:
SV "S" Bond SB Rail Fracture
Erdschiene Earth Rail isolierte Schiene Isolated rail
Sender Transmitter Empfanger Receiver
Abstimm-BG Tuning Unit Vermaschung Intermeshing
Intermeshed Track Circuit with AF Choke (TFG)
- AF choke (TFG) introduced in each intermeshing branch
- Unrestricted detection of rail fracture in case of fracture in the isolated rail
(electrical isolation) leading to substantial reduction of the receiver voltage
- Track section occupied indication in case of rail fracture in the associated track
section (Fig. 3)

Track Circuit FTG S 46 / 917 with intermeshing and AF Choke TFG

Fig. 3 Track Circuit with AF Choke in the Intermeshing path

Legend:
SV "S" Bond SB Rail Fracture
Erdschiene Earth Rail isolierte Schiene Isolated rail
Sender Transmitter Empfanger Receive
Abstimm-BG Tuning Unit Vermaschung Intermeshing
TFG AF Choke

177
SESSION - V

The prototype of the AF Choke (TFG) designed, developed and manufactured by


Siemens has been installed, and is in operation since 1999 in Norway with the
Railway operator "Jernbaneverket".

3. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
By means of an appropriate AF Choke in the path of the intermeshing at each point
on the rail, the audio-frequency current flowing through the intermeshing path is
reduced substantially. Thus, this audio-frequency current is flows almost entirely
along the earth rail and the isolated rail of the track circuit. The alternate path via
that offered by the intermeshing offers a very high resistance to the audio-frequency
current. However, for the traction return current the intermeshing path remains
virtually a short so that the appropriate path for the traction return current is ensured
even in case of rail fracture.
In case of rail fracture, the current flowing to the receiver gets substantially reduced.
As a result of this, the associated track circuit is declared as being occupied and
the rail fracture resulting in galvanic separation of the isolated rail gets detected.
(Fig. 3)
The introduction of the AF chokes leads to a reduced damping of the track circuit.
Thus, the audio frequency track circuit is suitably adjusted in such cases. An
impermissible voltage increase, even in the extreme situation of a short-circuit in
the AF choke, is thus eliminated.
The removal of an AF choke from the intermeshing path causes a reduction in the
receiver voltage of the track circuit.
By means of the exclusive use of an appropriate AF choke, the high resistance
offered by the intermeshing path to audio frequency currents can be ensured.
Voltage spikes, which are possible when using parallel resonance circuits e.g. when
component values drift from their nominal range, do not occur with the use of AF
chokes.

4. CONSTRUCTION
The purpose of the AF choke is to provide a high resistance electrical separation
from the intermeshing path for audio frequency signals by means of an inductive
resistance, which causes a reduction in the current flowing through the intermeshing
path.
Owing to the high values of traction return currents, the AF choke is designed
using copper coils having a large cross-section and heavy-duty bolts. At the same
time, the choke has a high inductive value, which, considering the large cross-
section and low number of turns, can only be achieved by using ferrite cores. These
cores are provided with air gaps in order to avoid saturation effects in the range of
operation and to achieve the desired inductance value.

178
SESSION - V

Fig. 4 AF Choke at the track-side

In order to provide mechanical stability and proper channel for heat transfer, the
choke is mounted on a simple base plate and enclosed in a track-side connection
box (Fig. 4).
Further constructional characteristics of the AF choke (TFG):
- Interface connection between outdoor cable and AF choke cable is suitable for
carrying high currents
- Interface isolation between the choke and the track-side connection box
- Type of connections (Fig. 5)
- Each connection point is directed vertically below and fitted with a heat-
shrinkable tube to provide isolation
- The ends of the coil (inside the box) are at right angles to the connecting bolts
- Connection bolts are provided for connecting the box to earth
- The pipe at the base of the box is 1000 mm. long isolated with a rubber sheath
(smaller lengths are also possible)

179
SESSION - V

- Connection box dimensions (Length x Breadth x Height): 359mm x 359mm x


305mm
- Weight approx. 35 Kg.

Fig. 5 AF Choke (TFG) Connections: outer = choke connections;


middle = earth connection

5. TESTS
The necessary type tests required to be performed before using the AF choke (TFG)
been completed successfully.
- Testing the current carrying capacity
The testing of the current carrying capacity was carried out in line with the
requirements of the railway operators. The current carrying capacity of the AF
choke (TFG) was checked under the following conditions:
- continuous current rating: AC 150 Amps .
- impulse current rating: AC 20 kA.

180
SESSION - V

- length of current impulse: 140 ms or 300 ms


Fig 5. Impulse diagram with impulse duration of 140 ms
The same diagram is valid for impulse duration of 300 ms with the impulses being
300 ms long.
- High-voltage Test The high-voltage test is conducted by applying 2.5kVeff
between the AF choke connections and the connection box for a duration of 2
sees. This test is performed with the coil connections of the AF choke shorted.

6. CONCLUSION
There is a tailor-made solution available with the House of Siemens to provide the
feature of reliable rail fracture detection in electrified areas by means of appropriate
installation of the AF Chokes in intermeshed track sections where the Siemens
AFTC type FTG S have been installed. The use of the AF choke ensures that all rail
fractures, resulting in galvanic isolation of the rail section under consideration,
would be detected, which would be of immense benefit to Indian Railways. Thus,
the AFTC of Siemens type FTG S could play an instrumental role in providing
both the function of track vacancy detection as also the feature of rail fracture
detection for track sections where it is installed in conjunction with the AF choke.

181
SESSION - V

SIZING A DATA LOGGER SYSTEM

by

LR Chandru
Sr. Vice President,
KJS Rao
Engineer &
NK Chennamaneni
Engineer
HBL FIFE Power System

With data logger now moving out from a passive—logging device to a pro-active
maintinana and fault analysis device there is need to have closer look System capacity
of datologger. Based on experience gained this paper....brings out guidlines for sizing
up the Data logger vis-avis the system requirement of a station/yard.

It is an accepted fact that Data Loggers can be used as an invaluable aid to improving
reliability in Railway Signaling. However, it is seen that there is not enough information
available to optimally size a Data Logger System for a given station or network of
stations. It is also seen that with improving software and other analytical techniques,
the role of a data logger is fast moving from a passive-logging device to a proactive
maintenance and failure analysis system. This paper addresses this important issue for
the following reasons:
1. Considering individual data loggers: If a data logger is undersized, there may be
many vital and non-vital inputs that may be missed when the equipment is actually
hooked on to the Data Logger system. This incomplete information, due to non
provision of adequate Digital or Analog Inputs to the data logger results in an
incomplete picture of the yard status and thus defeats the very purpose of installing
Data Loggers.
2. Considering a Networked Data Logger System: If the individual Data Loggers and
other associated equipment that make up the Network are not properly defined for
their size and capacity, the installation cannot be complete. In other words, if the
information given in the specifications to the supplier is not complete, again the purpose
of the exercise is defeated.
3. If either or both of the above happen, a lot of unwarranted time, effort and money will
need to be expended both by the Railways and the Supplier to rectify this problem.
4. If the Data Logger System is sized to suit the exact existing requirements, there is no
possibility for accommodating any extra requirements that will arise due to technology
upgrades, new equipment, new inputs to accommodate new information/features on

183
SESSION - V

existing data loggers due to improvements on the software, or line/capacity expansion.


It would therefore be prudent to keep sufficient margin to meet the above needs in the
initial stage itself.
This paper attempts to give the information needed as a guideline for sizing the Data
Logger System Requirements of a station/yard, based on the RDSO specification No.
IRS: S99 / 2001.

SIZING AN INDIVIDUAL DATA LOGGER:


The following factors are to be considered while deciding the configuration of individual
Data Logger (i.e. the number of Digital Inputs and the number of Analog Inputs) for a
specific station.
1) The number of Analog inputs and Digital inputs required at a station can be decided
depending on the size of the yard and location of its various functions. A typical 4
road wayside station can be considered to have 11 main signals, 3 shunt signals, 2
calling-on signals, 3 slots, 6 points, 3 crank handles, 30 Track circuits, and about 45
panel push buttons / switches and other equipment. The concerned relays will be
in the Relay Room or sometimes in the field location boxes. An example of such a
yard is given in an Annexure of this paper.
2) In addition to the above inputs, some specific conditions like fuse blown-off, battery
charger defective, battery low voltage etc need to be monitored on analog or digital
side through Data Logger. For monitoring these as Digital Inputs, potential free
contacts should be provided by connecting them to relays. These inputs can also
be monitored as Analog Inputs. If they have to be monitored as Analog Inputs, one
Analog Input Isolation card for each such input will be required. Increasing the
number of Digital Inputs is much cheaper and easier when compared to increasing
Analog Inputs.
3) However, it does not mean that only Digital Inputs should be always preferred.
Analog Inputs are definitely required when considering power supplies and the
like.
4) As per RDSO specification No. IRS: 99 / 2001, the minimum number of inputs for
any Data Logger has been specified as 512 Dls and 32 Als. It is expandable up to
4096 Dls and 96 Als.
Apart from the above minimum requirements, provision must also be made for
expansion of the Data Logger system considering upgrading of technology and increased
capacity that will be required when the yard is upgraded to meet increasing traffic
demands and enhanced safety requirements. It would also be a good idea to have a
provision for a technology buffer for accommodating inputs that would be required
while enhancing the functionality of the Data Logger due to newer and improved versions
of software. It would therefore be practical to provide an increase of 20%, over the basic
requirement works. Considering the example given in the annexures, the requirement
now works out to be:

184
SESSION - V

Digital Inputs = 600 X 1.2 = 720


Analog Inputs = 17 X1.2= 20.4=20
Sizing of larger stations or yards can be done on the same basis. The decision on the
number of Digital Inputs and Analog Inputs can thus be made considering:
• Actual Present Requirement
• Expansion Factor.
This will ensure maximum utilization of the Data Logger System in respect of all the
various utilities and functions that it offers.
One may entertain a genuine doubt as to why all repeater relays have to be read by the
data logger. The answer is ‘because it helps in the failure diagnosis of the signalling
functions’. In a particular circuit, if ASPR or GNPR or TPPR is proved whose input is
not fed to the data logger and only its principal relay is read, correct conclusions cannot
be made in finding the cause of failure. Therefore, if one wishes to have the advantage
of failure diagnostics provided by a sophisticated data logger system, reading the
condition of various repeater relays is very much called for.
Precluding the need for diagnosing the faults developed in non-vital functions as a
must, a modest count of one repeater relay for every function control or detection relay
is made while assessing the minimum required inputs to be read.
Apart from the basic Data Logger, some other support equipment is required for the
Data Logger System to function. These should also be considered when drawing up the
specifications for purchase.
Input Supply: Data Loggers as per RDSO specification, have to function with an input
supply of 24VDC, which is expected to be provided by the Railways. In case the Railway
is unable to provide an uninterrupted 24VDC supply, the same can be procured from
the Data Logger manufacturer by ordering separately for a suitable battery with a charger.
In case of a networked Data Logger with external modems, additional Input supply to
suit the modems is also to be provided by the Railways. Generally the operating voltage
of these external modems is 230 VAC.
Printer: A standard Data Logger is provided with a port for connecting an 80 or 132
column Dot matrix-printer only. If an inkjet printer is to be connected, a PC will be
required. The required type of Dot matrix printer (80 or 132 column) should be specified
clearly while ordering.

185
SESSION - V

Figures:

Station / Cabin Station / Cabin

CMU
(Local P.C.)
Data Logger

Printer other
than Dot
matrix

Dot Matrix
Printer only
Data Logger

Local PC: Even though a Data Logger can function as a separate unit with only a Dot
matrix printer, the full capability of the Data Logger can be utilized only with the use of
a Local PC. Except for network management related tasks, all other functions of CMU
(Central Monitoring Unit) including Fault Analysis can be performed with the Local PC
loaded with customized application software for a specific station / yard.

SIZING OF DATA LONGER NETWORK:


A network consists of individual Data Loggers at different stations, yards and cabins
that are connected together so that information gathering, analysis and report generation
can be done from a central location.
The process of sizing a Data Logger that is going to be a part of the network, is the same
as that of sizing a stand-alone Data Logger. However, to form the network, the following
are required:
Front End Processor (FEP): A Front End Processor is a network manager that acquires
data from Data Loggers located at various stations and stores the same. In a network, all
the Data Loggers and an FEP are connected in a ring form and the FEP is connected to
the CMU. The FEP transfers the acquired data to the CMU as and when a request for the
same is received. FEPs are required only when networking of Data Loggers needs to be
done. One FEP is required for each network. One network can have upto 32 Data Loggers.
FEPs are not directly connected with Fault Analysis Software and hence the term PC
based FEP is misleading and avoidable. The Fault Analysis software resides in the CMU.
Figure:

186
SESSION - V

Networked Datalogger Modems. FEP. CMU and Printer

Central Monitoring Unit (CMU): The CMU is a PC loaded with customized application
software for a group of stations / yards. The CMU acquires the data of all the Data
Loggers in the network through FEP. CMU can be used to display and report a variety
of activities, records and alarms. Failure analysis is part of the application software and
therefore the CMU is also referred to as Failure Analysis System (FAS) at times. The
minimum configuration for a PC / CMU and its features are part of the RDSO
specification.
Modems: Modems are required for connecting Data Loggers with each other and to the
FEP. Every Data Logger will require a pair of Modems and the FEP will also require a
pair of Modems. Modems can be built-in (with separate Modem Card) as part of the
Data Logger or as separate bought out units.
RDSO approved Modems are available ex-stock in the market and can be replaced
immediately if they go faulty by the regular maintenance crew. Built-in Modems have
the disadvantage of requiring the attention of the manufacturer’s Service Engineers if
faults arise.
Communication Link: The responsibility of providing communication links between
stations and central control location is with the Railways and the termination of this
communication link to suit the standard Modem should be made available to the Data
Logger manufacturer at the stations, yards, and control-room to be networked.

187
SESSION - V

ANNEXURE - 2:
The typical yard considered for minimum requirement for data logger inputs is a small
4 road wayside station. It has one ON loop line, one common loop line, one goods line
having 2 slotted GF controlled points and a level crossing gate.
The Signalling functions provided are as below :
1. Number of 3-Asp main signals -6
2. Number of 2-Asp main signals -5
3. Number of C.O signals -2
4. Number of shunt signals -3
5. Number of points -6
6. Number of C. H. controls -3
7. Number of slots (LX etc) -3
8. Number of track circuits - 30
9. Number of Routes -16
Group of Digital Inputs Existing Requirement
ECRs & repeaters 72
HR’s HHR’s, DR’s or equivalent & repeaters 66
Point operating relays NWR’s, RWR’s or 24
equivalent & repeaters
Point indicating relays NWKR’s, RWKR’s or
equivalent (including WNKR if provided) & 36
repeaters
Buttons, Knob relays and their Repeaters 90
Track and Axle counter relays & Repeaters 60
Timer repeater relays 9
Intermediate interlocking relays like UCR, 134
ASR, JSLR etc. or equivalent & Repeaters.
Emergency operation relays (e.g. route
cancellation, overlap cancellation, point 40
operation under emergency, crank handle
release, gate release etc) & their Repeaters.
CH, GF LX release and indication relays with 12
Repeaters
Relays concerned with block instruments and 28
SM’s key
Miscellaneous relays 19
Minimum Number of Digital Inputs: 600

188
SESSION - V

189
SESSION - V

Vital power supplies to be considered for monitoring as Analog Inputs.

Button Relays: HR’s :


GNRs –14 MN sig HRs –9
WWRs –6 8A sig HRs –3
YNRs –3
CO Hrs –2

CHYNRs –3 Total –14


UNRs –8 Dist HHRs –2
Com. Button Relays –11
Total –45 Int Interlock Relays
Their Repeaters –45
TSRs –7
Total –90
VCRs –16
DRs:
A/S DRs –2 ASRs –16
MNSr DRs –2 JSLRs –16
H/S DRs –2 WLRs –6
Dist DRs –2 WJRs –6
Total –8
Total –67

UHRs –3 Repeaters –67


MERs –6 Total –134

Total Sig Contr Relays = 33


Repeaters = 33
Total = 66

Block Realy & Others (SMR)


LCRs –3
ZCRs –6
SRs –2
SNCRs –2
SMR –1
Total –14
Repeaters –14
Total –28

190
SESSION - V

Type of Analog Input Requirement Type of AnalogInput Requirement


230 V AC 3 60 V DC 2
110 V AC 2 48V DC —
24 V AC 1 24 V DC 2
12 V AC 1 18 V DC —
1 V AC — Axle Counter 2 12 V DC 2
110 V DC 2 6 V DC
80 V DC — 3 V DC
72 V DC —

Minimum number of Analog Inputs: 17


This means that the minimum Digital Inputs and Analog Inputs that are required in
such a yard will be as follows:
Digital Inputs = 600
Analog Inputs = 17

191
SESSION - VI

192
SESSION - VI

ROUTE RELAY INTERLOCKING WITH


AUDIO FREQUENCY TRACK CIRCUITS

by

Shri R.C.Tripathi
Chief S&T Engineer/Central Railway
Shri Naresh Kumar
Chief S&T Engineer (Const.) Central Railway

While AFTC have been in use on straight track for many years on Indian Railway, its
adoption in point zone few. Successful commissioning of RRIs at Datavali on Central
Railway; with AFTC both on straight portion and in point zone in is the first major
step in using AFTC for full yard on Indian Railways. In this paper the authors describe
their experiences on AFTC design, the field problems encountered and the reliability
improvement achieved in the functioning of RRI at Datavali & Panvel stations.

1. INTRODUCTION
A New Route Relay Interlocking installation, as a part of Diva - Vasai Doubling Project
has been commissioned at Dativali station in October 2001, on CSTM - KYN suburban
section of Mumbai Division of Central Railway. Since the work of conversion of 1500V
DC traction system to 25 KV AC traction system is already in progress in Mumbai
suburban transport systems of both Central and Western Railways, the work had to be
done meeting requirements of signaling in 25 KV AC Traction area. Presently, in the
1500 V DC traction system, track circuiting has been done using Siemens make AC track
relays. All old installations in Mumbai Division are having AC track relays, which are
not suitable for 25 KV AC traction, going to be introduced all over Mumbai area in
phases in next 5-6 years. Therefore entire signaling system in Mumbai Division of both
Central and Western Railway is being made suitable for 25KV AC Traction by -
• Changing all AC track circuits by Audio frequency track circuits.
• Providing secondary battery backed power supply for all signaling subsystems.
• Providing earths for equipments, cables, block circuits, Block filters etc.
• Providing AC immune relays, Point machines with higher immunity and other
protective measures for external circuits.
All new signaling installations (PIs, RRIs, Automatic signaling) in Mumbai area are
being commissioned with above provisions including Audio Frequency track circuits
(AFTC). Therefore Dativali RRI has been commissioned with Audio Frequency Track
circuits. This is the first RRI installation on Indian Railways with Audio Frequency
track circuits.

193
SESSION - VI

2. SALIENT FEATURES OF DATIVALI RRI


Dativali station lies between Diva & Dombivali stations on CSTM - KYN section of
Mumbai Division. Dativali Route Relay Interlocking installation has been commissioned
with Siemens make metal to metal relays, group relays, Point machines and Siemens
make `FTGS' type Audio Frequency track circuits of `remote feed' variety. Dativali yard
consists of basically two portions, main line portion consisting of the 2 `Through' lines
and 2 `Slow' lines and the yard portion consisting of three lines (2 Up & Dn loops with
one common loop). Dativali yard daily handles about 375 trains in all the four directions.
The work pertaining to 5th & 6th lines has also been completed simultaneously.
Important yard statistics are given in Table-1 below.
Table - 1

FUNCTIONAL INSTALLATION
1 Main signals 24 1 Relay Racks 44 Nos.
2 Shunt Signals 10 2 Block Instts. 1 pair
3 `Calling On' signals 15 3 K-50 Mini groups 545
4 `A' Markers 03 4 K-50 Interlocked mini groups. 128
5 Track Circuits 71 5 RRI Point Group 18
6 Point Machines 34 6 Point Chain Group 04
7 No. of Routes 75 7 Signal Groups 28(24+4)
8 Route Groups 22
9 AFTCs 71

3. ADVANTAGES OF REMOTE FED JOINTLESS TYPE AFTCS


Provision of AFTCs is not only a technical necessity because of introduction of 25 KV
AC traction, it has a host of advantages over conventional DC track circuits provided all
over Indian Railways. Some of the major advantages are listed below -
• It drastically reduces the number of Insulated / Glued joints, which require
intensive maintenance. Only 2 insulated joints over the crossing portion in Point
zone track circuits are required and the straight Track circuits can be free of joints.
• Transmitter & Receiver comprising the main active components of this track circuit
can be located in a central location at a distance of up to 6.5 KM from the actual
track circuit. At site, only passive components, i.e. tuning units, S / a bond, track
connections are used. Thus it permits centralization of electronics / track circuit
equipment in relay room.
• It makes use of 12 different frequencies, which is sufficient to map any yard.

194
SESSION - VI

• It makes use of Frequency modulation / FSK technique, making it immune to


interference due to harmonics generated by modern Thyrister / IGBT based
locomotives.
• The receiver not only senses the amplitude of the received signal but also the
frequency of the modulated signal. The bit pattern of the modulating envelope is
additional safety feature.
• It can be easily upgraded to a coded track circuit to transmit additional track-side
information (Data transmission from track to train) for CATC use at a later stage.
• Up to 10 FTGS track circuits can be accommodated in one relay rack.
• Diagnostic aid in the form of LED indicators on PCBs to facilitate early detection of
faults and replacements at card level, ensure very high `maintainability' &
'availability'.
• With electrical track section separation, the `traction return current' is fed back via
both the rails.

4. SELECTION OF AFTCS
As per the Interlocking plan and the route section plan, frequency planning was done in
consultation with the manufacturer so that no two adjacent track circuits had same
frequencies. Four quad cable was laid in the entire yard to carry the transmitter signal
from relay room to the tuning unit at site and from receiver to the relay room. A general
schematic diagram showing various components of AFTC is enclosed as figure - A. M/
s Siemens was advised about the frequencies and the number of AFTCs of various types
required for Dativali yard.
Frequency used are -
i) 4750 Hz, 5250 Hz, 5750 Hz, 6250 Hz for FTGS 46 St or M
ii) 9500 Hz, 10500 Hz, 11500 Hz, 12500 Hz, 13500 Hz, 14500 Hz, 15500Hz, 16500 Hz for
FTGS 917 St, W, KR
Frequency Shift used in FSK technique = ±64 Hz
Transmission speed (keying speed) = 100 Hz (200 Bd).
Following 5 types of, Remote fed `FTGS' type (Siemens make) Audio Frequency Track
circuits have been used.
• FTG S 917 St, 24 Nos, for straight track sections of length up to 300 m (Fig - 1).
• FTG S 46 St, 10 Nos, for straight track sections (i) 400< L< 750 m if Rb > 2.5 Ohms,
(ii) 300< L < 600 m if Rb > 1.5 Ohms (Fig - 1).
• FTG S 46 M, 7 Nos, for straight track sections, center fed variety for lengths > 600 m
(Fig - 1).

195
SESSION - VI

• FTG S 917 W, 28 Nos, for point zone with 2 Receivers (Fig - 2).
• FTG S 917 KR, 2 Nos, for point zone with 3 Receivers (Fig - 3,4,5).
The number and location of S bonds and a bonds were decided accordingly. 12 different
frequencies with 15 different 8 bit patterns in transmitter allow 180 combinations.

5. COMMISSIONING METHODOLOGY
Considering the fact that 1.5 KM of existing Main line track portion required slewing to
suit the new lay out, only five motor points out of 34 remaining at their original place,
all track circuits to be replaced by AFTCs and all the signals except two were to be
placed at new locations, the work was carried out in phases in a planned manner to
avoid cancellation, detention and regulations of traffic during execution of the work.
Most of the work was carried out in night traffic blocks so that suburban services are
maintained during day time peak hours. The work was briefly carried out as under -
Preparatory work
a. In preparatory blocks initially 1.5 KMs of existing Main Line was slewed in three
different blocks to suit new alignment of DN Main Line. To have this realignment
work four Nos. of Signals and Ten Nos. of Track ckts were temporally shifted in
the existing yard.
b. Turn outs which were feasible, inserted on running lines and linking completed
before Non Interlocking.
c. Connection between Main Line and Branch Line was re-aligned by inserting new
cross overs and commissioning two new turn-outs from existing Dombivali RRI to
give existing flexibility in the yard in order to maintain existing level of traffic.
Non interlocking work
a. First block was operated during the night shut down period, in which DN and UP
Through lines were transferred to new Dativali RRI without any detention and
regulation of traffic. During this block alterations were also carried out in Diva and
Dombivali RRI cabins to suit new Inter cabin control circuits (ICC).
After transferring UP & DN 'Through Lines' in new Dativali RRI cabin, Diva - Vasai
traffic was diverted via newly laid 5th Line.
b. In second block, existing Loop No.1 was disconnected and all cross overs at CSTM
end were connected to their proper alignment with traffic diverted via new DN
Main Line.
c. In third block, UP and DN Loop Line was connected to UP and DN Main Line by
inserting cross over after dismantling existing track at KYN end of Dativali yard.
During above activities at b & c, AFTCs were charged in the affected areas and
Points & Signals were tested from Panel.

196
SESSION - VI

Simultaneously alterations were also carried out in Diva and Dombivali RRI cabins
to suit double line working to avoid extra blocks.

6. RELATIVE PERFORMANCE OF RRI WITH AC TRACK CIRCUITS & AFTCS


In order to arrive at realistic assessment about improvement due to provision of AFTCs
in lieu of AC track circuits, failure data has been collected for Dombivli RRI installation,
which earlier was controlling the Dativali portion of the yard. Dativli RRI was
commissioned on 31st October 2001.
6.1 DOMBIVALI RRI
Track circuits before commissioning of doubling at Dombivali - 82 Nos.
Track circuits after commissioning of doubling at Dombivali - 69 Nos.

Month &Year Total Failures Track circuit failures


April 2001 13 4
May 2001 11 8
June 2001 13 6
July 2001 5 3
August 2001 9 5
September 2001 12 8
October 2001 15 7
During this period, the installation had AC Track circuits. The track circuit failures from
April 2001 to October 2001 for AC track circuits are 41out of total signal failures of 78.
TC failures / TC / month come to 0.071.
6.2 DATIVALI

Month &Year Total Failures AFTC failures


October 2002 5 2
November 2002 5 1
December 2002 11 6
January 2003 2 Nil
February 2003 6 3
March 2003 14 4
April 2003 9 4

197
SESSION - VI

Dativali has 71 AFTCs. The number of AFTC failures from Oct 2002 to April 2003 is 20
out of total signal failures of 52. AFTC failures / TC / month come to 0.040. It can be
seen that there is a marked improvement in failures attributed to track circuits after
provision of AFTCs in lieu of conventional AC track circuits.

7. INSTALLATION
The AFTCs are installed on Siemens type relay racks with fuses on top of the racks as
can be seen in Figure - 6. Each AFTC is provided with a Power supply unit on the back
side of the relay rack. The transmitter output from the relay rack goes in one pair of the
4 quad cable, to the feed end tuning unit provided by the side of the track. Similarly, the
output from the receiver end tuning unit comes to the receiver in the relay room in
another pair of the 4 quad cable. The photographs of AFTC, Power supply unit, tuning
units, connections to track are enclosed as figures 7 to 11. A schematic diagram for AFTC
and schematic diagrams for S & a bonds are given in figures A, B & C below.

F3
F2 F1

Track connection box with


tuning unit
A A

Outdoor equipment

Indoor equipment

Transmitter/modulator Receiver / Evaluator

Track vacancy indication

(Figure - A)

198
SESSION - VI

FTGS 46 9m 9m

FTGS 917 3.2 m 3.2 m

(Figure -B)

FTGS 46 6.7 m

FTGS 917 1.75m

(Figure -C)

8. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED & SOLUTIONS EVOLVED


So far ATFCs had been provided only on straight portion of track in Automatic Signalling
sections. In Dativili, AFTCs have been provided in point zones for the first time. A
numbers of problems were encountered. Solutions to these problems were found
through a heuristic approach as well as from literature. Some of the important problems
along with solutions are listed below:-
1. The audio frequency signal received at the receiver end was poor, because of higher
voltage drop due to increase in length of track leads in "cross over" portion of
point zones. This was leading to frequent failure of the TC. The track leads were
duplicated in cross over portion wherever the track leads were more than 3.5 m
length.
2. It was found that in long berthing portions, if Rx and Tx are placed sequentially in
series, the LED indications on Rx-1 card starts flickering even though the track
circuit does not pick up due to different bit pattern. The plan was changed as
under:-
Rx…..F1….Tx Rx….F3….Tx Rx…..F1……Tx Rx……F3……Tx
(Scheme with problem)

199
SESSION - VI

Rx…..F1….Tx Tx….F3….Rx Rx…..F1……Tx Tx……F3……Rx


(120M) (300m)
(Corrected Scheme)
3. While preparing frequency planning for AFTCs, the neighboring frequencies were
kept 2 level higher or lower i.e. F1, F3, F5, F7 -----.
4. A number of track leads got damaged due to ballast screening / other activities
leading to TC failure. The track leads were finally provided in HDPE pipes.
5. While providing AFTCs in point zone with 2 as well as 3 receivers, it was found
that strength of signal received on diverted portion of track was low even though
the total length of track circuit was within specified limit. Finally the lengths on
diverted portions were kept less to compensate for extra loss in the jumpers
provided in crossing portion.
6. Leads from tuning units to rail are copper ropes of 25 mm2
S bond or a bond - steel rope with copper cladding on top of 20 mm2 cross
section.
7. Tightness and effectiveness of longitudinal bonds with double GI wires for rail
continuity is very important. Below the fish plates, bonds with copper ropes
have been provided to take care of heavy traction return current in DC traction
area. This has helped indirectly.
8. For point zone track circuits, the receivers have been located in such a manner
that the distance between Tx and Rx on straight and diverted portion is almost
same. This was done after it was found that with different lengths, the strength
of signal received on Rx for the diverted portion was low with high probability
of failure.
9. The tuning units of each track circuit had to be tuned to maximize the strength of
received signal.
10. The connections to rail from the tuning units are made through lugs held to the
rail through a tapered bolt inserted in a 16 mm hole in the web of the rail. The
connection is made tamper proof by providing locking nut & washer and double
nuts.

9. CONCLUSION
As is well known AFTCs are suitable both for DC as well as AC traction areas and are
easily upgradeable for track to train data transmission. Therefore the work of
replacement of AC track circuits in Mumbai Area can be done in advance and completed
well in advance of switch over to 25KV AC Traction system. The 3 phase AC track
circuits (Siemens make) are already phased out world over and are causing problems of
spares and maintenance. M/s Siemens have already stopped manufacturing these track
relays. These track circuits use impedance bonds which are very costly as well as theft

200
SESSION - VI

prone. These bonds require special side connections made of very thick wire ropes.
Therefore provision of AFTCs has not only solved this problem but also improved
reliability of signaling installations in Mumbai Suburban section, facilitating better use
of the track infrastructure for running more services, which is a crying need of the hour.
Recently one more RRI installation at Panvel has been commissioned with ATFCs and
previous experience of Dativali has paid rich dividends in smooth commissioning of
Panvel RRI. Thus Central Railway has commissioned two RRI installations with AFTCs.

( Figure 1 )

( Figure 2 )

201
SESSION - VI

( Figure 3 )

( Figure 4 )

202
SESSION - VI

( Figure 5 )

( Figure 6 )

203
SESSION - VI

( Figure 7 )

( Figure 8 )

204
SESSION - VI

EXPERIENCE ON DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER : PROB-


LEMS ENCOUNTERED & SOLUTIONS

by

R.C. Tripathy
CSTE/C. Rly.
Sanjay Kumar Singh
Dy. CSTE/C/C. Rly

Harbour line is one of the worst ballast resistance setion on Central Railway, where
it is stremely difficult to maintain track circuit. To provide a long term solution to
this problem, Central Railway has installed Multiple section Digital Axle Counter at
Raoli In on this section. In this paper the authors share their experiences with this
state of art technology and the performance improvement it has brought to the railway.

Suburban Railway system is lifeline of Mumbai and Signalling plays a very


important role in its operation. Reliability of track circuits is very important to
ensure smooth functioning of signaling system. It is difficult to ensure high
reliability in suburban section due to following reasons.
1. Poor ballast condition due proximity of hutments, garbage throwing on track,
poor drainage condition.
2. Traction return current due high density of traffic.
3. Shorting of glued joints by miscreants.
Raoli – King Circle- Mahim section on harbour line is one of the worst ballast
resistance section where it is practically difficult to maintain track circuit due to
above reasons . Initially Audio Frequency Track Circuits of different make were
tried but could not work due to extremely poor ballast condition those were
removed later.
Multiple Section Digital Axle Counter has been commissioned on 22/03/2000 at
Raoli Junction on Harbour section of Mumbai Division covering UP and DOWN
lines between RVJ and Mahim. This has been put on trial. There are total 16 detection
points and 12 track sections, out of which 7 track sections are on Down and 5 on Up
Harbour lines. Two point zones have been also provided with detection points of
axle counter. Distance between Axle Counter Evaluator (ACE) and farthest detection
point is approximately 2.2 Kms. Total 8 conductors of four quad cable is only
required to connect all 16 detection points to ACE in bus configuration. To have
better reliability two separate four quad cable have been laid for Up and Down
detection points. Besides, one separate 12 core cable has been also laid for extending

205
SESSION - VI

96 volts DC supply to each detection point.


Multiple Section Digital Axle Counter installed at RVJ is of model “AzL90-4” of
M/s Alcatel, Germeny.. It is first installation on Indian Railways of its kind with
16 detection points.
Multiple section Digital axle counters are installed at six stations for loop line
berthing and point zone application on Bhusawal Division of Central Railway .
At Nishatpura on Bhopal Division (now WCR) Multiple section Digital axle
counter with 25 detection points is installed on complete yard in connection with
RRI work .
Details of digital axle counter installations on Central Railway are as under:
DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER :- POPULATION ON CENTRAL RAILWAY

( As on Apr, 2003. )
Sr No. Division Station Dt.of Instt. Make Set Detection Points Track Section
Remarks

1 Mumbai RAOLI JN. MARCH,2000 Alcatel 1 16 12 Automatic


signaling section
and point zone

2 Bhusawal PACHORA 05/01/2002 Alcatel 1 13 6 Loop line


including point
zone

3 Bhusawal VARANGAON 31/03/2002 Alcatel 1 9 4 Loop line


including point
zone

4 Bhusawal BADNERA 06/08/2002 Alcatel 1 10 5 Loop line


including point
zone

5 Bhusawal PARAS 24/09/2002 Alcatel 1 8 3 Loop line


including point
zone

6 Bhusawal AKOLA 28/12/02 Alcatel 1 9 4 Loop line


including point
zone

7 Bhusawal VAGHLI 28/02/2003 Alcatel 1 4 2 Loop line


including point
zone

  TOTAL       7 69 36  

206
SESSION - VI

DOWN LINE

RVJ

UP LINE TOWARDS CSTM

DETECTION POINTS SHOWN IN NOS

LAYOUT SHOWING MULTISECTION DIGITAL AXLE


COUNTER SYSTEM ON RAOLI-MAHIM SECTION OF
MUMBAI DIVISION.

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT:
System is based on a 2 out of 2 module. The Axle Counter Evaluator (ACE) consists
of Vital Computer Module, Power Supply for Electronics, Serial I/O including
Modems for data buses, Parallel I/O for output to Relay Interface and input from
reset panel, Relay Interface Unit with relays for upto 12 sections, a Reset Panel
containing switches and LED for resetting up to 12 sections.
Track side detection point consists of the double rail contact (Sk30) and the Electronic
Track side Unit . Two physically offset coil sets are mounted on the web of same
rail which work on frequency 29 & 30 Khz. Three bolts to the rail web of same rail
fit the rail contact. EAK 30C energizes the Tx heads, run self tests & transmits
telegrams containing count & supervision information to the ACE. There are two
independent processor in each EAK. Two pairs of conductors are required for data
transmission from ACE to EAK. Upto 8 EAK30C can be connected to the same two
pairs in the form of a bus. Each EAK is polled by ACE by telegrams transmitted by
modems. EAK sends telegram back to ACE when it is polled.
Multiple section Digital axle counter system installed on Central Railway are
confirming to safety standard CENELEC SIL –4.

207
SESSION - VI

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER SYSTEM


RESET
ACE RELAY INTERFACE
CABINET
DIAGNOSTIC
ACE
MODEM
DATA 4 QUAD CABLE
TO OTHER EJB UNITS
MODEM
ELECTRONIC JUNCTION BOX
(EJB)

RAIL MOUNTED TRANSMITTER &


RECEIVER
TRACKSIDE DETECTION HEADS
POINT

PERFORMANCE :
Axle Counter systems have been working satisfactorily and there has been no
failure attributable to the system after initial stabilization and the two case of
failures during the initial stabilization.
Summary of month wise cases for seven axle counter system consisting of 69
detection points and 36 track section are as under :
CENTRAL RAILWAY

DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER - PERFORMANCE :


MONTH WISE TOTAL FAILURE/TRACK SECTION/MONTH
Total failure/track section/month
Month & April,’02 May,’02 June’02 July’02 Aug.02 Sept.’02 Oct.02 Nov.02 Dec.’02 Jan.’03 Feb.03 March’03 April’03
Year

Total 0.36 0.18 0.41 0.55 0.59 0.19 0.25 0 0 0 0 0 0


failure/
Track
section/
month

208
SESSION - VI

CENTRAL RAILWAY

DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER - EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE


Month wise Equipment failure/track section/month
Equipment failure/track section/month
Month & April,’02 May,’02 June’02 July’02 Aug.02 Sept.’02 Oct.02 Nov.02 Dec.’02 Jan.’03 Feb.03 March’03 April’03
Year

Equipment
failures/
Track 0 0.05 0.09 0 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
section/
month

DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER - PERFORMANCE


TOTAL FAILURE / TRACK SECTION/MONTH

0.70

0.60 0.59
0.55
0.50

0.40 0.41
0.36
0.30
0.25
0.20 0.18 0.19

0.10

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


2

03
2
2

03

3
02

3
2

02
,0

,0

,0

,0
l,0

,0
.0

r,0
,0

n,
n,

b,
g,

ov
ct
pt

ec

ar
ril

Ju
ay

Ap
Ja
Ju

Fe
Au

O
Ap

Se

M
N

D
M

TOTAL FAILURE / TRACK SECTION/MONTH

209
SESSION - VI

DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER SYSTEM - PERFORMANCE


FAILURES PER MONTH PER TRACK SECTION
0.1
0.09 0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.05
0.04 0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2

03

3
2

03
2

2
02

3
02
,0

,0

,0
.0

,0

,0
,0

l,0

r,0
b,
n,
n,

g,

pt

ec

ar
ov
ct
ril

ay

Ju

Ap
Fe
Au

Ja
Ju
Ap

O
Se

M
N

D
M

RESET PROCEDURE
There are three type of resets are available in digital axle counter system :
1. Direct Hard reset
2. Conditional hard reset.
3. Preparatory reset
On Central Railway Conditional hard reset and Preparatory Reset is configured in
Digital axle counter system . Track section will get cleared immediately with direct
hard reset. With conditional hard reset section will clear if last count is count out of
the section. With preparatory reset, track section will get cleared after a passage of
train after resetting .All event are recorded in the system..

MODIFICATION SUGGESTED
Based on experience of first system at Raoli , manufacturer was advised to provide
following facilities/ modifications which has been incorporated in the current
systems :
1. Provision of electromechanical counter in the system for each section reset .
2. Provision of cooperative type reset .
3. Real time clock for logging of all events.

210
SESSION - VI

ELIMINATION OF TROLLEY SUPPRESSION TRACK CIRCUIT


ANALYSIS
This report is a short survey on influence of various non-specific types of wheels
on Digital Axle Counter and a suggestive method for detection or elimination of
such wheels by the system.
Following methods are generally used for eliminating detection of wheel of
smaller size of insulated trolleys.
1. Trolley suppression Track circuit.
2. Fibre trolley wheel (Non Magnetic material).
The current generation of some of Digital High Frequency Axle Counters works
on the principle of both voltage dip and phase reversal influenced by train wheels
which makes the product extremely reliable in terms of its basic function – The
Axle Counting. This method of wheel detection is available with Digital Axle
Counters and this happens to be a unique feature, which can be utilised to blend
out various types of non-specific wheels from being detected by the axle counter.
In context to Axle Counter Installation in Indian Railways, it is essential to provide
a means in the System, which ensures that the Light Trolleys are not detected.
These trolleys are of different types and they all ply on the railway tracks under
non-signal condition. They usually enter into a section and then may change the
track from middle of it and then come out from the different section. These
movements thus not only cause an axle counter section to remain in occupied state,
but also make another section disturbed (negative axle count). To prevent such
occurrence, a short Track Circuit Section is provided across the detection head of
the Axle Counter. A contact of this Track Relay is taken into the Axle Counter
Circuit that prevents the system from counting when it is in energised state (i.e
picked up). Since the axle of the Trolley is insulated, thus, when it passes over the
detection head, Track Circuit Relay prevents the counting in the axle counter and
this results into the non-detection of the trolley by the system. In case of a normal
train axle, the Track Circuit Relay drops and enables the axle counter to count the
movement of train into or out of the section.
While this method is popular in India but it has following drawbacks:
1. Reliability of Axle Counter is reduced to that of a Track Circuit.
2. This adds the cost of providing additional devices with the axle counter not to
mention the associated running maintenance. Provision of two track circuits
for every axle counter track section and their maintenance efforts offsetting
all the advantages of axle counter
3. Axle Counter cannot be provided in the tracks with steel sleepers – like bridges
, loop lines and sidings and yards

211
SESSION - VI

Use of fibre wheel trolleys are still facing problem of high friction and is under
trial.
All these calls for a system which will eliminate all the above constrains and improve
the reliability of the digital Axle Counters.

THE SOLUTION
The solution lies in its unique feature of both voltage dip and phase reversal
technique.
This article will give an insight how the system behaves in various types of wheels
and how to achieve the desired result to detect or eliminate non-specific wheels. A
short view is explained about various considerations during the installation.
The dip and phase reversal that takes place in the system primarily depends on
the following factors :
1. Diameter of the Wheel.
2. Height of the Flange of the Wheel.
3. Rail profile.
Additionally following factors also contribute in the wheel detection
1. Nature of the wheel, i.e. solid or spoked.
2. If spoked – number of spokes.
3. Orientation of the spokes while plying over the Rail Contact.
4. Thickness of the Flange.
5. Position of the flange, i.e. if near or away from the rail contact and rail table.
The Trolley which are used in Indian Railway are of following types:
1. Light Trolley (manually pushed or motorised) with spokes (4 or 6 nos.). The
Flange Thickness is usually 8mm and height is 35mm. The diameter of the
wheel is about 500 mm. This Trolley should not to be detected by Axle Counter.
( Sketch 1& 2)
2. Heavy Motorised Trolley with Heavy Spokes and Flange 40 mm. or over.
Diameter is again 500mm. These trolleys are to be detected by axle counter
and they move under signal condition.
3. Dip Lorry Non insulated with Diameter of 300mm and Flange height 40mm.
These are to be detected by Axle Counters.
4. Rail Dolly having a pair of small solid wheels with very short diameter
(<300mm) and small flange height (<10mm). They are used to carry materials
by rolling over on one side of the rail.

212
SESSION - VI

The Digital Axle Counter is usually calibrated during installation at 40 mm of


Dummy wheel setting, keeping in mind the standard wheel with specific Diameter
and Flange Height. With this adjustment itself the light trolley wheels are
automatically not detected, as the worst case dip (rectified Rx voltage) never crosses
the ZERO to trigger count.
The dip with heavy motor trolley wheel however goes beyond -50mV and thus it
is just perfectly counted in the system.
A very important observation came out with the Digital Axle Counter System that
any dip between 0 to -50mV caused the system to go to a disturbed mode and
system then had to be Reset. This happened with the dip lorries and rail dollies.
The explanation for above again lies to the fact that apart from phase reversal,
there has to be an “overlap” of pulses for a minimum time period between two
heads of the Rail Contact. Any overlap shorter than above will cause the system to
be in disturbed state. This overlap can be measured by a dual trace storage
oscilloscope, else, approximately can be calculated by Rectified Output Voltage
of both heads. As stated earlier any dip that remains within 0 to -50 mV causes
insufficient “overlap”.
There could be three options for such non- - specific wheel influences.
1. To remain with the problem since such movements of dip lorry are very few
and dolly wheel can be taken on other side of the track on which there is no
installation of Rail Contact. A reset has to be activated in such disturbances.
2. To make such wheel properly “detected’.
3. To make such wheel ‘not seen” at all by the system.
To make the wheel properly detected the Rail Head has to be adjusted of higher
sensitivity (may be at 35mm of Dummy Wheel Setting). This will ensure that such
wheel is detected by the system properly.
To make the wheel “unseen” by the system, which is the preferable scenario in
Indian Railway, it is recommended to adjust the Rail Heads to a lower sensitivity
(may be at 45 or 50mm of Dummy Wheel Setting). This eliminates such wheel from
being detected keeping the specified wheels detection undisturbed.
It is always advised that to eliminate any wheels from being detected at all, a proper
survey has to be done in terms of the Rail Head Setting and its influence on such
setting. Too much change of sensitivity on the lower side might cause a normal
wheel to be disturbed and may also lead to miscounts.
A chart has been made in respect various reading of rectified voltages at different
setting of dummy wheel, at different insertion of Flange height (by means of dummy
wheel again). This chart gives an insight of importance of flange height with respect
to its influence to wheel detection. Annexure B

213
SESSION - VI

SUMMERY
Following points is the gist of the report:.
1. To make an unspecified wheel to be not counted: It should be necessary and
sufficient to adjust the Rail Contact such that they maintain the minimum dip
above 0mV.
2. To make any wheel to be counted properly by the system: It should be absolute
necessary to maintain minimum “overlap”, alternatively the dip should be
well beyond –50mV.
3. Any short wheel pulses, usually generated by the dip between 0 –50mV will
cause an improper count and may lead to “disturbance state” and Reset will
be essential to restart the system again.

COST ANALYSIS
Cost analysis of trolley suppression track circuits is indicated in annexure-A.
Life cycle cost of one DC track circuit is Rs 4,27,630/- which includes cost of
installation ,regular maintenance by the staff and periodic replacement of its
components . Based on the above factors the cost of trolley suppression track
circuit for axle counter of two detection points will be Rs. 8,55,260/- (approx).
By taking this into consideration that provision of trolley suppression track circuits
reduces the reliability of the axle counter and makes it dependant on the
performance of the trolley suppression track circuit and also the expenditure
involved in the maintenance of the track circuit it is felt that the adjustment of the
track devices be done in a way that the passage of the trolley axles does not cause
the system to attain the disturbed mode nor to the occupied state in case of passage
of push trolleys and motor trolleys.

CONCLUSION
1. Digital axle counter technology offers high reliability due to fault tolerant
digital communication
2. Immediate digitization at track side electronics and Phase reversal method
for wheel detection eliminates the need for trolley suppression track circuits.
3. Better maintainability due software diagnostics tool with remote monitoring
facility,

SUITABLITY OF APPLICATION
Digital axle counter is suitable for major yards including turnout , straight
section and where ballast resistance is very poor and long block section as
performance of Digital axle counter is independent of Ballast resistance, traction
current and rail continuity the system can be used without trolley suppression
track circuits.

214
SESSION - VI

SKETCH 2

215
SESSION - VI

DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER –


An International Approach
to increase Reliability and Safety.

By

Joachim Janle
Regional Director
Internation Business
ALCATEL
Transport Automatation Solutions

Digital Axle Counter has emerged as a viable & proven alternative to Track Circuit.
This paper describes the Safety and reliability levels to which this technology has
reached and the world wide applications it is gaining.

Electronic Axle counters are used to detect the presence of railway vehicles within defined
sections of track. They may be considered as a one to one alternative to track circuits.
Unlike track circuits however, their functioning does not depend on the ballast resistance
of the track. Axle Counters are therefore the only means of automatic train detection on
tracks which cannot be adequately insulated.
All over the world, Railway Administrations are investing more and more into the
modernization of their networks to fulfil the Operations need for increased train speeds,
better Quality of Service and at the same time increase of the Level of Safety.
In complex station yards or lines with little train headway, axle counters often provide
the only means of a fast and cost effective implementation of track changes or
modernization.
The reduction of possession time as well as possibility of shadow mode operation in
parallel to the existing infrastructure (e.g. for commissioning tests) facilitates the
changeover to the new track layouts.
This reduces project cost and increases the safety on the railway by providing minimal
disruptions to the parallel working railway service.
These factors have resulted in a decision by German Railways DB in 1995 to exclusively
use axle counters for construction and modernization of their railway network.
With the introduction of Digital Axle counter technology and fault redundant fail safe
digital telegram transmission from Outdoor to Indoor Equipment, that has proved its
outstanding performance in the last years in regions from arctic temperatures to tropical
climate, the reliability of train detection has increased dramatically.

217
SESSION - VI

Several Railway Administrations such as RHK in Finland, Railtrack in UK, SBB in


Switzerland and also IR in Indian are currently following this trend towards a more
reliable and safer railway environment by using Digital Axle Counter technology in
increased scale.
In November 2001, Railtrack have announced their strategic decision to go for a
widespread application of Digital Axle Counters in UK.
The first commercial application of the latest generation of Digital Axle Counter on the
West Coast Main Line in UK, the North Staffs Project, has successfully been
commissioned by Alcatel and WSAtkins on 27th May 2002. Railtrack have issued
CENELEC Safety Approval of Alcatel Az LM system based on Cross Acceptance of the
CENELEC SIL 4 approval by German Railway Authority EBA of December 2001.
On 4th October 2001, the first of 14 stations on the Kouvola-Pieksamaki line section in
Finland has been put into service operation with Digital Axle Counter Az LM followed
Zurich Hard in Switzerland in April 2002.
Also Central Railway of Indian Railways with the latest Az LM Axle counter installations
such as Pachora station, is amongst the world-wide leading Railway Administrations
for the operational introduction of the new generation of axle counter technology.
The Multiple Section Axle counter Az LM, latest in the line of Alcatel Digital Axle
Counters, offers a cost effective solution in train detection applications where reliability
and safety is to be maximized and equipment space requirements must be kept to a
minimum.

218
SESSION - VI

SINGLE SECTION DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER

By

A.K.Tripathi
Director/Signal / RDSO
&
G.Babu Rao
Chief Manager, CEL
Synopsis

Single Section Digital Axle counters have been indegenously developed by M/s CEL
in association with RDSO. The paper brings out the design features & efforts
undertaken for indigenous development of this new technology.

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Principle of working of Axle Counters is based on counting of axles of train. The
analogue axle counters are in use in more than 5000 locations for over 3 decades in
Indian Railways. They are susceptible to failures mainly due to analog transmission.
The Signal to Noise ratio plays a major role in analog system and should be as
high as possible for proper working. Keeping S/N ratio high has become more
difficult in noisy environment in RE areas. Hence the need was felt to develop
indigenous Digital Axle Counter technology.
1.2 With the evolution of Micro controllers and its processing power, it has now become
easier to develop a digital axle counter indigenously.

2.0 HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT


2.1 The Digital Axle Counter project was taken up for indigenous development during
the year 2000, jointly by CEL and RDSO with the support from Department of
Science & Technology and Railway board, Ministry of Railways. The tasks for
development of the system are divided in two phases
1. Single Section Digital Axle Counter - Phase 1
2. Multi Section Digital Axle Counter - Phase 2
The total time period for completion of Phase1 & Phase 2 is 3 years.
The development of Single Section Digital Axle Counter has been successfully
completed in Sep 2002 and the systems are being inducted in Railways with
approval from RDSO.

219
SESSION - VI

The Multi Section Digital Axle Counter is under development and the laboratory
model is undergoing the various tests.
We present the details of Single Section Digital Axle Counter (SSDAC).

3.0 SPECIFICATIONS
The RDSO has formed a detailed specification for Digital Axle Counter bearing the
number RDSO/SPN/177/2003. The standards applicable and the safety
requirements are also given in this specification.

4.0 FEATURES OF SSDAC


Digital Axle Counter being the processor based safety system for railway signalling,
the hardware and software has been designed based on fail safety principles.. Refer
Block Diagram of SSDAC given in fig 1

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SSDAC

TX1
PULSE 1
Rx1 SCC1 MLB 1 MODEM TO NEXT
RX1
SSDAC

AXLE
DETECTOR

TX2
VITAL
PULSE 2 RELAY SIGNAL
SCC2 MLB 2 DRIVE RELAY 'Q'
RX2 (24V) TYPE

AXLE
DETECTOR

LEGEND

SCC 1 & 2 : SIGNAL CONDITIONER CARD


MLB 1 & 2 : MICROCONTROLLER LOGIC BLOCK
FIG 1

4.1 DESIGN
• 2 out of 2 voting logic
• Inter processor communication to check processor failure

220
SESSION - VI

• 21 KHz & 23 KHz High Frequency Axle Detectors.


• Detection of all wheels with diameter > 400mm.
• Compatible with quad cable (2 wire), OFC & Radio.
• Watch Dog timer to ensure proper working of software and completion of
periodical self-checks.
• Vital relay output is read back in the system for occupied and clear.
• Extensive self-checks and diagnostics for Error Detection & its display
• Safe withdrawal of vital outputs in case of error
4.2 ECONOMY
• Efficient operation
• Fast and easy testing with limited functional modules
• Reduced hardware
• Low maintenance costs
4.3 SAFETY
• Conformance to CENELEC, SIL-4 requirements
• Adaptability to the different regulations for operation by the Railway
authorities.
4.4 RELIABILITY
• Highly reliable hardware design.
• High availability with MTBF of more than 20 years.
4.5 FLEXIBILITY
• System can be used for
• Track circuiting at stations.
• Block proving by Axle Counter including automatic signalling.
• Intermediate Block signalling
• Train warning at LC Gates.
• Vital relay output at both ends of track section.
• Reset operation by SM is independent at both locations.

221
SESSION - VI

4.6 ENGINEERING
• Web Mounted Axle Detectors
• Track side SSDAC counting units
4.7 MAINTENANCE
• Reduced maintenance through highly reliable hardware
• RS-232 port for Online Diagnostics
• Error Display near the system

5.0 BRIEF DESCRIPTION


The single section Digital Axle Counter comprises of axle detectors and trackside
Electronic unit linked by connecting cables. It is installed at both limits of track
section. Refer Fig 2 for SSDAC in Block section

STATION STATION
A B
BLOCK SECTION

TYPICAL 10 - 20 KM
AS
4 4 4 4

BLOCK/ VITAL RELAY 2 VITAL RELAY BLOCK/


INTERLOCKING SSDAC-1 SSDAC-2 INTERLOCKING
EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT POWER POWER

FIG 2

The axle detectors operate on a high frequency (21KHz & 23KHz) according to the
proven method of electromagnetic wheel detection. When a train wheel enters in
between the detectors, it influences the electromagnetic field and wheel is detected.
The detected wheels of a train are converted into pulses and these pulses are
counted at the entry and exit of the track section. The stored counts are exchanged
by telegram packet between the units
The track clear decision is arrived at if the counts are equal and vital relay is picked
up for signalling the next train, otherwise the track is shown as occupied.

222
SESSION - VI

6.0 SAFETY
The safety of the SSDAC is chiefly ensured by the duplicated hardware of the system.
The functional correctness of the software is proven by an independent verification
and validation. The extensive error detection in the system provides for data
integrity during counting transmission and other checks. Internal cyclic self-test
routines provide failure detection and shutdown of vital relay.

7.0 STRUCTURE
The principal functions of SSDAC are arranged in the following level:
1. SSDAC counting unit on trackside inclusive of axle detectors at 2 locations.
2. Reset box for system status with Station Master.

RESET RESET
ERROR DISPLAY MODEM MODEM ERROR DISPLAY
BOX BOX

MLB (2 OUT OF 2 ) MLB (2 OUT OF 2 )


VITAL VITAL
RELAY OTHER OTHER RELAY
COUNTS SUPERVISORY COUNTS SUPERVISORY
CHECKS CHECKS

SIGNAL CONDITIONER CARDS SIGNAL CONDITIONER CARDS

AXLE DETECTORS (ON TRACK) AXLE DETECTORS (ON TRACK)

FIG 3

8.0 SOFTWARE
• Count Packets
• Power On Self-Tests
• Watch Dog Timer
• Diagnostics

9.0 SYSTEM STATUS


The system has been put for field trials at 6 locations in Indian Railways since Sept
2002. The report has been found satisfactory.

223
SESSION - VI

10.0 SAFETY TESTS


• Hardware safety tests up to component level have been conducted by RDSO and
found satisfactory.
• The functional tests of all types have been conducted and found OK.
• The software has been Independently Verified and Validated to CENELEC
standards – SIL 4.
• The Software & Hardware Integration Tests have been conducted.

11.0 CONCLUSION
Indigenously developed Digital Axle counter technology is suitable for 2 detection
points and therefore can be used successfully for various signalling applications
like track circuiting, block working applications including automatic signalling,
Train warning at LC Gates etc.

224
SESSION - VI

“AFTC”— ITS EXPERIENCE & FUTURE


APPLICATIONS IN EASTERN RAILWAY

by

Shri A. K. Kapoor
Chief Signal & Telecom Engineer, Eastern Railway &
Shri S.K.Mandal
Chief Signal & Telecom Engineer(Project), Eastern Railway

Large scale adoption of AFTC for track occupancy detection has already begun on
Indian Railways. In this paper the authors describe their experiences of installation,
maintenance and rail fracture detection by AFTC on Eastern Railway.

1. INTRODUCTION
Since the introduction of simple DC track circuit in 1872, the system of interlocking
and railway signalling have undergone a revolutionary change. Over the years, due to
technological advancements, the interlocking system has undergone complete
transformation from candle light signalling to modern SSI based interlocking.
Nevertheless, the use of track circuit for detection of track occupancy continues, in
some form or other. In fact, track circuit has proved to be the most important tool in
ensuring safety in train operations.
Over the ages there has been several evolution in the track circuits. On Indian Railways,
following types of track circuits are in use:
(a) DC Track Circuit
(b) AC Track Circuit (50 Hz)
(c) AC Track Circuit ( 83 1/3 Hz)
(d) Jeoumont Track Circuit
(e) Audio Frequency Track Circuit.
Out of all the above types, the DC track circuit continues to be the easiest and cheapest
alternative and accordingly being used extensively in the station area. But, owing to its
short length and requirement of insulated joints , these are generally not used for longer
sections . The AC track circuit and Jeomont Track circuit are becoming obsolete and

225
SESSION - VI

technology has provided us superior types of track circuit at comparable costs, Audio
Frequency Track Circuits, due to its reliability and versatility, has proved to be the best
option of track circuit at present.

2. AFTC AND ITS ADVANTAGES


Basic advantages of AFTC are :
(a) Avoiding mechanical insulation Joint by electronic joint.
(b) Longer length than conventional DC track circuits
( c ) Immunity to interference due to traction
(d) Feasibility of data transmission between train & the track for implementation of
AWS and CAB signalling
(e) Centralisation of the system.
Maintenance of the conventional insulation joints is a tedious and labour oriented job.
Experience has shown that large number of failures take place due to malfunctioning of
the insulation joints for track circuit. Moreover, the rectification of the joints are to be
carried out jointly by signalling and engineering department, which makes the down
time longer. In continuously welded sections, the engineering department generally do
not encourage cutting of rails to provide insulation joint. This problem can be totally
eliminated by using AFTC, as the electronic joints do not require any cutting of the rail
section.
On account of modulation techniques and coding used, AFTC is immune to electrical
interference due to harmonic contents of conventional and thyristor locomotives. This
feature has made AFTC an universal type of track circuit, which can be used in all sections
of the railway, electrified or non electrified.
On account of electronic detection system employed for AFTC, the working voltage
required is much less compared to the AC track circuits providing similar length of
track circuit. This, together with the electronic detection system allow longer length of
track circuit to be realised with AFTC. Typical ranges of different make AFTC are given
in Table –I

226
SESSION - VI

TABLE-I

MAKE TYPE TYPICAL BALLAST TRAIN SHUNT


LENGTH IN RESISTANCE/KM RESISTANCE
METRE ( OHM) ( OHM)
SIEMENS FTG S 46 M 1000 1.5 0.5
FTG S 917 750 1.5 0.5
BOMBARDIER T1 21 850 1.5 0.5
( END FED)
TI 21 800 1.5 0.5
( CENTRE FED)
ALSTOM DTC24 700 0.5 0.5
2000(WITH 0.2 0.5
Compensator

3. AFTC ON INDIAN RAILWAYS :


On Indian Railways AFTC was introduced for the first time in Southern Railway for
replacement of 83 1/3 Hz track circuit. Subsequently, the same was introduced in several
zonal Railways like Western, Central, Eastern and Northern Railways, Calcutta Metro,
Delhi Metro etc. AFTC is being used mostly in the automatic signalling territories as
well as in station sections. At present nearly 500 units of AFTC are working in different
sections of Indian Railways. The performance of the track circuits over past years are
found to be quite satisfactory and these track circuits can be universally adopted in
both in block section and station section.

4. AFTC LAYOUTS :
AFTC has been used on Indian Railways in Indian Railways both on end fed layout as
well as in centre fed layouts with or without remote feeding. The typical layouts for end
and centre fed AFTC are given in Fig 1 to 3.

FIG-1

227
SESSION - VI

FIG-2

FIG-3
With quad cable of 0.9 mm dia, remote feeding up to a distance of 8 Km is attainable.

5. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH INSTALLATION :


(a) In Eastern Railway, the first installation was done in Sealdah- Dumdum Quadruple
section. In the section, there are a number of girder bridges. Since the maximum
attainable length of the AFTC is affected by the presence of such bridges and no
analytical data was available to calculate the extent of reduction in length, maximum
length of the track circuit was restricted to 600 M in the planning stage itself. With
such reduction in length, there has been no problem in the performance of the
track circuits, even in the full monsoon period.
(b) The AFTC works on double rail system. During installation of the AFTC, earth
connection to the traction masts were removed. However, at a later date, the rails

228
SESSION - VI

were replaced and the earth connection to the traction mast were connected without
the knowledge of S& T department. This created unbalance in the circuit and the
track circuits had to be adjusted again for proper tuning.
(c) The Tuning unit is connected to the rail through 35 mm square copper conductor,
which is prone to theft. There were some cases of theft of the copper wire and
impedance bond.
(d) The reliable operation of the AFTC depend on stable power supply . In Sitarampur-
Chotaambana section of Eastern Railway, AFTC was provided with AT power
supply without stabiliser, which caused failure of the track circuits. Introduction
of stabiliser improved the performance of the circuits remarkably.
(e) CADWELD joints provided in AFTC was also found to improve the performance.

6. AUTOMATIC SIGNALLING WITH AFTC:


After the gruesome accident of Rajdhani Express in Rafigunj Station of Mughalsarai
Divisions, it was increasingly being realised that there is a need to devise and implement
a system for checking the continuity of the rails by electrical means. AFTC is inherently
a two rail balanced track circuit and it has the capability of checking the continuity of
the rails. With the objective of checking the continuity of the rails and to increase the
throughput of the section, Indian Railway have decided to provide automatic block
working with AFTC in the Rajdhani & Satabdi Routes and part of the work has already
been sanctioned. Before execution of the work, various important aspects need to
addressed to make the system reliable, versatile and cost effective. Some of the aspects
which require urgent attention are ;
(a) TYPE OF AFTC :
Most of the AFTC installed so far on Indian Railways are basically analog type,
having no coding or data transmission facility. Digital AFTC with data transmission
capability is available abroad and these are being used in some of the most modern
high speed sections like TGV, France. The digital AFTC is very versatile as they
facilitate track to train transmission of signalling information. Thus with digital
AFTC, enormous facility is created for implementation of cab signalling and AWS
at a later date.
(b) STABLE POWER SUPPLY
Very reliable and stable power supply is absolutely necessary for proper
functioning of the track circuits and the signals. Unreliable functioning of the
automatic block system may have adverse effect on the speed of the trains and the
throughput. The power supply from at least two primary sources shall be available
in ring main configuration. Connection of UP & DN AT power supply at the
intermediate signals, is also desirable.

229
SESSION - VI

(c ) CENTRALISATION OF THE TRACK CIRCUITS : With AFTC, it is possible to


centralise the transmitters and receivers controlling the block section. A block section
of 7-8 KM can be controlled by about 12-14 track circuits, which can be centralised
in the nearest station. A mimic display system indicating occupancy of various
sections and the aspect of the intermediate signals should also to be provided to
facilitate early fault finding and rectification.
(d) MAINTENANCE INFRASTRUCTURE : Proper maintenance facilities to be
provided to the signalling maintenance gangs to attend to the failures in the block
section. With continuous track circuiting, inspection of each and every meter of the
track will come under the responsibility of the signalling maintenance gang. Repair
and maintenance gang similar to that adopted for OHE maintenance should be
adopted. Provision of tower wagons is felt absolutely necessary.
(e) EFFICACY OF AFTC IN DETECTING PWAY DISCONTINUITY :
What amount of success the AFTC will provide in detecting P-way irregularity, is
a highly debatable question. While metallic discontinuity can be easily detected
by the track circuit, hair line rail fracture may not be able to modify the electrical
parameters of the track circuit to that extent as to create a failure of the track circuit.
Similarly, removal of the fishplates may not always create electrical discontinuity
of the track circuit. Cases of sabotage may not be detected altogether, as part of the
rail section can be removed by the saboteur, keeping the electrical continuity in
tact by alternate means. Analysis of the available data in Eastern Railway revealed
that only about 20% cases of rail fracture caused failure of the double rail track
circuits. Therefore, it may be concluded that provision of continuous track circuit
by AFTC can, at best, be considered as an additional safety aid which should be
used in conjunction with all other available means of monitoring and surveillance,
as being followed at present, without any liquidation of their respective
responsibilities.
(f) STANDARDISATION OF THE DESIGN : The work of continuous track circuit
and automatic block working has been sanctioned on all Rajdhani and Satabdi
routes distributed over different zonal Railways. It is important to standardise the
system to be adopted uniformly by all the Railways. It is felt that RDSO may
standardise the specification for AFTC, Power Supply, Display system, Circuit
arrangement etc. A committee may also be formed to make recommendation for
creation of suitable maintenance infrastructure.

7. COST OF AUTOMATIC SIGNALLING WITH AFTC


Abstract cost for providing continuous track circuit with AFTC and automatic signalling
is given in the table below:
PROVISION OF AFTC IN THE BLOCK SECTION WITH AUTOMATIC SIGNALLING
SECTION LENGTH = 8 KM

230
SESSION - VI

SR NO DESCRIPTION UNIT QUANTITY RATE(Rs) TOTAL(Rs)

1 AFTC(LONG) NO 14 420000 5880000

2 AFTC(SHORT) NO 14 210000 2940000

3 LOCATION BOX NO 56 23180 1298080

4 4 QUAD CABLE KM 30 130000 3900000

5 INDOOR CABLE OF SORTS COILS 20 512 10240

6 RELAYS OF SORTS NO 50 2200 110000

7 MISC ITEMS LS 25000

8 EXT OF RELAY ROOMS NO 2 50000 100000

9 RELAY RACKS NO 4 20000 80000

10 STABILISER 5KVA NO 2 50000 100000

11 230:110 5KVA TRANSFORMER NO 2 20000 40000

12 SIGNAL POST & UNITS NO 14 24000 336000

13 18 C SIG TAIL CABLE M 1400 90 126000

14 12 c TRACK REPATING CABLE KM 56 63010 3528560

15 12 c ASPECT REPEATING CABLE KM 14 63010 882140

16 110: 24/60 V RECTIFIER NO 14 15000 210000

17 AUTO SIG GROUP NO 14 26000 364000

18 POWER CABLE 25 mm sq. AL KM 16 80000 1280000

19 SIGNAL LOC. BOXES NO 14 23180 324520

20 TRENCHING & CABLE LAYING KM 16 30000 480000

22014540

LABOUR CHARGES 10% 2201454

LOADING, 4% 880582

UNLOADING & FREIGHT 25096576

D&G CHARGES 14.83% 3608888

28705463

UNIT COST PER KM (S&T) 3588183

UNIT COST PER KM (ELECTRICAL 64106

UNIT COST PER KM (ENGG) 100016

TOTAL UNIT COST /KM(Rs) 37,52,305

The unit cost per KM works out to be about Rs. 37 lakhs. Therefore for implementation
of the above for entire golden quadrilateral (approximately 10000 KM), the total cost
works out to be Rs. 3700 Cr.

231
SESSION - VI

8. CONCLUSION :
In view of the reliability, AC immunity and versatility of the AFTC, these should be
adopted universally for all automatic signalling applications to be executed by Indian
Railways. To facilitate easier maintenance it is preferable to centralise the installations
in the adjacent stations. Keeping in view of future application of Cab signalling and
AWS, digital AFTC should be adopted instead of analogue AFTCs. The complete system
specification, including the specification of digital AFTC need to be standardised for
universal adoption of all zonal Railways.

232
SESSION - V

‘MODERNIZATION OF SIGNALING SYSTEMS IN


GHAZIABAD-KANPUR SECTION UNDER KFW LOAN’
(GKSM PROJECT)

by

A. K. Misra
Chief Project Manager/IRPMU &
Wolfgang Kriener
Team Leader, Consultants, KfW Project

New Delhi- Ghaziabad section of North Central Railway is one of the heaviest section
of Indian Railway having maximum permissible speed of 130 Kmph and carrying 45
Mail/Express and 60 Goods trains. All signaling & telecom assets in this section have
outlived their useful life and have become obsolete. KREDITANSTALT FUR
WIEDERAUFBAU (KfW). Germany, on the basis of the Experts’ report, have agreed
to extend soft loan of 185.0 Million DM to the Ministry of Railways for ‘Modernization
of Signaling Systems in Ghaziabad-Kanpur section‘. The KfW Project is for
enhancing the safety in train operations and line- capacity in this section.

The design of the Project is based on the ‘Feasibility Study Report’ conducted by DE-
Consult (Germany) & RITES (India) Ltd. - Final Report dated June 1996 and
Supplementary Report dated August 1996 after the Experts’ Investigation into various
Technological Options for Modernization of Signaling and Operations between
Ghaziabad and Kanpur in association with KfW and Ministry of Railways (Railway
Board).
Indian Railway Project Management Unit (IRPMU) has been set for implementation of
the project. Ministry of Railways have appointed Indo-German Consultants Consortium
of De-consult, Germany & RITES, India as consultants for KfW project in December
2002. Consultants shall assist IRPMU in functional planning, supervision of execution
and training of IR staff in operation & maintenance. Project is scheduled to be completed
in 55 months.

1 INTRODUCTION
In the past, increasing traffic demands in section Ghaziabad –Kanpur has been met with
by increasing the train lengths and loads accordingly. This approach is now fully
exhausted and any further effort in this direction would require huge investments of
increasing the lengths of tracks and platforms in the stations of major parts of the ‘A’
route.

233
SESSION - V

On the other hand, the existing signalling equipment on the Ghaziabad - Kanpur section
has more or less exhausted its useful life and replacement of S&T equipments by modern
state-of-the-art installations only could give the possibility of enhancing safety of
operations and increasing line capacity.
Accordingly, the major operational targets of the ‘GKSM’ project are improving the safety
of operations and increasing the line capacity of this section by about 50% as well.

2 PROJECT OBJECTIVES
The Objective of the project is to improve the safety, the capacity and efficiency of the
train operations in the section. This would be achieved by replacement and or upgrading
the Signalling and Telecommunication Systems by the introduction of Solid State
Interlocking on Ghaziabad – Kanpur Section, Automatic Block Signalling on Ghaziabad
– Aligarh Section, Optical Fibre Communication on Ghaziabad – Kanpur Section and
Rehabilitation/Upgrading of the Train Radio System on Ghaziabad – Mughalsarai
Section.
In short the objectives are:
• Improve safety of train operations.
• Increase the line capacity and improve punctuality of trains.
• Reduce maintenance cost.
The above objective would be achieved by replacing the out-dated Signalling System
with a modern one, to increase availability and reliability of the same.

3 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
Indian Railway Project Management Unit (IRPMU) has been set up, headed by Chief
Project Manager for overall project management including financial, legal and
contractual matters. In December 2002, M/s Indo-German Consultant consortium
comprising of De-Consult, Germany & RITES, India was engaged by IR to provide
consultancy support to IRPMU by way of preparing the Detailed Project Report, the
Tender Specifications, Tender Schedules and other Tender Documents. Further, the
Consultants are assigned to assist IRPMU in the Bid Evaluation and the Construction
Supervision, Testing and Commissioning of the systems. Organisation for
implementation of GKSM project is shown in Exhibit S-1.
The Project is sequenced into the four phases in a duration of 55 months:
• Phase I:Preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR), Tender Documents;
Tendering etc.
• Phase II:Evaluation of Proposals, Contract Negotiations and Contracting,
Development of Project Plan

234
SESSION - V

• Phase III: Implementation Phase


• Phase IV:Services during Operation (Warranty and Maintenance Period)
Phase I is the crucial one, because it would determine the course for the entire project.

4 EXISTING SITUATION
The 413 km long double-track electrified line Ghaziabad - Kanpur has 49 intermediate
stations with average station spacing of less than 9 km. Almost all stations are equipped
with loop lines for both directions. Thus the track infrastructure offers the best
possibilities for creating a high capacity rail link.
With a charted capacity of less than 60 trains and an actual number of almost 70 trains
per day each direction between Ghaziabad and Kanpur, the line is already overloaded
and is operating at 110% to 120% of the charted capacity. Relief by other neighbouring
lines is not available as these lines are Single track and/or not electrified. The section
from Kanpur to Mughal Sarai, however, is less busy and has a capacity reserve of 10 to
15 trains allowing for a moderate capacity increase without any investment.
The trains are quite evenly distributed along the line and most of the trains are through
trains between Ghaziabad and Kanpur. With about 50% each for express and goods
trains the train mixture is quite balanced. No basic change of this pattern is expected in
the future except for the line section near Ghaziabad where an increase of the Delhi
suburban traffic is intended by Northern Railways.
The line is equipped with 76% mechanical and 24% relay interlockings, which have
been commissioned between 1930 and 1996 and are on average 35 years old. There are
block huts in less than half of the block sections and a few line sections are equipped
with automatic signalling. The track circuiting in the stations, however, has been nearly
completed and almost all station tracks are now equipped with track circuits.

5 OVERVIEW OF PROPOSED SIGNALLING & TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM


SIGNALLING SECTION
5.1 Signalling and Interlocking Concept
Each station will have its own independent SSI (Solid State Interlocking) and in
case of communication failure between CTC and station, it will be possible for the
Station Master to perform local interlocking operation through a Man-Machine-
Interface (MMI), which will be installed in ASM’s rooms. Normal operations at
small stations will be through CTC and only in emergency; the Control will be
transferred to ASM, whereas larger stations will be locally operated by the ASM.
5.2 Solid State Interlocking System
The SSI is the heart of the entire signalling system and would cover all requirements
regarding safety, operating, maintainability and reliability. The system design shall

235
SESSION - V

comply with the relevant CENELEC standards; especially those mentioned below
and shall correspond to the Safety Integrity Level – 4 (SIL4). The SSI to be provided
would be a proven system operating successfully with other Railway Organisations.
The Reliability of the System is of particular importance. Therefore the rate of break-
down for the different components should not cross specified thresholds.
SSI system would have to fulfil the following conditions:
• Min. availability must be more than 99.999 %.
• The Mean Down Time (MDT) should not exceed more than 2.0 hours and
• the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) should be more than 940.000 hours
The system-typical response time from the time of controller’s input to tune to
initiate an operation until the corresponding display on the monitor shall be not
more than 2 seconds. This should apply e.g. to route setting, signal from proceed
to danger aspect and any individual operation.
Element Control Unit (ECU)
The ECU will be housed in suitable prefabricated hut in air-conditioned racks at
every station in the section (Exhibit S-2). The following will be connected to the
ECU
• All field elements such as points, signals, track necessary installations etc.
• The MMI in SM’s room with the monitor and the keyboard
The indoor installations of the ECU would consist of the following:
• The frames of the SSI
• The cable termination rack
• The Maintenance & Repair (M & R) workstation of the maintenance staff
• The power supply
• The telecommunication installations
• The indoor cabling up to the cable termination rack
The ECU includes complete railway-specific application software of interlocking,
controlling operational sequences and also contains the software for control and
monitoring of the elements of the outdoor equipment (points, signals, track vacancy
detection devices etc.)
This application software has to be present on an element-related basis in each
ECU. Topographical data is supplied in the downloading phase and enables the
elements to be logically linked specifically to the system. The following tasks will
be executed by each ECU.

236
SESSION - V

• Checking of received commands according to the signalling logic conditions


• Execution of the tasks according to the signalling logic conditions
• Interlocking of all elements according to the station related drawings
• Output of the commands to the connected field elements
• Reading-in and processing of indications from connected MMI
• Compilation of status indications and handling of fault indications from the
elements
• Handling and indications from the power supply\
• The control distance to the different field elements must not exceed 5.0 km.
Therefore the maximum distance between 2 ECU might not be more than 10
km.
Each ECU contains the logic for linking up the operation and display level with
the signalling logic and control level. The basic functions of ECU are as follows:
• receipt and storage of process status of the outdoor installations
• transmission of element-status information to the MMI at stations and CTC
• transmission of element-status information to the Service and Diagnostic
system
• evaluation of inputs of the MMI relating to formal and logical errors
• plausibility, authenticity and with regard to non-permissible parameters
• transfer of the checked inputs to the signalling logic and control level
• generation of system status information to the Service and Diagnostic system
• processing of interlocking tasks
5.3 Operating Equipments at Stations
It would be possible for the SM, in emergencies to put the signal to most restrictive
aspect during local as well as during Centralised. Operator control of the
interlocking will be supported by user-friendly menus. Each operator action results
in an optical or acoustic reaction, which will confirm to the operator that the input
has been accepted by the system or that the input was incorrect and has therefore
been rejected. Indications of the system are passed on to all the MMl. Each MMI
independently selects the indications, which are relevant to it. Each warning status
is signalled immediately and prompts the operator responsible to perform a
particular action. In addition, indications are output on the logging printer. The
type and extent of indications are determined during configuring of the system.
MMI is provided with the components as shown in Exhibit S-3.

237
SESSION - V

5.4 Train Number Indication System


Each train shall be allocated a number (train number). The train number serves
various purposes and it is possible to deduce e.g.:
• Train identification
• Direction of travel
• Class of train
• Destination
• Priority rating
• Rolling stock characteristics
• Service characteristics (e.g. passing through platform tracks only)
• Link to a timetable
• Train handling characteristics (e.g. dangerous goods, override consignment
etc.).
The Train Number Indication System shall monitor train movements by progressive
stepping of train numbers, based on information available from interlocking. The
overview and zoomed display windows on the MMI of both the Station Master
and the CTC shall display the number and location of each train. Each controller in
the CTC and the Station Master shall have access to the Train Number Indicating
System.
5.5 Centralized Train Control
If the Station Master or any other operational staff in the station must switch over
to local control they have to inform the CTC controller first, who will then act
immediately. In regular operations, when all trains are running more or less on
time, there is no noticeable difference between local and central control. However,
in case of disturbed operations, when trains are running with delays, the central
control is more effective as any necessary action will be executed directly and on
time by the CTC Controller instead of calling the Station Master and telling him
what has to be done.The centralised system also offers the advantage that the
information on the train running conditions is displayed automatically and on real
time basis on the Central Controller’s console. Thus any irregularity or derangement
is immediately noticed by the CTC Controller who can directly report such major
incident to the responsible member of the operations management.
Six workstations will be provided in the CTC Control Centre. Besides general
operating procedures like switching a point, setting up a train route etc. the
following procedures has to be foreseen:

238
SESSION - V

• Emergency route release,


• Emergency switching of point machines (occupied point track circuit)
• Emergency block release,
• Axle counter reset,
5.5.1 Additional Features to the CTC for the Supervision
The work of a traffic dispatcher is focused on regulating activities and not on
controls. As already mentioned, the idea suggests itself to integrate the actually
separated functions of train working and train control into one person, i.e. the Train
Controller in the CTC.
The following additional tasks would be assigned to the CTC-controller:
• Time table management
• Support of automatic train guidance systems and train describer
• Conflict resolution for the execution of planned train connections, crossing
moves and passing moves
• Computation of current plan deviation
• Statistics /archives and some others.
To cover these duties without many additional efforts every workstation will
be provided with the data of the line mirrored in various screens as follows:
• Geographical line overview
• Time-Line-Chart
• Various Screen Tables
The geographical line overview displays the configuration of the whole line
including the stations with all running tracks and the stop-signals concerned. In
the lines are embedded small fields where the train numbers according to the actual
position of the trains will be displayed. The train numbers will be shifted from one
field to the other according to the actual train movements.
The time-line-chart consists of a basic scheme, where on the x-axis the stations of
the line and on the y-axis the time-scale will be displayed in a sequence of minutes.
The time-line-graphs will be generated from the computer-system and is comparable
to the already existing manual graphs. The difference however is the precision, the
actuality and further information that will be displayed. All time-line-graphs can
be stored and printed for every period and at any time for later evaluation. Various
Tables can be calculated and displayed as required by Indian Railways.

239
SESSION - V

5.5.2 Loco Controller of the CTC Tundla


The section between Ghaziabad and Kanpur will be supervised by operation and
traffic dispatchers.For the tracking and dispatching of the locos for the whole line
however a workstation for 1 loco controller would be installed. This loco-dispatcher
can be provided with the same information of train running, the screens, time-
graphs and other information available to the train dispatcher.
The workstation for the loco-dispatcher should be installed in the CTC-centre of
Tundla with the workstations of the CTC-operators in the same room.
5.6 Data transmission of signalling
All installations on the section such as ECU and the CTC will be connected and
interfaced. Therefore, the transmission including interfaces between interlocking
in the ECU and CTC centre in both directions shall ensure safe and fast data
transmission. It must be duplicated for redundancy and high availability. The
transmission shall be via two optical fibres. Both OFCs will be laid in ducts on
either side of the track to have ‘route-diversity’ in order to have high reliability.
For signalling purposes the following fibres will be required in each OFC:
• 4 fibres for the ECU–CTC-BUS,
• 2 fibres for the ECU-ECU-BUS
• 2 fibres as spare for signalling purposes
The concept of data transmission is dependent on the individual technique of the
supplier of SSI. However, the above mentioned number of fibres will be sufficient
for the most common systems in use at that time.
5.7 Mains Supply
The power supply supply to the ECU in the stations will provided through AT
supply. Integrated Power Supply System (IPS) of the latest technology shall be
provided for each ECU and CTC centre at Tundla.In case the mains supply fails
totally or partially, the Standby Automatic Disiel Generator (SADG) shall start
automatically after a time delay of at least 30 seconds. Mains and SADG shall be
monitored continuously. The SADG shall be installed in a prefabricated block hut
or other room suitable.
5.8 Service and Diagnostic (S+D) System
In order to facilitate fault finding of the signalling installations a Service und
Diagnostic System would be provided. For that purpose in all signalling rooms
terminals for S+D shall be installed in each signaling room to support technical
staff in the maintenance centre for the first level maintenance and shall facilitate
fault finding. All important installations of signalling such as Interlocking, power

240
SESSION - V

supply, transmission systems and other important installations shall be connected


to the S+D terminals.
In case of failures alarms shall be raised. The S+D computers shall analyze, link
and evaluate indications such as status, fault, and event indications. On the basis
of these analyses and the specific fault conditions, the diagnostic computer shall
identify the displayed faults. These faults shall be stored in a data-base separate
for each system.
Eliminated faults shall be stored for statistical evaluation at a later stage. Faults
shall be displayed on the basis of lists. Time and place of occurrence, processing
status, controller and assumed reason of any selected fault are to be displayed.
5.9 Signals
Colour light signals with LED Signal Units shall be provided. LED Signal Units
afford higher flexibility and reliability of signalling equipment.
The benefits of the LED-units are as follows:
• Low life-cycle costs through low-maintenance signal light units
• Service life of the signal units is at least 10 years
• Periodic replacement of signal lamps is not necessary and as a result, saving
in time and cost.
• Signal light unit as a whole remains operational even if individual LED´s fail
• Maintenance of signal light units is restricted to cleaning and inspection within
customer-specific cycles of the higher-level system
• No readjustments or regular measurements for checking purposes
The only disadvantage of using LED-units is of initial higher investment cost.
However, based on life cycle cost, it has been established that it is economical to
use LED signals.
5.10 Point machines
The characteristics of the proposed electrical point machines would be :
• 3-phase-AC–machines with internal locking
• Automatically switching off the power, if the point machine does not reach the
final position within 10 - 12 seconds.
• The final position would be monitored by tongue detectors
• The point drives shall be switch-able by manual crank. Before inserting the
crank, the drive must be switched off electrically.
• The switching process wouldould be reversible.

241
SESSION - V

5.11 Track Vacancy Installations


The control and the supervision of new signalling installations is based on a
continuously working track vacancy system or track circuiting system. With this
system the vacancy or occupation of the lines in a station or section will be
supervised by technical installations such as
• Audio Frequency Track Circuits or
• Axle counters.
Main line at stations will be provided with AFTC in line with the existing Board
Policy. Remaining areas can be covered through digital axle counter including
concerned auto signalling section.
5.11.1 Audio Frequency Track Circuits (AFTC)
With the occupation of a section the wheel sets of a vehicle will short circuit the
rails, thereby de-energizing the relay and indicating “track section occupied”.
As compared with the former track circuit, the AFTC requires no physical rail joint
insulation equipment. Section isolation here is generally demarked thus permitting
the continuous welding of running rails. This reduces the maintenance and the
outlay of permanent way.
In addition, considerable outlets for the series bonding of insulated rail sections at
points and track crossings locations may be dispensed with. Insulated joints are
actually required only for points and crossing frogs and at locations where an inter-
bonding with existing, conventional track-circuits is necessary.
AFTC are suited for application on all lines where a specific track ballast resistance
of 1.5 Ohm/km is maintained. The installation of such joint-less track circuits
permits a two-rail traction current return array both with a straight track run as
also for points sections.
5.11.2 Axle Counter Systems
Axle Counter Systems serve the purpose of indicating the free/occupied state of
track sections. It consists of counting heads at each end of the detected section. In
an evaluation unit all sections will be controlled. The simple indication finally
results to a released or occupied section. The processing and transmission of the
information within the System must be fail-safe. The axle counter shall be suitable
for use with any type of traction and independent of the track parameters.
It is acknowledged that axle counters have to be reset occasionally.
• Re-setting of axle counter procedure, as per the existing policy will be provided.
• Preparatory resetting facility will also be provided in the digital axle counter.

242
SESSION - V

The axle counter shall be applicable with the following technical prime
characteristics:
Rolling stock
Traction Diesel and electric traction possible
Running speed 0 ... 250 km/h
Wheels
Diameter > 300 mm, Width > 115 mm
Wheelbase (axle distance) ≥ 700 mm Rail current < 1,500 A
5.12 Cabling for Signalling
The cabling system of the new signalling system shall be provided completely
new. The most important consequences of the continuous working Solid State
Interlocking System are the control lengths of the various signalling elements
connected to the ECU. As already mentioned this length comes to a maximum of
5 km. Signalling cables with solid circular cores will be used, with the individual
cores arranged in concentric layers. Permitted core diameters are: 0.9, 1.4 or 1.8
mm. The cables shall be chosen such that in consideration of the above restriction
all field equipment can be controlled/operated/monitored up to a distance of
5.0 km. The signalling cables shall have the following structure from inside to
outside:
• Copper cores with uniform coloured PE (polyethylene) insulation. Each layer
of cores shall have a distinctly coloured starting core or other acceptable means
of core identification.
• PVC (polyvinyl chloride) sheath
• Armouring consisting of 2 overlapping layers of galvanised steel tape, not
less than 0.1 mm thick, overlapping not less than 10 % (protection against
rodents)
• PVC protective outer sheath.
5.13 SID - Station Identification Number
For every ECU a SID will be provided. This number will be used for all signalling
installations as basic number and will be added with the individual element
number. The several SID will be determined as follows:
2 digit scheme using numbers 00 to 99 will be adapted to the entire line from
Ghaziabad to Kanpur. In order to cater for the possible installation of additional
ECU where the block sections are more than 10 km, spare SID will be kept.

243
SESSION - V

stations separated from 5 to 12 kms. Back-bone for the GSM-R will be the fibre
cable along the track. Exhibit T2 shows the GSM –R network levels.
The system is based on the ETSI GSM standard. To meet additional functionality
and performance requirements, this standard is to be supplemented by the
following GSM services:
• Voice broadcast service;
• Voice group call service;
• Enhanced multi-level precedence and pre-emption;
• General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
Railway’s specific applications are: -
• Exchange of number and location information between train and ground to
support functional and location dependent addressing;
• Emergency calls;
• Shunting mode;
• Multiple driver communications;
• Direct mode facility for set-to-set operation;
6.1.3 Out line Architecture
• The system comprises the following elements: (Exhibit T-3)
• Base Station Sub-systems (BSSs) of base station controllers (BSCs) controlling
base transceiver stations (BTS) each containing a number of transceivers (TRXs).
• Network Sub-Systems (NSSs) interfacing to the Base station sub-systems via
the GSM ‘A’ interface. The Network sub-system contains mobile services
switching centres (MSCs) with primary responsibility for call control.
• The network also comprises General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) infrastructure
elements supporting the respective packet radio services..
• Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs) containing information specific to single
subscribers. A SIM and mobile equipment (ME) combined are termed a mobile
station (MS).
6.1.4 Railway specific services and facilities
• To meet the specific railway requirements, a number of additional features
are required. The main aspects are summarised as under.

245
SESSION - V

5.14 Training
Maintenance Training of IR-personnel, that forms an integral part of the
responsibility of the supplier/contractor and Operation Training for IR-personnel
that is to be carried out by the Consultant. Details of the operation training are to
be worked out separately.
5.15 Maintenance, Spare Parts, Tools, Measuring Instruments
Maintenance and the provision of spare parts is included for the installed system
by the successful supplier for a period up to 3 years. The quantity of spare parts,
tools, measuring instruments, measuring cars and machinery are to be worked out
and specified by the Tenderer according to the stipulation of the specification.
After the free warranty period of 3 years the supplier will be requested to submit
an offer indicating:
• Consumables (wear and tear) spare parts for further 2 years
• Spare parts for further 5 years
• Tools and measuring instruments for the maintenance
Supply of all parts for a ten-year period shall be guaranteed by the supplier.

TELECOMMUNICATION SECTION

6. MOBILE TRAIN RADIO SYSTEM (MTRS)


The proposed new digital MTRS is based on the GSM-R technology for Ghaziabad
– Mughal Sarai Section. The Standard applied is the European Integrated Railway
Enhanced Network (EIRENE). All locos running in the section would be equipped
with MTR. In addition, 800 General Purpose Handsets (GPH) & 200 Operational
Purpose Handsets (OPH) would be provided.
6.1 Scope
The EIRENE System Requirements Specification defines a radio system satisfying
the mobile communications requirements of the European Railways. It
encompasses ground-to-train voice and data communications together with the
ground-based mobile communication needs of trackside workers, station and depot
staff and railway administrative and managerial personnel, which means
integration of all railway services into one communication network. Exhibit T-1
shows the system, by associating each element of the system together with interfaces.
6.1.2 System Overview / Location
The MSC will be located at TUNDLA. Since one BSC is able to control up to 128
BTSs, the BSC will also be located within the MSC. The BTS will be located at all

244
SESSION - V

• Frequency: Equipment is to be capable of operation in 876-915 MHz (uplink)


& 921-960 MHz (DN link) (Exhibit T-4)
• Voice broadcast and group call facilities: All mobiles are to support these
services as defined in the relevant GSM specifications. The services will mainly
be used to:
• broadcast messages from controllers to certain groups of trains in a controller
area;
• broadcast messages from trains or shunting team members to controllers or
other mobiles in a defined area;
• conduct group calls between train drivers and controllers over pre-defined
areas;
• conduct group calls between trackside workers, shunting team members,
station staff and similar groups, typically over local areas.
• Enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption: This GSM specification
is to be implemented in order to achieve the high performance requirements
necessary for emergency group calls. It is also necessary to meet different grades
of service requirements for different types of communications traffic on the
system (e.g. safety (e.g. train control system), operational and administrative
communications).
• Functional numbering: Many railway staff needs to be addressed by functional
rather than personal numbers. The functional numbers may change on a regular
basis.
6.2 Network configurations
Existing/new towers would be used to have transceiver coverage of 5 to 8 km,
which will create an overlapping of radiation of about 30%. Also, coverage
probability of 95% based on a coverage level of 38.5 dBmV/m (-98 dBm) for voice
and non-safety critical data would be ensured. The handover success rate should
be at least 99.5% over train routes under design load conditions. Call setup time
requirement is dependent upon the eMLPP priority of a call.
6.3 Mobile Equipment Specifications
All mobiles are specified with a common level of basic services, facilities and
features in order to ensure inter operability. The following three types of mobile
equipments would be provided: -
• Cab radio - for use by the driver of a train;
• General purpose radio - for general use by railway personnel;

246
SESSION - V

• Operational radio - for use by railway personnel involved in train operations


such as shunting and trackside maintenance.

FIXED NETWORK
7.1 Introduction
Fixed network will be upgraded by two different models e.g Small Station Model
& Large Station Model.
Basically the fixed network is classified into:
- Operational Network
- Administrative Network.
Operational Network is used for the safe operation of the trains. Administrative
Network is used for all other purposes in order to avoid any disturbance to the
operators; access to the operational network is restricted to operational personnel
only. However, operational personnel would be able to access the administrative
network. All other personal, wanting to contact operational personal are to call the
operator & operator would connect to the opearional personnel.
For separation of the two networks and for safe and independent operation it would
be new PABX’es in small stations and additional small PABX’es in large stations.
7.2 Small Station Model
A small PABX will be installed in all stations to connect typically the concerned
persons such as:
• Station Master
• East/West Cabin
• Level crossings next to the station
• Block hut next to the station.
All PABX’es will work as ‘Child Exchanges’ of the large stations. Interconnection
would be done through OFC. Similar functions will have same dialing numbers at all
stations as shown in the following table:
Function/Location Tel.-No Function/Location Tel.-No

Station Master 10 West Cabin 13

ASM 11 East Level Crossing 14

East Cabin 12 West Level Crossing 15

247
SESSION - V

Every ‘Child Exchange’ can be dialed by a 3-digit access code followed by the
functional number as shown above from the concerned large station. The Mother
Exchange can be reached by dialing “0” (zero). (Exhibit T-5)
7.3 Large Station Model
To keep the two parts of different subscribers (operational and administrative)
apart, an additional small exchange, covering all operational subscribers and the
links to the child exchanges at small stations, will be installed. Every operational
person will be able to access the administrative network without any restriction.
From the operational network any small station can be reached by dialing the 3-
digit station code. The operational exchanges will be connected via OFC with the
small stations (Exhibit T6). A programmed ISDN telephone will be provided for
every controller with the following features: -
Group call • Conference call • Knocking • Hands free talking
• Programmed calls as:
• 10 programmed connections on buttons
• 99 programmed connections to be dialed by two buttons
• Caller ID display · Caller switching
7.4 Optical Fibre Cable System
For safety reasons (redundancy for signalling elements) and to connect all stations,
it is necessary to lay two OFCs along the track from Ghaziabad to Kanpur and one
OFC from Kanpur up to Mughal Sarai.
A metal-protected OFC will be used for rodent protection. Metal sheath is to cut
every 2000 m to avoid Interference problems. Repeater would be provided at a
distance of 40 Kms (approx). The OFCs to be laid will be blown-into a HDPE pipe.
The blow-into a pipe of the second OFC has many advantages like:
• the possibility to blow-in a second cable
• rodent protection by the pipe
• easy maintenance
• no problem with the electro interference of some metal band for rodent
protection
• independence of trenching (-and trench closing) and cable laying during the
implementation and so on.

248
SESSION - V

Utilization of fibres in the two OFCs would be as under:-


OFC 1 OFC 2

Fiber Use Fiber Use

1 GSM-R STM1 to BSC send 1 GSM-R STM1 to BSC send loop

2 GSM-R STM1 to BSC receive 2 GSM-R STM1 to BSC receive loop

3 GSM-R bus for BTS 3 GSM-R bus for BTS loop

4 Reserve GSM-R 4 Reserve GSM-R

5 Fixed Network STM1 send 5 Fixed Network STM1 send loop

6 Fixed Network STM1receive 6 Fixed Network STM1receive loop

7 Fixed Network E1 #1 7

8 Fixed Network E1 #2 8

9 Fixed Network E1 #3 9

10 Fixed Network E1 #4 10

11 Reserve Fixed Network 11 Reserve Fixed Network

12 ECU - CTC bus #1 12 ECU - CTC bus #1

13 ECU - CTC bus #2 13 ECU - CTC bus #2

14 ECU - CTC bus #3 14 ECU - CTC bus #3

15 ECU - CTC bus #4 15 ECU - CTC bus #4

16 ECU - ECU bus #1 16 ECU - ECU bus #1

17 ECU - ECU bus #2 17 ECU - ECU bus #2

18 Reserve ECU 18 Reserve ECU

19 Reserve ECU 19 Reserve ECU

20 20

21 21

22 22

23 23

24 24

7.5 Training & Maintenance


Adequate training shall be arranged for the Railway personnel responsible for the
maintenance of telecom system. Training for Railways staff in maintenance of the
new system will be the responsibility of the supplier.
The contractor will be responsible for maintenance of the system for a period
provisionally set at 3 years. IRPMU will ensure that the contractor puts in place a
set of procedures and practices that will enable Railways to take over maintenance
successfully after the end of the warranty period and that a sustainable work
organization is in place, once the warranty expires.

249
SESSION - V

Member Board Level


Electrical

General Manager
NCR
Zonal Level

Chief Project Project Level


Manager/ IRPMU

CONSULTANT Chief Chief Chief Chief Traffic Fin. Adv. &


• Team Leader Signal Comm. Engineer & Transport Account
• Signalling Engineer Engineer Manager Off
Experts
• Telecom
Experts
• Procurement
Manager DYCSTE / DYCSTE Dy. CE Dy. COM DYFA & CAO
• Electromagnetic SIG /TEL
Experts
• Civil Engg. etc ESTE ESTE DEN DOM SAO
(Signal) (Tele)

Exhibit S-1 Organisation for implementation of GKSM project

OFC
SM

Printer
ECU Monitor

Mouse
Key-board

Exhibit S-3 : Configuration of a workstation of


the SM (station master) in the stations
Exhibit S-2 Element Control
Unit at every station

250
SESSION - V

Exhibit T1 - Layout of EIRENE specifications and details of interfaces

251
SESSION - V

Exhibit T-2 GSM-R Network Levels

252
SESSION - V

Exhibit T-3 GSM architecture overview

• Exhibit T-4
• Note: the R-GSM band includes the Public GSM (P-GSM) and Extended GSM
(E-GSM) bands.

253
SESSION - V

Exhibit T-5 Numbering Plan of Small Station

254
SESSION - V

Exhibit T-6 Numbering Plan of Large Station

255
‘ACD’ Mounted on Locomotive
Anti - Collision Device Fixed Inside Locomotive GPS*Receiver
For
(ACD) Data Entry COMMAND & Locomotive
‘POSITIO N’ TRACKING
Key Pad CONTROL UNIT through
(Micro-Processor Based) SATELLITE

IRSTE Conference Power


Radio Trans-Receiver
Converter
Antenna
Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi (3 KMs Range)

Ba ttery
72 V Braking Signal
14th & 15th June 2003 I/O Sub System
for
Locomotive
Fixed Outside
Locomotive
Speed Control

Presentation By
Message Display
* Global Positioning
Ajaykumar A. Bhatt, IRSSE System

Visual
Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer SOS ACK
Crew Interface
Audio

1 4
Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd.

Working of ACDs-take inputs from


Today’s Situation satellites/talk to each other and have
n The railway operation today has a intelligence to act to avoid collision
limitation of single point failure which is
built in Driver ’s human actions. Some of the 24 satellites
in the sky
n At stations –failure to read signal can be Input taken from
disastrous!!! minimum 3 of them
The atomic time signals
n In block section,
section, driver has to drive used
BLINDLY till he approaches next signal,
on TRUST ! Digital radio modem
u He has no way to know what is ahead Communication
at 3 km - to be able to stop to prevent GPS receivers
collision Microproces sor
Microprocessor

Knowledge embedded
intelligence
2 5

GPS
What is ACD ? Satellites
n ACD is a computerized equipment
comprising of
t Global Positioning System
UHF Data
t Digital Radio Modem Radio
t Central Processing Unit Modem
t Interfaces to Auto-Braking Unit/ digital Loco
GPS Receiver Loco

tachometer/station signalling equipment IR ACD ACD IR


u fitted on locomotives, guard vans, stations
and level crossing gates. ACDs have Knowledge Embedded Intelligence
n ACDs derive their location, speed and Working of “on-board” ACDs
direction through Global Positioning System Take inputs from satellites, communicate with each
(GPS) and work on Angular Deviation Count other and have intelligence to act to avoid collision
principle 3 6

257
Angular Deviation Count
What is ACD ? uniquely identifies track line
for the Loco and Guard ACDs
n All ACDs communicate through digital Line No. 4 - Left DC = 2
radio with a range of minimum 3 km and
indicate to each other their exact Line No. 3 - Left DC = 1
location
Line No. 2 (Main Line ) - DC = 0
n Loco ACDs apply automatic braking in
case of collision like situation Line No.1 - Right DC = 1

Station Building
10
7

Technology breakthrough:
Angular Deviation Count So on a plane, once we
n GPS has error of 20m, not sensitive to 5
know the track on which
m distance between tracks train moves and the
n A new theory indigenously has been direction of movement, we
developed called Deviation count theory
which has made the technology break can prevent mishaps!
through to produce the most cost
effective, intelligence based auto acting
anti--collision device.
anti
11
8

Concept of Angular Deviation... Imagine In dark space


The ACD constantly looks for
Half deviation
Half deviation Reversal of angle- another ACD, within range equal to
GPS is sensitive braking distance required for
n GPS receiver gives output in ‘Angular’
relative speed - they communicate
terms as the loco/guard van is turning away
from the main line while negotiating a turn-
turn- with each other- identify and if they
out in a station yard happen to be having same track
n A ‘deviation’ is counted when such Angular
identification and are moving
change either towards LEFT or RIGHT is
detected quickly followed by another angular towards each other – automatically
change of the same order which is more restrain and stop each other!
than THREE degrees 9 12

258
ACDs Network to form Basic Philosophy - 2
Raksha Kavach- strength n SAME ‘Track-ID’ - Every Train ACD recognizes
comes from network the other Train ACD and identifies their
n Independent of signaling systems-
systems- double Track-IDs. Irrespective of their location in the
line/automatic block/electrified/multiple line/ railway network system if their Track-IDs are
all combinations of traction the ACD logic is same, these two ACDs will judge whether they
the same.
n No human inputs – equipment self- self-deduces
are approaching each other or going away from
n Additional safety layer- never gives any each other and in case they are approaching
positive indication to driver to override any each other, then on the basis of distance
existing rule
required to brake, the speed is controlled to
n Quietly protects if some collision-like disaster
is likely to occur 13 prevent any collision-like situation. 16

Basic Philosophy - 3
Cardinal principles n ‘Track-ID’ DIFFERENT -BUT UNUSUAL
BEHAVIOUR- When two ACD fitted trains are
n Always the network has a minimum of two approaching each other with different Track
knowledge based ACD systems in
communication IDs, the ACDs look for unusual behavior of any
n At least two systems to agree to allow the one of the trains. On the basis of distance
trains to proceed normally required to stop short of collision, they control
n No human inputs and all data is collected and their speed. If there is a positive indication that
analysed by ACDs themselves automatically
the unusual behavior is not (or no more)
n System never prompts driver to take positive
step, overriding existing safety system of train dangerous, the speed control is removed.
operations and hence ‘non- vital’. 14 17

Basic Philosophy - 1 Basic Philosophy - 4


n Track-ID - After deviation count profile survey is n OBSTRUCTION ON TRACK- ACD perceives
the entire railway network only in terms of
done for each yard, the Track-ID is derived by
station areas, points and crossings zones and
LOCO ACD, using the GPS inputs and block section areas. Additionally, pre-defined
Deviation Count profile. Where not amenable, possible track obstruction areas like gate
input is taken from point position or Infra-Red zones, temporary work on the track will stop
and proceed or any other such severe
beams, to derive the Track-ID.
conditions also can be recognized. If any
obstruction is perceived in the pre-defined
obstruction zones, the same logic of speed
15 control, based on the distance required to stop,
18

ill b li d

259
Basic Philosophy - 5
n In case of station areas, fouling of adjacent At stations
tracks is detected for a train when the points
n Additionally, fouling of point zones
and crossings zone is occupied by any of the
detected to prevent side collisions-
collisions-
ACDs or by portion of a train. In such a case, using the Guard ACD
the approaching train ACDs will control the n Complete arrival of train too detected by
the arrival of Guard ACD
speed on the basis of distance required to stop
n Either by Deviation Count Profile or in
short of collision. data-logger
exceptional case, limited data-
functionality provides the Track -ID for
ACDs fitted in trains
19 22

Basic Philosophy - 6
n CONTROL OF SPEED PROFILE- ACDs have an in- ACD’s view of Railway
built capacity to follow a defined speed profile, while
approaching the station and ACD will ensure this
n The Railway is viewed as
speed profile. The speed profile will however be
u Station area with
controlled based on the more severe of conditions,
namely, either based on distance required to brake area- points crossing zones
t PXZ area-

when main line is occupied or the target speed u Block section area
required at the points and crossings zones. The inputs
u Gate protection zones
necessary to know the ‘run through’ via main line will
u Train formation/loco-
formation/loco-shed areas
be taken to confirm whether the speed is to be
controlled while approaching the points and crossing u Any other zone specifically

zones of station or not. 20


designated 23

Basic Philosophy - 7 Different types of ACDs


n EMERGENCY- When ‘manual’ SOS is received n Loco ACD
u Fitted on a locomotive along with an auto-braking unit,
from other ACD which is within a range of becomes Saathi to driver
n Station ACD
3 Kms, the Loco ACDs fitted with ABU shall
u Fitted at a station- linked to station signaling circuits

apply emergency brakes to bring them to a where needed, is Saathi to the station master
n Guard ACD
stop, irrespective of their direction of movement u Fitted on the last vehicle becomes Saathi to the guard

n Gate ACD
w.r.t. the source who originated SOS. This is u Fitted at level crossing gates is Saathi to the gateman
and road users
treated as an Emergency, for which cause has
n Repeater/Look-out ACD
to be investigated. u Bridges the shadow zones of radio communications
21 24

260
Locomotive ACD Station ACD (with SM’s Console)
(with Driver’s Console)
Station ACD - 360 x 390 x 240
Weight - 14 Kg
SM Console - 195 x 230 x 80
Weight - 1 Kg

All dimensions are in ‘mm’

Loco ACD - 300 x 370 x 185 Driver Console - 125 x 150 x 95


Weight - 12 Kg Weight - 1 Kg
25 28
All dimensions are in ‘mm’ All dimensions are in ‘mm’ Station ACD installed with Console

Station ACD
Automatic Braking Unit (ABU) Fitted at a Station & linked to Signalling
circuits where needed, is ‘Saathi’ to the
Station Master

Hon’ble
Hon’ble MR MR
Size - 330 x 250 x 195 Weight - 13Kg
26 Inspecting
Inspecting Station
Station ACD
ACD
Braking - Normal, Emergency 29

Loco ACD - Fitted in a Locomotive along Guard ACD (with Antenna fixing
with an Auto-
Auto-Braking Unit (ABU), arrangements)
becomes ‘Saathi’
‘Saathi’ to Driver
Inset – Driver’s Cab

ACD ABU

Guard Antennae Base for


Radio and GPS antenna

Guard ACD - 210 x 235 x 130


Weight - 3 Kg (w/o Batt.)
Driver’s Console
27 30
Hon’ble MR - 5.5 Kg (with two rechargeable Batteies)

261
Manned Gate ACD with Boom
Locking proving arrangement Auto-Braking Unit (ABU)
n Heart of the Loco ACD equipment – the
force which initiates and controls the
protective braking action of train.
n Intelligent braking system-
system- Integrated
with Loco ACD , can derive the
characteristics of the train braking and
apply rationally the brake power, like
human, just to stop short of obstruction
Manned Gate ACD - 220 x 320 x 155
31 34
Weight - 5 Kg All dimensions are in ‘mm’

Un-Manned Gate ACD (with Raksha Kavach-


Infra-Red beam arrangement) A Network of ACDs
ACDs of all types network among
themselves, exchange information and
take decisions to prevent ‘collision’
type of dangerous situations well in
time, automatically – without manual
IR Beams inputs, forming a
Un-Manned Gate ACD -
“RAKSHA KAVACH”.
205 x 285 x 110 Weight - 3.5 Kg
32 35
All dimensions are in ‘mm’

ACD Repeater (with Tower & What types of accidents ACDs


Location Box) can prevent ?
n Head on / rear end/ side collisions at stations and in
block sections
n Train parting detection and take preventive steps to
stop other trains
n Train -road vehicle collisions at level crossing gates by
pre-
pre-warning
n Collisions of such nature involving NO ACD fitted
trains, train portions escaping from stations, poor
brake power of ACD fitted trains, material lorry, no
time margin left to brake the train, cannot be
ACD Repeater - 205 x 285 x 110 prevented.
Weight - 3 Kg Analysis of 128 cases over 5 years (1997-2002), show that
33
had ACDs been fitted, 82% of accidents could have been 36
All dimensions are in ‘mm’ prevented and 93% of lives lost would have been saved!

262
Summary of Events logged by
Networked ACD System during
Our Indian Product… Extended Field Trials.
• Reliability -
•Self deduction of Track ID by Loco ACD - In
n ACD has been invented by Konkan 2137 trips 38976 times decisions for change in TID was
Railway Corporation taken on facing points out of this 38950 times correct
n Patent for device applied for No decision were taken (99.93%)
668/BOM/ dt 24 Sept 99 and in 128 •Self deduction of Track ID by Guard ACD - In 1992 trips
countries. 30117 times decision were taken on change in Track ID
n ACD technology produces a new on facing points. Out of this 30068 times correct decision
generation of knowledge embedded were taken (99.83%)
self-
self-acting networking equipments •Assignment of TID by Station ACD of DZ station - Out of
which will cause a paradigm shift in rail
2702 times 2608 times correct assignments were done
guided transport 37 40
(96.52%)

Summary of Events logged by


Networked ACD System during
ACD development Extended Field Trials.
u Dec 1999 First prototype demonstrated by • Durability (Availability) - (for 62 days period)
Konkan Railway •Availability of correct TID of both Loco & Guard ACD -
u Jan 2001 First trials on NF Railway
Out of 2989 trip hrs of ACD fitted trains, for 2932
u March 2001 Second trials on KRCL
trip hrs the train carried correct Track ID (98.09%)
u June 2001 Third Trials on KRCL
•Availability of Loco ACD - During 2989 trip hrs of
u Aug 2002 Extended Field Trials begin on
ACD fitted trains their Loco ACD were available for
Northern Railway
2952 hrs in working condition (98.77%)
u Jan 2003 Trials completed
•Availability of Station ACD - Out of 16368 hrs, the
u April 2003 - Review done by Hon’ble MR
with Rly Bd, RDSO, N Rly & KRCL Station ACD were available for 16365 hrs (99.98%)
u Current Status - FRS & SRS under Availability of Gate ACD - Out of 13392 hrs the Gate
finalization with RDSO 38 ACD were available for 13199 hrs (98.55%) 41

Summary of Events logged by Summary of Events logged by


Networked ACD System during Networked ACD System during
Extended Field Trials. Extended Field Trials.
• Maintainability -
• Suitability - •Loco ACD - Out of 52 Loco ACDs 42 worked without
• Loco ACDs with ABU tried on - WDM2, WDG2, any trouble 9 out of 10 Loco ACDs were attended on
board for minor troubles. Only one was replaced.
WDP2, WDS6, DMU
•Guard ACD - 20 out of 21 Guard ACDs worked without
•Guard ACDs tried on - SLR & Goods Brake Van any trouble. One got damaged due to sliding of its
•Workability - antennae base from roof top of SLR
•Station ACD - 9 out of 11 ACDs worked without any
•Total 2936 trains ran with ACDs, 2771 trains
trouble. At two stations due to removal of battery
had no detention on count of ACD, 165 trains charger plug the battery got deeply discharged.
•Gate ACD - 7 out of 9 ACDs worked without any trouble
suffered average detention of 3.3 minutes 39 42
remaining 2 ACDs were attended at site for minor trouble

263
ACD Survey Routes Selected
on Indian Railways
ACD s are knowledge based.. Rly Route Selected by RKm Stations Start Date
n Just like an experienced driver must learn a new Railway Board
route, the ACD network has to acquire the NFR Entire Broad Gauge 1,700 181 14.05.03
knowledge of the route Route
n This is done in two stages
SCR Vasco – Madgaon – 790 97 22.04.03
u First by survey and design to profile the route Hubli – Tornagallu –
in terms of Deviation Counts and singular Guntakal –Renigunta
points 27.05.03
SR Chennai – Jolarpettai 849 107
u For the knowledge base designed as above, Bangalore)) – Erode
– (Bangalore
Incubation period of about 3 months when a – Palghat – Shoranur
data base of a million occurrences in the route - Ernakulam
is used to refine the initial knowledge base 43 3,339 385
46

ACD survey for route design-


each turn-out in every station,
gate and every kilometer has to Indian knowledge based core
be surveyed strength is show cased using
n Radio reception between two moving
international standard hardware
locomotives at 3km distance through out getting value addition through our
u May result in repeaters to bridge any shadow software and system design
n GPS survey for possible shadow over critical strengths.
locations like points & crossings
n Deviation Count Profiling for stations and ACD Technology will make
identification of singular points
Identify stations with need for limited data logger
India lead the world railways!
n
functionality provision in Station ACD
44 47

Special survey specific ACD


equipment
n Very special ACD equipment for fast data
capture and analysis is designed and
manufactured for survey
n Using this, both off-line and on-line analysis is
done to create the knowledge base for the
ACD network to form Raksha Kavach
n By computerising the entire work, we are able
tackle within 100 days, route length of 700km!
45

264
INCREASE IN LINE CAPACITY USING AUTOMATIC
SIGNALLING WITH AFTC

by

Jagrut Gandhi
Engineering and Technical Support
Bombardier Transportation India Ltd.

With the present growth on Indian Railways there is an urgent need for increasing
line capacity with enhanced safety.
Automatic Signalling offers advantages of increased traffic at very low cost in a short
time and with greater safety.
AFTC is a safe, reliable, proven, joint-less track circuit, immune to traction and
additionally offers broken rail detection under defined conditions.
This paper highlight how Automatic Signalling with AFTC is an ideal solution for
increasing the line capacity on Indian Railways.

1. INTRODUCTION
Looking at the rate at which the traffic is increasing on Indian Railways it is urgently
needed to increase the line capacity.
The line capacity can be increased by either providing an extra line or by use of
Automatic Signalling.
Automatic Signalling offers following advantages vis-a-vis provision of extra line
with Absolute Block working:
• More train movement as the headway is reduced.
• Safety level is improved as the LC gates can be interlocked and last vehicle
check will be performed automatically.
• Execution time is less as only track circuit and signals are to be installed on the
existing line.
• More economical.
• More environment friendly.
At present very small portion of total route Kilometers of Indian Railways is
provided with Automatic Signalling and thus the potential to increase the line
capacity using Automatic Signalling is still untapped.

265
AFTC offers following advantages vis-a-vis conventional AC/DC track circuits:
• Joint-less - when used on straight-line sections, no joints are required for
bifurcating two track-circuits.
• Immune to traction. Can be used on AC/DC electrified sections or non
electrified sections.
• Can be used in Centralized (Remote fed) or De-Centralized (Localized)
configuration.
• Can be used in End fed configuration for track-circuit lengths up to 650m -700
m and in Center fed mode for track-circuits longer than 700m.
• Proven worldwide on Mainline as well as Suburban line with different types
of traction systems.
• Provide broken rail detection under defined conditions.
Blending the advantages of AFTC with Automatic Signalling will provide an ideal
solution for increasing the line capacity and enhancing the safety.

2. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF AFTC TYPE TI 21:


AFTC type TI21 is designed to meet the onerous immunity requirement in AC or
DC electrified areas, where high level of interference may be present due to traction
harmonics.
AFTC type TI 21 operates at frequencies ranging from 1.6kHz to 2.5kHz on the
principle of Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), where the carrier frequency is shifted
between two frequencies close to each other. Frequency Modulated signal is fed to
the track and is received by the Receiver (Rx). Both of these frequencies are detected
independently and a number of other checks are performed to ensure very high
security against false operation. AFTC type TI 21 has a modulation rate of 4.8 Hz.
Coded version of AFTC is known as TI 21 C. In this version, Transmitter (Tx) can
be modulated at one of the seven different modulation rates (codes) between 2 to
10 Hz using an additional module known as CODEC. Seven codes are possible for
each of the eight frequencies, thus allowing a total of fifty-six variations. This
version is basically used in station (yard) areas where complex traction bonding
arrangement may be present.

266
Frequency Allocation for 4 Parallel Tracks
For both the types of AFTC, i.e. normal
A B A B A Track 1 and coded, eight frequencies A, B, C,
D, E, F, G and H are used and each track
circuit operates at a particular frequency.
C D C D C Track 2
Each line is allocated a pair of
frequencies. This enables two frequen-
E F E F E Track 3 cies to be used per track, for up to four
parallel tracks.
H G Track 4
For more than four tracks the sequence
G H G
is repeated.

Code and Frequency allocation for typical station yard

fB1 fA1 fB2 fA2 fB3 fA3

fD1 fC1 fD2 fC2 fD3

fE1 fF1 fE2 fF2 fE3

fH1 fG1 fH2 fG2 fH3

fB4 fA4 fB5 fA5 fB6 fA6

fD4 fC4 fD5 fC5 fD6

The above diagram shows the frequency distribution for a yard having 6 lines.
Here, 32 track circuits are shown. Each track circuit has a distinct combination of
frequency and modulation rate. Total 56 track circuits with distinct combination of
modulation rate and frequency distribution can be formed using seven codes and
eight frequencies.
In this way, a large separation between the track circuits of the same frequency can
be achieved.
2.1 System composition of AFTC type TI 21
The AFTC system consists of the following equipment:
(a) Transmitter (Tx):
Transmitter (Tx) produces a FSK signal with carrier frequency between 1.6kHz

267
to 2.5kHz. This signal varies ± 17 Hz about the carrier frequency. For TI 21, the
modulating frequency is 4.8 Hz, whereas for TI 21 C, it can be one of the seven
frequencies between 2 Hz and 10 Hz, depending upon the code selected in the
CODEC. This signal is given to the track through Tuning Unit (TU) or End
Termination Unit (ETU) or Track Coupling Unit (TCU).
(b) Receiver (Rx):
The signal from the Tuning Unit (TU) or End Termination Unit (ETU) or Track
Coupling Unit (TCU) is fed to the Receiver (Rx). Receiver (Rx) checks whether
both the side bands (f + 17 and f – 17) are present and are in anti-phase with
each other. If both side bands are present and are in anti-phase for 2 seconds
then it will drive the final Track Relay (R).
(c) CODEC:
CODEC generates seven different modulation rates (codes) C1 to C7 to
modulate Transmitter (Tx). It also compares the signal received by the Receiver
(Rx) with generated signal. If these signals are in phase and of the same
frequency, the CODEC picks up a Relay (Rc). Relays of CODEC and Receiver
(Rx) are connected in series to indicate track occupancy. Two types of CODEC
are used; one for track circuit with single Receiver (Rx) and other for track
circuit with multiple Receivers (Rx) up to a maximum of three Receivers.
(d) Tuning Unit (TU):
Tuning Units (TU) are used to form the electronic separation joint, which
provides separation between two joint-less AFTCs.
(e) End Termination Unit (ETU):
End termination Unit (ETU) is used to connect the Transmitter (Tx) to rails for
centre fed applications.
(f) Track Coupling Unit (TCU):
Track Coupling Unit (TCU) is used for interfacing between two AFTC of
unpaired frequency or for termination of AFTC with other type of track circuits.
TCU will be used with a pair of insulation joints.
(g) Power Supply Unit (PSU):
Power Supply Unit (PSU) supplies 24 V DC to Transmitter (Tx), Receiver (Rx)
and CODEC. It is rated for max. output of 4.4 A.
(h) Relay (R) or (Rc):
The final Track Relays (R) and (Rc) are metal to carbon 50 V DC relays, which
are directly operated by the Receiver (Rx) and CODEC respectively.
(i) Lightening Arrestor (LA):

268
Lightening Arrestor (LA) consists of two Metal Oxide Varistor and one Gas
Discharge Tube. The gas discharge tube protects the electronic circuitry of
Transmitter (Tx) and Receiver (Rx) from lightening and MOV provide
protection against high voltage spikes.
(j) Line Matching Unit (LMU):
Line Matching Unit (LMU) is a transformer that steps up the feeding voltage,
thereby reducing the transmission losses. In centralised version of AFTC, it is
used on transmitting side only. Line Matching Unit (LMU) is not required for
receiving side. LMU-Tx is used on transmitter side and LMU-TU is used on
TU, ETU or TCU side.
(k) Z bond:
Z Bond is an MS strap used for balancing the traction return current and is
installed in alternate tuned zones. When Z bonds are used it is not required to
use impedance bonds for balancing the traction return current.
2.2 Various configuration of AFTC type TI 21 and TI 21 C
(a) Decentralised:
In decentralised configuration, Transmitter (Tx), Receiver (Rx), Power Supply
Unit (PSU) and the Track Relays (R) are mounted in wayside location box,
whereas the Tuning Unit (TU), End Termination Unit (ETU) and Track Coupling
Unit (TCU) are located by the track side. For TI 21 (normal version) codec and
the corresponding relay Rc will not be used.

19.5M 19.5M

TRACK TRACK TRACK


TUNED 35 sq mm Cu cable or CIRCUIT TUNED
CIRCUIT CIRCUIT
50 sq mm Al cable FREQUENCY `B' ZONE FREQUENCY `A'
FREQUENCY `A' ZONE

TU`A' TU`B' TU`B' TU`A'

To Rx
2x2.5 sq mm A
Cu Cable 2x2.5 sq mm 2x2.5 sq mm Cu Cable
or equivalent or equivalent
Cu Cable
or equivalent
LA LA

Tx`A' CODEC Rc Tx`B' CODEC Rc

From Rx
110V 110V
A PSU PSU
AC AC
LA LA

Rx`A' Rx`B'

R R

269
(b) Centralised:
In the centralised configuration, the Transmitter (Tx), Receiver (Rx), Power
Supply Unit (PSU), Track Relay (R) and the Line Matching Unit – Tx side (LMU-
Tx) are centralised in the equipment room. Only Tuning Unit (TU), Track
Coupling Unit (TCU), End Termination Unit (ETU) and Line Matching Unit –
TU side (LMU-TU) are mounted at the site. For TI 21 (normal version) codec
and the corresponding relay Rc will not be used.

EQUIPMENT ROOM
110V AC

PSU

Rc
Tx `B' CODEC
Rx`B' R

Internal wiring of Tx,Rx,PSU,LA,LMU (Tx Side) &


LMU Relay done using 1.5 sq.mm. Cu Wire
(Tx side)

LA LA

Cable Termination Rack

LMU LMU
(TU side) (TU side)
0.9 mm dia 0.9 mm dia
4 quad cable 4 quad cable
TU-A TU-B or equivalent or equivalent
TU-B TU-A
(Tx end) (Tx end) (Rx end) (Rx end)

TRACK CIRCUIT TUNED 35 sq mm Cu cable TRACK CIRCUIT TUNED TRACK CIRCUIT


FREQUENCY `A' or 50 sq mm Al cable FREQUENCY `B' FREQUENCY `A'
ZONE ZONE

19.5M

2.3 Various types of AFTC type TI 21 and TI 21 C


(a) Straight line - End fed:
The signal is fed to the track circuit from one end and is received from the
other end. The receiver relay and the CODEC relay (Rc) are connected in series.
For TI 21 (normal version) codec and the corresponding relay Rc will not be
used.

270
TC1 TC2 TC3

19.5m

TUNED TUNED
TRACK CIRCUIT TRACK CIRCUIT TRACK CIRCUIT
FREQUENCY 'B' ZONE FREQUENCY 'A' ZONE FREQUENCY 'B'

TU/TCU* TU/TCU* TU/TCU* TU/TCU*


`B' `A' `A' `B'

110 V AC
LA LA LA LA

R Rx-'B' Tx-'A' PSU Rx-'A' R Tx-'B'

CODEC
Rc
PSU PSU

110 V AC 110 V AC
* When distance of 19.5 m is not available to form the tuned zone then TCU with insulation joints will be used.

(a) Straight line - Centre fed:


In this case, the signal is fed at the centre of track circuit and is received at both
the ends of the track circuit. This is normally used for track circuit having
longer lengths. The relays of both the receivers and CODEC are connected in
series. For TI 21 (normal version) codec and the corresponding relay Rc will
not be used.

F2B NEVER F2B MAY


SHUNTED BE SHUNTED F2B ALWAYS SHUNTED

F1B MAY F1B NEVER


F1B ALWAYS SHUNTED BE SHUNTED SHUNTED

TC1

30m 30m
5m 5m

Tuned TRACK CIRCUIT TRACK CIRCUIT Tuned


Zone FREQUENCY `B' FREQUENCY `B' Zone
`F1B' `F2B'

TU/TCU* TU/TCU*
`B' ETU`B' `B'
110V AC

LA LA LA

PSU 24V DC
Rx1`B' Tx`B' from PSU Rx2`B'

R R

CODEC

Rc

* When distance of 19.5 m is not available to form the tuned zone then TCU with insulation joints will be used.

271
(a) Pt. zone with one turn out:
Pt. (2) type of track circuit with two receivers is used for point zone with one
turn out. The relays of both the receivers and CODEC are connected in series.
For TI 21 (normal version) codec and the corresponding relay Rc will not be
used.

110V AC

Rc
PSU CODEC

AFTC JUMPER
TU/TCU* Tx 35 mm sq Cu cable TU/TCU* Rx1 24V DC
LA LA
`A' `A' OR MS Strap `A' `A' from PSU

R1
Tuned FREQ. `A' Tuned
Zone Zone

IRJ

TCU Rx2
R2 (R1 and R2 & Rc will be
`A' `A'
proved in series)

24V DC
from PSU

* When distance of 19.5 m is not available to form the tuned zone then TCU with insulation joints will be used.

(a) Pt. zone with two turn outs:


Pt. (3) type of track circuit with three receivers is used for point zone with two
turnouts. The relays of all the three receivers and CODEC are connected in
series. For TI 21 (normal version) codec and the corresponding relay Rc will
not be used.

272
TC1

110V AC

Tx
PSU Rc
`A'
CODEC

TCU Rx3
LA `A' R3
`A'

TU/TCU* AFTC JUMPER TU/TCU* Rx1


LA R1
35 mm sq Cu cable
`A' `A' `A'
OR MS Strap

Tuned 24V DC
FREQ. `A'
from PSU
Zone

IRJ

TCU Rx2
`A' R2 (R1,R2, R3 & Rc will be
`A'
proved in series)

24V DC
from PSU

* When distance of 19.5 m is not available to form the tuned zone then TCU with insulation joints will be used.

2.4 MOUNTING ARRANGEMENT:


(a) Decentralised configuration:
Transmitters (Tx), Receivers (Rx), Power Supply Units (PSU), Lightening
Arrestors (LA), Relays are mounted in wayside location boxes.
Tuning units (TU) / End Termination Units (ETU) / Track Coupling Units
(TCU) are normally mounted in an MS enclosure with steel post having their
bases buried in the ballast adjacent to the track. They are connected to the rails
using 35 mm2 copper cable or 50 mm2 Al. cable.
(b) Centralised configuration:
Transmitters (Tx), Receivers (Rx), Power Supply Units (PSU), Lightening
Arrestors (LA), Line Matching Units – Tx side (LMU - Tx), Relays are mounted
on racks in the centralised room.
Tuning units (TU) / End Termination Units (ETU) / Track Coupling Units
(TCU) are mounted similar to Decentralized configuration. Line Matching Unit
-TU side (LMU-TU) will also be mounted in the MS enclosure used for mounting
TU, ETU or TCU.

273
274
3. Application related issues with AFTC
3.1 Use of Z bond with AFTC

Tu ne d Z o n e

Fr equenc y Fr equenc y
'A ' 'B '

`Z ' B O N D (M .S . S tra p o f c ro s s
s e c ti o n 5 0 x6 m m )
TU ' TU '
A' 'Z ' B o nd F ixi n g C la m p B'

Z Bond is an MS strap used for balancing the traction return current and is installed
in alternate tuned zones. When Z bonds are used it is not required to use impedance
bonds for balancing the traction return current.
Z bond has following advantages over impedance bond:
• No copper hence no theft
• No oil hence no maintenance
• Lighter in weight and hence easy to handle
3.2 Broken rail detection using AFTC:
AFTC can detect broken rail under defined conditions.
Detection of rail breakage depends upon the following factors:
(a) The extent of breakage:
Clear breakage can be detected however hairline fracture may not be detected
(b) Alternate paths to AFTC signal
Rail breakage may not be detected if any of the following are present across
the break:

(i) Bonding wire across fish plate (ii) Girders on metal bridges
D o g S p ike s
Bo nding Line

R a il G ir d e r

R ai l
Fi s h Pl ate

275
(iii) Mast having low earth resistance (iv) Traction bonding between UP and DN lines

Ma st Con n ecte d
to Ra il
T rack 1

T r a c tio n
b o n d in g

T rack 2
Ra il

M a s t c o n n e c te d to R a ils

(c) Setting of the track circuit


Incorrect setting of the track circuit could also lead to non-detection of the rail
breakage.

4. PROPOSED SCHEME FOR AUTOMATIC SIGNALLING IN MAINLINE BLOCK


SECTION USING AFTC
Please refer the diagram 1, which shows the proposed scheme for Automatic
Signalling in Mainline block section using AFTC.
The inter-signal distance is assumed to be 1 Km and the overlap could be of 300 m
to 350 m. Hence the berthing track will be 650 m to 700 m.
For both the overlap and the berthing track circuit end fed type of AFTC can be
used. In case the berthing is longer than 700 m then center fed type of AFTC should
be used.
Here decentralized configuration of AFTC is proposed as in this configuration no
quad cable is required for connection between Transmitter (Tx), Receiver (Rx) to
Tuning Unit (TU)/End Termination Unit (ETU) / Track Coupling Unit (TCU). Hence
there is a substantial saving of cost compared to centralized configuration.
Normally Centralized version is used when the distance between two stations is
less e.g. Sub urban areas like Mumbai where the distance between two stations is
of the order of 4 Km or less.
For main line application where the distances between two stations are more it is
not practicable to use Centralized version as substantial quantity of quad cable
will be required and the cost will go up drastically.
Decentralized version in addition to being less expensive offers advantage of quick
restoration in case of a failure as Transmitter (Tx), Receiver (Rx) and Tuning Unit
(TU)/End Termination Unit (ETU) / Track Coupling Unit (TCU) for any particular
track circuit are in close proximity. Hence one person can easily attend to the failure.

276
The decentralized version also means that since the personnel has to necessarily
go to the track side to attend to the fault, there is a very high possibility that he will
also measure the train shunt value. This will have a positive impact on safety.
However in case of centralized version the Transmitter (Tx) and Receiver (Rx) are
located in the centralized location and Tuning Unit (TU)/End Termination Unit
(ETU) / Track Coupling Unit (TCU) are located at site. Hence in case of a failure
two persons with communication equipment will be required to attend to the fault.
Thus Decentralized configuration of AFTC is a good solution for Automatic Block
Signalling application on Main line sections as no quad cable is required and
this will lead to reduction in the cost of providing Automatic Signalling.

L oc at i o n B o x . f o r S 1 L oc at i o n B o x . f o r S 2

2AT .T R
1AT .T R

2T . TR
1T . T R

TX RX TX RX TX RX TX RX
PS U PS U P SU PS U
D A A B B A A B

2 X2 . 5 s q. m m . C ab le

STATIO N 'A'

S1 S2

PF1
Tx Tx Tx
Rx Rx Rx Rx

1 T 'A ' 1 A T 'B ' 2 T 'A '

8 A T 'D '