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12345
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12

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eq+ |uT d+d\T C+ #dTs<T. k]
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nTe+{ yT\TssTT #sT=+~. 1960 H{ k$jT{
eed eT* esT\T sy*q neds+ +<q $wjT+
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q eed qT+& Xe +yT q b]X$T ] eed> n_e~
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eed |s_e~ KeqsT\ $j>+, y{ deTL
sTe+ nysyTq b<q> e]+~. 1930\
bs + u y T 1950\ H{ < X eqs T \ $w j T +
dTd+|qyTq <X+> es+<T $Xw w ]+~.
nsTT eT+ 1920\ H{ sV =qk>< T .
1960\ H{ n~s jT++>+ eedq T eT]+ esTy|
+& ds | ] # sj
T + rdT+~. nsTT B u eqsT\
eT<T nedsyT+~. 1973 H{ d+u+ |]dT\T
e]bjsTT. 1973 #eTTsT d+u+ #eTTsT <s\T
|]bjsTT. ||+# y|+> #eTTsT \\| |q+
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14

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<jT+ =H<+. eed nedsyTq dsT\T n+<T
uT b ~>TeT #dT+<+... nq <sD
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djT+> e\dy<+ y| yTT>Z+ yTT+> b\esZ+
<<+H esT e+~. <+ 1980 <X+ e],
1990 =*H H{ b\esZ+ <X|Ps+>H ||+#
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usT du+ k~+#+ y] \+> e]+~.
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ne>Vq <X |Ps+> m+#Tq<. u]dt *H eT]+
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b]X$TsD, d|sY|esY VA<\ bT yTT+>
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|k$+#sT. HqT 1991 H{ |]De\T |k$dTHqT.
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15

nsTTq n =~ \+H n+f |< \+H s+&T s\


yT<$esZ+ $s$++~. { bX <X\ nqT
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70 <X+ s |{q ysT e+
n+ |Ps| sJjT ke |]d
T\T @ |]d T u+> |\T yeT|
d+|Tq |+ {sT, < eTT+<T
sh+ +>dt b\q @ $<+> qwb
sTT+~ nq $wj\T >T]+ \TdTH
neX+ <T. H|<+ 60`70
<X\ H{ <X sjT |]d
d\+>, u+> sjT $e
s+> bs\eTT+<T+# |jTyT
yd+.
H|< +
k+q+s =* s+&T <Xu
\T HVA | |syD neT\T
]q n_e~ ePV >\ |]$TT\T

. MsjT#
nq\+H y\&jsTT. sC+>+
n+<] n+~+q V\T, neX\qT
|\T d+|Ps+> nqTu$+# |]d
bsTT+~. |C dMTsD |<q
ePV+> k+<eT+ | #dq
+>dt, n~s eq s V\
k<q |CdMTsD <T\T n~s
jT++>+| <s|& d e]+~.
<+ <| ueT\T =\b& |
\ nf \+ |<T. =* <X+qs
\+ |uT+ neT\T ]q |\T
$<H\T, n_e~ ePV\ |s ekq+>
b\ d+s+ esZ b+~ |<
mTq esT\T e#sTT.
HVA sb+~+qn_e~ ePV+
|< q+> |uT |T&, < $j
+#+<T sMT< eq |D[
eed\| <s|& +~. k+
q+s+ D yT sb+~+q n_e~
qeTH, n_e~ | n+<] u>
keT+ +&\q \+ m+ =+
+&~. =\T HVA q n_e~ qeTH
#T +>dt _q esZ\qT dMT]+#
>*>sT. n_e~ ePV+ yTs y>
e+yTq b]X$T $<H de+
s+> >MTD b++ eekjT
d+dsD\ neT\T s>* +~.

sh |uT sj
b bw+q
< s +>+, < HjT + eVdTq
sh ksTT +>dt H + eekjT
d+dsD\ y\&+~. <+ 60
<X+ s <Xy|+> eekjT
d+dsD\L, < |sjT|<+>
*q ud+dsD\ #{\L +>dt
HjT + T b&+~. deTjT+
H HVA nd$T+#sT. +>dt HjT
+ eT+> s>$T y<T\ #T
e]+~. <+ bf n|{ esL
neT q +< sh d++<q,
+>dtH CrjT HjT+, sh
HjT+ eT< +& d++<q
deT\ <q~. HVA Vj+
|<q <w CrjT sj|
+&+ sh ksTT HjT sh
ksTT neds\ H|<+ sjT $~
$<H\T sb+~+#+ nedsyT
q+ d#, d+ +&$. HVA
s b |>Z\T, |uT |>Z\T
#|{ q +~s >+B Vj+ d#
sT y+ ~. CrjT ksTTq, sh ksTT
q +>dt HjT+ nd
sTT +~s >+B uq +<+>
e]+~. CrjT sj $<q
|syTq #s\ kq+ e +<+>

s#sTT q& |CX eJ $].


] s+>+| nH yk\T sXsT.

20

e] dT
#s \T yTT<\jsTT. +>dt n+sZ
dTds <X dTds nq H<+ eTT+<T
=+~. esT b sD
|]$T+ <T. <X+ nqTd]+#*q
]_e~ $<q+ |<mTq &<T&T
\ H+~. n~s+| |T b&T
H+<T ke HjT+ b|~q
n|{ esL nqTd]d eq $<H\
kq+ meT&{y $<H\T sMT<
e#sTT. b]X$T_ e ~ s+&
|+#es |D[ #|+q esZ+qT+&
|uT+ y<=\+~. eekjT d+ds
D ud+dsD\ |< | yjT+
<s >MTD sT<>+, <y\D+
+Z #+, b]X$T_e~ nedsy T q
]sT eqsT\T dw+#{ <T\T
k+ |]Cq+ $j>+ <s
eekjT < |+#+ |uT
\+> e]+~. deT>_e~ \+>
]w zTu+\qT d+|T{+
# d T e+ ] $< H\ \ +>
e]+~. zTu+ <s+> n~
s eq +>dt +~s>+B H
+ |CkeT+ K b\&+~.
|]d T sC+>+ d VMT q
|CkeTus |]s+#TH+<T
|ejT sjT <eT+ neds
yT+~.
k+q+s+
u+> sjT +
<Xy|+> eekjT s+>+
eq esT\ >H u+> L&
eekjTs+>+ esZ\ @sT, d+|T
{+ e+ u d+dsD\ |P] nsTT
+~. $T*q sc\ e~]> ~|
\+ >, ~| \ #T u
+BsD > u+> e. <+
sh y|+> y$<u]yTq u d++
<\T, esZ d+s\T sMT< e#sTT.
~| \+ +<+> ke dMTs
D\T be+ sjT b\T esZ+
b|~q |\qT dMT]+#{ es+Z
dT>eTeT+ nsTT+~. k+bs
\+ L& $|e uy\ \yTq
|H<T\T *q u+> k+ q+
s+ |qT \T|=+~. \yTq
yeT| O<e +<+> e]+~.
k+q+s+ <X $uq H|<+
sc_e~ nedsyTq eT* eqsT\T,
21

u+>qT dTds q&|q |t |+{


k+bs \+ L& $|e
uy\ \yTq |H<T\T *q u+>
k+q+s+ |qT \T|
=+~. \y T q yeT| O< e
+<+> e]+~.

$X\yTq uu>+ H{ sT bkH


eX+ e+, <X $uq H|<+
u+> sdT \ eTT| m<Tse{
sD+ +>dt nqTd]+q $<H nq
n_bjT+ u+> $<~\T
+>dt <seTjsT. MT+< s<T
e+{ #s\ s+>+ \_ b+~H |q
|s=q #] sD\ e\ u+>
+>dt b ySqTH+<T |]$T
neX e#sTT. $T*q sc >
k+ eTT+<T u+> +>dt
b @ ksTTq |uT+ #eTD
<T . |]$TT\T q|{ k+
q+s+ =* <X+qs \+ <X
y|+> q kqTL\ |eH\ H|<+
u+> d+ +>dt b n~
s s>*+~.
1960\ H{ qT+& sh+ +>dt
|q+ bs+uyT+~. +~s >+B
H+ |q+ d+|PsyT+~.
n~s, b| |H b&T
e{ +~s >+B |Ck$T
|< T \qT > s+X, |CkeT $sT<
|<T\T ne\+_+#+ n|& $s
$dTq yT<$ es+Z +>dt <syT + ~.
sD |s+> #dT+f _d sjYT,
nT\|Twt e+{ ysT u+> |dd
HjT+ eV+q|&T y] d+
| $<H HVA q+ neX+
+~s >+B e<T. < &T
\yTq k HjT es+>
eTs >|qT jsT #jT+, <
b V +# + <s sh k s TT
+>dt HjT+ eTTseTT
eTT #jT+, n<qT #dT
q$Tq +qT b n<\T #jT+
nq +~s >+B $<q+ sh +>dt
eT]+ eTT\ <] rd+~. ysd
sh ksTT +>dt y|\+ 1967

H{ sjT XSq+ @s&+~. CrjT


eTdT <eT+ eq N* n|&
sMT< eq us eTdT b
(e]dT) |P]ksTT XSH
|P]+#+<T d<eTjT |]d b
sTT+~. sh sjT s+>+ d|(m+)
sT>T X> ne]+#{, +>dt
y|\+ @s&q XSH |P]+
sjT nds kq+ dTds k~+#
{ sc <<| <X\+|>
deTjT+ |{+ ~. <X\+ CrjT
ksTT +>dt |C<sD e+,
+>dt N*\T sh sj\qT
|u$+ #XsTT.
<X\| nds
1960 <X+ H{ +>dt <Xy
|+> |L\ |eH\T m<Tsy*
e+~. HVA bs+_+q n_e~
$<H\ qT+& y< =\>+, ] d+u+ ,
Vs d+u+, +>dt d+k>
sD\T, #H `usY jTT<+ |L\
|eH\ y> |+#sTT. $$< sc
|\T |ejT sjT X\ y|
q&e+ bs+uyT+~. $TH&T
&m+, s d| (m+) ~X> <X
<] #bsTT. |eTu+> +>dt
|q+ $T*q # +f eT]+ y>+>
]+~. u+> +>dt =*s+
H\T n+]+q s y] kH
|P]+# ksTT @ H m<><T. _d
sjYT, nT\ |Twt e+{ H\T b
sh y| jT++> sb+~+#+
\ b bw+#sT. 1962 _d sjYT
eTsD+ s u+> +>dt eTTs
eTT\T |#]sTT. CrjT ksTT
1967 +>dt z$T #$#d u+>
n+ < |PsyT +>dt N*bsTT
\Vq|&+~. z{$T b\sTT+~. <
s sjT nds H+~ u+>.

u+>qT dTds q&|q |t |+{


77 eTT+<T ]q n mq yeT| b\T
eT&+ e+T zT d+b~+#T \yTq X>
OHsTT. |C+<q\ <s yeT|\T, |+ d|
(m+) |\ eT]+ <>Zs+~. \+ sh+ nds
bT nDy L& +>dt # \ k<q+>
e]+~. d# |bdTq u+> |\T nDyqT
re+> es+#sT. =*k] sh+ 1967 d+s
|uT+ @s&+~.

1968-1971 eT< \+ sh+


@s&q s +&T d+s |uT \ |< q+>
es Z d + s \ T. y | q s T y ,
ukeT esZ b<+ eV+#
b\ eTsy| q X \ qT es+#
yeT| b\T d+s |uT+ \
u>keTT\T e+ y{ eT< deTq
jT+ =se&+, esZ keTsd + |+#+
dV yT+ ~. nsTT deTqjT b
esZ <<+ L&q $<H\T nqTd]+
#\ yeT|\T ssTT+#+ sD+.
$< H\ yeT| \T | \
eT]+ <>sZ j
sTT. 71 m\ eTT+<T
yeT| \T eT&+ e+T zT k~+
#e |q #|=HeTT. n|{ yeT
|\ |CsD X @s& |]$TT\qT
s+&T d+s |uT |j>\ <s
e~*+#T >*>sTT. sh+ esZ dMT
sD\T e], XeTJe\+<s |+
>q, <|& <sT\+<s eTs |+ >q
N*bsTTq yesD+ H\=+~. d+s+
u>keTT\T eT |+#T
H+<T ] $T+ sT mT\ T ydT
HsT. |C |j q+, X$TesZ |j
q+, |Ck$T $\Te\ |]sD,
sC+>+ VMT q dV\T |
\ n+<TuT eyT \+>
m+#Tq us eTdT b (e]dT)
n+<TqT>TD+> |CdMTsD, <s
esZ X \ b+~ esT k<H \ +>
\+ bs{\T # d + ~.
\+ ]q b]X$T +<qH
CdT \jTH |t ~ deTsY (eT+&Tyd
$ >]+# d+V+>) |sTb+<&T.
m& @ q deTd H b n&
|eTjT d b duT\T, Xj_
w\ |H~ $d]++~. \+H
d|(m+) us<X+ $|y ],
s yT |H~ nq b seT

ks+X #sD |{+~.


|]d T sh+ \yTq X>
q d|(m+) |<q ||+> m~
+~. |\eTT+<T sjT ] |
ej ++~. 77 eTT+<T ]q
n mq yeT| b\T eT&+
e+T zT d+b~+#T \yTq
X> HsTT. |C+<q\ <s yeT
|\T, |+ d|(m+) |\
eT]+ <>Zs+~. \+ sh+
nds bT nDy L& +>dt
# \ k<q+> e]+~. d#
|bdTq u+> |\T nDyqT
re+> es+#sT. =*k] sh+
1967 d+s |uT+ @s&+~.
d+s |uT + u>k$T> q us
eTdT b (e]dT) $$< esZ\
|\ #sTejT+<T M\T> VA+
XK bT eekjT XK, ]XK
e+{ eT+ XK\T #|{+~.
\+H sh |uT+ =*k] X+
u<\ deTdqT s+&T s\T> $u
+~. { esbZ s{\T, s +&~ e>
$wj\T, #{\ \+|Tq, <|&\T,
ns# d++~+q X+u <\
deTd. CdT H + VA+XK
X+u<\ deTd\| re+> d+~+
#~. esZbs{\ $wjT+ C+
# |]$TT\T $~++~. <s
sC+> j T + + es Z bs{\
$w j T + d + | < ] +#
#jT>*+~ d|(m+) H+
| C + O< eT+. V Q X
||+#+H ~ yeT| \ =
nqTue+. CrjT ksTT sC+>
jT++ esZ <e\ | nDy yK ]
nqTd]d +&> ]w b++
e+ sC+> jT++ esZ bs{\
| d < s D nqTd ] +#

e] dT
#jT>\>+ b+ yeT| <eT+
k~+q | $jT+> #|y*.
u+> esZ bs{\qT sC+>
jT++ C+ |]~ qT+& $TqVsTT+
#++ <s b\H eed @s&q
XSH u #jT { |C <e\qT
d|(m+) k<q+> eT\T=+~.
$<yTq mT>& |\ D |j
H\, <e |* \ #|+#+
eT]+ eT+~ |C+ <eT+
|y+# bV+~. n<deTjT+
|C <eT+ k+> b\H jT++
>+ b L& bwd eTT+<T k+~.
ese q <X+ ]w b++ sC+>
jT+ \Vq+ #d |C <eT+
kq+ $T+#Te+ nq~ u+>
|j>+H k<yT+~. < eTT+<T
\ +>D kj T T< bs \+
|]$T b++ |j> neT\T
#d+~ eTdT b.
> 1971 bkH ]q
jTT<+, +><X $se+ CrjTk
sTT y\Tyq |C<sD +>dt
+~s >+B H + ] n~s
e+~. u+\ CrsTsD, sus
D\ s<T e+{ #\ bT 71 bkH
]q jTT<+, < H|<+, d~+q
$jT+ L& CrjT ksTT +>dt
b H\=q ndsqT =*
+~. +~s >+B +>dt b
sT>T H> essT. HVA eTsD+
s CrjT ksTT +>dt
$<yTq <sD \u+ e+ < yTT<{
k] e+ +~s >+B qT
$Tq >q |]d @s&+~. 71
]q Xdqdu m |+
u+> |Ck$T $\Te\ bs
y X s T . es m b\ b
nqTd ] +q n| C k$T # s \
sdq> CdT d+ m+m |<$
sJHe #j* e+~. Bs\+>
u+> yeT|\ m<T>T<\qT n&T
y\ +>dt #dq n |jT\T
$|\+ e+, CrjT ksTT |]q
|C<sD <qT eq n~s
deT+> |C|j> #s\ $j
+#{ <T\T +<T|, n~s
<T]j>, sjT s+X,
||\ @]y +>dt |j+#T
22

e] dT
=+~. <TsT~ eT]+ $d] + es
<X neds |]d y| H{+~.
\+ dTdsyTq d+s+ @s&+<T
neX+ b sTT+~. b\H jT++>+
sc_e ~ d++~+q ke ]
n+X\| <w +B]+# keTs
sTT+~.
esZbs{\T
sjT nds , b\H jT++
>+ y|\+ $q u+>
esbZ s{\T |+EHsTT. d+s |uT
\ H+ neT\T ]q u
d+dsD\ | \T |]s+ #TH eT+
sh+ | >eT+ esZbs y~>
e]+~. sh+ d+s |uT \qT s<T
#dq |k +<+ sh| b\q
$~++~. sh b\H |>Z\T #|{+~.
sh+ sT>TTq bs+ n|{ es
k~+q $j\qT d+|T{+#dTe
{ nq $wj ns+ #dT
b = X\T q b++
b ~ ]+ kjTT< #s \ b\&+
q{ <eT+ $s$ ++~. sh+
ndsqT eT]+ |+ bw+#+
q{ <eT+ qe+T b bw+
+~. |> <eT+ bs+u+ nsTTq
=~ d|(m+)qT q |<q
Xe> m+#T=+~. H&T ]k, ;VsY,
Cs+& d]V<T b+ +<+>
#dT eysTTdT\ T u+> se
\T Hs| q f H&T q T u>[ ydT \T
uTqT ds> rdTHsT. <Xy|
+> neds |]d +< |\ V
\T q*bT+f qT u+>
+>dt *d yeT|\T |+
d|(m+) ss\qT }# jT+
bs+_++~. |]DeTyT <T
u+> nsbddT b\q> ]sT\
+~. \+ +<+ +>dt
|uT+ u+>qT <] #TH+
<T nH #s \T #|{ + ~. n+<T s +&T
eTTKyTq |]b\H|syTq esT\T
HsTT. { |uT+ nqTd]+# nD
y $<q+ sC+>|]$TT\ jT
+T+< |{ + #+. +<T u>+>
bdT\T @ |]d T \T\ b\&H
<| HjT$#sD +&< |{+#
+ <e\| bdT\T $sT#T|&
{ s rdqf+~. s+&+~ >&#]
23

u+>qT dTds q&|q |t |+{

sjT nds, b\H jT++>+ y|


\+ $q u+> esZbs{\T |+E
HsTT. d+s |uT\ H+ neT\T ]q
u d+dsD\ | \T |]s+ #TH e T+ sh+
| >eT+ esZbs y~> e]+~. sh+
d+s |uT\qT s<T #dq |k +<+ sh|
b\q $~++~.

$u > q { d e Td | ] cs
u<\T n|+#+. +<+ q{
nq |< q s#q+ # $d
yTq ~. sh+ |< q sjT de+
| #dT q yeT| \T, d|m + ss\
L& e]+# $<+> e] Ms+<]
@]yd u< >&#s $u> n|
+#sT. $<+> bdT\ n<T|
nDy n~s\T e+, Hsd T \ T,
sjT Hsd T \ eT< ^qT #]|jT+
<s nsbddT b\q srd+~
+~s >+B H+ +>dt |uT
+. sy q uT d+<\| ydT
q e d<s X+sY s.
\+ ]q esDVAeT+
>T]+ \TH+<T eT#T s+&T
<VsD\T |k$+#T+f d]bT+~.
1972 ]q Xdqdu m +>dt
|<m Tq ]Z+>T, ne\ b\& $
jT+ k~++< n|{ fyT |t
+&j \ $] > q d dT
$|\+> sXsT. m\ eTT+<T,
s ssTT >+&\ esDVAeT+
dw+ || b\ #+~q ss\ T,
HjT\qT Ve]q rsTqTL&
fyT|t +&j d$es+> r]+
+~. d dT e nsej <X +
es sh+ #$#dq V+d +f
\+ #$#dq V+d y<Tq,
;u+q n~+> +< n_bjT
|&+~. X+sY |Twt nH s#sTT #|{q
n<jTq+ \+ ;sYu+
H d+ sE eT&TH\T>T
sjT V\T]>jT s]+#sT.
1971 pH sh| b\q $~+q
=~ H\H o|PsY`usq>sY b++
q q H|+ 150eT+~ jTTe\qT
bdT\T }# XsT. |Twt n|{
V+<kH k+&sY | |~>

$wj y\T>T #sT. ||>


b++ Xy\T, #T\T, q
yTT+&\T # #<sT> |& HjT
sXsT. Xy\qT, yTT+&qT b>T#d
|| > n+<s #dT+ &> ] rdT [
VQ^ q~ $dsXs *b&T. |Twt
eH, \+ sh+ uj
+ sksTT #]+~. sT
jTTeq yses +& |]d
b sTT+~. bd T | t y
q&ejTdT\T s+f Xs+ <T. B,
+~s>+B qTdq u+> |Ck
e K #dq rsT. syTq V
+& bT 60 <X+ es d|
(m+) <s+ ]q ud+dsD\qT
+>dt H+ sh|b\q s>
<&+ bs+_++~. <+ bT
u+> H\=q sjT nds H|
< + |<m Tq |T&T\T e\d bj
sTT. b]X$T s+>+ <+~.
\+ yTT+> |uT |]b\H
jT++>yT |y+ kq e~]>
e]bsTT+~.
u+> dTds k~+q
yeT| |uT+
s+< es+ |C+
<e }|]\~+~ d|(m+).
+>dt < s+ sT>TTq |Ck$T
eed K es+> sh+H
<Xy |+ > |C+ X \ qT dMT]+
|CkeT |]sD <e ]++~
u s e Td T b e]d T .
O<e u+> |\T <]+#sT.
deT]+#sT. eT<#sT. <eT+
| u>keTT\jsT. |+
1971`77 eT<\+ u$TV
sTTq |<, eT<s> sT\+<s
($T> 32e |J)

Xd |]#jT yke[ ` 19

e] dT

\ ` +
uy<T\qT z&+#&+ <s X+sT &T Xd $Cq n_e~ mq V
*+#& |d< usrjT Xdy & || \#+ < s $eT]+#sT. $eTs
ds q ~. K>Xd+ , jTTs<+, >D + , skjTqXd+ e+{ s+>\ bNq
us< X + ||+ #+H n>>$T> O+&~. >T $T< n, <+ HXqeTjT<
n, yd$ Cq+ ndq Cq+ <, $XdyT CH b|~ n #| q
n< + $Cq |s> |< ++> eeV]++~. X+sT &T eTqTy<
|P]> deT]+#&T. n+<]q |se OH& z | #|P H +| eeV]
||+ #+ esXeT <s \qT b{+#&+ nedse T H= #b&T. eTq |&T
L& Te+{ eTVqTue\T sd\ T H O+{sT.

m+.$.mdt. Xs#

+ eTfq \TdT nB
ejTq \TdT *d e\N $\|+#T
rjT<q+ me] \TdT nHsT eTqdT
$ #s jT >sT. X+sT n<
d<++ ys T < |eT nqsTT+
q bH #sD+ #=|+#
sjTq. uey<T\T u ||+#|
ydy >T]+#& |sT.
||+ #+ n+ ejT. |s V d +.
d \TdTe&yT eTT, y+
n O|wT\ #bsTT. y<q
d e + u ey< | y T < e\qT
m+<TL =s> y #d+~.
||+#+ ]> sb\ yqT
<s+ #d+~. |sekq+> |\qT
uey< |uy ] O+#&+
b\esZ\ +~s+> e]+~.
n+> H{ deC_e~ L&
++ @s&+~. ||+ #yT ejT
nqTH O n_e~| <w
|&+ <TsTT+<? b, ||+#+
ejT <, ydeyTq n+^]dH?
n|&T uey<| |H< \+<T
T +~. B | ] cs + > eTT+< T
=+< n<+.

X+sT &T bse] d +, yeV]


< \ > q ~ yd e + <
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24

e] dT
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neX+ <T><!
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qT <s+ qT+ #d n|dT+~.
<>Zsb O+&e><. ||+#eT
n+qH&T.
uy<T\T B |+#sT. m+&
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n< deTT<+ sTqT <s+qT+ #d
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V f d +, >T n+ $T<
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25

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V f d +, >T n+ $T< nq~ | +#
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T +> O+T+~.
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n nqT+{&T n & s<wH


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26

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27

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edT+T+~. ds eT eTq O<VsD
28

e] dT
e<+. qdt ||sT b\ bT es+
yk+ nqTH+ <. C ||sT
b\bT eT+f c|q T k&.
#d e&T. |T&< $<q+ Oq
$Td H ~. Bd+ eTq+ +
dsT qT es+ #j *. n< &T.
&u ||+# y|+> OeT& es+>
|#dT + ~.
esY #|q $\Te | s+&T
nu +s\T #TT+{sT. n+<s
+ |#jTsT. =+ eT+~ s\T
eTT\jT |#d +=+eT+~ |
<# T +{s T . nH ~ y T T< {
nu+s+ ~ |T&<sT\ y<q.
+ + | # s TT+# T e&
jeqT |&T | d]><T, d
+ |HjYT, eTqdT |{ |HjYT, n
dsTTdH O+{sT. nu+s\
d e < q+> esY ke + >
nedsy T q s] XeTH $\Te n+{sT
n #b&T. k<sD H|D+ j
deC dsT qT O #jT &
m+ deTjT+ |&TT+< <H s]
XeT n+{sT n esY s+#&T.
|T&<sT\T #| s +& nu +s+
eT* y T q ~, | < qy T q B. e\+
eqeXeT dsT \ O nejT+f
m? O nedsyTq jT+\T,
|eTTT, eTT&ds T e+{ y{ ef$T{?
n &T>TsT.
jT+\T, |eTT e L&
eqeXeT qT+& $s$+qy <.
nsTTH |T&<sT\ y<q esY
de<q+ #b&T. |T&< O
$<q+ dJeXeT, eXeT s+&
*d O+{sTT n+{&T esY. eTT&
dsT \ ]\T C&+q eqe XyT
dJe XeT. dJe XeT e\H O
eT+ |PssTT dsT\ $\Te @s&T
T+~. O eT+ |Pse&
eqeXeT && jT+\T ~s\
eXeT +< eksTT.
esY s+&T XeT\ eT< Oq
&qT $e]++< \ d+.
e XeT, dsT \ m+{ n<q|
$\Ty C&+#<T. eqeXeT e\
dsT\ n<q| $\Te#LsTT+~.
O<VsD eTq+ & ={ =q qdt
|| s Y H rd T +<+. || s T qT
29

ejT<] eed >TT $|q esY |T&

esY #| q $\Te | s +&T nu +s\T #TT+


{s T . =+ eT+~ s \T eTT \j T | # d
+=+eT+~ | <#T+{sT. nH~ yTT<{
nu+s+ ~ |T&<sT\ y<q. + + |
#sTT+#Te& jeqT |&T d +
|HjYT n dsTTdH O+{sT. nu+s\
de<q+> esY ke+> nedsyTq s]
XeTH $\Te n+{sT n #b&T.

sY esY +&> y\Te&q


|T& >+<+ yTT<{ u>+, s+&e
eTT+<D ~. 1867 yTT<{ eTT<D
s>Z, |q + |dTq |d+
1872 sH uw y\Te&q s+&e
eTT<D. |T& >+<+ $T*q s+&T
u>\qT esY eTsDq+s+ m+>
m&{#d 1885, 1894 |#T ]+#&T.

es{ rdTse& >+


dJeXeT (n+f ]\T |& XeT), s +&T
>+\ eXeT (n+f $TwqT |#dq
\+) KsjsTT nqT+& n|&T
||sT d+ KsT #dq XeT eT&T
>+\T> |]>D+#*.
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neT> eq keTT eT&+ s+&T
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eXeT KssTT+~ { n+{&T. dJe
XeT KsT #d+ ~ >+f { >+
J+> e+T #* d d]bT+~ nH~
n y<q.
\+ @$T+f ]\T KsT

#dq >+ dJe XeT e\H $\yq


O jT e+~. eXeT n+f
$TwqT, eTT& dsT y+ ny ||sT qT
jT rdTsee<. MTsT @
O<VsD #dTH n+<T ]\T
KsT #d dJeXeT e\H n+eT O
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< |T&< O $<q+
dsT e. eTssTT eTqe XeT
K<T f~ m?
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jT{ e#~<T. nsTTH |T&
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<jT+ s+&T e+T\T H sy\
+TH&T. Xs w+ #dq ]\T
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m b>TdT+{&T?
+ eTT+<T n<jT+
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eTq+ #| H+. eXeT, dJeXeT
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se& >+ (]\) dJeXeT,
s+&T >+\ (jT+\) e XeT Ks
sTT+< eTq+ O<VsD #|H+.
s+&T >+\ eXeT q ||\+
jTe q y{> rddT+{&T.
$T*q <jTeT+ dJeXeT #dq
]\ #+<e\d+<>. je
CsTTr> $T*q yTT+ ]\T
n+<] |+#k&? H<T.

e] dT

ejT<] eed >TT $|q esY |T&

qdt ||sT n#sTT es{ se&


>+ (]\) dJeXeT, s+&T >+\ (jT+\) e
XeT KssTT+< eTq+ O<VsD #|H+. s+&T
>+\ eX e T q | |\ + jTe q y{>
rddT+{&T. $T*q <jTeT+ dJeXeT #dq
]\ #+<e\d+<>. jTe CsTTr> $T
*q yTT+ ]\T n+<] |+#k&? H<T.

eTssTT ]\ @+ #*d T q T?
< esY |T& >+<+ $XB
]+q \+X+. ]\T y+q XeT
e\H O $\Te @s&+~. {
HjT+> #d ]&T y+q dJe
XeT q $\Te #*+#*.
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|#jT >*q X eyT J+ s|D
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neds\ >&T|y*.
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<sT\T eTT #| yTT. #,
s+> d V#T >TZ\ O+T+~.
@ H{ ]\T O #dq dsT
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O<VsD 100 eT+~ ]\T
sE 10 sbjT\ L #=|q |#d
10,000 qdt ||sT n#jT #ksqT
+&. ||sT <s eT&T sbjT\T
nqT+f <jT+ 30,000 sbjT\T
edT+~. s+&=+T\T e XeT (n+f
jT+\T, eTT&dsT e>s\) bT+
<qT+f jTe 10,000 $T>T\T
T+~. ]\ # L e+
100I10 R 1000 sbjT\T eyT.
$T*q 9,000 sbjT\T |T&<sT&
CT bT+~. ]\ XeT <|&
]> r]~.
]\ J+ | eT dJe XeT
e\ O @s&q $\Te+ n<q+>

|k eTT<T. < |T&< O


$<q+ O+& ejeTs+. + $
+ @$T+f ]\T sp #d |
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H&T. @ >+ qT+& jTe u\
d+ |#dT H &T nH & \TdT&T .
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s+> yH\ eTq < O+T+~.
C ]&T sy H\T>T >+\
bT O+&{ d>+ sE |
#dH #\T. sE b&T> |#
sTT+#& L& |T&<sT&T yqT
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nsTT |T&<sT\ y<q eTs
s+> O+T+~. u\T >&+#&
]\ dJeXeT m+ nedsy eT
|T&> Oq jT+\, eTT&dsTL
(eXeT) n+ neds+ nH~ y
y<q. y<q dsq< n nqTH
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O+{sTT? me] y<q\T @$T{ nH yTs
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O $<q+ #\qd\qT jT\T
#jT&yT esY \+.
<|& #jT < |T&< $<q+
< esY $Xw D |Ps+>
#{#b &T. n+f <|& n++ #j
\+f |T&< eedqT L\<=j
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nsTT |T&< eed sT>T
Tq <|& es+> |]$TyTq
bs{\T sT>TTHsTT. bs{\
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bs{\T ]es+Z X qTeT&+|

#ksTT. >=| $Xk ksTT.


|T&<sT\T n<q| $\TeqT
=\>=& O<>T\T, ]\ |
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|+#TsT. d+b~+# n<q|
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esY |s=H&T. nsTT |T&<sT&
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n+<T | >+\T |+#&+>,
| re |+#&+ > |T&<sT\T
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n+#H yk&T.
|T&< $<q+ n_e~ #+<
eT+ k| n<q| $\TeqT |+#T
e&+ \+> esTT+~.
qq Xd`k+ $CH
n+~|#Te&+, eTT& dsT\qT sT
#> mD+ #H #T y\H yT
yTT<\eT+~. s +{ deTLsT+f
]&T q J q | =+<s>
eTT+ |T&<sT\ u\T d+b
~+#d+ me >+\T | #d<
eX+ O+T+~.
B d\+> |T&< $<q+
]\ ` jeqT\ eT< O+&
|< q ys T < +. $T*q ys T <\T @$T{
#<+.
|T&< eed
d+u\T m+<TeksTT ?
|T& < $<q+ |<q ysT
< +, O MT< jT+D *q |T&
<sT\L, eT XeTX neTTe&+
|ys |ejT+ ]\L
eT< O+T+<+ eTT+<T n<jT+
eTq+ \TdTH+.
eed O+& eTsysT<+ `
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ys T < +. |T&<sT\ eT< H\=H b{
e\ y y me es{ y{
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n<q| $\Te me] ys me b>dT
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~>TsT
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O MT< |ue+ #|T+~. M{
n~>$T+#& y d+b~+q u
+ =+ keTTqT eTs |T&>
30

e] dT
|&sT. eT]+ |<jT+\T y>+>
| #d n<THq jT+\T =q&
|T& yksT.
BH |T& +BsD n+{&T
esY. n+<T |T&< $<q+ n
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d+<s + djT $HXH <] rdT+ ~.
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b&T. n+<T u\T b>dTe&+
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|f Ks |& |T&<sT&T
s+s+ |jT dO +{&T. | |<X +
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d+ ||{qT k> b{ e\ |&
< eed d+u\T eksTT.
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y[ neds\T rs&+ d+ O<+q
eed < T . u \T b > d T e& y T
eed |< q \ +, \D +. |T&<
O $<q+ de+ n+<] ned
s\T rs&+ d+ O< +q O eed
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+f n& |T& |& |T&
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u\T eksTT < n #
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|sT>TbsTT.
<+ +|\T O *|yk sTT.
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d+d\ MT< |ue+ |&TT+~.
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<+ es{ qT>\T X +
DdT+~. |*+> $j> dsT\
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n$ L& O Z+#&y, *|
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~ es{qT eT] <rdT+~. ~
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d+u+ e]dT+ ~, reeTeT+~. |T
&< eed d d< \D d+
31

ejT<] eed >TT $|q esY |T&

| T&<sT\ eT< H\=q b{ O MT< | u


e+ #|T+~. M{ n~>$T+#& y d+b
~+q u+ =+ keTTqT eTs |T &>
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Hq jT+\T =q& |T& yksT. BH
|T& +BsD n+{&T esY. n+<T |T&<
$<q+ n+ #TsTq ] eed> q&TT+~.

u\T.
+eTT+<T n<jT+ eTq+
#|H+` eTT&dsT\T, jT+\T
e+{ e XeT dJe XeT &e&+
e\H dsT \ O sT>TT+<, dJe
XeT dsT \ $\Te #L sTdT+ <, e
XeT nTe+{ X O+&<. n+
|&T |T&<sT\T e XeT MT<
n<q+> =+ |T& |{H n+
|~+\T u\T b>dTqf> sE
10sT O. dJe XeT sE
sT jsjT~ |&T |~ sT
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e# u+ qw+ y{*qf>. qc\T
= #Te&+ d+ |T&<sT&T
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q y{ |+#Te&+ dyT |
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|T&<sT\ eT< b{ res


eTsTT+~. j |T& d+d\ w
q&TdTq <X\ eT<q yTT<\sTTq
reyTq b{, ]+X\ |]$T+
<T, d {L <]rk+~.
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s+ ndeq bs{\ <s k~+
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d yH\T) \sj\ #dTHsT.
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m >&++~? re s<>+, bd+,
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y ] d + u + eT]+
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30\ H{ d + u # j T \T
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y{ O|j> |Tq< _qyTq
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L\<=j*. bs+ esY
s+q |T& ]\ #T 12345
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12345
jTT<+> O|j>|&TT+~. 12345
12345

u+>qT nds qT+& dTds q&|q |t |+e]{dT


(23e |J sTysTT)
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b jT++>+ +&+ |uT $<


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e+{$ `$T*q sc +f u+>H


deTse++> neT\T ]+~.
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RNI Reg. No. APTEL/2006/17554

Postal Regd. No H/SD/407/07-10-12

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_H\T \T #dH OHsTT. n+srjT nDT +<q d+d => edTq n<&T jTTj neTHqT sH
nDk_e~| y~\T deT]+# & y\ s+&T <X\T |<+ s+#jT, Os =]j sH nDT
+<q+ OqT nyT] CrjT u< d\V<sT yT CH |#s+ #sTT+#\ |jT+#jT $ y\&++~.
Bq+{{ #d jTT<\d+ & nyT] qT+& edTqT \TdT+~. < |<T\T yTT+ ||+#
XT _s+> #dTHsT. ||+# <X\{MT< >&#s+ #dTHsT. n<\T #TTHsT. <|& #dTHsT.
nyT] HjT XK jTT< HsdT\L, &|sL, eTqTwT\qT V+d\T |{ V\T #dy], ys+{
+& >&#s+ #dy] e_\T |&T+~. $ |\T #dq+<T >qT u& e+>|q $Tq
dT q&T|+~. $ n~H p*jTdt nk+CqT eTT||\T |{ eT&T#sTe\ sT k+~.
nyT] kdTq Te+{ |s, | jTT<\qT n&T y*. nyT] <~sT\ >&# s sb\qT
s~+#*. $ | y\&q n+X\| |P] ksTT <s| sb*.
(w+& wVH nyT] jTT< es+> bs&TTq X+ O<eT ss. yT esT&T s
jTT<+ eTsD+q|{ qT+& yT nyT] |uT jTT<\ es+> <s jTT<+ #k+~. n+<T nyTqT
nyT] n+<s X+ e n+{sT.)
Marxistu, monthly organ of Communist Party of India (Marxist) A.P . State Committee.
Printer & Publisher B.V. Raghavulu. RNI Reg.No. APTEL/2006/17554. Vol.5, No.10, February-2011

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