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Philosophy and Method The Art of Logic - an Instrument of Philosophy Logic (from the Greek logik)[1] is the formal

l systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. Logic examines general forms which arguments may take, which forms are valid, and which are fallacies. In philosophy, the study of logic figures in most major areas:epistemology, ethics, metaphysics. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language.[2] Logic is also studied inargumentation theory.[3] Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including the Indian subcontinent, [4] China[5] and Greece. Logic was established as a discipline byAristotle, who gave it a fundamental place in philosophy Logic is the art which directs the act of reason, by which art a man may procede in the act of reason in an orderly manner, with ease, and without error. Logic examines three acts of the reason: Simple Apprehension: the act by which the intellect knows an essence (what a thing is), and produces a concept; Judgment: the act by which the intellect affirms or denies the truth of something, putting together or dividing apart concepts; Reasoning: the act whereby the intellect compares two concepts with one third concept, and perceives whether the two concepts go together. Simple Apprehension is the grasp of a concept. A concept is also called an idea, a species, an intelligible form, and a mental word. A concept has an extension, which is the group of things included under the concept. A singular concept is the concept of one individual, for example, your concept of President Abraham Lincoln. A universal concept extends to a whole class of things. The more features (or notes) included in a universal concept, the narrower its extension. A transcendental concept is one that applies to anything that exists, for example being, thing, unit, distinct, good, true, and beautiful. A concept by itself is not true or false, just as a single word is not true or false. A concept is a sign of a thing, just as a spoken word is a sign of a concept, and through the concept the spoken word is a sign of the thing. A concept is not merely a sensation stored in the mind, but is an immaterial act of understanding. The theory of ideogenesis = Aristotle's answer to the origin of ideas, i.e. how ideas are formed in our mind. We do not have innate ideas. When we are born our minds are a blank table tabula rasa, and all our ideas must be acquired. The mind cannot form an idea, if there is nothing to think about. The steps to the theory of ideogenesis are: X, Sensible Qualities, External Qualities, Sense Impressions of X, Central Sense, Perception of X, Instinct or Sense Memory or Sense Imagination, Phantasm of X, Agent Intellect, Abstraction, Abstracted Essence of X, Passive Intellect, Forms the Idea of X. First you start with an object to be known, defined by X. Xs sensible qualities are taken in by our external senses. The sense impressions of X are analyzed by the Central Sense. The perception of X is a higher level knowledge, but only when X is present. The sense memory is the image to be retained in us. The phantasm of X is the memory of X when X is no longer present, which is also the highest level of knowledge the senses can provide. The agent intellect (the mind!) will then perform the act of abstraction. The act of abstraction is the act by which the mind separates one aspect of a thing from its other aspects. The abstracted essence of X refers to the general characteristics, i.e. most things of X will have these similar qualities. Passive intellect is the mind doing the activity of forming an idea. Based on this theory, Aristotles view is that 1) everything in the mind begins with the senses, and 2) knowledge begins in the senses and ends in the mind. The Importance of the Senses

Stuart Heller USING YOUR WHOLE MIND According to Carl Jung whose research was used to develop the Myers-Brigg typology instrument, our minds have four basic sub-systems or psychological organs, labeled: Thinking, Feeling, Intuiting, and Sensing. From this point of view, one of these four is your primary mode of processing. For example, someone who operates first with intuition and then with feeling (NF) responds very differently from someone who scores as a ST or sensate thinker. These are two very different ways to use your mind. From the accomplishment point of view expressed by Peter Drucker, a leader has to use all of him or herself, not just their favorite parts or ways of doing things. Excellent idea, but no one told us how to do this. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SENSES On a very practical level, you want your new skills to show up in the world and not remain as thoughts, feelings, or intuitions of possible new ways to be. You want them to become concrete and real. Leaving aside the issue of types, your mental function of sensation is the closest to the physical universe. You could say that sensation is to actuality as intuition is to possibility. It is in the world of actuality that your results are tested. Through this feedback you can refine and retool yourself as an instrument. When this objective feedback is brought to the rest of your mind, the whole process of accomplishment is strengthened. This is why we believe that working with the senses is a crucial component of transforming words into actualities. The senses allow you to use yourself as a laboratory for building and testing your ideas and desires. WHAT ARE OUR SENSES? Anatomy textbooks categorize the senses being either extereoceptive or intereoceptive. In relation to how they influence us, the external senses reach us more consciously and the internal senses reach us through our subconscious. Said in another way, the external senses are more direct, the internal senses more indirect. Of particular interest is the connection between the external sense of Touch and the internal sense of Proprioception. Their nerve fibers run together as they enter the spine. This may be the physical mechanism corresponding to what can be called the Minds Hand, the ability to influence states and conditions via awareness. This configuration of senses is more tangible and concrete than the Minds Eye. LEVERAGING THE INTERNAL SENSES (iSenses) Although not valued as an important component of our basic education, the internal senses are emphasized in many other disciplines, including sports. Can you imagine Tiger Woods not having highly developed internal senses? Of special importance to our approach are the contributions of two somatic pioneers, F.M. Alexander and Moshe Feldenkrais. Although they are not mainstream names, they have had a powerful influence in many fields. Some of the people they have influenced are: Aldous Huxley, George Bernard Shaw, John Dewey, YoYo Ma, and Margaret Mead. Think of internal senses as the mind function that asks, How do I do what I do? Extereoceptive Senses 1. Smell 2. Sight

3. Hearing 4. Taste 5. Touch & Pressure 6. Pain & Temperature Intereoceptive Senses 1. Proprioception a. Equilibrium b. Tendons c. Joints d. Muscles 2. Visceroception THE POWER OF BELOW THE NECK LEARNING Living above-the-neck as we normally do, we tend to identify, process and express our experiences and desires for change through the medium of words. To work effectively with the non-verbal we must add to our repertoire concepts and models from body-based, movement-oriented languages. This is not as strange as it sounds. When someone is depressed, they feel down. When someone is excited, they feel up. Someone who always says, yes to a request backs down under pressure. We say we are frustrated when we feel backed up. ACCORDING TO QUALITY 1. positive in form, positive in meaning 2. positive in form, negative in meaning 3. negative in form, negative in meaning 4. negative in form, positive in meaning ACCORDING TO OBJECT 1. real 2. logical 3. imaginary ACCORDING TO ORIGIN 1. immediate 2. mediate ACCORDING TO RELATION 1. compatible 2. incompatible 2.a. contradictory 2.b. contrary 3. privative 4. correlative ACCORDING TO MEANING According to Bachhuber in his book Introduction to Logic, the term can be classified as univocal, equivocal, and analogous by basing on the terms relation to more than one inferior. Univocal Terms When a term is being applied to their inferiors in the same exact essence, such term is univocal. For instance, a drum and a piano are both occurrences or inferiors of the term instrument, making it univocal or having only one meaning, which is an object that produces music. The term Filipino is univocal in relation to the Surigaonon, Kagay-anon, Manileo, Cebuano, Ilocano, and any other social division of people within the Philippines.

Boeing 777 and the stealth bomber B-2 Spirit are instances of the univocal plane, an enginedriven flying vehicle. Equivocal Terms When instances are under the same term but of entirely different meaning, the term is equivocal. The term is referred by instances of different meanings. For example, the term rat applies not only to a long-tailed rodent that is larger than a mouse but also to a person who is deceitful and betrays confidences. A faggot becomes equivocal when applied to the bundle of sticks for firewood and the slang for a gay man. Similarly, the term gay has over the years evolved to adapt a new meaning, that of being homosexual, entirely different from gay as in being merry. Equivocally, a fan can signify the tool for moving air and an enthusiastic admirer of a celebrity or public performer. Analogous Terms Terms become analogous when their inferiors are partly the same but also partly different in their use or essence. The emphasis on the analogy of inferiors, in this case called analogues, depends on the degree of their relation with each other and to the general term. Magic is analogous to the sleight of hand or conjuring tricks and illusion and to the fictional magic such as a fireball invoked by a wizard and the dead raised by necromancers. While both are in a way fantasized and admired, the former is done with dexterity and speed to trick the minds of the audience and the latter is supernatural and impossible to perform. The term Filipino can become analogous if it is not just applied to the races but also to the countrys language (Tagalog, Bisaya, etc), and culture (food delicacies, dances, lifestyle, etc). These inferiors in themselves are distinct but all point to identity of the Philippines. The head as in the chief executive officer and the head in a person are both the topmost part of a company and the human body, respectively. They are in some way similar and vital but have no direct resemblance to each other. Logical Properties of Terms As employed or found in the sentence, terms have the following functions or roles; supposition and appellation. Supposition and appellation in modern terminology is called as logical or philosophical semantics. Semantics is the science of the meanings of words, as distinguished from phonetics which is the science of the sounds of words. SUPPOSITION Supposition may be taken either as the function whereby a term stands for a meaning in the proposition, or it may be taken for the meaning itself for which the term stands (for from the Latin supponere, to substitute). It is this meaning with which we are now concerned. For, whereas a term may have several different meaning in the dictionary, when employed in a sentence it is used to bear one meaning only. Supposition may be classified: I. ACCORDING TO THE OBJECT The supposition is: Real - when the term designates something found in the external world; E.g. the Republic of the Philippines. Logical or Conceptual when the term designates some product of the mind; E.g. . Under this conceptual category, the supposition may also be ideological, mathematical, superstitious, hypothetical, fictitious, etc. as the designated conceptual object may be.

Metaphorical when the term designates another thing aside from its literal meaning, from the formal resemblance of the former to the latter; E.g. the Stars and Stripes, namely, the American Nation; Mr. Juan de la Cruz, namely, the common Filipino. II. ACCORDING TO EXTENSION The supposition is: Individual when the term denotes a definite individual; E.g. the President of the First Philippine Republic; Universal when the term denotes distributively all the individuals of the expressed nature or category, or when the term designates a universal formal reason or a universal individual; E.g. men are progressive beings; drunkenness is not a virtue, whereas temperance is; man is mortal. observe that a grammatically singular term may have a universal supposition. Particular when the term denotes only a part of the extension of the universal; E.g. some students are lazy; men (not all but most) are stronger than women (not all but most); men are less emotional than women. observe that a grammatically plural term may have a particular supposition. Collection when the term designates a group, or individuals as constituting a group; E.g. the TTMIST computer hackers team; the SCUAA team. III. ACCORDING TO COMPREHENSION The supposition is: Material when the term denotes the subject expressed, merely as identified by the quality, form or nature expressed, but not as qualified by it; e.g. the physician sing, or killed a man. He does so not is his capacity as physician but as a human being. Formal inasmuch as the term stands for a subject as identified and qualified by the nature or qualification expressed. E.g. this physician has healed many patients.He did so in his capacity as physician. IV. ACCORDING TO THE MEANING The supposition is: Precise when the term bears only one meaning in the proposition. E.g. I am a Filipino citizen. Ambiguous when the term beards several possible meanings in the sentence. E.g. the UST Medical team has arrived. It may mean the playing team, or the professional team. Although the speaker may have definite meaning in his mind yet the listeners is not sure of it. Proper when the term stands for its proper object. E.g. Calbayog is the only city in Western Samar. Figurative when the term stands for another thing that it suggest. E.g. the Vatican has banned the use of the Contraceptive Pill. CMIT did a gift giving activity.

V. RULES ON SUPPOSITION OF TERMS Sometimes the extent of the supposition of a term does not appear at first glance as we have seen in the examples given. In order to determine the supposition of such term, the following are some general rules obtained from the analysis of the given examples: 1. The extension of the supposition of the subject must be determined from the precise meaning it has in the sentence. E.g., Man is a corruptible being, mean all men distributively. 2. The predicate in an affirmative proposition, whether the proposition is universal or particular, hasparticular supposition. E.g., mean are mortal (there are other mortal beings aside from men); women are very talkative (there are also men who are talkative than that of women). Exceptions to this rule are instances in which the predicate is the definition of a universal subject, or the specific part of its definition, or a property of the universal nature of the subject; e.g. man is a rational being. Take note that only man is a rational being. 3. The predicate in a negative proposition, whether the proposition is universal or particular, has universal supposition; e.g. men are not angels; some students are not intelligent. 4. A change or shift in the supposition of an apparently identical term introduces surreptitiously four conceptual terms in a syllogism, which apparently employs only three terms. The syllogism becomes fallacious. Example: All plants grow. Atqui, ice plant is a plant. Ergo, ice plant grows. APPELLATION Appellation literally means the calling of an object. In logic it means the function of a term denominating another term; or conversely, the denomination of a term by another. The denominating term is called the appellant; the denominated term is called the appellate. E.g. A wise (appellant) philosopher (appellate). When an appellating term is applied to a concrete term, it may affect: a) the subject only as identified by the feature or nature expressed, although not as qualified by it; e.g. a good carpenter, i.e., a good man, although he may not be excellent in carpentry: or b) the subject as identified and qualified by the feature or nature expressed: e.g., a good carpenter, i.e., one who is expert in carpentry. KINDS OF APPELLATION Material when the appellant is applied to the subject only as identified by the feature or nature expressed, but not classified by it. E.g. a poor philosopher, that is, a financially hard up man who is a philosopher. Formal when the appellant is applied to the subject as identified and qualified by the feature or nature expressed. E.g. a poor philosopher, that is, one who is not adept in philosophy. Precise when the sense of the appellation is definite and clear. E.g. excellent students are assets to the school. Imprecise when the sense of the appellation is not definite and clear. E.g. poor students are burden to the school. It may mean financially poor, or academically poor students. Remarks a shift or change in appellation changes also makes four terms in a syllogism which apparently emplies only three terms. Example: a good artist is an expert performer. But, Pedro is a good artist (a good man) Therefore, Pedro is a an expert performer. (it does not follow)