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PERCEPTIVES OF NURSING EDUCATION GLOBAL AND NATIONAL The demand for higher education has increased worldwide and

the response has been an impressive expansion of education offerings both within and across countries. In recent years there has been a proliferation of educational courses that target international clientele. This h as led to concerns about quality and consistency and also the need for international standards of education. Internationalization in education, according to knight the process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension in the purpose, functions and delivery of post secondary education. Exported education service are delivered in various ways. As students travel abroad to receive their education. As education is delivered to them through distance learning. As educational institutions from one country provide onsite classes in another country, often through establishing branch campuses. Education of health professionals, specially nurses, cannot be entirely homogenous given population health issues, such as endemic diseases, along with social, cultural and economic differences. The standards for nursing education need to be established through out the world to provide a guide for local services and to assure a minimum standard for important issues such as essential qualifications for nurse educators.

PATTERNS OF NURSING EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN INDIA INTRODUCTION Nursing Council Act came to existence in 1948 to constitute a council of nurses who would safe guard the quality of nursing education in the country. The mandate was to establish and maintain uniform standards of nursing education. Today, Indian nursing council is a statutory body that regulates nursing education in the country through prescription, inspection, examination, certification and maintaining its stands for a uniform syllabus at each level of nursing education. The strive for maintenance of a uniform standards and pattern of nursing education has curbed creative development and experiments for expansion of nursing in to newer horizons of nursing education. There are six levels of nursing education in India today. They are : 1. Multipurpose Health Worker Female training (ANM or

MPHW-F) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Female Health Supervisor training (HV or MPHS-F) General nursing and midwifery (GNM) BSc. Nursing MSc. nursing MPhil and PhD

The ANM, HV, and GNM are conducted in schools of nursing. The last 3 are university level courses and the respective universities conduct

examinations. Beside there are several certificate and diploma courses in specialties.

MULTIPURPOSE HEALTH WORKER (+) TRAINING

The training grew out of the earlier auxillary nursing and midwifery (ANM) course. The ANM training was for 2 years. Mainly covers maternal and child care and family welfare. The Indian Nursing Council revised the ANMs syllabus in 1977 and reduced the duration to 18 months. At the end of the course candidates are eligible for working in health subcentres. There are nearly 500 schools offering this course in India at present. FEMALE HEALTH SUPERVISOR TRAINING

This course was initially meant as a health visitor training course. It went to several modifications and finally became metamorphosed into the current six months promotional training. The female health supervisors or Multipurpose Health Assistant (F) course is being conducted in 21 centres in the country.

GENERAL NURSING AND MIDWIFERY The general nursing and midwifery course is conducted in 477 centers in the country. The syllabus has undergone many revisions according to the change in the health plans and policies of the Government and changing trends and advancements in general education, nursing health sciences and medical technology. The latest revision of syllabus by INC in 2004 has increased the duration of the course from three year to three and half year. The basic entrance has become intermediate or class 12 instead of earlier class 10. Both science and arts students are eligible. The focus of general nursing education is the care of sick in the hospital. Schools of nursing are generally attached to teaching hospitals. Three Board examinations are conducted, one at the end of each year. On passing the candidates are registered as registered nurse and mid wife by the respective state nursing councils. PHILOSOPHY The Indian Nursing Council believes that the basic course in nursing is a formal educational preparation which should be based on sound education principles. The council recognizes that the program as the foundation on which the practice of nursing is built and on which depends further professional education. It also recognizes its responsibility to the society for the continued development of student as individual nurse and citizens. Purpose

The purpose of general nursing programme is to prepare general nurse who will function as member of the health team beginning with competence for first level position in both hospital and community. The programme is generated to the health needs of the society, the community and the individual and will assist nurses in their personal and professional development so that they may take their maximum contribution to the society as individual citizens and nurses. Objectives 1. Demonstrate awareness of and skills required in the nursing process in the provision of health care and nursing of patients 2. Apply relevant knowledge from the humanities biological and behavioral sciences in carrying out health care and nursing activities and functions. 3. Show sensitivity and skill in human relationship and communication in his or her daily works 4. Demonstrate skill in the problem solving methods in nursing. 5. Gain knowledge of health resources in the community and the country 6. Demonstrate skill in leadership 7. Demonstrate awareness of necessity of belonging to professional organizations. 8. Promotion of health, precaution against illness, restoration of health and rehabilitation. Students admission

1. Age for the entrance shall be 17 years to 35 years, provided they meet the minimum educational requirement ie 12 years of schooling. 2. Minimum education all students should pass 12 classes or its equivalent, preferably with science subjects 3. Admission of students shall be once a year. 4. Students should be medically fit. The selection committee should comprise tutors, nurse administrators, and educationalist/psychologist. The principal of the school shall be the chairperson. Training programme The course in general nursing shall be of three and half years duration as follows, two years practice in general nursing , one year community health nursing and midwifery and six months internship which includes nursing administration and nursing research classes. There will be alternate course for male students in lieu of midwifery. The ANM who wishes to under take general nursing course will not be given any concessions. The maximum hours per week per students shall be 36 hours, which includes instructions and clinical field experiences. BACHELOR OF NURSING COURSE Graduate nursing education started in India in the year 1946 in CMC, Vellore and in the RAK college of nursing at Delhi university. At present several universities in India offer the course. Eligibility for admission A candidate seeking admission should have:

1. pass the 2 year of pre university exam or equivalent as recognized by concerned university with science subjects ie Physics, biology and chemistry. 2. students of vocational courses 3. obtained at least 45%of total marks in science subjects in the qualifying exam, if belongs to a scheduled caste or tribe , should have obtained not less than 40 % of total marks in science subjects.
4.

completed 17 years of age at the time of admission or will complete this

age on or before 31st December of the year of admission 5. is medically fit Objectives of study The programme is designed : 1. to provide a balance of professional and general education 2. to enable a student to become a professional nurse practitioner who has self direction and is a responsible citizen. Through planned guided experiences students are provided with opportunities to develop

a broad concept of the fundamental principles of nursing care

based on sound knowledge and satisfactory levels of skill in providing care to people of all ages in community or institutional setting

understanding of the application of principles from the physical

biological and social sciences for assessing the health status

ability to investigate health care problems systematically

ability to work collaboratively with members of allied

disciplines towards attaining optimum health for all members of the society

understanding of fundamental principles of administration and

organization of nursing service

understanding of human behaviour and appreciation of

effective interpersonal relationship with individuals families and groups


ability to assume responsibility for continuing learning appreciation of professional attitudes necessasary for leadership

roles in nursing appreciation of social and ethical obligations to society. Course of study The course of study leading to bachelor of nursing degree comprises 4 academic years.

BACHELOR OF NURSING COURSE (POST CERTIFICATE) FOR QUALIFIED NURSES Philosophy and aims of the programme The faculty believes that nursing is an integral part of the health care delivery system and shire responsibility in collaboration with other allied health professions for the attainment of optimal health for all members of the society. The faculty conceives education as a life long learning process. It seeks to render appropriate behavioral changes in students in order to facilitate their development , which assist them to live personally satisfied and socially useful lives.

The goal of post certificate degree programme leading to bachelor of science in nursing is the preparation of the trained nurse as a generalist who accept responsibility for enhancing the effectiveness of Nursing care Eligibility for admission The candidate seeking admission must: 1. hold a certificate in General nursing. 2. be a registered nurse 3. have minimum of two years of experience 4. have passed pre university exam in the arts /science/commerce or its equivalent which is recognized the university 5. be medically fit 6. have a good personal and professional record 7. have working knowledge of English PROGRAMME OF STUDY Duration the programme of the study is two academic years from the date of commencement of programme. Terms and vacations shall be as notified by the university from time to time. Objectivesthe goal of the post certificate programme leading to the bachelor of nursing is the preparation of the trained nurses as a generaralist who accept responsibility for enhancing the effectiveness of nursing care.

Administer high quality nursing care to all people of all ages in

homes , hospitals and other community agencies in urban and rural areas

Apply knowledge from the physical, social and behavioral

sciences in assessing the health status of individuals and make critical judgment in assessing the health status of the individuals and make critical judgment in planning ,directing and evaluating primary, acute and long term care given by themselves and others working with them

Investigate health care problems systematically Work collaboratively with members of other health disciplines Teach and counsel individuals , families and other groups about

health and illness

Understand

human

behavior

and

establish

effective

interpersonal relationships

Teach in clinical nursing situations Identify underlying principles from the social and natural

sciences and utilize them in adapting to , or initiating changes in relation to those factors

Acquire professional knowledge and attitude in adapting for

leadership roles DEGREE OF MASTER OF NURSING Philosophy Nursing faculty presents the following beliefs about the master of nursing programme: 1. the master of nursing programme is offered by institution of higher education and is built up on a recognized bachelors curriculum in nursing (in India-by Indian nursing council)

2. the programme prepares nurses for leadership position in nursing and other health fields who can function as specialists nurse practitioners, consultants ,educators ,administrators and investigators in a wide variety of professional setting in meeting the national priorities and the changing needs of the society 3. the programme prepares nursing graduates who are professionally equipped ,creative, self directed and socially motivated to effectively meet with the needs of the social change 4. further the programme encourages accountability and commitment to life long learning which fosters improvement of quality care Objectives Graduates of master of nursing programme demonstrate:

increased cognitive ,affective and psychomotor competencies

and the ability to utilise the potentials for effective nursing performance

expertise in the utilization of concepts and theories for the

assessment ,planning and intervention in meeting the self care needs of an individual for the attainment of fullest potentials in the field of specialty.

Ability to practice independently as a nurse specialist Ability to function effectively as nurse educators and

administrators

Ability to interpret the health related research Ability to plan and initiate change in the health care system

Leadership qualities for the advancement of practice of

professional nursing

Interest in life long learning for personal and professional

learning advancement Eligibility The candidate seeking admission must: 1. have passed BSc. Nursing/post certificate BSc, or nursing degree of any university 2. have a minimum of one year of experience after obtaining BSc, in hospitals or nursing educational institutions or community health setting 3. for BSc, nursing post certificate, no such experience is needed after graduation the candidate shall be-a registered nurse or registered midwife for admission to medical surgical nursing, community health nursing, pediatric nursing obstetric and gynecological nursing. A registered nurse for admission to psychiatric nursing 4. the candidate shall be selected on merit judged on the basis of academic performances in BSc nursing, post certificate BSc, or nursing and selection tests. Specialties Candidate will be examined in any of the following branches 1. 2. 3. 4. branch1-medical surgical nursing branch2-community health nursing branch 3-paediatric nursing branch4-obstetric and gynecological nursing

5.

branch5-psychiatric nursing

Four common papers are there included in the syllabus. They are:

advanced concepts of health and nursing education and nursing education bio-statistics, research methodology and nursing research administration and nursing administration

MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY PROGRAMME IN NURSING In 1980 RAK college of nursing started an MPhil programme as a regular and part time course. Since then several universities started taking students for the MPhil course in nursing. Prominent among these are: MGR Medical University, Rajive Gandhi University of Health Sciences, SNDT University and Delhi University and Manipal Academy of Higher Education Philosophy Nursing shares with the whole university a main focus of preparing its students for service and assisting them to achieve a meaningful philosophy of life. The student is encouraged to develop judgment and wisdom in handling knowledge and skills and achieve mastery of problem solving and creative skills. Commitment to life long learning is the mark of truly professional person. In order to maintain clinical competencies and enhance professional practice the student must stay abrupt of the new developments and contribute to the advancement of nursing knowledge. Objectives The objectives of M.Phil degree course in nursing are:

to strengthen the research foundations of nurses for

encouraging research attitudes and problem solving capacities

to provide basic training required for research in undertaking

doctoral work Duration Duration of the full term M.Phil course will be one year and part time course will be two year. Course of study At the time of admission each candidate will be required to indicate her priorities in regard to the optional courses .a candidate may offer one course from M Phil programme from the department of Anthropology, education, sociology and physiology or any suitable department. The M.Phil studies will be into two distinct parts, part1 and part 2. Part1----it consist of 3 courses, ie research methods in nursing, major aspects of nursing, allied disciplines Part2----after passing the part1 examination, a student shall be required to write a dissertation. The topic and the nature of the dissertation of each candidate will be determined by the advisory committee consist of 3 members. The dissertation may include results of original research, a fresh interpretation of existing facts, and date or a review article of critical nature of may take. DOCTORATE OF PHILOSOPHY IN NURSING A candidate for admission to the course for the degree of doctor of philosophy in the faculties of medical science must have obtained an M Phil degree of a university or have a good academic record with first or

second class masters degree of an Indian or a foreign university in the concerned subject. The candidate shall apply to the university for the admission stating his qualifications and the subjects he proposes to investigate enclosing a statement on any work he may have done in the subject. every application for the admission of the course must be analyzed by the board of research studies. Board of research studies (medical sciences)- members

dean and the head of the departments concerned Principals/ head of institutions recognized for post graduate

medical studies.

Two members nominated by the medical academic council Three persons nominated by the medical faculty( for their

special knowledge in the medical science Eligibility criteria

The candidate should be post graduate in nursing with more

than 55% of aggregates of marks


Should have research background May or may not published articles in journals The course duration is far regular PhD course is 3 years and

for part time is 4 years REFERENCES


1. Neeraja KP. Text book of nursing education.2005.1st edn. Noida. Jaypee

brothers medical publishers( p) Ltd. Page 41 77.

2. Sankara Narayana, Basics of Nursing Education, 2002, 1st edition, Page

No.15 18. 3. education.portal.com 4. currentnursing.com 5. Journals

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