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Wireless

Networks
first-step
Jim Geier

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, IN 46240

-
2005

32.973.26-018.2.75
29
681.3.07
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. . .
B.C.

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: info@williamspublishing.com, http://www.williamspublishing.com
115419, , / 783; 03150, , / 152

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"", 2005. 192 .: . . . .
ISBN 5-8459-0852-3 (.)

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32.973.26-018.2.75

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Cisco Press.
Authorized translation from the English language edition published by Cisco Press, Copyright 2005 Cisco
Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system,
without permission from the Publisher.
Russian language edition published by Williams Publishing House according to the Agreement with R&I
Enterprises International, Copyright 2005
Cisco, http://www.academy.ciscopress.ru.
ISBN 5-8459-0852-3 (.)
ISBN 1-58-720111-9 (.)

"", 2005
Cisco Systems, Inc., 2005

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802.16

94
95
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WEP?

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(Jim Geier) WirelessNets, Ltd. (www.wireless-nets.com), ,
. 20 , , , - , , , , , .
Wi-Fi, 802.11
(Wi-Fi). IEEE (IEEE Computer
Society), (Dayton Section), IEEE (IEEE International Conference on Wireless LAN Implementation). IEEE 802.11, . .
, .
, Wireless LANs (SAMS, ISBN: 0672320584),
Wireless Networking Handbook (MTP, ISBN: 15620563IX) Network Reengineering
(McGraw-Hill, ISBN: 007023034X), . MobilizedSoftware.com, -
.

.
: jimgeier@wireless-nets . com.


(Joel Barrett)
Cisco Systems. (CCNP) Cisco
Systems, (),
, (MCSE)
Microsoft ( ) NetWare. Cisco (channels technology advisory team for mobility),
(enterprise
mobility virtual team) Cisco (Cisco's enterprise mobility technology leadership program).
(wireless technology
forum), : CWSP Official Study Guide Managing and Securing a Cisco
Structured Wireless-Aware Network.
, , , , . .
Web- www. brains lap. com/ j oel.

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com,
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,
. ,
, .

. , (modulation), , , -
, .
(antenna). , , . , . 3.1, , , .

. 3.1.

70

3. - :

?
(RF signals) ,

. . . , .

.
, , ,
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. , , .
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, .

. 3.2.
,

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71


. , ,
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- . , .
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(frequency) , 1. (), , . , 802.lib 2,4 /; , 2 400 000 000 .
, -
2 , 360 . , 90 , , (90/360 = 1/4) . . ,
30 1,
60 0.

. , .

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.
, 802.11 Bluetooth, .
3.1.

,
35 ,

,
/

- ,
;

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802.11)

' " ": , . . .


2
, " ": , . . .

72 3. - :

,
. , .

(interference) , , .
, .
.
(Federal Communication Commission, FCC)
, .
, , .
, , - .
. 3.3 . , .
. ,
, , ,
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, .

. 3.3.

,
Bluetooth. ,
. ,
.

73


. ,
, , . , , , Bluetooth.
, ,
, .
,
. ,
,
. , ,
, - .

, ( ) (. 3.4).
, , , .
, .. .

. 3.4.

, , , (. 3.5). , , ,
.
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.
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50 , 300 . , .
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74 3. - :

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.

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75

, - 900 .
333 333 , , .
- (. 3.6).
, .
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. 3.6.
,

- , . ( 1 /). ,
13 (40 ), .
.
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/.
,
.
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, .


, . , -
,
(. 3.2).

76

3. - :

3.2.

, - ,
/
, , , ,
,
, ( 1,6 )


,
,
, ,



. , ,
, .

, .
FCC ,
, . -
, FCC .
, , .
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.
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, -,
. , , , .

77

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. .
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, .
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, 0.
, 4. ,
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, .

, (frequency-shift keying, FSK),
. . 3.7,
, 1 0,
.
, . ,
.
1
, - , . , , . . .
. . .

78 3. - :

. 3.7.


, (phase-shift keying, PSK),
.
, .
, (. 3.8). .

: 79

{quadrature amplitude modulation,

QAM)

, , (. 3.9). . , , , 64 , 6
. QAM , 802.
802.1 lg, .

. 3.9.



, ,
. ,
(spread spectrum),
. .
, (. 3.10). , ,
, .

, . -

80 3. - :

. . 3.11 3.12 ,
.

. 3.11.

, (FCC) , (Industrial, Scientific and Medicine, ISM).


,
, FCC 1975 . ISM
902 , 2,4 5,7 . ,
ISM, ,
1 . , ISM, FCC.
.
, ISM , , .

, (Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing, OFDM). OFDM , , , , (. 3.13). OFDM , , .

81



. 3.13. OFDM

OFDM . 802. 802.llg


, HiperLAN/2
. , OFDM ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line ), .. .

(ultrawideband, UWB)
,
OFDM. ,
. , UWB .
UWB
, ; . ; . , , .
UWB 40 600 /,
( ). UWB , . UWB
, , PDA , .
UWB ,
, . ,
, .
, UWB-.
FCC UWB , ,
. LTWB-
.

82 3. - :


, .
, . , ,

OFDM ,
.

.
1.
, ?
2. ?
3. ?
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5. ,
2,4 ,
?
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7. -?
8. ?
9. '
?
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?

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;
;
.

:

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, , . 9 (30 ).
, .
, , , , - -.

,
, , -.
.


,
, , , PDA, ,
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. 4.1. ,
, PDA,
.
,
.

GPS . Global Positioning System ( ).


. .

86

4. :

. 4.1.


(radio NICs)
- PC Card Compact Flash (CF).
, , , , CF. PDA

.
, , PDA , .
PC Card , .
USB-
USB- (. 4.2), (wireless dangle).
, USB-Bluetooth- USB .
, Bluetooth-. Bluetooth
, , .

. 4.2. USB-Bluetooth-

Bluetooth-

87

PDA, Bluetooth, Bluetooth-


PDA . Bluetooth USB- , USB- .
, USB- , , USB-.
, .


, Bluetooth
, Internet. -

. , , 802.11.



, . .


.


PDA . . 4.3 , .
,
. .
"" RS-232 .

. 4.3.

88 4. :
-

- . , -, - (. 4.4). PDA
- , RealOne RealNetworks.

-
.
, . , .

. 4.4.

.
, , Web-
. , , , . ,
. , , , .

,
, , , . ,
, , PDA. ,
,
. , , -
.


, (. 4.5). , ,
, , . .

89

. 4.5.

Internet
Web , Internet. , ,
. . . 4.6
, .

. 4.6.
Internet


, .
PDA . Internet , .
,
.

, - , .
802.15
IEEE 802.15 , 802.11 .

90 4. :
802.15 , , :
802.15.1. 1, , Bluetooth 1.1. (FHSS), 1 /.
802.15 802.15.1 2002 ;
Bluetooth-.
802.15.2. , ,
2, ,
802.15 802.11. ,
2,4 ,
. .
802.15.3. 3 .
11, 22, 33, 44 55 /. (QoS),
. . 802.15.3
.
802.15.4. 4 , , ,
. , ""
. 20, 40
250 /. 802.15.4 .
802.15 http: / /grouper. ieee. org/groups/
802/15

Bluetooth
Bluetooth 1998 .
Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia Toshiba. , .
Bluetooth, ,

. Bluetooth

. 802.15
Bluetooth 802.15.1.

91

(Special Interest Group, SIG) Bluetooth 1999 . , . Bluetooth 2,4 1 / FHSS. 1600
, , , 802.11.
Bluetooth 9 (30 ). Bluetooth-
91 (300 ), .
Bluetooth -. 10,2 14 16 , .
Bluetooth Bluetooth, , .
, , . .
Bluetooth ?
Bluetooth ,
.
Bluetooth Bluetooth , 802.11. Bluetooth
, . , , Bluetooth, ,
802.11.
Bluetooth 802.11,
. 802.11 54 /, Bluetooth 1 /.

(, PDA),
Web- . ,
802.11 90
(300 ), Bluetooth. Bluetooth
. , Bluetooth 802.11. 802.11
(Wi-Fi), ,
Bluetooth.

92

4. :

Bluetooth?
, 802.11
Bluetooth-,
Bluetooth . Bluetooth ,
802.11 . . , 802.11,
.
, , ,
( ),
. 802.15 Bluetooth, 802.11 , ,
802.11 Bluetooth .
Bluetooth
,
. Bluetooth
, 2,4 ,
802.11. - ,
Bluetooth 802.11 " "
. Bluetooth
, 802.11 . , - 802.11 . - -
802.11
Bluetooth.
- 802.11 Bluetooth .
802.11 , . 802.11
Bluetooth .
Bluetooth. , 802.11 Bluetooth
.
PDA Bluetooth, , Bluetooth Bluetooth .
Bluetooth,
PDA , . Bluetooth- , 802..
1, PDA , . Bluetooth-
- .

93

,
, , , , PDA, . Bluetooth
, Bluetooth-, , 802.11,
. 802.11 Bluetooth
, , , .
Bluetooth-

. , Bluetooth-, ,
802.11. , 802.11 ( 3 ) Bluetooth, .

, Bluetooth PDA
, 802.11 Internet . , 802.11 (. 4.7). Bluetooth-, , 802.11.

. 4.7. Bluetooth- 802.11

, Bluetooth.
.
. ,
. -

94

4. :
Bluetooth-,
, . ,
Bluetooth- .
, , Bluetooth ,
PDA .
802.11. ,
802.11 Bluetooth. , Bluetooth
.
.
5 .
,
, 5 , 802.11 .
,
.
Bluetooth
www.bluetooth.com.

IrDA
Bluetooth , (infrared data association,
IrDA).
1993 . IrDA ,
. , , ,
. IrDA , Bluetooth. ,
IrDA-.

IrDA -, . IrDA , . IrDA-
"-", PDA . IrDA ,
.
IrDA, , -, , 4 /.
1 (3 ).
, 20 (8 ).

95


( ),
,
75 /. - .
IrDA
www.irda.org.

, .
, Bluetooth IrDA,
, . -
, , PDA
. ,
.
Bluetooth IrDA , . 802.15 Bluetooth 802.15.1 . - Bluetooth ,
802.11.

.
1. -
?
2.
USB- ( " ")?
3. ?
4. ?
5. IEEE Bluetooth
?
6. Bluetooth-?
7. Bluetooth-
802.11?
8. Bluetooth ""?
9. IrDA?
10. IrDA Bluetooth?

...
;
;
.

:

, . , ,
, , .
, , ,
802.11.

, Ethernet-,
Ethernet. , .

, , PDA. , . PDA
" ".
. , - .

, 802.11. 802.11 802.1 lb/g. ,
, . , (interoperability), .

98

5. :

-: ISA, PCI, PC card, miniPCI CF. ISA PCI, PDA PC


card, mini-PCI CF-.

, , ,
(distribution system), Ethernet.
.
, . . 5.1.

'

. 5.1.

( Linksys)

http-,
,
, Web-.
RS-232,
,
Telnet ().

Cisco 350, .
, ,
(service set identifier, SSID). SSID
, .
SSID .

99


, 100 . . 1 ,

.
11 - . , ,
. ,

, ( 1, 6 11)
, .
, (wired equivalent privacy, WEP)
. ,
, , . 40-
10 ,
0 9 F. 104-
26 . , 40- 64- , 104- 128- 24- .

, , , -
. Internet
(Internet Protocol, IP) ,
.
Ethernet .
Ethernet . , 802.11 ,
. ,
.
(network
address translation, NAT), ' IP- (IP address), ()
Internet (Internet service provider, ISP). . 5.2.

(dynamic host configuration protocol, DHCP) , IP-.
NAT DHCP Internet ,
, , IP-.

100 5. :

. 5.2. NAT DHCP ,

,
. ,
, .
IP- ,
DHCP, IP-
DHCP . NAT
Internet- IP-
, Internet. , Internet , , . , . ,
. ,
IP-.

, ,
. , ; (repeaters).
, .
, , (. 5.3). (
) - .
, . ,
, , .

, .
,

102 5. :
. .
(. 5.4)
, Internet ( DSL
).
, . , .
, , ,
NAT DHCP.

. 5.4.

, IP- ,
, Internet. , NAT DHCP.
(. 5.5). ,
,
( , ).

Ethernet

. 5.5. Ethernet
,

, WEP, . , .

103

,
. ,
, (. 5.6). (),
.
(infrastructure mode), , 1800 2.

. 5.6. ,

,
. Ethernet , . , , , , DHCP.
, .
. , . 8.


,
.

104 5. :

, , ,
,
. - .
, , .
, 50- 70% .
, , , .
"", , . ,
. ,

PDA,
, .
, , . .
, .

.
- ,
.
.
, , .

(public wireless LAN)
, , Internet. , , . , , , " " (hotspots).
" "
www.wi-fihotspotlist.com/.

105
.
, " " .
.
" " . , , Internet-,
, . , Web-
- .
" " , (. 5.7). Web-,
Web-,
.
: ,
. .

DSL'

. 5.7.
, , -,

" " ,
.
, ,
. , ,
, .
, , (authentication, authorization and accounting, AAA; ).

106 5. :

, , , ,
.

:
Web- -;
;
- ;
Internet-;
\

-;
.
. ,
:
,
PDA 802.11;
, ,
, .. ,
;
, .
, .

( ) (ad hoc wireless LAN) (. 5.8).
. ,
.
( , peer-to-peer).

. 5.8.

107
, -, ,
. ,
(ad hoc mode), .
, IP- .
, , .
, , , , .

802.11 HyperLAN/2. .
802.11
IEEE802.il (Media Access Control, MAC) . 802.11 . 1997 .,
.
2001-, . IEEE 802.11 ,
.
802.11 -,
, .
MAC 802.11
802.11 MAC, 802.11. MAC
802.11 (
), ( ). "" , MAC 802.11
802.11, 802.11, 802.11 802.1 lg,
, 802.11.
, , .. . 802.11 : (distributed coordination
function, DCF) (point coordination function, PSF).

108 5. :
DCF ,
(Carrier
Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance, CSMA/CA). DCF
, (. 5.9).
- , .

. 5.9. DCF
(. . 5.9) MAC
(network allocation vektor, NAV), , , . NAV
, .
,
. , , (duration field)
. , NAV.
.
DCF (back-off timer), , .
,
. , , ,

109
. - ,
, , , , . , , ,
.
,
.
(acknowledgement, ACK) , .

, , , .
(, )
802.11 PCF,
, . ,
. PCF (
) .
, , DCF.
.
, PCF.
, PCF, ,
. . PCF, (QoS).
, MAC 802.11.

802.11 . . ,
.
(beacon).
. ,
(service set ifentifier, SSID)
.
, .

110 5. :
,
, .
(probe frame),
, ,
(probe responce).
,
. ,
.
, , 802.11
(independent basic service set, IBSS). ,
. , (beacon interval) . , -
. , .

, .
802. ] 1 :
. .
,
. , , (status code) .

. ,
WEP-.' , .
, (challenge text) ,
. WEP
.
. , ,
. . , , , ,
, .

' WKP (wired equivalent privacy) , . . .

111


, .
(association)
, ,
.
, , SSID
. ,
,
.
, .
WEP
WEP , ,
- , ( ) . , , . 802.11 ,
802.11 . 802. Hi
802.11 .

RTS/CTS
(request to send)
(clear to send) ,
RTS/CTS. ,
RTS/CTS. ,
, 1000 , RTS/CTS
1000 . RTS/CTS (
, ).
RTS/CTS, ,
, RTS.
CTS, , . CTS , , , RTS,
. , . RTS/CTS
, , .

.
,
, .

112 5. :
"" ,
. ,
, , "" .
, "" ""
( )
.
, , . , , .
"" .

802.11 . .
, - , . , , , . RTS/CTS,
,
'. ,
, .
802.11
802.11 , . 802.11
802.11
802.11, 1997., , (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum, FHSS)
(high-rate direct
sequence spread spectrum, HR-DSSS). 2 /,
2,4 ' FHSS 2,4 , .
, FHSS, 15
, .
15 FHSS .
802.11 FHSS 2 /,
FHSS ,
.
802.11, 802.11 802.1 lg. , FHSS -

113
802.11. FHSS " ", . , FHSS ,
.
DSSS 802.11
2 /, ,802.lib. ,
802.11 DSSS,
802.lib. ,
802.11 DSSS .
802.11

1999 . IEEE 802.11 , 5 (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, OFDM),


54 /. , , 2000 ., - , , .
802. 5 ,
54 / 90 , .
802. 2001-,
, ,
802.11.
, 802.11 .
802. , 12- , . , , . , 802.11, 802.11
, 802.1 lg.
802. , 5 , . ,
, 2,4 . 5 , .
802.11
,
(5 ). 54 / 90 . , , 802.11.
, 802.lib 802., ,
802.11 -

114 5. :
, 802.11, . 802.11 1
2 / , 802.11.
, 802. 802.11b/g . , , 802.lib, ,
802.11 , . , , 802. 802.11.
802. ,
, . , 6 / (physical layer medium dependent, PMD)
(differential binary phase shift keying, DBPSK),
, .
(54 /),
(quadrature amplitude modulation, QAM).
,
.
802.11
802. a IEEE 802.11, 802.11, 2,4 . 11 /.
802.11 1999 ., 802.11.
802.11 ,
. ,
270 .
, 802.11.
802. lib , 2,4 . 802.11 14 ( 1- 11-),
,
2,4 . 1, 6 , .
802.lib,
, Web-.
802.11 . , , 2,4 ,
802.lib, -

115
. , 2,4 , .
802.11 DSSS 2,4 , 22 . , .
FCC ,
.
802.lib , ,
. , 1 / PMD (differential binary phase shift keying, DBPSK).
, .
, 1 0.
2 / PMD (differential quadrature phase shift keying, DQPSK),
DBPSK, ,
.
2 /
, 1 /
.
5,5 11 /.
802.11
802.1 Ig 2003 . 802.11
(54 / 2,4 ).
(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, OFDM).
802. llg ,
802.lib. , 802.11,
,
802.llg, - . .
802.11 802. llg , . ,
802.11 - , 802.1 Ig .
, .
802.lib, ,
802.1 Ig, 2,4 . 802.llg
802..

116 5. :
2,4 5 ?
,
2,4 , 5 . ,
802.lib, 2,4 .
802. l l g 802. lib, 2,4 , 802.11, 5 . . ?
"" "" , 2,4
5 , .
. .
, 2,4 5 ,
.
.
2,4 , 5 . , ,
. , 2,4 , .
.
5 . 12- 20 . , 2,4 . 2,4 80 ,
. , 5 .

. . 5 , ,
, 2,4 .
5 , . ,
, 5 , , , .
, 5 , 2,4 .

. , 2,4 , ,
. 802.lib,

Wi-Fi 117
.
, 5 ,
.
, 5 ,
, 802.11
.
. 2,4 5 ,
5 . ,
2,4 , , PDA .
, " " .
2,4 , , 802.11.
,
. , , 2,4 ( 802.1 lb/g), 5
( 802.11). , .
. .
,
, , (DoS). , 5 , 5 , .
, 2,4 .

.
5 , , .
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi Alliance), "
Ethernet" " WECA"
(wireless ethernet compatibility alliance, WECA),
,
802.11. Wi-Fi , -

118 5. :
"Wi-Fi", ,
802.11 (802.11, 802.11 802.1 lg), , . Wi-Fi Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi Protected Access, WPA), WEP 802.111.
Wi-Fi :
,
802.11
;
Wi-Fi
, ;
Wi-Fi .
Wi-Fi?
Wi-Fi , ,
, -. Wi-Fi.
Wi-Fi-. ,
" Wi-Fi"
, .
Wi-Fi . ,
. "Wi-Fi" ,
Wi-Fi-
.
Wi-Fi
WEP , .
, WEP ,
. WEP.
, . Wi-Fi
,
WPA . WPA
, 802.11,
.

Wi-Fi 119
WPA 1.0 , 802 ,
(temporal key integrity protocol, TKIP) 802. .
, .
WPA 1.0 802. .
,
. WPA 802. . , WPA 1.0 . , ,
WPA 1.0 (pre-shared key mode).
802,Hi WPA1.0, 802.Hi (advanced encryption standard, AES). AES ,
, AES
. WPA 2.0 AES.
HiperLAN/2
HiperLAN/2, (high performance radio LAN), , (broadband radio access networks (BRAN) division) (European Telecommunications Standards
Institute, ETSI). , , .
HiperLAN/2 , IEEE 802. , 54 /
5
(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, OFDM). HiperLAN/2 , , (time-division multiplexing, TDM) .
, .
HiperLAN/2
HiperLAN/2 802.11 MAC2.
802. CSMA/CA,
HiperLAN/2
2

MAC (media access control) , , , . . .

120 5. :
(time division multiple access, TDMA). ,
CSMA/CA, , , .
- ,
.
. - , .
, HiperLAN/2 TDMA
. TDMA (time slot), . , .
HiperLAN/2
802.11. , , . 802.11, HiperLAN/2 , 54 /, .
HiperLAN/2 42 /,
802.
18 /. HiperLAN/2 802.11,
.
HiperLAN/2 ,
(3G), (asynchronous transfer mode, ATM)
, Internet. , (WAN).
HiperLAN/2 802.11?
HiperLAN/2, 2002 , ( ) .
, Internet - HiperLAN/2, . , HiperLAN/2 .
, HiperLAN/2 . , 802.1 lh 802.11, , , , HiperLAN/2.
802.llh 802. ( ) . (transmit power control, TPC), , . -

121
(dynamic frequency selection, DFS), , . ,
ETSI , .
802.11 . 802.11 . HiperLAN/2 ,
.

, , , ,

. , ,
, .
. , .
802.11 , 54 / 2,4 5 .
Wi-Fi ,
. HiperLAN/2 ,
802.11.

.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. , ?
5. WEP ?
6. 802.11?
7.
802.11?
8. , 802.1 lg 54 /
802.11?
9. 802.11 ?
10. Wi-Fi?

...
;
;
.

, , .
.
,
. , , ,
.

.

, . , .

, , , .

, . .

(bridge) , , ( , OSI). . 6.1.

124 6. ...

. 6.1.

"", , .
, , , .
. , .
, .

, , . ( )
, , , . , ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
"" . . , , .
?
. . , ,
802.11, , Ethernet. Ethernet . ,
. .
. ,
Ethernet . ,
, , Ethernet. Ethernet 802.11 , . , "" ( ) .
Ethernet
Ethernet (. 6.2)
Ethernet .

, 125
, - , , , Ethernet, .
, (basic bridge) . ,
.

. 6.2.


(, 6.3)
Ethernet. , .
Ethernet,
.
, , .

. 6.3.


.
(directional antennae), . . 6.4 ,
. , .

. ,
360 , 7- 80 .
20 , 50 . , ,
, .

126 6. ...

. 6.4.


, . , (patch antenna)
. ,
. " ", (Hidetsugu Yagi),
.
(
) 10 .
, . ,

.
.

,
. , , . ,
, , ,
.

.
4- 25 . .
, , ,
. , .
, , , . -

127
, -
. - , , ,
. , .

. , ,
,
. . , , ,
.
, , , .


.
, .
"-"
"-"
-
.
50 (30 ). . 6.5
"-".

. 6.5.
"-"

"-"
, . , "- ".
, , " " (point-to-point system) , "- ".

128 6. ...
"- "
"- " (. 6.6) ,
. ,
, , .
.

. 6.6.
"- "

, . , "-", , . , "- "


, .
.

(. 6.7)
,
. ,
. . ,
. .
Amateur Ham ,
, Metricom, .

129

. 6.7.

, , . .
.
() .
.
, ,
.

, . , .
,
, .
. , , . - ,
. ,
.
802.11 Wi-Fi
,
Wi-Fi (
. 5). ,
"" . , .

130 6. ...
-
, 802.11 ,
. , '802.11
, , . 802.11, ,
. ,
, .
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IEEE 802 IEEE 802.16,

, , , - . IEEE 802.16, ,
2002., (wireless MAN air interface). ,
, , .
$20 . 802.16 60 , -1 (1,5 /).
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(WISP). , 802.16 " " .
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, , .

50 (30 ) (, )
.
,
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802.16 211 ,
(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, OFDM).
MAC 802.16 . MAC
, (time division multiple access, TDMA). -

131
MAC 802.11, , .
802.16 . 2002 . 802.16, (mobile broadband wireless access).
, ,
.

, , , . "-"
, "- "
.
. , 802.11 Wi-Fi, , . 802.16
.

.
1. ?
2. ,
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:

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.
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, .

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134 7. :

. . ,
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.


.
, , . , PDA , . . 7.1
,
.

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, . (POS) (, )
. , , Internet- .


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. ,
,
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, , .

135

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, , .

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.

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. (. 7.3)
.
, Internet. .
( , )
.

136 7. :

. 7.3.


(satellite) , , , . ,
(. 7.4).
, .

, . -
.

. 7.4. , ,


, .

137
. , , , .
(. 7.5).
, , . ,
, .

. 7.5. ,

, "",
, . , -
, .

,
. .

(. 7.6) , ,
. .

. .
,
.
,
Web-, .

138 7. :

. 7.6. ,

, . ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
" "
.
, .

,
.
, 1G
(1G cellular). - , (),
. , , , ().
, , . , .
, , , (
), , 4 ,
. , 2030 /.

139

.
, , .
. ,
, .
. , ,
.

, , .
, 2G (2G cellular).
2G, .
. , , . , ,
.
2G ( 2.5G)
,
. , GPRS
(general packet radio services ) GSM
(global system for mobile communications
). GPRS 171,2 /. GPRS . ,
(enhanced data rates for global evolution, EDGE)
GSM , 3 . 474 /.


, 3G (3G cellular). (universal mobile telecommunications system,
UMTS) 2 / ,
384 / 144 / .
3G .

140 7. :
:
3G 802.11
(Wi-Fi)? 3G . 802.11 , 3G. , 802.
54 /, ,
3G. ,
.
,
. 3G
.
3G , .
, 3G . . PDA, . , ,
. ,
, , PDA .
(SMS)

(short massage service, SMS).
,
. SMS ,
Internet-. SMS, , .
. SMS
. ,

SMS. , SMS . ,
, SMS-.

.
: , ,
.
, .

141
. SMS. .
. SMS
. , , ,
SMS. : , - .
Web- (wireless markup language, WML),
Web- , , PDA . WML , , .
, , Instant Messaging Planet (www. instantmessagingplanet. com).


. Internet (. 7.7). , 1,5 /.
,
( ).
,
Web-. , Web- . . Web-
, , .

"-"
. . .

142 7. :

. 7.7.


. , , .
, .
.
, , . ,
. ,
(International telecommunications union, ITU).
450 20
--. , 20 , ,
, .

, .
, . ,
.
.
. , ,
.
. , ,
.

143
, ,
, 24 .
.
, .

. , , 24 35 880 (22 300 ).
, .
. , - (
, - ,
) .
, .
(
22 300 2 ),
100 . , -- 200 .
(, 802.11), . , , .

. . , . ,
.
(. 7.8).
( 2400 (1500 ) - .
40-50 , , . , , . ,
300 2400 /. , .
, , ,
. , ,
.
2

1,609 . . .

144 7. :

. 7.8.


,
. 2,
, , - . , .
, , .

.
.

(Frequency division multiple access, FDMA)

,
. (. 7.9).

. 7.9. FDMA ,

FDMA
.

145

(time division multiple
access, TDMA) ,

(. 7.10). .
TDMA . ,
-1 TDMA
.

. 7.10. TDMA


TDMA,
(code division multiple access, CDMA) (. 7.11). ,
CDMA
, , . CDMA , , . . CDMA.

. 7.11. CDMA
,

146 7. :

(space division multiple access, SDMA)
. . SDMA , .. .
, .

,
. , CDMA. ,
.

, , . ,
, -. , ,
.
, , . , .

.
1. ?
2.
?
3. , ?
4. ?
5. 2 31/?
6. ?

147
7.
GPRS UMTS?
8. ?
9. , ?
10. CDMA
?

...
, ;
;
.

, .
.
(encryption) (authentication).

(. 8.1).
, (hackers) , , .

. 8.1. , (DoS)

150 8. :

1

(snooper) , ,
AirMagnet AiroPeek,
. , ,
, ,
, . ,
, -
, , ..
, & , ,
.
. , .
.


, , , ,
. - , , , . , ,
.
.
, , , , . , , , 30%
. ,
Internet.
Windows XP , . ,
, . ,
, .
, (rogue
access point). ,
(. 8.2). - ' , snoop , , , . . .

151
, , . ,
.

. 8.2.

, , ,
, , . .
, . -
Ethernet.

, . . , , .
"" , . ,
, .
" "
, , , .
" " (man-in-the-middle attacks):
(. 8.3). , " "
(address resolution protocol, ARP),
TCP/IP. , ,
, ARP, .

152 8. :

. 8.3. " "

ARP
. ,
-,
, .. . -
. - ,
, - . -.
, , IP-
, ARP . , ARP-, IP- . , IP- ARP,
MAC- IP-.
- , MAC- IP-, ( , ARP- , IP-).
, ARP, ,
- 2. , , ARP-, IP- . , ARP-, . , . " ",
. , , .
1

, spoofing , . . .

153
ARP (, OptimumPath) ARP (secure ARP, SARP).
ARP
, ARP-, , . , ARP- ARP-. ,
SARP, .
SARP
. SARP " ". SARP , " ".

" " (denial of service, DoS) , . , . , ,
.
DoS- ,
. ,
, ,
.
.
DoS- (brute-force
attack). , ,
DoS-, . Internet ,
.
DoS- .

.
, , (carrier sense access)
, . , 802.lib, "" DoS-
, .
.
, , , , . ,
, , .

154 8. :
. , 802.11 , , ,
Bluetooth,
. .
, DoS-
. , Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi protected access,
WPA) " ". WPA
. - , WPA , , .
" " , Internet.
.
, ,
.
DOS-
. , , ,
"", ,
.
" ", .
,
:
, ;
, ;
;
;
, . ,
, ;
, .
DoS- . , ,
. , DoS-. , ?

155

, , , . (plaintext), , . ,
.
, WEP 802.11, , (wired equivalent
privacy, WEP), . , (. 8.4).

. 8.4.

, xyz , xyz . ,
, , ,
, . ,
, .
, ,
. , , ( ) . .

, , .
, ,
.
, .

156 8. :
, , : " "
. ,
,
, . .
, , , .
, (. 8.5). .
, .

.

. 8.5.

, , . , , ,
.
Web- .
WEP

WEP
802 11, MAC;
. , WEP
.

WEP 157
WEP?
WEP,
( ) 802.11.
(cyclical redundancy check, CRC). RC4, RSA3. (, )
. , WEP 802.11
, 802.11.
,
, WEP .
, WEP
( ) , , 24- (initialization vector, IV).
, IV
. WEP , ,
, 32- (integrity
check value, ICV), .
,
. ,
- . ICV ,
.
WEP . WEP . ,
.
WEP /ICV
" ",
( ). WEP
()
. , "" , , .
' ( 802.11). , (, ), ,
. . , ,
J

RSA- .
: Rivest Shamir Adelman ( , ), 1978 . . .

158 8. :
. ,
WEP .
WEP .
, WEP
WEP ,
. , , WEP,
RC4. 24- (IV), WEP
IV . ,
IV
, , .
, IV, , .. . , , ,
802.11.

. 802.11 - ,
. , .
WEP .
WEP?
WEP,
. ,
, AiroPeek AirMagnet. , WEP,
.
, WEP,
,
. WEP . ,
WEP, WEP, .

802. Hi . (temporal key
integrity protocol, TKIP), WEP2. TKIP
, 128- , . TKIP - , 16- , . , .
TKIP RC4 , WEP. WEP , TKIP

WEP 159

10 . . ,
.
TKIP , , WEP , TKIP ,
"". , WEP TKIP-, WEP. , ,
TKIP , .
TKIP, 802.1 (advanced encryption standard, AES)>,
. AES Rine
4
Dale , , RC4. , AES
. , 802.111 AES , TKIP. (U.S. Commerce Department's
National Institutes of Standards and Technology, NIST) AES (Data encryption standard, DES). AES .
, . AES 2002 .
, AES, ,
, ,
, . AES

, ,
AES. , AES ( ). , AES
.
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi protected access, WPA), Wi-Fi, WEP
.
WPA. WPA , . - .
, WPA 1.0 802.11 i,
TKIP 802.1. , .. ,
. WPA 2.0
802.1 .
, Rijndael ( "-") (Joen Daemer) (Vincent Rijmen). . .

160 8. :

,
(virtualprivate network, VPN). , (end-to-end) .
, , .

.
, , , " ".

(. 8.6). ,
RADIUS (remote authentication dial-in user service , RADIUS).

. 8.6. ""

802.11
WEP
, . , .
, , .
,
, . ,
(service set identifier, SSID)
, .
, SSID SSID . ( ) .

161
, SSID
, 5
. SSID .
SSID (
),
SSID (),
.
802.11 ,
" ".
.
, "".
, SSID, .
802.11 () , . :
1) ;
2) , ,
" " (challenge text);
3) , WEP, ,
, , ;
4) , .
,
, ,
WEP-.
-

(-). -
-,
, . ,
- .
- . , WEP-
, -, .
-. - ,
-. "" ,
.
5

( , sniffer). . .

162 8. :
, - .
-
. , . - ,
. - ,
, "" .


(. 8.7). ,
. . .
. - , , ,
. .

. 8.7.

802.1
802.1
, . 802.1 (extensible
authentication protocol, EAP) ^

163
, " " (token card),
Kerberos6, (one-time passwords), (certificates) (public key authentication).
802.1 ?
802.1 ,
(supplicant), .. , ( ). , - , .
, HTTP, DHCP , , .
(, RADIUS).
, .
, 802.1, :
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

-, . ,

() , ;
, -. , , , , 7;
-,
. ;
( ), , ;

.
.
. , "", ..
, ;

. ,
;

,
80- (1) DES. 4
7
. . .

164 8. :
6)

. ,
( , );
7) , . ,
, .
802.1 , WEP- 802.1 .
, 802.1 . , 802.11 ,
.
,
- ,
. .
802.1
, .

, 802.1 .
.
(transport layer security, EAP-TLS),
tunneled transport layer security (EAP-TTLS) -
Cisco (lightweight , LEAP), , . , ,
.

, . , , . , . WEP
, , WPA. (LEAP EAP-TLS) .

165

, , , . , . .
, , .
, , . ,
.
,
, ,
. , .

, . , . ,
. ,
.
, , WEP 802.11 ,
. ,
,
. , , .


, . , - , -
.
, . ,

Ethernet. ,
, . , ,
Ethernet, .

166 8. :
*

, , , . , ,
?
, , . - , , , .
, .

, ,
, .
,
,
. , . , , ,
, .
, , ,
. ,
, .

"", .

. , , , ', ,
, . ,
.
, , , , , .
. ,
, , .

, , - , ,
. , ,
. , , .

167
. , ,
.
. ,
.
. ,

, , ,
. , AirSnort
WEP? ,
? , , WEP. .

, ,
,
. , , , ,
. , , .

,
. , , . ,
, .

,
.


(demilitarized zone, DMZ)
(. 8.8). (virtual private network, VPN).
VPN. ,
VPN, .

168 8. :

. 8.8.

, VPN , , . , . VPN , .

WEP , . WEP
.
WEP-, , .
, .
802.11 WEP
, .
-
(, WPA), ,
. , ,
WEP. ,
, AES.

"" , , . .
,
. , ,
.

169

,
- , , - <Reset>.
. .
,
. , ,
.
<Reset>, ,
RS-232, . , ^
.
,
, , .
, , ,
. -
,
.
.
, , . " " .
, , Ethernet; .

, .
, -
. , . ,
. .
, .
SSID
, SSID, . Windows XP 802.11, SS1D. SSID , SSID
,
. , Windows XP
.
SSID
, - ,
802.11, SSID. SSID .

170 8. :


, . , , "" .
, , , .

, Windows,
- ,
. ,
. , .


, . ,
, , .
,
. ,
(simple network management protocol, SNMP). , SNMP 1.0 . , ,
-. , - .

,

. , .
, .
- , . , , , .
,
. , , . , WEP

171
, .
, , WPA
AES.


. , , . , . ,
. , , , .

.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. DoS-?
5. WEP ?
6. TKIP WEP?
7. , WPA TKIP 802. Hi?
8. - ?
9. , ?
10. ,
,
?



1
1. .
2. , MSN, Web, , .
3. , , .
4. 15 (50 ).
5. .
6.
802.11, Wi-Fi.
7. IEEE
802.16.
8. , .
9. Internet-, .
10.
Internet- ,
, , ,
, .
2
1.
-
, PC Card, Mini-PCI CompactFlash.
2. , , , , .

174 .
3.
, .
4. , , ,
.
5.
OSI.
6. " " .
7. , .
8. ,
.
9. CSMA.
10.
, .
3

1. .
2.
.
3. - ,
.
4.
, Bluetooth-.
5. , , , .
6. -, , ,
,
.
7. - 1,6
(1 ).
8. ,

.
9.
.
10.
.

. 175
4
1.
- PC Card CF.
2. ,
USB-; , , PDA,
.
3. , ,
.. .
4. 9 (30 ),
.
5. Bluetooth
802.15.
6. Bluetooth- 2,4 .
7. 2,4 ,
.
8. .
9. IrDA 4 /.
10. IrDA
.
5
1. .
2.
. DHCP NAT,
.
3. ,

, .
4. ,
,
, .
5. .
6. 802.11 5 .
7. 802.11 .
8. , 802. l l g 54 / 802.11.
9. 2,4 ( 802.11 802. llg).
10. , Wi-Fi, , Wi-Fi, .

176 .
6
1.
.
2. , .
3. , .
4. .
5. , -
.
6. .
7. .
8. "- " ;
.
9. , , , ,
.
10.
802.11, Wi-Fi 802.16.
7
1. , PDA
.
2.
, .
3. , .
4. . , .
5. (3G).
6. .
7. UMTS.
8.
.
9. .
10. ,
.

. 177
8
1. , " " (DoS).
2. .
3. .
4.
, .
5. WEP, .
6. TKIP ,
. WEP , .
7. , WPA TKIP
802.111.
8. - , , "".
9. , , .
.
10. .


1G cellular ,
; .
2G cellular ,
20 /.
3G cellular ; 2G .
802.11 IEEE,
, . CSMA
().
802.15 IEEE,
, Bluetooth.
802.16 IEEE,
.
802.3 IEEE,
. CSMA,
802.11.
Access point ( ) , .
Ad hoc mode ( ) ,

, . .
Analog signal ( ) ,
. .
Antenna () , - ,
. , ,
, , , , .
Association () , 802.11
,
.
Authentication () .
, ,
. , .

180
Base station ( ) ,
. :
.
Bluetooth ,
Bluetooth. . Bluetooth, 802.15 .
Bridge () , 2. , -, .
.
Carrier sense access ( ) , , . CSMA.
Carrier signal () , . , .
CDMA (code division multiple access) (). ,
.
CDPD (cellular digital packet data)
,
19,2 /.
3G CDPD .
CF (CompactFlash) PDA, . CF Bluetooth
802.11.
Client device ( ) , , .
.
Computer device ( ) , , PDA . .
CSMA (carrier sense multiple access) (). , 802.11
(). , . .
Data () , ,
. , , .

181
Data rate ( )
. , 802.lib 11 /.
DCF (distributed coordination function) .
802.11, ,
. DCF CSMA.
DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) , IP . DHCP, Internet. DHCP
.
Digital certificate ( ) ,
.
.
Digital signal ( ) , .

.
DSSS (direct sequence spread spectrum) . ,
,
.
802.11 .
Directional antenna ( ) ,
, - ,
. . .
Distribution system ( ) , .
Ethernet.
Encryption ()
. WEP WPA ,
.
Ethernet
802.3. Ethernet , ,
.
FDMA (frequency division multiple access)
. ,

182
. .
FHSS (frequency hopping spread spectrum) . , ,
, . 802.11.
Firewall () , , , . ,
.
Frequency () . (),
. , ,
, 2,4-5 .
FSK (frequency shift-keying) (). , , ,
.
GPS (global positioning system)
, GPS-, .
GPS , ,
.
Hacker () , , .
, .
Hotspot (" ") , . " " , , , , .
Interference () , .
Interoperability ( ) , .
IP (Internet protocol) Internet, , . IP
, IP-
.
IP address (IP-) ,
. ,
IP-. IP, TCP/IP-, ,

183
, , Web-
.
IPSec (IP security) ,
. VPN ; " " (end-to-end encryption).
IrDA (Infrared data association)
. IrDA

,
. IrDA PDA.
LDAP (lightweight directory access protocol) , .
Location-based services (, )
, ,
.
Medium access control (MAC) layer ( ,
, MAC-)
, . - " "
, ,
.
Medium () , , . .
/
Medium access ( ) , .
(CSMA).
Modulation () -
, , , .
(FSK), (PSK)
(QAM).
NAT (Network Address Translation) . , IP- , . , ,
Internet, IP-.
NAT DHCP ,
IP-.
NIC (Network Interface Card) , .
.

184
Noise floor ( ) , .
OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) . , .
802. 802.1 lg .
Optical fiber ( ) , . -
, -
.
PC Card (PC-) ,
,
, PDA. PC- Bluetooth 802.11.
PDA (personal digital assistant) , , .. PDA
Web-.
Point-to-multipoint system ( "- ") , .
Point-to-point system ( "-") ,
.
PSK (phase shift keying) (). ,

, .
Public wireless LAN ( ) , " ". .
QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) .
, ,
.
Radio NIC ( ) , .
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) .
, Internet Internet .
Repeater () , .

185
RF signal () , , .
Rogue access point ( ) ,
,
.
Router () , , DHCP NAT,
/1-.
Satellite () , .
, .
Snooper () , ( )
.
Spread spectrum ( )
, , . .
TCP (transmission control protocol) , ,
. IP, TCP/IP.
TDMA (time division multiple access) (). , .
.
Terminal emulation ( ) , ,
. VT-220,
3270 5250.
Transceiver () , , ; .
VPN (virtual private network) , ,
.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) , . 802.11, , .
Wi-Fi ,
, , Wi-Fi.
Wi-Fi 802.11.
/
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Wi-Fi. , Wi-Fi,

186
. WPA 1
(temporal key integrity protocol, TKIP)
WEP; WPA 2 802.1 li, AES.
Wireless LAN ( ) , , .
, , 802.11 Wi-Fi.
Wireless MAN ( ) , , . 802.16 .
Wireless PAN ( ) , , .
, , Bluetooth 802.15.
Wireless WAN ( ) , ,
.
.
WISP (wireless Internet service provider) Internet. ,
Internet . " " .


D
100BASE-T, 51
100BASE-T4, 51
100BASE-TX, 51
10BASE-T, 51
1G cellular, 138

Access point, 43
ACK, 109
Acknowledgement, 109
Ad hoc mode, 107
Ad hoc wireless LAN, 106
Address resolution protocol, 151
ADSL, 81
Advanced encryption standard, 159
AES, 119; 159
Analog signal, 59
ARP, 151
, 153
ARQ, 62
ASCII, 60
Association, 111
Automatic repetition query, 62

Back-off timer, 108


Basic bridge, 125
Beacon, 109
Beacon interval, 110
Bluetooth, 20
BRAN, 119
Bridge, 123
Brute-force attack, 153

Data encryption standard, 159


DBPSK, 114; 115
DCF, 107
Demilitarized zone, 167
Denial of service, 153
DES, 159
DPS, 121
DHCP, 99
Digital certificate, 46
Digital signal, 57
Direct database connectivity, 47
Distributed coordination function, 107
Distribution system, 98
DMZ, 167
DoS, 153
DQPSK, 115
DSSS, 113
Duration field, 108
Dynamic frequency selection, 121
Dynamic host configuration protocol, 99

E
EAP, 162
EDGE, 139
EIA, 50
ETSI, 119
Extensible authentication protocol, 162

CDMA, 145
CDPD, 25
Cellular Digital Packet Data, 25
CF.41
Challenge text, 110
Clear to send, 111
Code division multiple access, 145
CompactFlash, 41
CRC, 157
CSMA/CA, 108
Cyclical redundancy check, 157

FCC, 72
FDMA, 144
FEC, 62
Federal Communication Commission, 72
FHSS, 112
Forward error correction, 62
Frequency division multiple access, 144
Frequency-shift keying, 77
FSK, 77

G
Go-back-n, 64
GPRS, 139

H
HiperLAN/2, 119
Hotspot, 104
HR-DSSS, 112

188

I
IBSS,
ICV, 157
Independent basic service set, 110
Industry-Standard Architecture, 40
Infrared data association, 94
Infrastructure mode, 103
Initialization vector, 157
Integrity check value, 157
Interference, 72
Interoperability, 97
IP address, 99
IPSec, 46
IP-, 99
IrDA, 94
ISA, 40
ISM, 80
ISO, 55
IV, 157

L
LDAP, 46
Location-based service, 32

M
MAC, 107
-, 161
Man-in-the-middle attacks, 151
Media Access Control, 107
Medium, 37
Medium access, 60
Mini-PCI, 41
Mobile broadband wireless access, 131

N
NAT, 99
NAV, 108
Network address translation, 99
Network allocation vektor, 108
Network interface card, 39
Noise floor, 62

OFDM, 80; 113; 115; 119


Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,
113;119
OSI, 55

P
Patch antenna, 126
PC Card, 41
PCI, 40
PCMCIA, 41
Peripheral Component Interconnect, 40

Phase-shift keying, 78
Plaintext, 155
PoE, 51
Point coordination function, 107
Point-to-point system, 127
Power-ower-Ethernet, 51
Pre-shared key mode, 119
Probe frame, 110
Probe responce, 110
PSF, 107
PSK, 78
Public wireless LAN, 104

R
RADIUS, 46
Repeater, 100
Request to send, 111
Rogue access point, 150
RTS/CTS, 111

s
SARP, 153
SDMA, 146
Secure ARP, 153
Service set identifier, 98
Session persistence, 48
Short massage service, 140
Simple network management protocol, 170
SMS, 140
SNMP, 170
Snooper, 150
Space division multiple access, 146
Spread spectrum, 79
SSID, 98; 109
Status code, 110
Subnet, 46
Supplicant, 163

TDM, 119
TDMA, 120; 145
Temporal key integrity protocol, 119; 158
Therminal emulation, 47
TIA, 50
Time division multiple access, 120; 145
Time slot, 120
Time-division multiplexing, 119
TKIP, 119; 158
TPC, 120
Transceiver, 20
Transmit power control, 120

189

, 157
, 108
, 160
, 51

Ultrawideband, 81
UMTS, 139
USB-, 86
UWB, 81

V
Virtual private network, 160
VPN, 160

w
WECA, 117
WEP, 111; 155; 156
WEP2, 158
WEP-, 110
Wi-Fi, 22; 117
Wi-Fi Alliance, 117
Wi-Fi Protected Access, 118; 159
Wired equivalent privacy, 155
Wireless dongle, 86
Wireless ethernet compatibility alliance, 117
Wireless Fidelity, 22
Wireless Internet service provider, 43
Wireless markup language, 141
Wireless middleware, 48
WISP, 43; 130
WML, 141
WPA, 118; 159

A
, 62
, 39
Wi-Fi, 117
, 59

, 125
, 125
, 126
, 126
,127
, 54

IrDA, 94
WECA, 117

, 153
, J51
, 46; 110; 160
, 151
,
, 110
, 60

, 43

, 104

, 121

, 120
, 60

, 145

, 145

, 146

,131
, 150
, 144

, 48

3
, 76
,
, 155
, 110

, 109
, 98
, 54
, 110
, 43

, 79
, 38
, 46
, 17; 38
, 38
, 44
, 62
, 157
, 98
, 126

190

Wi-Fi, 118

, 78
, 115
, 115
, 77
, 87

WPA,118
, 120
, 73
, 120
,
, 77
, 79
, 81
, 53
, 123
, 125
, 125
, 80; 113
, 49

, 51
, 110
, 153
, 53

, 62
, 49
, 49
, 39
, 100
, 109

,
, 108; 111
, 164
, 127
, 38
, 72; 76
, 73
, 72
, 70
, 111
, 20
,69
, 48
, 58

, 163

CSMA, 50
GPRS, 139
SARP, 153
TKIP, 158
, 162
, 99
, 151
, 99

, 107
, 170
, 119; 158
, 62
, 47

, 70
, 70
, 43; 49
, 73
, 79
, 79

, 79

RTS/CTS, 111
WEP, 111
, 103
, 107

, 119
, 112
, 111
, 46

, 64
, 64
, 64
Wi-Fi,. 118
, 39

, 24
, 21
, 106
, 106
, 19
, 106
, 22
, 106
, 106

191

, 59
, 72
, 109
,74
, 57
, 87

2.5G, 139
, 139
, 161
, 128
, 43; 49
, 137
, 139
, 138
, 139
- , 128
-, 127
, 52
, 109
, 110
, 109
, 58

, 140
, 32
, 150
, 54

, 97
, 58
, 52
, 152
, 37

100BASE-T, 51
10BASE-T, 51
802.11, 107; 112
802. , 113
802. lib, 114
802. llg, 115
802.111,119
802.15, 20; 89
802.16, 23; 130
802.16, 130
802.1, 162
802.3, 50
HiperLAN/2, 119
Wi-Fi, 22
Wi-Fi, 159
, 159
, 159
, 119
, 43

, 52
, 54

, 108
, 43
,150
, 45
, 44

, 53
, 52

PMD, 115
OSI, 55
, 62

, 46
, 17; 38

, 78
-, 40
, 112

CTS, 111
RTS,111
, 110
,
, 110

, 107
, 107

.60
, 57

, 77

, 46; 155

, 47
, 127

, 141

. .
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101509, . , . , . 43, . 1
18.06.05.
70 0'/|6. Times. .
. . . 15,48. .-. . 12,0.
3 000 . 191.
- 6.
191144, -, . , 10.
271-35-42.