Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

e] dT

>dT
2011

64
d+|{ : 6 d+ : 4

y\ sT. 5 /-

d+........
y{#d d\T MsHsTq y
yeT| esZ |ejT+ <T
| | + # | \ w+ | TTq nyT]
$Xeqe eT+ seTw |se TV+d n_eT+
20 @ d+dsD\T: X e TX es{ esT\T
#] ` Xdj
T <<+
| T&< eed u><T ds ...eT] eTq+ y*?
]q >eT+ Cqy] >&+ ke, ] d>T\T
| C d++<\ |{w H&T b | < q se +
1

e] dT

d]

y{ #d d\T MsHsTq y
X |#\|* dT+<sjT

C+ s+X b\q es+>,


u $T d+, uT d+, y{ qT+& $eTT
d+ kq Ms \+>D kjTT<
bs+ d\ T # |eTTKb eV+
#sT. u$Td+, n~ yH\ d+,
u keTT\ <H - |X e\qT |+|D
#dTe+ yTT<q y{d+ ]q
bs{ ys |sTwT\ rdb<T.
n&e\ qT+&, q q >&\ qT+&
jT, #+#T yTT<q ys+<] ]$Tyd
_> |< |sTwT\ deq+>
d\ m~]+#sT.
HC+ - sCsY es bs+
q, s HVA dH\, +>dt
sCs es+> bs&+q,
eT nq <eTT\T, us\bT d\
bZHsT. ys <\ #ssT. $T>
n <\ bf, NeT\T <s &e
\, <s qTqT|> e+& =+&,
>T, m+& m+&T, yq &d
wdTU\T |+#THsT. d\T L&
=]jTsY\T>q, sjT +<q
sT\T>q u<\T d]+#sT.
O<eT+ => $d]dTq b+\
|C O<e\q, |Cd+| \q
|eTTK b sV+#sT. sCsY HC + bdT\T, s HVA dH \T
]|q neqTw V +d\ me>
>Ts+B, +B d ! d\H $#D
+& # eT+~ XTe\T +
]\ e {b jTT u<sT. y]
nee+#sT. e] |X + d\
o\+H #s&sT. eT eTT+<
eT bD bD+ nsTTq q_&\ qT
V+ddT + f, nq<eTT\qT, us \ qT nsdT
#d * #+|T+f u] +#e\d e+~.
XTe <Tss+Z qT+& | +#TH+<T,
> ] <\ #]q+<T, sV dJ$+
>&|+<TH eT qT e<* eT>ysT
y[b bdT \{\ s $T*eq
=+b>&T b&Te\dq u< d\ |H
&+~.
eT >se+ b&T=H+<TL,

#* nsTT\eT
eTV kjTT< <+

s d\ <sH eT <q
eqbD\T *>+& s+#TH+
<TL d\ T #|q B, ||T q, bs
|{eT eTq\qT O|sTksTT. H&T
y] *q $q #q+, H,
k+d Jeq+ d\ *q d]=
esT - e \#T+f ]+>,
ke+> nD>]q eTq d C
m+{ $|eB, X $T& eHjq
X s q+<\T \ T> T sTT. y]
k+|<j\ d+ qT+& $&|+,
<DyTq X s>T +<T =+#+
XeT rdTy >, m+{ Xe +yT q
sT>TuTHH rdTs>\+ !
u $T \T|e+ d\ b
$dTqsT <XeTTU <TseTD
>T]+& q u $T \uT H+<T
+<eTVdu - eTdT b\ dV
s+ yTTyTT< re+> bs&+~
- q>eT \ b\] >e
#+~q #* nsTT\eT. q =&T\q,
LTq L& b n+&> m
cH ds \&eT bV++
<yT. n+<e TVdu, eTdTb s
b\L, u keT es bs{
\L eP y] +<+. n~ yT
ks+ d+ ]|q bs+ <T.
\+>+D sT >& d+ ]q bs
| =*<X yT V+.
$Ts\>&+ \ eTT+<
|s+ c|sT eT] eTjTqT

u $T kBq+ #jT eT \e+|{&T .


eTjT n+^]+#b e+, HVA
dH\ dVs+ eTjTqT V+
d\T |{ e] #+|sTT+#&T.
eTjT us s+>+ <+~. u $T
dd$Ts e~~ <+ ~. yTqT b
dT\T |X+ #]#sT. nsTTH yT
~>C]b<T . >eT |\+<] eT
u $T d+ ]> bs+ dV ]+#
\ ]+~. y] ~*+ eT u $T
\T|++~... neqT! u $T H~!!!
< yT e.
y&|* \+u& sT u$T
q n|+#q+<T uk$T V
#sTT+#&T. n usL& bs+
~, +>dt bdt ;u m~]+
u$T \T|+~.
=+&b\Tq n+. 2 ms\
e>D u$Tk>TCdT+Tq \+u&
s T qT u $T ] q <\ <T & T
nH uk$T #+|sTT+#&T. sT
us eTT+<T e u $T H \T|
+~. dsT$Tj >&+ u$T
uk$T kBq+ #jTq+<T >=\
eTTjTqT #+|XsT. jTq us
e+, u$T ] ukeTT\
eX+ +& bs& k~++~.
yTT<T\+ \+u& sT,
seTweT nH uk$T #+~q
u $T =~> $T+#TH&T. H2VA
($T> 33e | J)

e] d
T d+...
1. y{#d d\T MsHsTq y
` X |#\|* dT+<sjT 2

2. yeT| esZ |ejT+ <T


` |u Y |{jT 4
3. ||+# |\ w+| TTq
nyT]
` _.$. s|T e\T 8

4. $Xeqe eT+ seTw


|se TV+d n_eT+
` m+.$.mdt. Xs
12
5. 20 @ d+dsD\T: XeTX es{

esT\T
` =+&] MsjT 15
T <<+
6. #] ` Xdj
` $TH Msu<+ 18
7. |T&< eed u><T ds...

eT] eTq+ y*?


` b d{ 21

8. ]q >eT+ Cqy] >&+


ke, ] d>T\T
` d.k+_s&, .CjT,
mH.yDT>b\se 27
.9. | C d++<\ |{w H&T b

| < q se +
` _.$. s|T e\T
m&sY:

31

mdt. y+{ e
m&{]jT usT:

bsT seTjT
_.$. s|T e\T
&. y. s<weT]
\|* s$
us eTdT b (e]dT)
+<|<X sh $T{ sT|q
|#T sD s, eTT<| &T: _.$.s|T e\T
d+b<&T : mdt. y+{e
eTT<D : |CX & |+{+> |dt,
b{ H+ 21/1, nCeu<, V <su<`20
bH: m&{]jT 0866`2573822
yTHsY: 040`27673787
EMail: svenkatarao_1958@yahoo.com

Visit cpi(m) site at : cpim.org

2 <Xu\ d+dsD\T
eTq <X+ qj`O<sy< ] d+dsD\T |yX |{ s +&T <Xu
\e+~. s=H >H, essZ { <#sY Vj+ nyT], _H\ bs+uy T ,
nyT] |s{<=&> u$+#&TTq {H nyT] K+&+ eTqH <X+
yT |j+#&q d+dsD\T eTq <X+ 1991 qq ] $<H\
|sT |y+#sTT. d+dsD\ |sT > sy@> <X+ neTq ||+N
sD , |sTTy{ s D , ds sD $<H\T ] eed reyTq esT\T #sTT.
<+uf <X ke, k+d Jeq+q, |\ #H $<q+q
|qTesT\T d+u$+#sTT. esT ]+~ eT+yb, #&Tyb n+f s+&T
s\ n_bj\T eeTeTHsTT. d+dsD\ e\ us ] eed V+<
n_e~ sTqT n~>$T+ &| Xsy>+> e~ #+~+~ qT ] d+dsD\T
us <X eT+ #XjTq~ y<q. eekjT d+u+ , < e\
d+u$dTq s+> V\, ZbTq Ob~ neX\, $ksyTq |
~>C]bTq Jeq u <. ..Mq d+dsD\ jTT eTs sb eTq #|dT
HsTT. s #d ] d+dsD\qT V]+#y] y<q L& + |dT + ~.
d+dsD\e\ d+|< |]+~. >eT|+# d+|< b>sTT+~. bsY
| |{+# usrjT X{XsT\ d+K @f{ Xsy>+> |sT>T+~.
|uT +{\T, |sTTyT bC\T <+#Tq ysT, eqsT\| ~|+
d+b~+q ysT s s usT\eTHsT. ||+NsD, |sTTy{sD
$<H\ |Dq, >eTdeTq = < esZ+ +~. M] d]=
Jeq$<+ = $eTjT< ||+ #, = #H<sDT\q dwk +~.
Te+{ ys+<] d+dsD\T eT+y. eTsy| d+|<q +{ dwd T q
X$T |\ Jeq |eD\T m&yd q >=+>[ n& nqTq~. |uT \
|syT q{ 80 X+ |\T sE 20 sbjT\H e yq+
T&T dTH sT. eTqsw+ >MTD b+ {e\ dT+<sj
T $Cq +<+
sV+q ds L& < $wj \T|+~. d+dsD\T ]\ O<>
u< +& #XsTT. XX O<>\T ZbjsTT. Ob~ EeCwH,
+{sTTCwH |]+~. Vs+uT, $<, y<+ |\ Jeq deTd
|< deTd\T> e]bjsTT. yTT+MT< #d sejT ] d+dsD\T
<X \TeH NsTT. + e #b\+f s +&T us <X\qT
dw+#sTT. { y*bTq us <X+ (w+> +&j), s+&~ y\
b\eTq us <X+ (d|] +> +&j ). >+ H Oq n+s\qT d+dsD\T
eT]+ |+#sTT. <+uf <Xy|+> ke O~\ |]>sTT.
d+dsD\ eT+ #&\ qT >T]+ e{&y sT @ us <X+ >T]+ e{&T THs
\TdT+f ysT @ esZ+y| OHs nseTeT+~. eqMjT eTTK+ ]
d+dsD\T n #|ysT L& e] nTy| #]bTHsT. ] d+dsD\T
eT mq yT\T #dTHsTT >qTH b\ esZ\, y] MT&j M{
b>T&TTHsTT. d+dsD\T $TqV eTs es+Z < |\qT q$T+# pdTH sTT.
|#s+ m+&> & + , |ejT $<H\qT |\eTT+<T+#&+
H&T yeT|, |C+ X\ eTT+<Tq |<q se+.
#+< $es\T
$&| : sT.5
d+es #+< : sT.60
bdT <s < @C+T <s | +#Te#T.
< MT k b s\jT+ d+|~+#+&.
|CX TV dt n u+N\q \_ksTT.

sTHe
m&sY,
e]dT
(d<+ ed|)
|CX |dt,
>essY|,
$jTy&`2

e] dT

ed+ eTTU+X+

yeT| esZ
|ejT+ <T
` |u Y |{jT
s+<\q, <&T\q T + <Xu\ s & k+q bs{\, nXw
>\<s ]+#Tq $|e s X \ q, q |H~ esZ\q \uTe&eT,
\|sT #Te&eT, q |Ck$T $|y eTT+<T =be&eT H&T yeT| \
eTT+<Tq VY se +. se k<q yeT| \T $|\ eTsTT |H~esZ\T
ss \ O>y< d<+\ >* =T bsT. +{ O>y< <sDT\T (ey
sTT+ yTT<\T= k$T key< es O>y<+ es ) nqeds V+dL ,
| sjT s#sD >\ neX\qT ~yTd+<TL <]rksTT.

C> ]q m\ yeT|
\ *q m<TsT< <XeT+{
|< qyTq n+X+> e]+~. _C| m<T
ssTTq X+>u+>+ n+<s }V++<.
k] yeT| \T L& <+{jT
m\ $Xw\T eTT+< #bsT. nsTT
u+> + u |sj\T m<Tse
jT y L& n+<s }V+#
<T. ydy n+<s $d]
dTHsT. yeT|\ z{+> X+ Z+~
d\ eyT. \yTq |H~ >\
u+> eT&e+T nd+; kH\
|]$T+ e&+, s n~s+ #C]
be&+ reyTq qc. yeT| b\T
s b eb +<+ n~s+ n+<T
ujT b\T <T. nsTTH <X
<T, |Ck$T, d\sY de+
~X> q&|+#>\ Xe+yTq b
e]dTb, ~s yeT|b\T.

n+<T yeT|\ y{*q qw+


de >eTq+MT< reyTq |ue+
#|dT+~. <X+ ss nuT<jT
ke, sjT X\T L& +{
b bwdTHsTT. M{ e]dT
b, s yeT| b\ OqT
z{+>T \+ <T . \+ nH d+<s
\ sj |ue+ #|dT+~.
{ yeT| \ n+{ \+ qZ +
<Tq <X |C+ $|e |s>eTH
+\T @s&sTT.
yeT| \T m <q+<Tq
H&T MT&j b bs\T #|+<T
|jT k+~. $Xw \T nT|, T|
e] key< es |]
nyT]qT <s+> O+#\ rdTq

yK] d|m+ |{H e<T\Te&+


eT+~ nH drsD rdTedTHsT.
sY yT|TH< <XjYT e+{ ]y\T
V+< ~q| HqT&T +&,
d{> < d\V #sT. $T*q
y nH|<X+> < #|=dTHsT.
+=+eT+~ us<X+ nyT]
ePV u>keT+ y| yTT>TZTq
sD+ jTT.|.m`1 |uT yeT
| \T eT< T O|d+ V]+#&+ ds q yK ]
<T nH y<q eTT+<T dT H sT. n+f
M] <w L& e]dTb ke
y< |e< n> n+#H ydT q <H
#q Oqf. eT]=+eT+~ nsTT
|\T n_e~ zfXsT. u+> n_e~
d+ b d]> w #jT<T f

s#sTT yeT| yT<$, |eTTK ] y. ] s+>+| nH


>+<\T, yk\T sXsT.
4

e] dT
e~]> <q~ nH y<q |&TT
HsT. y<q L& e] mT
rdTyT+~. qj`O<sy< $<
H\T key< |j H\T &s &
=> s+>+MT< eqy. n_e~
k~+#& HsT> qj`O<sy<
$< H\ , | s + > key<
| j H\ e]d T b =eTT
jTf< T nH< M] O<X + . n+<T z$T
b\js. eTs y<q @++f`k]
|\T dTds y T q d\sY |uT zT
yj\ ssTT+#T= }|ks,
n+<Tq k] yeT|\T rjT
|+ { |] n+ eTT+<T es _C|
*d |#dq b\ #T \T *|q+<T
e\ <HjT. n+f & $eTs\
O<X+ @$T{? d\sY uy\T Oq
sTy b\qT L&, nT +>dt
H+ L$T, +f T
_C| H+ L$T |+|d
yeT|\T +{jT X+]=eTT
+]> b{ #j\qe. eTq
m e#$ df <! s b\T
yeT| \ , |\T&, sD
O|j >|T= n<q+> dT k~+#T
+{sTT > eTq ]|&<eTT+~
Xe, jd+ | n+ yeT| \
eT+ sTTqf #bsT . nsTT y]&
$wjT+ $d]dTHsT. k+
q+s+ <X+ eTT| @ |>
+>dtb >T~| b\q =qk+~.
|P& X\T, sTy\ =eTTd
|C+ $|y ++> e]+~.
n+<T e]dTb +>dt >T~|
<\T =&+ \+> mT>&\T yd+~.
m\ +>dt >T~|+ <\sTT
<X+ d+s sj\y| eT[+~.
+>dt bMT< es $s$ +q
b+rjT b\T due sTy
b nsTTH < X + | C k$T
$|y |]|P] #d< ++>
Oq +>dt b \Vq|s# &
+>ds b+rjT b\T neds+
O+T+~. <= sjT yde +. _C|
L& s+>+MT< e# +>dt es
sTy b+rjT b\T < yqT #]
<X + qw+ . n+<T rjT |
ejT+ neds+ . rjT |ej
e]dTb @ neds\d+ eTT+<T
5

yeT| esZ | ejT+ <T


rjT |ej e]dTb @ ned
s\d+ eTT+<T dT + < (q | C + $|e
e eTT+<T =be&+) b |~qT MT&j
#&<T . n+<T y{ MT< neXy< bT\ T n
eTT<y d T + ~. yeT| \MT< Ts< * ke
y< es, <X+ & sTy es | + {qT
\Vq|s#
\H~ b\ X \ \ +. MT&j L&
esZ | j
H\T b&+<T | #dT + ~.

>dt >T~| <rdq yeT| \ #=se: 1984 q& ]q ||


deyX+ VQ>TD, msese, #sD Y d+>, |s nT, C udT, yC|sTT.

dT + < (q |C+ $|e e


eTT+<T =be&+) b|~qT
MT&j #&<T. n+<T y{ MT<
neXy< bT\T n eTT<ydT+~.
yeT| \MT< Ts < *
key< es, <X+ &
sTy es |+ {qT \Vq|s#
\H~ b\ X\ \+. MT&j L&
esZ |j H\T b& < |
#dT + ~.
@ y d|m + key< e
s yK] y=<T\Ty\H~ y] O<X+.
+{ d \ V \T $H* se& +
Xs+<T. ||+#y|+>H nH
<X |D eT< s> esZ+ +
||+NsD |L\ |*\qT #$
#&< T . $<sT\ , jTTe, #<T e
qy] kVJe\ O+&*q
dV key< es y
n&T>TeT{ #]+~. n+<T |P &
s] |]b\q\qT, eT #+<dy<
|uT\qT, bddT eT |uT\qT
<T <T de+ ~> <X
q&|+#& ||+# key<

X \ T> Oq nyT], _H, bH, s


b\ esZ \ $TK T ne&
d+<V+#+& d<|&TTHsT. |D
eT<s> yT<e\T, kV Je\T
yeT| ueC y|#d |<q
yV\T> O+{sT. ||+NsD $<
H\ |L\ |* \qT u] dTq ]\T,
s+>+ ueC <s+ #dT=
deTso\yTq bs{\ d<| & T THsT.
ke+> #d s +&T s> T \
eT< bT <s&+ <T. |D eT<
s> Hu L& ||+NsD |L\
|*\ us >TssTT s+>+`]
esZ+ *d OeT& |jH\d+
+<q\ d<| & q # e+ yeT|
O<eT+ }|+<T+T+~. sy T q
ke bT <s& Oq |<q
++ @$T+f` |D eT<s>
Hu ||+NsD $<H\qT+& @<
y T s \_ b +~q+< T q ys T
$<H\qT s+ > es+#\H <d
O+&sT . y = = n+X\ess TTH
key< @< yTs es+
#\H ssTT+#TH n+{ bs

e] dT

yeT| esZ | ejT+ <T


yeT| \T >q eT |H~esZ.... n+f
]\T, sT\T, q O<sT\T, >MTD
| <\T, eekjT ] d \+ |+E=
O+f |D eT< s> | C + m&+> ]
q+<Tq y{ qw+ =+ =+ |P&T H~.
n s> < T .

Hj T +
yeT| s T \
# T b +~. b yeT| \T
|H~esZ\MT< (]\T`s+>+)
< s | & | | + N s D $< H\qT
es+#& ss TT+#T +f, n+{
d+<s |D eT< s>, $<],
jTTe qT+& ysT|&*q |]d
H&TTHsTT. (Be\ ]> qc
|P&Ty\+f s+> |H~ eT]+
$d+ #dTy*+<)
{H nyT] <X C nqTu
y\qT |]o*+#+&. {H nyT]
K+&+ @ <X+ m\T ]H
yeT | |uT , yeT| ueC\+
|#d |uT n~s+ edT
HsTT. <Xu\T> key< <|&
>TssTTq {H nyT] <X $<
sT\T, jTTes+, yT<e\T yeT|
u eC\+q, ny< (s& )
uy\qT O+b+~ esT
u>keTT\jsT #yTs.
n< MTsT eT< dj<Xq,
sHq >eT+#+&. |D jTTes+
|{ ||+NsD <Tw*\ u]q
|&q+<Tq key<+ y] +
]k+~. s+C, T*|t, y{ $|
y\ |] <T |C+ s+d+

key< ||+NsD $<H\qT


d + V +# + < T m eeT+~
d<| & T THsT. eTq <X e#d]
key< X\ |jH\d+
neT\eTq qj`O<sy< ]$ <
H\e\ ]\T, sT\T, eekjT
]\T, q O<sT\T, #e
<sT\T reyTq +<T\T m<Ts=+T+
& > `| | + N s D $< H\e\
k<eTsTTq ] e~sT |]q
<j\T, neX\T |D eT< s>
Hu \_ #LssTT. n+<T
s> Hu, yT<e\, e |DT\,
MT&j #+~qyS key<
$<H\ nqTL\+> OHsT.
eT< ]q esTd m\
yeT|\ qc\T y{\& >\
sD\qT eTq+ n+X+ <>sZ +>
|]o*+#*. <X+ Oq eT<s>
Hu ||+ NsD <Tw* \qT T>
#$#&q+<Tq s> Hu |{
key<+ | kqTuq,
X\q OHsT. yeT| \T s>
Hu key< es $<H\
y| w #dH n$ y] |<>
~*+#bjsTT. +<T n<q+>
eTs s +&T sD\T L& &&TTHsTT.

e]dT |
MT n_bj\T \|+&!
e]dT d<+ ed||H, | ]w yk\|H MT
n_bj\q, d#q\q VdTH +. j yk\| MTsT #]+#*q
n+X\TH, n<q| de#seTTH |+> sd |+|+&
MT K\T n+<*q sTHe!
m&sY,
e]dT d<+ ed|
|CX |dt, >essT|, $jTy&-2

{` nyT] = n< &> msTTq


us ueqT key< Oq
eqMjT D+> #eT+~ u$dT
HsT. s +&e~`nyT]H key<
\+> ||T{dTq k$T O<e\
| us<X+ eT<s> Je\
n+ |]#jTeT <T, |e <T.
u s < X + yeT| \T, e]d T
d<+, |H~esZ |jH\
s+ > T& Oq+\+ eT< s>
|C+ Oq key< nqTL\
n_yX+e\ ysT yeT|\ |&>
eTd neX+ O+~. |dT + Oq d+w
=qkq+\+ yeT| \T +
~ dVJeq+ =qk+# |<T.
key< es sD\ jTT|m
`1 yeT|\T >+|\T #dTq+
<Tq |D eT<s> zsT +>dt
*deq zT u+> essT. n+<T
yeT|\T 2009 ]q ks
m\ =+yT s qwb y*e+~
(s $wj e#d] n& eT]=
k d e Td \T L & & j sTT.
yeT|\ |&| b eT< Oq
d++<\qT d\sY zs u>+
V]+# bsTT+~. \yH dT
yeT| \ yK ] L& =+ >+<s>
<]rd+~)
yeT|\T >q eT |H~esZ
.... n+f ]\T, sT\T, q
O<sT\T, >MTD |<\T, eekjT
] d \+ |+E= O+f |D
eT< s> |C+ m&+> ]q+<Tq
y{ qw+ =+ =+ |P&TH~.
n s><T. u+> |uT+
L& sc_e~ qj`O<sy<
$<H\ #+ |]$TT | #j *
se&+e\ ~eT |T& d+#jT+
(b>T|&&+) ]> eT+ nys+>
|H~esZ\ |jH\T @< yTs
<HsTT. d+>sY, q+~>yT O<+\
e\ s +>+ =+ eT< T b>=T H
sc_e~, Ob~ \qL |t|+{
CsTTr #dq |jT\qT |D
eT< s> es+Z V]dT + <, =+yT s
eT<T L&>Te#H n+#H OH
sTT. n+#H | +~. |D eT< s>
es+Z yeT| \T nqTd]dTq key<
esqT Js+ #dT <s+> ]+
6

e] dT
~, key< es T s +
> q \uTH+<T d]|&
bsTT+~.
yeT| \T key< esq T
=qkdH qj`O<sy< $<H\
de+s+ > |ejT n_e~ qeT
HqT eTT+<T rdTsy*. |
ejT |+< q |H~ esZ\ |j
H\qT s+#~>, q |Ck$T
$|e e eTT+<T rdTbjT~>
O+&*. |H~ esZ |\ ] d >T \qT
yTsT>T|]#~> O+&*. esZ |+
b+~+#+<T &&*. n_e~ n+f
|&T eH q&TdTq T d\ Cr
j X\T |s>&y, edT $eT
jT+, yyV+ |s>& y , u bC \
sDy, @~ #dH u> #j \H<
<T. |ejT n_e~ |+<
esZ<w, esZ b|~, esZ |jH\T
+<+ > O+&*.
n+ | yeT|\T HH b
+jT |#&+{ key<
es yK ] |T y&s+{, <
y=<T\T+& n #| d\V\ wH
+ $\Te eL&<T. key<
es yK] d&*+#Te&+ H
V d<X+ eTs={ O+&<T.
| #d yeT|\T L& sTy
~ | eed L s T bsTTqf .
sTy ~| H =qk>d
de+ s> q |T&< <X
n&T&TT+~ <, n|&T |T&<
eed Dbd<+ { +
=+<s> L*bT+~> nH y<q
eBdyS n&& OHsT. sT
y\T #dB d]>Z +{ y<H nqqT>
< B k+>+ me e+
#| >\qT. |T&< n_e~ eT+
]\T, sT\T, q O<sT\T
reyTq $dsD qesT > ~
*yT . k] |T&< $<q+
}|+<T+<+f eT+> n+ dsT+
T+~. n_e~ M] u>+ < T+~
n sTy ] d<+s\T y~dT+
{sT. (<Ts< w+ @++f, neTs dHe+{
nk<sD yT<$ L& \+&H, e+#ds Y
\ C[ $T\T\ yTT<\T|{ u
b]X$Ty&\T> |]> eT+ n&
s+>+ L& u$T sTT+~.
7

yeT| esZ | ejT+ <T


eTq<X+ |T&< $<q+ n_e~ njT
e T+ | \T HH{ _sT\eTHs>, X $T
es+Z > es &+ <T . { sTy ] d<+s \ T
#d y<q\qT yeT|b \T |{+ #T qeds+ <T .
| T&< $<q+ n_e~ ++ +& eeV
]d X $T es+Z VQeTTK+> |T= esY #| qT
y |T&< eed > fksT n u$d
n+H X< bsuT +={ O+&<T .

qw+ qT+& eT+> sT+~ <


n #dq y<q L& e edT+ ~)
~ | &T y<q. eTq+{ <X+
|T&< $<q+ n_e~ njTeT+
@ |T&< |Ps |T&<jTs
eed\ T < +deTej y{MT< <s
|& J$+# Hu n+{ eTT&TH
X eTq ] eed <T. eTq+ nqT
d]dTq f\J>, k~dTq e~sT
> |T&< n_e~ eT+e\
<s+ sTTq Hu n+<] Ob~
*+#+<T @e+ d]be. \+&H,
e+#dsY O<VsD\T & m+<T
bd>e +f H{ \ |]d T , |T&
< eed +<+> Oq +>+& qT+&
y\ \\eT+~ +>+& e\d\T>
Oq <X\ e\d\TbsTT Ob~ d+b
~+#THsT. y H& |]dT\T,
n+{ e\d <X\ e. { #]
|qse+ njT neX+ <T . n+<TH
<X \eq |]dT\ ]w+>
bd>~ <T.
eTq<X+ |T&< $<q+
n_e~ njT eT+ |{< eTq
Oq nqTue + @++f |\T HH{
_sT\eTHs>, X$Tes+Z > es
&+ <T . { sTy ] d<+s \ T
#d y<q\qT yeT|b\T |{+#T
qeds+ <T. |T&< $<H\
n_e~ ++ +& eeV]d
X$Tes+Z VQeTTK+> |T= esY
#| qT y |T&< eed >
fksT n u$d n+H X<
bsuT +={ O+&<T. $|e k<q
nH~, > #d dT |j D+ +{~
<T. eTT+<T |T&< eedq T yS qT
=<+ K] |&< <+ n eTq eTq+
dV #] eT\qT >T]+ }V+#T

e<T. |T&< eed n_e~ njT


eT+H < $|e k<q dsq |T&
jT> y&TL&<H jTeT+ @B <T.
yeT| \T eT key< es
q T e<T\Ty\ H&T ss \ e\ T,
X\T dTq d\V\ #$ Z n$
eT |H~ esZ\ sTT.
$|es ||THX sTT.
s+<\T, <&T\qT+& T+ <X
u\ s & k+q bs{\, nXw
>\<s ]+# T q $| e s
X\qT, q |H~ esZ\qT \uTe
&eT, \|sT #Te&eT, q |C
k$T $|y eTT+<T =be&eT
yeT|\ eTT+<Tq VY se+.
se k<q yeT|\T $|\eTsTT
|H~esZ\T ss\ O>y< d<+
\ >* |& =T bsT. +{
O>y< <sDT\T (eysTT+ yTT<\T=
k+ key< es O>y<+
es ) nqeds V+dL , | sjT
s#sD >\ neX\qT ~yTd+
<TL <]rksTT. <|& sV deT
de+ e nT+#+& nH eT< +s
\\qT k~+#& L& ++>
essTT. |]d s+& #&*q
u< yeT|\| O+~.
key< es nH~ yeT
|\ TsqT+& |{+~ <T. |\T
nqTu$dTq yd$ |]dT\ qT+&
OqeTsTT+~. yeT| \T esZ
$&|& nqesZ X\T kH
$TksTT. |\qT X\ <j
<D\ e~*yjT&e, |\
$|e k<q es<Z s \T> O+&&e nq
|X O<sTTd dV+>H yeT|\T
s+&esZ m+#T+{sTT. n< dsq
12345
|+<. (nqTy<+ : ds+H)12345
12345
12345
12345

e] dT

|sq

||+# |\ w+| TTq nyT]


||+ #+ @ <X q+ n| nyT] +~. B r] nyT]
] eed L*bT+~. rsb &\sY $\Te |&b T+~. H|< +
n|\ u<q T T nyT] $$< s+> <>T\qT =\dTH sT.
>+<\j\qT eTddTH sT. =\dTq y] me> bdT\T, d
{#s T Hs *d+~. $<, y< s+> KsTqT +Z #+<T |jT dTH sT.

|+#+ s <X\ |\T


w|& |#d #dT+f, nyT]
y{ ~>TeT #dT nqTu$k+~.
n~ q <X eqsT\qT b&T+{+~,
s <X\ eqsT\T =\>=&T+~. q
|sesD |]s+#T+{+~, s
<X n&e\T q]+#k+~, |ses
D b&T#k+~. &\sT <s s
<X\ s\| n<T| k~+#&+, yT<
V\ <s ||+ # $Cq+| ~| +
b+<&+ , jTT< \+ \Vq <X\qT
+>BdTe&+ M H&T nyT] nqTu
$dTq q Jeq |eD\ sD+.
H (\T>T nkdjTwH |t HsY nyT
]) y] Vq+ yTs {e\ nyT]
y[e q yTeTT (Hq, b sh s<]
esZ duT \T y. y+fX sse) |]o*+q
$wj \T n$. nyT] yT+ <<|
20 sE\T |s{+#+. |sq
k< yTq + es nyT] |]d T \q,
|\q ns+ #dTe& |jT+
#+.
nyT] #T \, S ||+ #$.
yT<&T nsu>+ ||+#<. &T|
eyT <~. Xs XeT\qT H|D+
XeT\qT yTH\ T, | H nyT]H\ T
|<q+> #ksT. M] XyT b nyT
] sEy] Jeq+ bT+~. e
yH me w|& MsT X$TdT+f
nyT] de+ kU\qT nqTu$ +#
>\T>T+~. yT ~s <X\qT+&
#TeT> eq e\d L\ nd s T
yH \T d, ks\qT s]d re

_.$. s|T e\T


<|& #dTHsT. H|DyTq XeT\L,
yT<|sy T q |qT\L eTTK+> qs wH
f\J, y< s+>\ nedsy T q y]
us<X+ ~s # qT+& yT< e\d
\qT bV+#&+ <s #T +Tq~.
MsT L& d<ojTT\ b\T+f #>
<=sTTq+<Tq nyT] u| & T Tq~.
bsYf y T | |sT |\\ q, $<sT\ q
$ks+ > | $jdTq ~. \C
<ojT XeT b* sT#> e#
|y ] XeT\qT <#Te&+ MT< nyT]
d+|< eT\+ <s|& +~.
||+ #+| d , ], yT<|sy T q
~| + e\H nyT] qksTT ]
Jeq |eD* =qk+#>\ T>T+~.
nyT] bsT \d] <jT+ 40,000
&\sT. eTq \d] <jT+ 400 &\sT.
n& bsT\ , sT, syD eed
n n+<TuT HsTT. 60 X
&{ sT\T, 80 X &_{ sT\T
HsTT. 67 X+ T+u\ d+
OHsTT. 90 X+ eT+~ sT OHsTT.
<X y|+> $X\yTq s& y>+>
|j D+# syD d<T bj\T HsTT.
sT +|\ |jH\d+ s
eed n_e~ yq H{sT. s
|< q+> dsT syD $j+#&T
T+~. n+<Te\ n_e~ #+~q
|T&< <X+ eTq nTq Jeq
|eD\T |ksTT. n& b\+

|#d k<sD L d yq + >+


5 qT+& 8 &\s es +T+~. 8
>+\ |$< q+ q sE L
s.3 y\ es <jT+ edT+~. n<
{ s+>+ H d yq+ >+
14 qT+& 38 &\s es +T+~. n+f
{ O< 8 >+\ eTq s
|s+ sT.10 y\T d+b~dTH &T. eTs
y| n& bsT\ $<| KsT <T.
nsTT d+u+ H|<+ sT<>+ 9
X #sTq~. k<sD |]dT
b~ yTsT>Z H @ s+>+ y]
L& <> u< O+&<T. y] re
yTq nu <ue+ H\= +~. <>+
b \T $T>\<T, sT $T>\<T nH
ujT+ n& bsT\T reyTq eqd
& qeTHsT. B+ eqd
sT>\ u<|&y] d+K mee
+~. |]b \q yTT+ |&s eed
O+~. sc\T, k d+d\ <sq
b\q k>T+~. eekjT+, |]XeT\T,
dy s+>\T u> n_e~ #+<sTT.
nH b\Tq|{ |T&< eed
H M+{ d]~<T e#H n_bj
nyT] n& bsT\ *k+~.
usY b*...
eTq <X Hu 120 T. nyT]
Hu 30 T. us< X $ds + b*d
nyT] $ds+ 4sT |<~. Hu
H\T>T sT q~. n& H u 2

s#sTT us eTdT b (e]dT) sh s<],


b*{ s duT \T.
8

e] dT
X+ eT+< eekjT+ O+&>,
$T*q 98 X+ eT+~ eek jTs
s+> HsT. 2 X+ eT+~ |+&+#
<q+ nyT] neds\ e\+ 50
X+ eyT d]bT+~. $T> 50
X+ Vs <H\qT m>TeT #dT H sT.
nyT] eekjT+ < #
me. <VsD kj ;H VsT
eT&T qT\T, ><TeT\T VsT eT&T
qT\T |+&TT+~. ysTXq> VsT
4 qT\T |+&TT+~. n& eT\
$ds+ w+> 500 ms\T, >]w+>
|<T \ y\ ms\T O+~. b\ d+s
<s { |+|D #ksT. nyT]
@ sc nedsy T q s+>\qT j
sc n_e~ #dT H sT. *b]j
sh+ eekj |d~ . sh+
d*H y H|sYyTwH f\J\
=\Te. dt y>dt p< |d~ .
n{ + { | | + # + |<
$eHXjT + +~. qjsY, >\T
], |H Hs+> sb\ +<\T.
fdt, $Tdd| eT] = sc
><T eT\T, yTTCq\T ~s <H\qT
me> |+&dTHsT. qC bs
+|\, $kHdH b&|]XeT,
&{jYT{ {yu |]XeT\ +<\T.
j sc\ q \yTq n+X\qT
<s+> #dT ]_e~ w
#jT&+ eTq k+~.
s <X\ ] eedq T
<rdq $<q+
e #b\+f...nyT]
n_e~ yqT s <X\ ] eedqT
<rdq $<H\T # HsTT. |H H,
k es{ ~s ]+X\T, yT<dT
~s+X nyT] s <X\|
|q + #sTTk+~. qq d \+
<s s <X\ MT< |+>, |s
+ > ~| *+~. s+{
<X\ MT< <&T\T #jT+ <s n&
#eTTsT \* nyT] =\>=&T+~.
$H \T, X{{ , bs ~ss + >qT
q >T|{ O+#Te+, => #dTq
|j >\T, |&TTq edTe \| |f+
{ V* *>T+&+ ~s #s\
<s s <X\ ] eedqT nyT]
<rk+~. ||+ # <X &Tq+
# +B]+, &TqT s
9

||+# |\ w+| TTq nyT]


nyT] n_e~ yqT s <X\ ]
eedq T <r dq $<H\T # HsTT. | H H,
k es{ ~s ]+X\T, yT<dT ~
s+X nyT] s <X\| |q+ #sTT
k+~. qq d \+ <s s <X\ MT<
| + >, |s+ > ~| *+~.

H du e{&T Tq s|T e\T. + d| sh s<] HsjTD, m+|\T


y<T>T\ yDT>bs &, sjTb{ k+uese, sh eT+T\T > nsTDe], |
d HsjTD, H n< &T eT{ jTs+, +< eT+ |\+ sE

<X\ n|> e+ <s e# e&


nyT] q ] eedqT |+
#dT +~. q <X+ #q T qs +&
|sesD b&T+Tq nyT]
<X+ ]+# q&, u qT+&
\|qT |k+~. < deTjT+ ||+
#+ @ <X q+ n| nyT]
+~. B r] nyT] ] eed
L*bT+~. rsb &\sY $\Te
|&b T+~. H|< + n|\ u<q T
T nyT] $$< s+>
<>T\qT =\dTH sT. >+<\j\qT
eTddTH sT. =\dTq y] me>
bdT\T, d {#s T Hs *d+~.
$<, y<s+> KsTqT Z+#+<T
|jT dTH sT. d+u+ H|< + nyT
] ] eed ~y rd+~. @ d{
#dH, @ s&T MT< #dH , nbsT
yT+ |sY d, |sY VsY (neT,
n<) nH usT\T <sq$TdTHsTT.
> |D+ qT+& 10 \\ eT+~
y[bjsT. ff |]XeT\T #H
y[b jsTT. d+u+ qT+& nyT]
jT|&+ w+. jT|&b

||+#+ MT< nyT ] |q+ +&


bT+~. |dT+ #H <T |]X<q
MT< me KsT |&T+~. Xsy>+>
n_e~ #+<Tq #H, usY |f+
$w j T + ny T ] > T ~ |
>+&={#T. <s nyT] <|&
be#T. nsTT b\Tq|{
Jeq |eD\ $wjT+ nyT]
nTq ksTT +&{ sD+
||+ #q+{ &\sY Xd+# yT. &\sY
MT< ||+# <X\ q qeT
ds> #dT nyT] Xdk+~.
n+<Te nyT] u>T+~. n| #d
|| L&T nH HqT& nyT] u>
d]bT+~. |&Tq |]d XX +>
O+f nyT] u>T+T+~. b
|L*bT+~. $<+> #b\+f
nyT] ] eed |H< |dT+
|Xs + > e]+~.
$<, y< +
& 12e s> es |\\ $<
O+. |d\T, uq+, d\T dT
+. m*yT+ d\T |<T \ ms\
d\+ e+T+~. n& d\T ueq+

e] dT

||+# |\ w+| TTq nyT]

y< + q{ 80 X+ | s TTyT y] #H
e+T+~. |d| \ \ L, jTT<\T #d $seTD b+~
q y] qsqT e+T+~. nyT] Hu 30
T. & neds+ n|d qsH
me]H @ d HH y< + #j *+<. s>+
yTT+ ;e MT< <s|& e +~.

s=s{ d > e+T+~. |+#


jTr $X\yTq d\ + e+T+~.
|d \T, &M&\T, eT MT&j ks\T
e+{sTT. 24 >+\ +s{ ks+
e+T+~. q{ 90 X+ eT+~ |uT
bsX\ #<Te+{sT. |sTTyT
d 1500 &\s T # * + #*.
$T*jTsT, _*jTsT eyT |sTTyT
d |+|ksT. { ysTT+#bsTTH
dH+> #~$ksT . \T, b\T,
d+^+ e+{sTT. +&jTqT, q\C
ysTq # \y sT eT |\\ qT #s sT.
nsTT, & L& = deTd\T re+>
y~dTH sTT. |<\T, q\CysT me>
+& b+ d s >TseT
HsTT. |\ Vk <sDT\T, eTT eT+<T\
$j>+ e+{ |&< sDT\T |sT>TTHsTT.
y{ n]& + nyT] eed |< deTd>
e]+~. V d ksTT es yT H ,
Oq $< # K<T L&q~.
y<+ q{ 80 X+ |sTTyT
y] #H e+T+~. |d|\\L,
jTT< \T #d $seTD b+~q y]
qsqT e+T+~. nyT] Hu
30 T. & neds+ n|d
qsH me]H @ dHH
y<+ #j *+<. s>+ yTT+ ;e
MT< <s|& e +~. meTs n+f y+H
y < + # k s T . eeT\T> nsTT
nbsTT+{yT +{ s +&T sE\T |&T T+~.
sT>TsT s>T\ qsT e+T+~.
qsH +|\ MT< <s|& y<+
e+T+~ { &s 50 X+
deTjT+ ]sT\T sjT& bT+~.
n+< T e\ & s T nd + | e +
#dT H sT. qu 30 40 \\
eT+~ qsH <T . eTsy| qsH
+|\T @&~&~ |$Tj |+#T
THsTT. |$TjT+ us eT< s>
|\T u] +# d edTq ~. n s\

n{+{ e]H \<s Y +>


pjTsY ks d| + e< s|T e\T,
y. y+fXsse

T\T esjTT |$TjT+ rdTy


\+f nk< eTe+~. =+{ eyT
rdT+f $T*q T\ y< + #sTT+#T
e&+ # w+. | Xu+ #sTT+#T
y\+f 300 &\sT ed #ks+f
y<+ m+ KsT L&q $wjTy
ne>e Te+~. n+<Te\ nyT] n<
&T s ue |uT y<s+>
|+ #j \ u$dTq T *d+~.
nsTT |sTTyT qsH +|\T
|jT \ n&T| & T THsTT. s\
+<T\THsTT f \TT, s\T
ekjT+fH n& H\T ujT|&sT.
+{ d{ <s jeT\T
yTeTT s&e& nH q>s |]b\qqT
|]o*+#eTT. 70y\ Hu *q |
D+ n<T V+>T\T *q
bdtdwH, |sY dwH, <T >+<\
jT+, + nH |C ks\T HsTT.
& |sY d+~, bdT*, {#s

+{/ < d{ ys jT$TksT.


ys J\T #*k sT . | \T #d neds
yT {#sqT, bdT*, |sY d+~
O<>++ =\ksT . +{\L, d{
L e# <j 85 X+
J\ KsT |&sT. MT&j
L& me> O+T+~. n& sT qdt
||sT , sT {M #H OHsTT. n+<Te\
+{>, d{ > @ q d+|T q
]H $d+> |#s+ sT>TT+~.
n+<Te\ n& n~sT\T, |C |<T
\T jT|&sT. yT+ >eT+q eTs
$wjTyT++f... |\ | d++
<\Tq #, n~s $+BsD ]q
# +~ksTT n$ e>
q~. < deTjT+ &\ qT, bdT*
yTHC #dysT L& b <T . ue
nyT] n<&> mq s U
nsTTq dH{ kH u #d+<T >essY
\+#+ |#THsT. neT y<M
qT q&|+<T ;sTT+> #dqy]
<sT eTqy L& qT #bsT.
nyT] usrjTT\ +>s+
me> +T+< <=+>H \T me>
sT>THsTT. nyT] s& | m& #
n>T|&< T . dt @+C qT, qCqT
s +&T# e+ yT+ #q T >eT+#+.
sT VsH y+#&+ L& nsT<T.
\ & eTq+ #d >& yVH\
e~]>H |u>+ L& eTdyjT&
+T+~. b<$T bsX\ ksTT qT+&
b]X< + >T]+, {| +<q \ >T]+
, # jTyjT +& +&&+ >T]+
|\\ q]bksT. B |ue+ C>
\qT b{+#&+ | q eqd
<sD B |ue+ e\H nH~ eTq
dw+> |k+~.
k d+d\ n~s $+BsD
sc\ $Xw n~s\T eHsTT.
nH $wj sc\ djT+ ||
eq~. nyT] 50 sc\T eHsTT.
M{ eT< n_e~ ek\T eHsTT.
u> n_e~ #+~q sh+ \d]
<jT+ 60 y\ &\sT e+f u>
yqT&q sh+ 30 y\ &\sT eyT
e+~. sh+ $$< b+\T,
q>s\ eT< L& ed+ k+~.
eTs $XwyTeT+f 48 sc sh
s<qT\T |< q q>s e. C]j
s< n{+{q, yTk#d{
s< udHq` |<q q>s
10

e] dT

sh+ $d ksTT b d& d] sT>TTHsTT. e]dT eT*


d<+ >+<\| sT>TTq d& d] ss\ = $wj\|
$esD\T y* ek+~. b sh +<+ qT+& |H e]dT ss\ T
]q $esD\T ksT. MT |X\qT +~ n&dT |+|>\sT:
$TH Msu<+ (d&d] sh +#]),
d|(m+) s\jT+, dT+<sjT ueq+, KeT+.
|T&< de+ dJeyTq eqe XeT, eyTq XeT yTT nq> |T& e~
#jT&= k<q+> O|j>|&TT+~ n eTdT |D[ O+~. dJe XeT, e
XeT| $esD e>\sT.
|. b+&Ts+>se, +\ |P&, |eT ><e] .

& d]
d

|T&< de+
dJe XeT, b>T& XeTqT
(b>T& XeT m|& eXeT>H
O+T+~`{$) |+#{ k<q +>
|j > |&T T+~. eTdT de+
b> T & X e T X e TJe\ j T T
J$\qT yTsT>T|s{, dTKe++
#jT {, b&+#{ |j +#
&TT+~. n+<Te\ sTy de+
>+ eseq+| ~|+ eVdT+~.
eTdT de+ ese q+ >
XddT + ~ (eTdT e|k )
dJeXeT n+f |{|&T XeT
#d eqe&T. eXeT n+f eq
e qT+& $&bsTT |<s+ #]b
sTTq XeT. |T&<sT&T ]\d+
|f |T& dJeXeT d+ |f~.
eTT&ds T \T, jT+\d+ |f~ e
XeTd+, n+f y{ m|& #]bsTTq
eqeXeT d+. eXeTqT =e dTe
#s\+f dJeXeT |d].
100 sbsTT\ eT{ ysTT+#T
, eT] 10 +&\T jsT
#X&qT+<+. +&\ $\Te 200
sbsTT\T neT+<qT+&. |&T @~

dJe XeT? @~ e XeT? eT{


ydTq |&T eT{ ydq eTw~ dJe
XeT. | |Psj
n XeT eT{
#]+~. 100s\T $\Te> e]+~.
eT{s |+ q e XeT nqe.
] +&\T jsT #dTq&T eT{
q e XeT|q eT] q dJe XeT
C&dTH&T. s n~ L& e
XeT> e] yTT+ 200sbsTT\ $\T
yq 10 +&\ s|+ rdT+~. eT{
ydq eTw XeT$\Te s.100 +&\T
#dq eTw XeT$\Te s. 100 ne
T+~. ey M[<] | |T q
eT& eTw(|T&<sT&T) +f,
yTT<{ <] XeT yTT\T y |P]>
eqeds+ +&, eTT+<T>H #]
50s #=|q L* e{&T
|s+ #&qT+<+. n+f y[<]
*| s. 100 KsT|{, s.200 $\Tyq
10+&\ qT d+<s j&T. n+f
y{ 5 +&\T n$T qT KsT |{q
&T q ] edT+ ~. eTssTT, n|&T
$T> 5+&\ ef$T{? n$L&
neTT+f y{ $\Te s.100 n
u+ neT+~. u ]

$jd |T& neT+~.


+&\qT neT+& H <#T+f n$
n d+|< nesTT. n <>Zs
b>T& uy T H , |T&H , d+|<H
n~ <sT ]\ eXyT.
eXeT|q eT]=+eT+~ ]\
# | #sTTd eT]+ d+|< b>T|&T
T+~. ||+#+ b>T&q deTd
d+|<\ eqe XeT (e XeT)
nH~ eTq+ ns+ #dTy*. n+<T
|T&< de+ dJe XeT
~es b>T&q eXeTqT eT]+
|+#TT+~ n esY nH&T.
eXeT n+f >+ #d+~.
dJe XeT n+f |&T #dTq~.
|T&< de+ eseq+|
>+ ~|+ eVdT+~. n+f ]
\|q (dJeXeT\|q) |T& (e
XeT) ~|+ eVdT+~.
eTdT de+ >
(b>T&q d+|<\ qT), ese q+ (|dT
]esZ+) XddT+~.n+f eT
|j qsy T q , eT dTK, kU
\, n_e~ eT cqTks+
d+|<\ qT |j +#T+{sT n ns+ .

eHsTT. n # +BsD +&


q q>s\T L& n_e~ e&
M\T>qT, |]b\H KsT\T Z+#Te
& n> |uT + y<M\T ]|
bsT\ +<T\T +& e+&+<T
s<qT\qT q q>s @sT #Xs
#bsT. ~ eT+ |<|++~.
C $e
C $e L& nyT] u>
+~. q\C |\\T y bsX\\T n+
u> +&e. ysT me> O+& |<
X \ysT, djTqT +&sT.
b~L& $e =qk>T+~.
q\CrjTT\ +&jTH n+f w+.

q\C |\ bsV \ d+ b{&q


e]H \<s Y + > pjTsY eTV>+B
jT q <s eT |{ + #&+ +<T
s D + e# T . C < T s_ e q+
\y eTq* L& & +&jTH n
|\Tks #bsT. VQX $e
eT\+>H +&jT H L& = |+
+B+ ne HsT.
||+ #+ q\TeT\\qT+& d+|
<qT sT +Tq nyT] |\ Jeq
|eD\qT |k sTT +#>* q|{
|T&<] $<H\ ys T <\qT | +#T
<H $wjT+ |sq y\&+~.
2008 d+es+ eq d+u+

|{ nyT]qT |{| & d T q ~. nyT]


<X+ #jT >\ n|| q d*+>qT |+#
\q $wjT+| k+|T d+eT+| |&T
Tq KsT\qT Z+#\q n+X+| ]|_
qT, &yq eT< sT>TTq #s\
|w+ uq d+u+ =qk>TTq~ nq
< V+. ese q <X\T eT
XeTqT <#TH+<T neX+ eq|&T
eT yT<X yT $j+ $Cq+
d+ k~+q|&T nyT] V
s+| <s|&+& djT+ bw+
k~+ q|&T nyT] , #T\T
& +& bsTT. nTe+{ |]d bs+
ue TsTT+ <y q n|++~. 12345
12345
12345

11

12345
12345

e] dT

usrjT Xd |]#jT yke[ ` 25

$Xeqe eT+ seTw |seTV+d n_eT+


n< +, $c< +, < + ` eT&T s\ y<q\ eT< seTw
$<y T q sJ ~s&T. |se duy ns+ #dT e&+ < + yTT<{ yTT n,
$Xc< + s +& yTT n, n< + eT& yTT n #b&T. >eT <e\ qT+&
eTsT\ ksTT es y\ eT+~ <e, <e\T, V+< eT+ OHsT. Xe +, yw e +,
Xj
T +, ++ ` ss \ |< T \T HsTT. \ d+> #| qeds+ <T .
M+{ eT< seTw $<y T q dj < qT, dTV<y H\=\ |jT +#&T.
\ $<c\L, <Ts#s\L, eT& qeT\L es+> *#&T.

|] ksTTuu jTEs<
eT+~s+ $\Te #d +>
s+, y+& edTe \T, + s H \ T
HjT. y{ |& sE\T
|&T+< nH&T d+.
neqeqT. |{ #H> n&
qT+ d+|<q T #T> u+>TSsT, C| P sY
+{ # uu>] w\T =+<sT
s* dTH s, n #dT q |& bdT\
<=] bjs L& eT< |\
sXsT < nH&T ds+. n+f
uu>] nqT#sT =+<sT <=+>\T
#ssqe. neq, uu>sT <e
ds|&T, *jTT> | <e+...
n+{sT ><, jTq q <>Zs #]q
y] <=ses, <=+>es |
bj&+{s!? n |q|&T
jTq <e + m ne&T? n d+<V +
y*T#&T d+.
uu>sT B|+ +{ y&T. B|+
y\T>TdT+~. y\T>T sejTD+,
us+ +{ |D y\ sjTT#T.
bs d+\T #d q &yT+
|{+#=#T. b|\ BbMT
d++<+ <T . nqeds+ > uu>]
>e >=<T nH&T HsjTD.
HsjTD ksTTuu u&T. <e&T`
B|+ keT+ u>H #|e>,
$wjT + L& uu>s X\$#s? n
d + |+#&T . HsjTD @MT e{&

m+.$.mdt. Xs

<T . d ksTT uu J$+ q|&


nH $y<\T jTq #T n\T HsTT.
@ $y< jTq dsq de<q+
#| <T . |& jTq #bsTTq s
|T=dTq $y<\ >T]+ @+ #|
>\&T. + B|+. <e&T keT+ #|
qy&T seTw |seTV+d n $e]+
#&T ds+.
keT+ |s+ #d |\T
#dy #dHe+{sT. <e&T e+
B|+> y]HMT +#+& #d
+{&? eT] nTe+|&T <e&
m+<T b]+#&+? + | u>eBZ
<TwD, w sDd+ HH |r
jTT>+q nes+ m uMT<
ekqT n <e& #b&+{sT <? @~
s ? n |+#&T d +. | \T,
bb\T #dyS, >\T, eT+ |qT\T
#dyS n+<s <e + \L |s
b n qTe >V +#>* qH&T
+<q +&<H&T seTw |seT
V+d n <T*#&T ds+. d + @MT
ns+ qT #X&T. n|&T d+ z
<+ #b&T:
j z sE n M~ q&Td
y+&> uk$T |<y&
s #eu<TTq <X+ q|&+~.

j uk$T n&T|&&T. n|&


u k$T j L& #eu<&T.
<+ j dV j&T. yqT
eq w\T j ydTbsTT O|
#s\T #d yTT dV s| +#sT.
n|&T z w&T j H{ b\T bd
kMT! qqT >TsT |{s? nq&>&T.
n|& j nH&: +< qqT
#e>={q y& |&T H H{ b\T
bdTH&T n+f j <w <Ts
sTZ&, eT+y& & <T. <s
|se ds|.... B seTw
|seTV+d #|q <.
(seTw |seTV+d + eTq
sw+ # sjT b\ \
qT+~. T | \+>D y\+
TqB b. nT dyT+< n
H<+ dTqB b. +<+ L&
H<s > q|&T THsT n+{+~!
| < <\T q j e~]>)
seTw |se TV+d 1836 +
1886 eTsD+ #&T. |se TV+d nq~
jTq q _sT<T. |<> #<T e<T
|sD\qT, Vk\qT HsT H&T.
q nq>] &T> <D X sY
e <y\jT+ |PC]> H&T.
=H us $ nq j e< + $<\T

s#sTT us eTdT b (e]dT)


sh $T{ duT\T. Xdq eT+&* duT\T.
12

e] dT

seTw |seTV+d

bd t #X&T. eT+H j> $<q


nud+#&T. s |] nH
~>+s j <>Zs n< HsT
H&T.
q|{ qT+& seTw |esq
nk<sD+> +&~. >+\ s&
me]q e{& +& O+&bjTy&T.
s#T eTsbT+&y&T. n k]
eTsb sTT eT&T sE\ nq+s+ dV
e HqT eqT #XqT. <e
<s q+ >=| nqTu . nq+yT q
+ |+C\T s{ qqT #TTeTT{
] _] #XsTT. H n|]$TyTq
q+<+ *+~ nH&T. s
\+ de eT |#s\ #s\T
#dq nq+s+ eT = sE\T dV
sTT, *$ e# HqT Jddt dt
e{&qT. jT<T jTTe&T, CqT
uVQe b&T>Z ET eqy&T n qe
e H *d bj&T n |{ + #&T.
seTw |]o*+q y< T \T n
s# dV jT nHs>+ +<,
n~ Vd]j \DeT, y<+ #sTT+#T
y\ d\VsTT#sT. |[ #d
s>+ >TZT+< eT]=+<sT |<\T
d\V sTT#sT. <+ n 24e @
@& Xs< nH nesTT |[ ]|+
#sT. |sTTq sL& seTw
<sD esT s<T.
e~]>H yTeT <y #&+
k< yTH? nq& k< yTq #b&T.
yT\e, k| <, Bs < nH eT&T
<X\ T HsTT. M{uT H\T> <X.
n< de~. <X #sT+f uV
||+#+ eTq yT<&Tq d++<\T
bsTT. n|&T |X+ y
esD+ @s&TT+~. <X <y
d+<]+#>\eTT n #b&T. nsTT

seTw |seTV+d @ >+< sjT


<T. @ qq d<+ |b~+#<T.
eT] eTq <X #] jTq kq+ @$T{?
jTq sV+q b @$T{? B eT~+|
#j\+f jTq J$+q \+ (19e X+)
|]d T \qT |]o*+#*.

seTw #| qT> de~ y[ <y


#d eqT #|q yses eTq
q|&sT. mesH n #|H <
$Xd+#&e T k< + <T. n nHs>
|*+> s# dV e&+,
d+<s\ n& *q nqTu H <e
d+<sq+> n&T |{+#&+, <
=+<sT $Xd+#&+.... < ]
+&*. *q <e<sq nqTue+
ee] m+<T \>&+ <T? n
seTwqT #eT+~ n&>sT. y]
n&T s+&T eT&T s\ <\T #b&T
: H\T>Ty| mT> >&\T {q
|<X =+eT+~ jTTe\T #XsT.
| e TT+< # <eT+f mTy | P
<s+ <T . n|&T y] &T w| &
>&| #X&T. n|]$TyT q q+<+
VVV n qe+ |*
<X&T. n~ #d +=&T >&
eTT+<Ty&> qe+ |* <
X&T. s n+<s n> #XsT.
jTTe\T ] u e# |jT+
#jT <T . n< e~]> <e + d+|s +
@s& n|]$TyT q q+<+ *
q+<qTu qT+& u se&
mes w|&sT.
n> +<: | #dq

e]dT
MT d+<V \T sjT+&!
e]dT d<+ ed| d|(m+) sh s<] _$ s|Te\T |H
bs \ d+<V \ de<H*dTq d+> MT \TdT. |dT n+srjT, CrjT,
sh sjT |]De\| MT d+<V \qT e #dT H+<T |X \qT sd |+|+&!
|H 20e B| MT |X\T e #] <T|] d+ s|Te\T de<H\T
\_ksTT.
MT |X \T n+<*q sTHe!
m&sY,
e]dT d< + ed| ,
|CX |dt, >essT|, $jTy&-2

13

ueT deTT<+ + +< \TdT+


<eT deTT<+ <+~. y+H
ueT k ]bsTT deTT<+ *d
bsTT+~. n> |seqT \TdT
y\qTHysT q+<qTu
]bsT
<\ ks+X+ @$T{? <e&
d+<]+q ysT ] ||+ #+
se& w|&sT. eT] seTw |seT
V+d m+<T <y #ksT #d
(jTq #|q< |s+) n ks
yq uV||+#+ e |\
\d&T? jTq *q nqTu T\H
<e d+<s q+ n eTq+ m n+^]+
#&+? @&+{ e\H, nHs>+e\H
dVsTT *+> uV ||+
#+ d++<+ bsTTq ysT ]
dV eqysT # eT+~ OHsT.
yses eTT <y d+<]+qT
|{+#&+ <T><? qT seTw
<e + | d+|s + @s&+<q | q
$XdjT+ <T. #sD n~ sTEe
q <T. nsTT eTVT\q, n<T
\q >T&> $Xd+# q+ H{ q
eTq <X+ seTwq T <e nes+>
sE =+<sT |{#&+ |< Xs
s+ @MT <T.
seTw |se TV+d @ >+<
sjT<T . @ qq d<+
|b~+#<T. eT] eTq <X
#] jTq kq+ @$T{? jTq
sV+q b @$T{? B eT~+|
#j \+f jTq J$+q \+ (19e
X+) |]dT\qT |]o
*+#*.
18eX+ VdeC k|+
q sCsyVqsjYT VTy<
<<, <TqT, V+<eT+

e] dT

seTw |seTV+d

seTw q uy\qT, #q\qT, $d + >


|\ rdTbjT s#sD < #|
bj&T. B n w\T jT| < + > s
\+ #|{ sT . n w | e TTKT&T, eTTKT&T
qs+< <.Y s \+ k$T $yq+<T& | s
||+# |d~&T.

d+dsD\ eXq T eTT+<T e&


|jT +#&T. nqT 1833 eTsD+
#&T. s <y+<H< s>sY
|jT =+yTs =qk+#&T.
nq+s+ Vde+ N*\ >Ts + ~.
<+ V+< eT <TsD, d+dsD
yq| T |{sTT. +| n_d+{
q&|q ~jk| kd{ +
$<\ nr X * k~+#>\ eTH |#
s eTT+<T +~. <|P\T,
ye#s\T |]>sTT. eTs | n> \
|+<s \ TuT, <Ts#s\T
L& |]>sTT. <X _{wt y]
de eT|#s+ CsT d+ |]+~.
H|<+ seTw |seTV+d
sV+q bqT eTq+ #&*. n
nHs> |]dr, <e+ n |
d+|s eTTqT |{ + q $wj | q
u& ke+> seTw |seTV+d
u<q\T |]o*+#<>Zyq #b*.
1. nH sb nH \T u> e +T&
s~ksT. nH eT\T $$< s\
s<q \qT |b~ksTT. nsTTq|{
<e&=&. qT V+< eTdT&q,
[ u&q #|q|{ seTw
k+, de ~s eT\L deq
>sy #&T. $Xeqe eT+
fq #b&T.
2. |re q <e #&eT
seTw #b&T. <s eTqTw\+<s
deqyTq u~+#&T. k{eqe*
e #d eeV]+# \ eedqT
s]+#&T. eqedy e<e de n
#b&T.
3. u ||+ #+ yde yTq
seTw |{+#&T. <+uT +T
*, n+sq+, ~s eT& $Xk
\qT, >T& qeT\qT es+#&T.

seTw |se TV+d

|H $<+> |P\T #dH, |q


| H eT+ +\qT #]dH ndq
<e |P neT+<H y<q\T | n
|{ + #&T.
4. deC V#d X\qT
||T{+#eT seTw |\T|#&T.
d+<s+> |d< < O+~:
>eT+ ysT #TbeTT
T+&~. <]y+ bjTy]
y+{& Tyd #+| O+&~.
eTVeT >\ j <]q bTq|&T
beTT n y+&++~. j
yq] m+<T Hy+ |&e? n
|+#d] beTT yqZ |&>
~++~. n|& j eTT+<T me
TyjTT<T n #| y&T. s
qT+& #TbeTT j #| qf me]
C* b+& eeV]++~. <+
<s+ bjTy+<] <s+ e
beTT ss \T>, V+d+#&+ , uj
T |
&+ #d e#sT. d] j eT
<] y+ ] ed beTT |\]+
#&T. sd+ >, <\ q beTT
q> |{q yH $e]++~. n|&

j qT me] fjT T< #bH


> Td =e< #bH? V
\| <\q y]| Td=T. qT
qTe s+#T n u~+#&T. n|{
qT+N beTT nH q&T#T+~.
< <s seTw |seTV+d
|\qT nHj es+> \eeT
|s |+#&T. $<o b\\, d<o XT
e\ es+> k ||Tq
|\T|#&T. >+BJ d>V
seTw u<q\T |sD#jT
u$+#e#T.
n<+, $c<+, <+ `
eT&T s\ y<q\ eT< seTw
$<yTq sJ ~s&T. |se
duy ns+ #dT e&+ < + yTT<{
yTT n, $Xc<+ s+& yTT n,
n<+ eT& yTT n #b&T.
>eT <e\ qT+& eTsT\ ksTT
es y\ eT+~ <e, <e\T, V+<
eT+ OHsT. Xe+, ywe+, XjT+,
++ ` ss\ |<T\T HsTT.
\ d+> #|qeds+ <T. M
+{ eT< seTw $<yTq dj
< qT, dTV<y H\=\ |jT +
#&T. \ $<c\L, <Ts# s\L,
eT& qeT\L es+> *#&T.
nsTT seTw q uy\qT, #
q\qT, $d+> |\ rdT bjT
s#sD < #| b j&T. B
n w\T jT|<+ > s \+
#|{sT. n w |eTTKT&T,
eTTKT&T qs+< <.Y s \+ k$T
$yq+<T& |s ||+ # |d~ &T.
H&T n+srjT+> nyT]H ke
y<+ k$T fs]+ nq |<
|j>+ k+ eTdT\+ >y<T
qq n_bj *d ~ \ ,
<c + bk+~. _H&H +{
>y<T\T, *qT < |d+<q>
>y< $d] +|Cd T H sT. j+
(jT<TeT<TsV+s+) |sT C
sTT eT $<c\ #T s*k+~. eTq
<X+ V+<, eTTd+ eT $<c\T
+ m+<]H *>=+THsTT.
H|<+ seTw |seTV+d
|u~+q $Xeqe eT+ ueq
d+<V+> nuT<jTsyTq123456
b
123456
123456
123456
bw+#>\<T.
123456
14

e]
$XdwTD

20 @ d+dsD\T`XeTX es{ esT\T


CrjT qeTH ds $XwD
\+ d\ Crj $wjT + |s> k~+q eTq ] eed
<q T>TD+> b~ \q e+ |s> k~+# b sTT+~. n+<Te\H
y| q $<o es <e \\T, $<o |T&T\T, m>TeTT\T, ~>TeTT\T,
e+{ d ] $<H\ $wjT + |s> |+H |<]+, sT<>+,
] n+s\T e+{ ] eed s> y\& # d |eD\ $wjT +
yq&q <X\ dsd q #sT THeTT.

+< |uT+ Bq+ q&#


CrjT qeTH ds d+d ( mHmdtmdtz)
2009`2010 >qT b~/ sT<>
d++~+q >D+\T $&T<\ #jT +
eTsk] <X+ b~ \q, XeTX
es{ rsTqT\ >T]+ #s yTT<+ ~.
| < =k] mHmdtmdt <X+
b~ \q, sT<>+ >T]+ ds #dT +
~. >+ Te+{ ds 2004`2005
]+~. ds 1999`2004 eT<
\+ b~ <sDT\ >T]+ ds =
ssD\ e+~. < s eT
|&T 2009`2010 ] d+es+
nTe+{ deT> ds ]+~. s+&T
ds\T b* n<jTq+ #jT+ <X
\| ] |]De\qT XeTX D+
qT+& |]o*+#{ # neX+.
s +&T <Xu\ ] d+dsD\ >=|q+
>T]+ $Xw D \T y\Te&TTq \+
n< ] d+dsD\T b~s+ >+| #|+
q |u y m# |+ mHmdt mdt
>D+\T \ b bwdTHsTT. >
<X \+> b~ \q s| s K\T
e]bjjT, d+|T { s+>+ b~
neX\T n&T>+{jT, |uT s+>+
b~ \q d+_+bsTT+<, <X+
| #jT >\ keTs + q Hu
d> d>+ djT+ b~| <s|&T
THs C ds s]k+~.
>D+\qT |uT+ n+^]d eTT
nqTd]dTq ] $<H\T | , b~
sV n_e~ ~X> $<H\T <X
15

=+&] MsjT

HjT n+^]+#* edT+~.


n+<Te\H |uT+ sT<>+, b~
\q >T]+ mHmdtmdt 66e <b
ds qT D] +#+<T |PqT=+~.
b<$T ssD\T
] se bZq{
d<+ > Oq Hu yTT *| XeTX
es{ n+THeTT. +<T b~
b+~q ysT, b~ b+< ysT *d
+{sT. n<$<+ > | <=]q y]
L& d+es+ =+ \+ | <=]
H eT]=+ \+ | +& qysT
L& XeTX u>+> +{sT.
b|~q 2004`2005 ] d+e
s+ yTT+ Hu | #jT{
d<+> q Hu 42 X+ +f
2009` 2010 n~ 39.7 X |&b
sTT+~. n+f $$< sD\ e\ XeT
X es{ |]eD+ 2.3 X+ bZ
sTT+~. <X Hu 100 T> q|&T
2.3 X+ n+f s+&T eTT| \\
eT+~ XeT X es{ qT+& jT
e#sT. jT eq ysT @
d HsT, m ds|&sT nq
$wj d++~+ |uT+ <>Zs
d+| s y T q de<q+ <T . y| q
Hu |sT>T<\ s T esT b sTT
H XeTX es{ |y+# y]
d+K esT +&+ Xs+ *

k+~. n~L& <X+ 60 X+ esL


Hu jTeq+ q eTq <X+
XeTX es{ |]DeT+ bZ e+ |\T
d+<V\ $k+~. 2004`2005
qT+& 2009`2010 eT< \+ CrjT
] eed e\+ 20 \\ eT+~
eyT <>eX\T #|+#>* +
<q~ C n<jTq+ eTs eTTKyTq
ssD. XeTX es{ |y+# y]
d+K >T <Z \ Oq|{ b~ \q
>, yH > e~ b e+ nq
$wj >eTd ] eed Ob~ sV
n_e~ q&TdT+ < #| e#T. sTy
]y\T n+ beD ] jT
eT+> u$+# s ds|s d<++
& | #jT+ <T. ds|s e>
q|&T s |sT>TT+<q~ d<+
+ ks+X+. d+ |s+ XeT
X es{ qT+& 2 eTT| \\
eT+~ ]\T jT eq|&T
<q T>TD+> ] X $\Te |], y]
yH\T |s>*. & n s>
<T . \+ XeTX es{ #]q
y] d+K 5.5 T. 11e |+#es |D
[ \+ 5.8 eT+~ b~ ne
X\T #|+#\ \ +> |T +~ |uT
+. n+f Hu |sT>T<\ H|<+
m+ eT+~ n<q+> XeT X es{
|y ks n+ eT+~ | *+#\q

s#sTT q& |CX eJ $]. ] |]De\|


nH yk\T sXsT.

e] dT

X e TX es{ esT\T

| d T |]o\q q |< \+ yTT<{


< b~ \q e~ sT 2.66 X+>
O+&> $T*q < ~ 0.83 X +Z ~.
n+f > |< \+ b~ \q e~ sT
1.83 X+ #=|q |q + nsTT+~.

< \ |D[ d+|T+ e+


#d+~. <<| 5 X+ b~ \q
sT k~+# ] eedqT r] ~<
*q u<, n+<TqT>TDyTq $<H\T
sb+~+#*q u< |uT+| Oq
~. |{ es e\+ 20 \\
eT+~ <>\T *++~. |D[
d+|T+ s]+#Tq \ k~+#
\+f 2012 | eTs 5.3 eT+~
<>\T *+#*. n+f s +&
@&~ s+&Tqs |> <>\T
*+#*. n< k<+ <T {
sqTq \+ sT<> u + eT]+
y+{&qT+~.
+#TbsTTq b~ \q
|{ 1
d+es+ XeTX es{
|]DeT+
1999`2000 39.7 T
2004`2005 45.9 T
2009`2010 46.1 T
& eTs $wj |k$+#T
y*. 1999`2000 ] d+es+
qT+& 2004`2005 ] d+es+ eT<
\+ |#d y] d+K 39 70
\\ qT+& 45 90 \\ |]+~.
n+f < \+ 6 20 \\
eT+~ => | <=]+~. & O<
>\T <=]sTT nq k+|<jT ns
y&+ <T . | <=]+~ n eyT
k<sD ns+ O|j dT HqT.
| djT+ b~ <s e#T. XX
due+ *q b~ e#T, eekjT
s+>+ <=] b~ e#T. d\+>
#d 1999` 004 eT< \+ d> Tq
d+es { 25 \\ eT+~ @<
s|+ | <=]+~. \+
us eekjT s+>+ reyTq sTe
\T #$#dq \+ nq $wj

L& <w rdT+f Ob~


|< q+> nd+|T { s+>+, sEy]
]\ s|+, djT+ b~ ne
X\ <s <jT eqsT\T deTLsTH
<q +~q ]\ s|+ +< n+#H
yjTe#T. 2005`2010 ]
d+es\ ee~ | #d Hu d+K
45 90 \\ qT+& e\+ 46
10 \\ |]+~. n+f s XeTX
|sT>T<\ 20 \\T eyT. n+f
d>Tq @&~ H\T>T \\ eT+~
eyT n<q+> | <=]+~.
|{ 2 :
|{ $$< s> T \ y Hu
b~ \q e~ sT
yTT+ b~ \qe~ sT
|sTw\T
eTV\T
>MTD b++ b~ \q
|D b+
b~ \q rsT qT\ >T]+ $e]
k+~.
|dT |]o\q q |< \+
yTT<{ < b~ \q e~ sT
2.66 X+> +&> $T*q <
~ 0.83 X Z+~. n+f >
|< \+ b~ \q e~ sT
1.83 X+ #=|q |q+ nsTT+~.
nT |D b+q, T >MTD
b+q |q + ksq <sD
> |k+~. n+f, CrjT ] eed
e~ sT }|+<T+Tq|{ b~
\q keTs+ e+ <qT>TD+>
|s>+ <q $wj mHmdtmdt
n< jTq+ s+>\y |]o\q d +
sTEe #k+~. +<T L& CrjT

ksTT 51 X+ |sTw\T djT+


Ob~|H <s|& JeHb~ d+b~+
#T+THsT. eTs 33.5 X+ eT+~
Ee ]\T> +f 15.6 X+
eT+~ H\d] yq+ rdTH ]\T>
HsT. n+f yTT+ XeTX d>
d>+ eT+~ djT+ b~|H <s|&T
THsT. djT+ b~ >MTD b+
eekjT ]\T, |D b+
nd+|T{ s+> ]\T |<qy{>
HsT. M] @ sEsE | yT
eyT |< |> +T+~. mHmdtmdt
$&T<\ #dq >D+\T n<jTq+ #d
eTs \yTq $wjT+ y\&e+~. >
< \+ <X+ Ee ]\
d+K |]b+<q $wjT yT n~.
$wjT+ >eTd <X+ XeTX es{
due+ esTTq $wjT + nse TeT+~.
] eed b+~ edTq esT\T
@ CrjT ] eed nsTTH d\
Crj <V<+ #d s+>\T
eT&T. b<$T s+>+, ~rjT s+>+,
dy s+>+. eekjT+, nqTu+< de\
qT b<$ T s+>+> |]>D d b]X$T
1999`00 qT+& 2004`05 qT+&
2004`05 es 2009`10 es
2.66(X+)
0.83 (X+)
2.49
1.70
3.14
`1.72
2.21
0.42
4.00
1.92
s+> ~rjT s+>+> |]>DksT.
] _ e ~ ] > =B | \ Jeq
|eD\T |]> =B eekjT s+>+
e~ #+<TT+~. eekjTs+>+ n<
q+> q XeT X b]X$Ts+ >
~ neT+~. eT&~ dys+>+.
<e de\T, b]X$T s+> nqT+
<+ > q syD, VA, eTwH
e+{ de\T e eksTT. b]X$T
s+>+ n<q+> q XeT X dys+
> ~ neT+~. eT&T s+>\
e~ sT d>TH d\Crj>
|]>DksT. n< $<+> eT&T s+>
*+#& b~ neX\ yTTyT
CrjT ] eed eeTjT
b~\q keTs+. n+<Te\ eT&T
16

e] dT
s+> e~ sqT $&$&> |]o*+#
+ bT b~ \q eT&T s+>\T
bw+# bqT L& |]o*d> d\ +
> b~ \q keTs + < keTs $T
nq n+X ns+ #dT e+ k< +<T.
& eTsk] mHmdtmdt n+#H\qT
|+> #<+.
d\ Crj 1984`85
H{ eekjTs+>+ y{ 32.5 X+
> +f 2008`2009 H{ <<|>
d> d>+ ZbsTT 17.2 X
|&bsTT+~. 2010`2011 ] d+e
s+ ~ eT]+ bZ sTT 15.7 X
#]+~. B+bf eekjT+| <s|&
y] d+K 63 X ZbsTT+~.
>MTD b+ + ~rj T , rj T
s+>\| <s|& q ysT eTs 37 X+
HsT. eTV 79 X+ eT+~
eekjTs+>+| <s|& JeHb~
d+b~+#T+THsT. b]X$Ts+ >+
> s+&Tqs <Xu\T> d\ Crj
\&q y{qT * +~.
@y d\ Crj y{qT
>DjT+> |+#Tq s+>+ dy s+>+.
|q #| qT dys+>+ b~ \q
keTs+ $T*q s+&T s+>q eek
jTs+>+, b]X$T s+>\ b*
#dq|&T |]$T+> +T+~. d\
Crj 15.2 X+ y{ *q
eekjTs+>+| 60 X+ eT+~ |\
JeHb~ d+ <s|& +f 29.1
X+ y{ *q b]X$T s+>+|
18 X+ eT+~, 55.2 X+ y{ *q
dys+>+| 22 X+ eT+~ <s|&
HsT. k+q+s+ =* |+#es
|D[ eekjT s+>+| 90
X |> |\T <s|& y.
n+f |dT+ 30 X+ eT+~ eekjT
s+>+ qT+& y<=*>sT. M]
$T*q s+&T s+>\T eT eTT&T
e+ $|\ + e+ eekjT+
qT+& b]X$T s+>, b]X$T
s+>+ qT+& dy s+> Ob~ neX
\ ~ +&*q *+ bsTT+~.
<+ eekjT s+>+ qT+& jT
eq X$T\T T |D b+
Ee ]\T>H, < sEy |
yT H y]>H e]bjsT. $<+
> ] eed eT\d+uq s+>\
17

X e TX es{ esT\T
d\ Crj 1984`85 H{ eek
jTs+>+ y{ 32.5 X+ > +f 2008`2009
H{ <<|> d> d>+ bZ sTT 17.2 X
|&b sTT+~. 2010`2011 ] d+e s+
~ eT]+ bZ sTT 15.7 X #]+~. B+
bf eekjT+| <s|& y] d+K 63 X
bZ sTT+~.

eT< b+~ eq esT\ e\ XX


due+ *q b~ \q keTs+
k q + * d u e+ * q
Ob~\ q keTs + |sT>T+~. mHmdt
mdt ds L& XeTX es{
* due+ *q ]\ d+K
|sT>TTqT e+ e+ yq q
sD+ <. $es\T >eTd us
] eed | + XeTX es{
|+# = eTTKyTq <sDT\qT
$<+> eZ]+#Te#T.
b~ sV n_e~: 2010`11
] d+es >qT |uT + deT]+
q ] ds nqT++<+ > q
>D+ $es\ H|< + C mHmdtm
dt n+#H\qT |]o*d <X+ ]
eed m<T><\ rsT qT\ bT
XeTX es{| ]_e~ mTe+{
|ue+ #|dT+<q $wjT+ eT]+
dw+> ns+ neT+~. 1999`2004
] d+es\ eT< \+ d\
Crj 18.84 \\ qT+&
29.71 \\ |]+~. < \+
] eed n<q+> nsTTq
yTT+ d+|< $\Te 11.07 \\ T
({*jTqT). d+|< dw+#{
n<q+> sT 20 \\ eT+~
]\T | #j * e+~. 1999`
2004 ] d+es\ eT< q <
us ] eed d>Tq 6 X+ e~
sT k~++~. 2005`2010 eT<
\+ |]d B |P]> _q+>
+~. 2005 `2006 ] d+es+
s d\ Crj $\Te 32.54
\\ T ({*jTqT) +f 2009`2010
] d+es $\Te 44.93 \\
#]+~. n+f jTT|m 1 Vj+
CrjT d+|< $\Te 14.22 \\T

|]+~. \+ us ] ede
k~+q d>T e~ sT 8.64 X+.
n+f 1999`2004 ] d+es
k~ + q ] _ e ~ s T + f
2005`2010 eT< \+ k~+q
]_e~ sT 2.64 X+ me.
CrjT ] eed d>Tq 6 X+ e~
sT < \+ CrjT d+|<
11.07 \\ ({* jTq) d+|<qT
#dq|&T 6.20 eT+~ b~
neX\T dw+#&sTT. d>Tq
]&T n<q+> 1,78,574 sbjT\
#=|q CrjT d+|< #X&T. eT]
d> Tq 8.64 X+ e~ s T CrjT
d+|< 14.22 \\ ({*jTq)
$\TeqT #dq |&T eT] me
<>eX\T d w + # & j T q
Xue+ me]H \T>TT+~.
|]d B _q+> +< mHmdtmdt
dw+ #d+~. yTT<{ |{ #|+
qT> 2005`2010 eT< \+ e\+
n<q+> 20 \\ eT+~ eyT XeTX
e s { e#s T . n+f d > Tq
]&T 7,11,410 sbjT\ d+|<qT
#X&T. BH ] $Xw\T <
|sT>T<\ n+THsT. 1999`2004
d+es\ eT< \+ b*q|&T
2005`2010 ] d+es\ \+
] eed d>T O< sT sT
|]+~. n+f yTT+ CrjT d+|<
]\ y{, XeT X y{ bZ sTT+~.
|T& y{ |]+~. XeTX qT+&
k~+q n<q| e\H n+srjT
es{ us< X + j s q T\ T
b{ T \e>*>sTT. XeTX
#dq n<q| d+|< e\H +|\T
1999`2004 eT< \+ k~+q
u \ + f e+< \ s T u \T
($T> 20e |J)

e] dT

bs+

#] ` XdjT <<+
de+ ]> n esT\L, sjT $|y \L j deC\
O, |+|D ]> esT nd\T sD\T. s+sjT+> ]> esT
de+ $T> n $wj \q, n+f sj \T, b\H |< T \T, eT+,
\ T, kV+, d\T e>s n+X\qT L& esTdT+ {sTT. yTT+
esT\ deVsyT eqeC #]> eTq+ ns+ #dT y*.

$TH Msu<+
@ jTT<+ m+<T ]>H?
@ s+ mH+ <?
KT\T, <kyE\T
$ yjYT #] s+
sD |eT|sD+
eTT& q KsT\,
eT\T\, |jTT\
$ yjYT #] ks+
........................
H\TqB H>]
keqT JeqyT{~ ?
CeTV sD
sq LesT?
ke| <+&j
keqT\ kVdyT {~ ?
|uTyq |\ <jYT
n~ ydq usTesT?
` eTV$ ll
#]qT uy< <<+ m
#& *jTCd n+ |ue+
yTq $ ~. k<sD+> s> ><T
#]qT sE\, sDT\ J$ <\ T>q,
=+<sT j<T\ kVd><\T>q #|
&+ eTq+ #dH +{+. <<+
e\ =+<sT eTVe\, kVdMsT\
#q\T, #s #] <seTH
bsbT ueq \T>TT+~. u$+#
+ XdjT+ <T. XdjT #]
<<+ B sd]dT+~.
eTqTw\T J$+#{ nedsyTq
|<s\T, edTe\ s>+, y{
|+|D s> yT @ de sDH

|H~> +T+~. #] d+u+~+q e\ | *eT+~. |sT>T


uy< <<+ ne>VqH T+~. y&q |]s\qT nqTue + <s
bs+ue TT+~. n+{&T m+> (kw eT]+ yTsT>T|sT +{sT. = |]s\T
*+`}V+,Xdj
T +)
|&sTT. = edTe\ d+
<=]+~ { |]$T+ nHwD sT>TT+~. $Cq+ |sT>T
+&, qT + d+ #jT T+~. k+ |]Cq+ |sT>TT+~.
yT eqeC | . Vs, edTe $<+ > ~eqe& n&$ y <>sZ
\q #jTyT> qT+& <T eqe& u |]XeT\
*Cd T e{ |]s\, |eTT esL jTT eTV|kq+ k+~.
L& CjT +, y{ |j +# #], #dq |eTT
+ eqe&T HsT H&T. #jT + #], y{ n_e~ eT+ k~+#&q
Je\+{q eqe\ eyT $Cq Xk\ jTT #] eqeC
k< yTq $wjT +. +Teq, eTw yTq #].
ysT #d~ d]>Z <.
# eTTKyT+ ~. nsTT <
nH~ ds + > +&<T . s+ |+|D n++f eTTKyT+~. m+<T+f
s+ |s>+ < \D+. d+ ]>~ < nqTu$+#{
eqe&T | esTk&T . m+<T+f ><? nqTu$ +# neX+ b nd\T
||q |#jT+&, < es s><T. |+|D n+f ]q O
+& @ r <T. eT+ eqe\T nqTu$ +q rsT |<
| es+uT eqe&T qT n #|e#T. |+|D nH~ $$<
L& esTT+{&T. n+<Te\ eqe\ $$< s\T> esT e+~.
neds\T, #q\T s+s+ esTT+ ]q |q me] jeq+
{sTT. XeTqT Z+#Ty\ |jT +& d$Tw> nqTu$+# |<r +~.
k&T. *jT < \TdTy\ mesT #dq |q y] jeq+
nqT+{&T. = ]\T r] = +& |<r +~. n> XeT #dq y
]\T \T>TsTT. e eqe dV T\| jeq+ +& ysT
\D\T. eqe yT<dT s+sjT+> J$+#{ =+ ||\ + eyT sTT,
|s>{ , nbs u d+|< OT\| jeH ys=sT b+<
se{ Cd eT\+.
|< eTs={. c ||\+
syTq | eT, eT #jT+
s#sTT us eTdT b (e]dT) +< $T{ duT\T,
eJ Xdq duT \T
18

e] dT
e+ L& ss\ sb\T
HsTT. qT>TD+> |<T\,
sb\ esT e#sTT. n+>
\+ ss \ |< T \ neT\T O+&
d+<s\ +{sTT. n+{ d+<s
\ m s\ |+|D |< T \T neT\T
H |< q+> n~ @ |<
k>T+~ nH< f de
$<q+ @$TH~, n+f |+|D |<
@$TH~ ss TT+#&TT+~.
m nsTT s+s+ esT
, n_e~ k~++< < nqT>T
D+> |+|D |<T\T L& esT,
n_e~ #+<T e#sTT. n>
|+|D dV ]+#{, |u $+ #jT
{, neT\T #jT {, n<T|#j
T {
jT++>+ L& nedse Te T+~.
|uT +, sj \T, eT+, \ T, kV
+, d\T, Xd+ e>s n
L& jT++>+ u>. M{H
|]\ n+X\T n+{eTT. |+|D |< T \,
sb\ es+bT |]\ n+X\
sb\T L& esT e#sTT.
n+<Te\ eqeC #]qT \TdT
e&+ n+f < #], |+|D
|< T \ #] n> y{qT+& q
eTjT |]\ n+X\ #] yTT+>
\TdTe&yT nH~ eTq+ ns+ #dT
y* +T+~.
, |+|D |< & eT]
d $es+> |]o*+#+ neds+ . @
de +qsTTH r, < |+|D
|<r >] d+u+<+ +{sTT.
_H+ X\ d eTq+ &
>eT+# e#T. , |+|D |sds+
_qyTq $. n$ #+ *d
O+{sTT. |sd s+ dV ]+#T +{sTT.
<| { |ue+ *+#T+
{sTT. nsTT dV]+#T e+,
+> +&+ nH~ ksTT
n_e~ njT+ es +T+~. ksTT
<{+s e+ s+{ bd
><T. |sds+ |T]+#T+{sTT.
<VsD |T&< de+
XeT #dy L, J+ s|+ =+
||\ + e+, $T*q< |T&
<sT&T kBq+ #dT e+ |+|D |<
> +T+~. bs+u+ |+|D |<
& e TT& > |s T > T < \
19

#] ` XdjT <<+

m nsTT s+s+ esT, n_e~


k~++< < nqT>TD+> |+|D |<T\T L&
esT, n_e~ #+<T e#sTT. n> |+|D
dV ]+#{, | u $+ #jT {, neT\T #jT {
, n<T|#jT { jT++>+ L& nedse Te
T+~. |uT+, sj\T, eT+, \T, kV+,
d \T, Xd+ e>s n L& jT++>+
u>.

dV]dT+~. m+<T+f |<


X$T\ $T>T\T +&<T . J$+#{
b{|& |#jT + | d] neT+~.
{ Mq+ #> ]\T <=sT
sT. B+ |T& $|+> b>T&
n++L |sT>TT+T+~.
|+|D|< ~| kq+, n+f
Xd+# ksTT +T+~. <
& +T+~. nsTT u>
|] ksTT e# n~ neTT&T
be+ we TT+~. neTT&T bbe+
nH~ H neds+ <T. =H X
b eyT sD+. n+f de+
|+|D |< H =qT>\T X +&
#dT+~. n+<Te\ * bT+~.
|+|D |< |sT>T<\qT
s~dT+~. n|& |s>\+f
b |+|D |< ~]+# |<T.
$<+ > j $<H\
|sT>T<\L, |+|D |< eT<
sJ |TsD @s&TT+~. BH
X\L, d+u+<\ |TsD
n+{eTT. |T sD @ ksTT +T+
<+f <H={ HXq+ #dT e{
|jTksTT. n&Te{,
]q HXq+ #jT { H{
|+|D |< |jTdT+~. eTsy|
|+|D |< H HXq+ #d qqTL\yTq
eTs |+|D| < @ssTe{
|jT dT+ ~. s +{ @<
| * + d ~ + # < | T s D
=qk>TT+~. = d+<s\
d+ _+#+, =+ HXq+>e+ ]
|+|D |< T \T jT<$~> =qk>e#T.
n+eT+> e +
|sT>T<\ nqT>TD+> |+|D|<T
e]bT+{sTT. n e]be&H
ke $|e+ de esT

n+{+.
@ de+HH m ]
+~? < |+|D m ]+~ nH<
f de+ esZ\THj? y?
nH~ eTq+ ns+ #dT >\+. <VsD
~eT \+ r, |+|D s +& L&
d$Tw>H ]>$. $T> n deC
\q X$T\ eTT #dq
<|q V<T. =+<] eyT
+&~. $T> X$T\+<s eT d
JeH<s $$< |<T\ (ud
\T>, us<X+ dV+&
de\TCd e \dT\T>, sT\T>,
yq L\T>) b+<ysT. n+<Te\
de+ $$< esZ\T> $&bsTT+~.
n+f ]> |<, |+|D ]>
|< ys T < + @s&+~. yTT+ #]+
ysT<\ #]. n+<T esY
eqeC #]+ esbZ s{\ #]
nH&T.
de+ ]> n esT\L,
sjT $|y \L sD\qT eTq+
ne>VqH y * +T+~. j
deC\ , |+|D ]>
esT nd\T sD\T. s+sjT+>
]> esT de+ $T> n
$wj \q, n+f sj \T, b\qH
|<T\T, eT+, \T, kV+, d
\T e>s n+X\qT L& esTdT+
{sTT. yTT+ esT\ deVsyT
eqeC #]> eTq+ ns+ #dT
y*.
n +& =+eT+~ >=| e\
#q\, dHwD, <sk|qd+
ysT ]|q w eyT de esT
\ sD\T C\e. n+<T m+>
n+{&T: de esT\ sD\T
de+ Xd+ <=se.

de+ ]$ wj \ (nsX
d+) <=sTsTT (kw*+ `}V
+, XdjT+)
|sT>T<\ nqT>TD+> |+|
D|< es&H d+u+<\T
es+ n+{+. n+f b ke
eed e] = eed $s$+#+
sT>TT+~. de |]De, #]q
$<+ > yd$ +>q, Xdj
T +>q
ns+ #dTe+ esY, m+>\
bs+uyT+~. n+<T B e]dT
#] <<+ n L& n+{sT.
||+ # y|+ > |]DeTe
|]o*+q|&T, #] |{esL

|<q+> 5 |]DeT <X\T >T]+#


&sTT. ~eT, ud, |P&, |T&
<, kw*dT $<H\T> n$
|\e&sTT. nsTT ||+#eT+
$<+>H |]DeT+ #+~+<, #+<*
+T+< u$+#+ ds+~ <
{ e * \+ # ] s T \T e T
|]X<q \ <s s|+#sT. eTTK+>
u s < X + | ] DeT+
| \ D \ k+~. k< s D
s|+ #| q 5 |]DeT<X n+{
e]kjT u$+#+>, e]+#*+<
q y~+#+> |&y <+ | eTs{
< T . j T s| ud $< H

XeTX es{ esT\T


(15e |J sTysTT)
2005`2010 eT< \+ k~+#>*
>sTT. >D+\T d\ Crj
|sT>T<\ nqT>TD+> b~ \q
neX\T |s> < q $wj sTEe
#dT H sTT.
||+NsD $<H\ H|<+
|T & , X e TX eT< +&*q
deT\+ |T& nqTL\+>q,
XeTX |L\+>q e]b+~.
|T& nqTL\yTq n+>sD+
Bs \+ =qk>+ XeTX es{
eT]+ \Vq|&T T+~. \Vq
H|< + |T& usk s\T & eT
yq u\T |+#TH X L&
]<e &b+~. |]d T
H |T&<sT\T eT u\T eT]+
|+#TH+<TL, |T& dMTsD,
+BsDqT =qk+#+<TL XX
]\ kq+ * ]\qT
jT$T+#+ bs+_ksT . BH Ee
CwH n+THsT. us< X + L& >
<X\+> #T #dT q |]DeT+
jTT <Twuy\T H&T e+ neTH
sTT. $wjTe eT]+ T>
ne>Vq #dTy\+f \+
us ] eed b+~ eq esT
\qT |]o*+#*.
Ee ]\ |sT>T<\ sD+:
us ] eed eekjT s+>+
b bZ +~. B+bT d\
Crj eekjTs+>+ y{

bZ +~. esT\ bf ee
kjT s+>+ d+ b~ \q keT
s+ Zb +~. B+ >DjT yTq
d+K >MTD XeTX es{
>DjTyTq y{ |D b+\ s*
y+~. n+<T. |sT>TTq
ejT+ eekjT s+>+ ]+ > u
k{ s+>+> b e+, |uT + qT+&
<sD sT e e+ B eTTK sD+.
<+ n|{ es eekjT s+>+|
<s|& q eekjT ]\T |D \
#] djT+b~ y |&sT . n+<Te\
H > |< \+ djT+ b~ <s
JeHb~ b+<y] d+K |]+<
mHmdtmdt ds dw+ #k+~. |]D
eT+ nd+|T { s+>+ |D b++
+& b~ neX\| & |]
&e+& $T+q XeTX es{
n+<TuT ek+~. |*+> T
d+|T { s+>+ |T&, XeTX eT<
deT\+ |T& nqTL\+> e]qf
nd+|T{ s+>+ d+ deT\+
|T& nqTL\+> esT+~. T
e+{ <X XeTX n+&> \y*q
|uT+, sC+> jT++ ||+NsD
$<H\ H|<+ q b bw+#
b+~. |* +> n V+>T\T q
|T& X eTT+<T @ V+>T\
XeTX \+ Mb+~. |D[ d+|T +
$&T<\ #dq >D+\ yTs CrjT
] eed b]X$T s+>+ y{
s+&Tqs <Xu\ \+ |<>

us<X eTeT> e]
+|CddT
e]
>+ |eTTK eTdT HjT&T
mdt.@.&+> s+q >+<+ e
#+<TT+~.
C esY q s#q \ @H&
5 <X\ $<H\
eyT |]$TyT ]^jT<T. |>
jTq us<X+ >T]+ sdq yk\
q, + = s s#q \q
nsTT<T <X , + =
$<H\ >T]+ L& # dw+ >
|s=q+ ]+~. $wj \ >12345
T]+
sTy yk\ |]o*<+. 12345
12345
12345
12345

|]+~ <T . <+ s+>+ Ob~


neX\ \q keTs + L& |]+~
<T . |y { s D $<H\ e\ b]X$T
s+>+ deT\+ d + |uT |T&
~| <X qT+& |y T |T& ~|
< X # s T +~. | * + > | y T
|T& ke u< \T b e+
q u\ s T b&Te{ M\T>
b~ \q keTs Z+#T+
b+~.
s+&T <Xu\ ] d+dsD\
nq+s+ us<X ] eed
|]De\ Bs\+> <={
&T e+ H&T XeTX es{
d u e+ | P ] > e]b+~. B
<Twuy\T |sT>TTq ] n+s\
s|+ eTq |dT H sTT. \+
d\ Crj $wjT+ |s>
k~+q ] eed <qT>TD+>
b~ \q e+ |s> k~+#
bsTT+~. n+<Te\H y| q $<o es
<e \\T, $<o |T&T\T, m>TeT
T\T, ~>TeTT\T, e+{ d ] $<
H\ $wjT + |s> |+H |<]
+, sT<>+, ] n+s\T e+{ ]
eed s> y\&#d |eD\
$wjT + yq&q <X\ dsd q #sT T
HeTT. $<+> d\ Crj
b+~ ndeq |+|D <X <X+
|\ eT< ] n+s\ \yTq
|H<T\T |&TTHsTT. ] n+s
\qT jT++ <jT |+|D deT+
dyT q ksTT +#*q |uT + |
b bwk+~. <+ n+s\T
$|+> |sT>TTqT |D [ 12345
d+|T +
12345
12345
y\& #dTHsTT.
12345
12345
20

e]
dT + | +
ed

| T&< eed
u><T ds...
eT] eTq+
y*?
y & b #] L& O+< *d HqT L& m\

` b d{

usY rdT= b nuT<jT ^+ uD MT $|+# |jT+ nyT] zy q>s #+~q b


#dy&. # bb. 17e X+ ~ &>sZ Y (>T\T rdy) nH d{ s& |C+ $<q |]X<&T.
|T&< es b\<+ b&b. \+<T\ ||+#+s ~ #] |]X<&T. bjTT&T. nH |d
eTT& nHb. n~ $|+ O+<TqT. b #sD + $q+&. \ s#s TT. jTq sdq yk\T nyT]
<<| n |<q | |#T]
y #dq #{\T
eTeT+{sTT. jTq <<| 60 es
eTq #T{q d+
s&j, {M +s\T #sT. jTq
y eT >TsTe\T eTq
yT+\T + nyT] MT& j
dsZ b|sdT n B$dT+{sT.
<sq$TdT+{sTT. b d{ eT+ e
y e+ eTq* b+
L&. 2010 @| 17q jTe]{ |t
=dT{ sT.
$THk{ kw*dT |ejT+ <
y <e&T |seT _
s+ ]q kw*dT d<dT jTq
Oq y <|&TT+{&T.
|<k<\qT * e&TdT+{&T.
#dq |d+>| d+|bs+ ~:
*H de ]+# <eD
e Hq yjT+> yjT+
yjTTe $Tq XSq+ ] d++
ds H>T]+ #| y\+f HH= \TdTy\+f y kV+ n< jTq+ o
<

jT |j H C]bsTT,
$|es kw*dT. H s+& @ qT+& #j * nH~ jTq>] d<+ . e eTw, d eTw
eT< ks |j H\,
HqT kw*dT> OHHy , H |< $T b|d s Y >] e |s+ HqT eTdT ] y<M\
| eTs s d++
<e @ HqT kw*dT> \ &d& s TT |D[ #~yqT. n+ #~y nj <eT d s
esZ+ ~>CsT
bj. m+<T+f @&< HqT sYe sY $ T+#*, C |d + H XT e dT+ ~ n+{sT. e> T y$\Te\
sT>]
`@+> sdq eTdT |D[ <T, $TT &T n #b\ |++~.
bsTT.
|
$

e
TqT

qe
|

e*q
|$eTqTqe
(1848) |d + #~yqT. N{ ks+>+
$>

*
bsTT...
|e*qy bTHsTT
Oq y <] #|+# y\T>TB|+
nusTT\, |&< < ]+~.
eTdT |D[ # y\T
+{~ |d+. HqT HsY *HsTTdt
MTs
T
nyT]H {M #q\sTTH |+&.
jTe]{ #<T e+Tq sE eTq* s+s+ y+{&TT+{sTT. |T @+ @q&
+~ MT? O<>\T
sjT Xd+ dT q |d + #<e &< eed sTy |]b\q m sTTq y T>TT]+#,
qT+& >+{yjT
eT #| q Cky j
${+> b|d s Y e+T+< # #bsT: de+ &qy >T]+#, q
|< + qT+&
| $Ty~, | eTdT es. deTd+... sj\T, \T, kV | +q y >T]+#, dseH
d+ e T+
qTe XTe>T]+ \Ty*, n +, d+d dV n dVjT+>,
21

| T&< eed
MTsT @ nyT]H {M #q\sTTH |+&. O<>\T
sTTq y >T]+#, qT+& > +{yj
T &qy
>T]+#, qsH |< + qT+& | +q y >T]+#,
de d+eT+ s]+#&q y >T]+#, s+&T
|P +& H#T y >T]+#, \ ~ nu>T\
>T]+# MT m& q&<T . neT\ >T]+N, es{qT
eTT+#q dsT \ >T]+# MTsT #dT+ {sT. m+<T+f
y e*+~ &, u+ s +&.

s]+#&q y >T]+#, s+&T|P


+& H#T y >T]+#, \ ~
nu>T\ >T]+# MT m& q&<T.
neT\ >T]+N, es{qT eTT+#q dsT
\ >T]+# MTsT #dT+ {sT. m+<T+f
y e*+~ &, u+ s+&.
sTy esZ+ >se|<yTq O<
>\ d>T Z rd eT _&Xs+ Hfd T + ~.
&sTqT, jTsTqT, eT
>TsTeqT, $, XdyqT....
mesH+ n+<] yq ]\T>
esdT+ ~ n #bsT esY ` @+>
eT eTdT |D[. MTsT #|+&
y +H _q+> @eTH sT>T
+<? HHeT< b|dsY
e{&qT. MT <>Zs |C|jCH\
#{ nud+q $<sT\T |&T @+
#dT H s n&>qT. #<T e& #dq
u+ n|\T rs& && =s=s{
+|\ O<>\ <TsTHsT
# eT+~ n y_#&jTq. n>
ke Xd b|d s qY T L& jTq
<>sZ #<T eq |\\ T |&+ #dT H s
n&>qT. y #dq |.V#Y.& |{\
>T]+ n&>qT. < jTq #| q de
<q+ @$T{ \Tk. "! @ |{ rdT
+f @+ <Ts. |&T y #
eT+~ $$< <X\ |C+ Vs, $
eTjT n\y >T]+ $Xw+ .m|t.d,
yT&=H e+{ VQC +|\L,
d>s { +|\L de#s n+~+#
yX > e]bjsT nH&T. |\
}jT+, eT<T yTV+, }|] T\ j
T
e+{ T\ s \jT +|\ <>sZ
J\ <TsTHsT eTq |.V#Y.&
|{<sT\T. +=+eT+~ nyT] sD
XK de#s $Xw \T> |#dT H sT.
||+# <X\ MT< <w+ #jT&,

| eqsT\T =\>=& nyT]H


sDXKL, <X<X\ \+> ySqT
e& VQC +|\L q
de#s kjT+ n+~dTHsT.
b*+# ns <T
1848H sTy esZ b*+#
deTs, ns <T. sTy ud+
q ud O >s+{ #jT q+
#e~ n esY ` m+>\T #bsT.
sTy es+Z O de+ m+
e+ us sTT+#< T n y #| &+
=+<sbT O+<y n|++~.
nqTeq+ < n eT< H eTsk]
H |d \ ;sTy Oq |d
jT rd #~y... + eTT+<T
#~$+< nsTTH <<| eT]bj.
VsY +|t n |+ |sesD
s#sTT sdq |d+ n~. V ~ ]#Y
sY &ksTT+> ~ msY (d+|qT\T
u$T m+ <T+|HXq+ #dTHsT)
nH~ |d+ |sT. u|+ |]b
e&+ |, | y|]\ | d+|q
esZ\T m+ O<oq+> OHj VQ
#> $e]dT+~ |d+. eT u
\T |+#Te&, u $T =\>=&
eT n+>, ns O|j > |T
|sesD |]sD d+ |uT \T,
|C O<e\T #dT q |jT \qT
esZ\T eeTT#dTHsTT. qsY eTV
e] $d] +# n_e~ d<+, ne
<T \T ] $ds D q MsT \+q>
#dT+THs | ` |<]+, nu<
\qT s|eb\, d+|< |+|D s
>\ sTsT n k<VsD+>
|d+ $e]k&T. |T& L$T
(esY ` @+>\T O<V ]+q sTy
es+Z ) #d sj
\T ||+ # (|sesD)
d+u <] rd+<T | + > sD

e] dT
eTeTHsTT. n\$e*q u e~
<V<+ #d sj\ e\ |&Tq
ke eedq T jT<<+ > =qk+
#&, |& |C+ nqTu$dTq
ke nHj m\\+ u] +#
O+#& esZ\T X< |jT
dTH sTT n+{&jTq.
|T&< n_e~ d<++ m+
{ eT <\ qT eTq $|dT + < MT
\TdT ` n_e~ nH~ deTT<|\
| mdq|&T n+<] |&e\ |
>TksTT n #TsT. s{\T
| md +< $]|&q |&T @+ sT>T
T+< #| sT. nbsyT q d+|< nH deTT
<+ X+> Oq d+|qT\T
z& OHsqT+f 99 X+ eT+~
\T|& e \T, HT |&e \T, | OHsT.
deTT<+ bT rdq|&T Oqy
y eT< Oq ndeq\T eT]+>
jT\esTT. HT|&e\T, |\T
rs =T= dT ~>&bsTT.
O<VsD #| H H&T u |+
e\ +>H deTT< eT{\T |sT>TT
HsTT, eT+#T=+&\T sT >TTHsTT. es
<\T bfTTHsTT, eT{ #]jT\T L*
bTHsTT. n&e\T n+]+bTH
sTT. esY`@+>\T $e]+qT |
, deC eT<q O+& deT\+
<b+~.
deTd\{ eT\+ @$T+f..
[q, +|=&TTq eed n
s#sTT #|q $wj >TsT#d
eedq T q&| b\esZ L& B
\b\ Hq+THqT.
kw*dT ue
eT&T ys\ + njy d{
=+ eT+~ |s jTT HqT uU
|TH VsT> z eTTdjTq #T
s> H&, C nH&> `
u> e +T&T d>> =j, qTeP ue
kw*dTy nH&T. HH D+ dsT
|<jTH, qTe nq<H e
e+ +. u> e +T&T H d> k&
< HqT kw*dTH . us ue
kw*+ >T]+ MT @MT +&H
e{&TTqTHsT n de<q+
#b.
+ ys+q, OsH q>s+
22

e] dT
X+ HjT+ nH d+d |*q MT{+>
y. MT{+> d+ *HsTTdt qT+&
| { j o\ f& jTjTH ss
q T L& e#&T. HqT MT{+> #b
nqT n$ M n&T>T e
#b&T. y H\+ *+H s
n+{ q\C n< &T ue s|+
nyT] <&T nqT+THsT H
<w qT L& |# n< & (n+f
|#H <T |#H eTw). qT
L& b\esZ\ qT eTT nH&T.
<+ MT{+> V k]> d<T
+~. =~ DH me me
eT+~ nqT @eTH& nseTsTT+<qT
+{ yT <sY qTe #|+~ nq
e\T $|+#sTT.
HT |sks swH s#sTT C]
s \ esq \ e~]> u
eq, &y { b yq kw*dT
\T> n_e]dT + f MT d+>y > H
|seT $s+ ydT+~. #\{ <e&
k> #b\+f |<eTw s=s{
d_&\T e&+ # meTT e
sE. nyT]H ] eed |L\&
sDyTq |H jT |sqJ$ +|\
|qT\ s|D |\T #*+ q keTTqT
q><T ~ |<+ +< <|&+
d]= ]sT\ T dw+ #&T. jTq>]q
{e{ d_&\T n+<Tq +|\
eTT+<TesTd eq qs y{sY +|
y ||+ #+ m& & jTjTq
}dT <X+ e+< n& b+T |{
#> sqT O #k+~. sTy
esZ+ u\ <V+ ||+#+ m&
H |T& q&|d T + ~ n esT`m+>
\T eTdT |D[ #|qf <
VQC +|\T #dT + B.
ue #|{ q s>;e d+ds
D\qT nT d+d]+ T d+d]+
yTT & qsH +|\T ` u
eT+<T\ |]XeT |ed<+> j sT
#X&T. n> |H V>H (&HsY s
<) y&T. b]X$T+> n_e~
#+~q <X\T $&T<\ #d s q O<Zs\
eT\+> yesD y{\TTq
eTT|qT #jT +& +<q +|\
|+<\T #dT=#&T. esT eTq
k< yT nq q m\ H<+ ye
sD esT\ $wj e#d] esT
23

| T&< eed

yd{ (nyT]H k es{)qT &


#jT& ue >{ |jT\+ @MT
#jT &+ <T . d E
m+ | << s TT |H n+
neX\T e nq nyT]H s=s{ d<+
|P]> +{+#TH&T. n+<T k
es{qT < jT<sksTT ~+#+<T d<
|& + <T .

ue: kw*dT <T key~

eTq |< T , <T j ssTT+~ n


m<y #X&T ny< s#s TT esY C&.
sH b nsTT ue s=s{
y~ n+ $T+ nqT kw*dT y~
H <T nH&T.
yd{ (nyT]H k es{)qT
& #jT & ue >{ |jT \+
@MT #jT&+ <T. dE m+ |<<
sTT |H n+ neX\T e
nq nyT]H s=s{ d<+ |P]>
+{+ #TH&T. n+<T k es{
qT < jT<sksTT ~+#+<T d<
|&+ <T. n> m+bsT | #sTTdt
j rdTekq #dq y>H
eTT+<T rdTsb THsT. #+
ed jTjTH #s& O<>T\
V edT+ ~. |dT + nyT] +{
V yTC]{ ]esZ <T . |y T
s+> |]XeT\ jTjTH du+ 6
X+> e+<+fH nyT]H ]esZ
d ] V\T m+{ eT>y
*jTek+~. #{ |T& es
dT+~. n+<T ue L& esdT
HsT. > @&~ OB|q b _\TqT
neT& ue sY |\s Y +|
V&ssY y&T. >H Vj+
dyT\qT u>+ #d< $q\
eTTs\qT |+ bw+q +| ~.

] \T, d + | T { | ] X e T
O<>T\T ue qT+ +#& @+
$T*q?
+ ue ` sY |\s Y +|
eT< Oq *+ >T]+ jT |{+ ~
mes \TdT> ` HyT #yTd. n+
<T OB|q\ b <s KsT #d
keTTqT <X y Vd& y
neds+ m+H e+<H |] sqT
O #d dsTTH +|\ s*dTq
yq + >T]+ L& HyT #yTd VsZ +
#X&T. C s q T ]+#>* > d,
H| D+ Oq Vj s ]\
| +& #X&T. $T&yd t {s+>
|]XeTqT eT|{ s O b+qT
#HL, eT* edT\T, syD s+>
neds\qT rs& O< +q +{
sq T dsTTH +|\L u { q ue
$<H\qT kw*dT $<H\T nq>\e?
| |> nyT] sD XK #]
H n u &{ {sTT+|\T #X&T
eTq n< &T. {sTT+|\ usTT+>,
s ~j H +|\ q d_&\ ysT >
#|qs<T. nyT]H > $T*
eed <T ~ key< |{
jTT<\T q&T|+~. (~\T H\T> <
n nqT+&) s, |H, bkH,
jTyTH, ke*j\qT |{ks+
nDyd {H nyT], | K+&
<X |> o\ O<e\qT nDyd
qjTsY scqT s#>=&T ||+#
O~ \ qT |+ bwk+~. f u
eqT kw*dT n mesH n+f H
sT =dT+ ~.
kw*+ n+f @$T{?
eTq<X+ kw*+ n+f ]e
ed |uT+ C+ #dTe&+ n
bsbT> nsTTH ds $]$> qeTTsT.

| T&< eed
kw*+ n+f 1) d#, deq+, |CkeT+,
ke $j>| $\Te\ d+ O $<q+|
]esZ jT+D O+&*. 2) u\ d+ +&
|\ OeT& |jH\ d+, de+ eqe
\+<] neds\T rs~> jeY ] eedqT |C
k$T+> |D[<+> q&b*. kw*eT+f
| T&< eedq T, + d{> #b\+f usq
eedqT s|e|+.

bsbT ne>Vq e\H $Ty<T\T


ueq, &y{\q kw*dT\H
eTs| n+#H O+{sT. C&+
|&T O<sy<T\ L& b+~. ]
eed |uT C+ O+&\H &+
|<+> qeTTqT { HqT L&
kw*dT\ e ekqqT+TH n
# | O<s y < T \T #eT+~
sd|&sT H eT<.
M] y<q ds+~ <T.
y<q n \yTq eT&T n
keq |X \T |+#sTT. ` mesT?
m+<T? <d+? |uT + C+ ,
ke $<q+ mesT, m+<T,
<d+ #dTHsT nH< < \+.
yd{ usTT ne{ bJ\T, s=s{
d_&\T, d+ e T |< \T |&
ue |b ~+#+ \d+ nT
]|_qT, T &yT M{ ud>
*#s + f ` M + me] | q
\&qT? me] =eTT dTq T? me]
|j H\ d+ dT\T eT]dTq T?
nyT]H keq |C+ dy,
]es+Z dy nsTT <T <. B
s |T&< C+ n u$+
yeT| y<T\T L& >+<s >
|&H\? ns ~ nyT]H <q y<
esZ\ |j H\ d+ s+ C+
#dTe&+ <? eTV nsTT ~
s=s{ kw*+ neT +<y H
*dq kw*+ nsTT e+ <T.
kw*dTq sTTq HqT (s n+X\
bT) |uT C+ ]esZ |j
H\qT &s ~> e+&\ sT+{.
kw*+ n+f \ |sd s <]
n+X\ yTT<\eT +~. 1) d#, deq
+, |CkeT+, ke $j>|
$\Te\ d+ O $<q+| ]esZ

jT+D O+&*. 2) u\ d+ +
& |\ OeT& |j H\ d+, de
+ eqe\+<] neds\T rs~>
jeY ] eedqT |Ck$T+>
|D[<+> q&b*. kw*eT+f
|T&< eedqT, + d{>
#b\+f usq eedqT s|e
|+.
>T+| =&TTq u\ eed
|T&< $<q+ n+f @$T{?
yudsY y] sejTe X| &q
@+ e+<+f ` @< ] eed
O |+|D k<H \T (u $T, b \T,
s ` s&T esZ\T e+{$) yTT+>,
d+Vu>+> |yT e\ #T
e+& u\T >&+#Te+{ |]d
e+f dV+>H d+|< #f b>T
|& bT+~. |<| u s=s{ d+d\ T
@s&sTT. |uT jT+D\T |sT>T
sTT. nTe+{ eedH |T&<
eed n+{sT.
s # q + qT+& H\T> T
n+X\qT eTq+ eTTK+> >eT+#*:
1) |T&< eed q s
#q+H |uT C+ >DjT+>
e+T+<H~ n~]+> #bsT. {
|uT C+ |]q+ eq |T&
< eed L*bT+<H~ + <T.
2) |T&< $<q+ n_e~
njT eT+ ku$+> & s=s{
+|\T ne]kjT | s#q+ $e]
dT+ ~. +<T eT< es+Z <T . =+<sT
y~dTq T eqMjT |T&< $<q+
k<+ <T. m+<T+f sTy eed
|T&< jeq CsTTr,
|T&< eed e*q s=s{
jeH eT< d+s d++<+
@sT #j\H |{ sTy d+dsD

e] dT
\ b\esZ\T MdyTT $\Te ee.
]+> #d s=s{ eed nH~
sTy |+<\qT #~+#T= n_
e~ e*+<. +<T u|jT |
]esZ+ jT+D, |Ck$T ]
|D[\ neXyT O+&<T.
3) |T&< $<q+ eed
| ] yq ud\T> esTdT+ ~.
4) yudsY &q |T&< $<
H q s#q+ |CkeT+,
d# nH |<\qT m& y&<T.
nyT]H |< q de+ MT&j >, s
jT d+$<q+ > |T&< $<q+
n+fH |CkeT+ ` d# nH \D \
|sjT|<+ nH |&T |#s+
#dT + {sTT.
|T&< $<q+ n+fH d+|<
+BsDL, u\T b>dTe{
}$T# ] eed. & s=s{
+|\ |{\ T. n+<T $y+ >\ y
me s H |T & < $< q+
|CkeT+ nH~ O+&<T, e\+ s=
s{ keT+ q&TdT+T+~ n &+
|<+ > #TT+{sT. =+&=# s=s{
+|\qT |uT |<q\ L&
O<V]+#~ <cH.
ydy |T&< $<q+ nH~..
|CkeT+, d#, }sTeT& |j H
\T, djT+ |]b\q e+{ bX O<
ueq\ eT*+>H es. due
| n_e~ s< ] eed.
$<q+ ds| duy\T m e+{
jTH~ +d $|\+> #|y\+f:
` n|Ck$T+> eT]+ d+|<
+BsD L, n|]$T n~s\L <]
rd eed
` nbsyT q d+|< b>dTq <H &
esZ\ |j H\L, ndeT <j\T,
Jeq u< $T, $<, y<+, yd+
e+{ eT* edT\T sTyq ]esZ
|\ |jH\L eT< s+s+
|T sD sT>TT+T+~.
` yTC]{ |C yq ud\T
> esdT+~.
` | |<T\ $| <sDT\T,
jT++, ndeT | $u q =qk>T
T+{sTT.
` u<jTyTq <|& neX+
24

e] dT
e+fH |. |T& |j q+, ue T
e+fH Ob~. n+f nsTT yq ud
+ +f sT<>+. s+& |\
eTT+<T e+& |ej\T
` | |<X+ eTq+ dw+# d+|
<L , jTe |j H\L eT< >
` eTq+ <e|{q XeTL, < jT
eqT\T f K<TL eT< > b+H
e+&<T ( s+&+{ eT< ekH
n<q| $\Te> *#b&T esY)
` ke, eqMjT $\Te\|
es| $\Te ~|+ #sTTd
H + ~y rsTTdT+~.
|ssT sD >T]#dT+~.
` |y T jeq+ O |& *
eq |ks, |#s k<H\T |\ n_
bj\qT b\esZ\ |j H\ nqT
>TD+> eT*#+<TL, ydy\ eTd
d es&TjT #jT&, k+d
+> D $\Te\T |+ bw+#&
ns\T X$TdT+ {sTT.
` q |T&<sT\L, sjT
HjT\L eT< u<sjTD d++
<\T |#> e]\TT+{sTT. eT<T|<
sT\ keTTqT s=s{ +| &ssT
cs+> KsT #dT+{sT. M] s
jT HjT\ edT e+T+~.
` $T* + MT< n> <s
|&TT+~. $<+d jTT<\ Or,
$j>+ <s #d $<+k\ qT+&
u\qT b>dTH need \|&
||+#y|+> q s\T k esD
eT+ kdT+ T+~.
` e]> #| y\+f |T
&< $<q+ s+s+ u\T b>dT
H s+~ JyesD <T+|HXq+
#jT& L& yqT&<T. q ybs
|j H\ d+ |sesD reyTq
$|+ *dT+T+~. n+<T H
$wjT yT V+>] e]dT y~ kH yTdtC]dt
nq e\T s# >TsT =dT+ {sTT.
y, s| deTso\ |C O<e
\ u$w < nqT+f eqy[
eTqT>& <Tsu+ ne+ UjT+ n+{
&q T.
y eTq+ mTe+{ |e<s y T q ,
nXdjTyTq <sy<+ TTH
eT+f e\+ u\ MT< u\T d+b
25

| T&< eed
y eTq+ mTe+{ |e<syTq, nXdjT
yTq <sy<+ TTHeT+f e\+ u\
MT< u\T d+b~+#{ eTq+ mqT <qeT
<T| ke+... jT+ <sDT\ |sesD
<T+|HXq+ y| HfdT+f, +{ |#T eedqT
L\<jT+& eTq+ |Ck$T eqMjT $\Te
\qT eTT+< rdT > \ + nH u e T e+TH+.

~+#{ eTq+ mqT <qeT<T|


ke+... jT+ <sDT\ |s
esD <T+|HXq+ y| HfdT+f,
+{ |#T eedqT L\<jT+&
eTq+ |Ck$T eqMjT $\Te\qT
eTT+< rdT>\+ nH ueT e+T
H+.
Ls ndeq\T
HqT +eTT+<T esY`m+>
eTdT |D[ qT+& @+ O<V]+
#H eTsk] >TsT #dTHqT. sTy
ud + q ud O >s+{ #jT
q+ #e~. n+<T sTy esZ
b*+# ns, deTs <T nHsT
esY`m+>. neH < \Te
{ @ |< <X\ |C+ <Tss
|]dT\ >T]+# \TdTqs<T,
u eT+&\+H d+|q <X\T> n\ssT
Tq <X yTC]{ |C| Jeq
|eD\T m OHj |]o*d #\T.
eTssTT $ d+|q<X\T m nsTTqT?
d+|q T y n+f OHsTT.
sT\T s |&+ d+|<+yTq
J$\T >& | yS OHsT. y
n+{ J$\T m <sTT? >
ns X+> nqVyTq ], $dsD
y< sb\q, n\$e*q $jT
eT< \q n&+ |T d+b~+
+< d+|< n+. y ||+#
y|+> 200 | \T Hu
sE &\sT (50 sbjT\T) H
e <j\ eTT]y&+{ yd
b+ T&TdTHsT. ||+#
|T&< eed <><>jTeq+>
eTq>\>& 80 X+ sT #
|C+ sp #d TTHsT.
n+<T kH yTdtCdt n+{&T eTq
q$ s+& esZ\T... nsTT kw*+

+f ss (sd) s+ n.
||+ #+ y eTTHq& q+
{ nbsyTq edT d+|< O O+~.
||+# n> sCH \~ eT+~
|C d+|<q T nqTu$ +# ne
X+ +& bsTT+~. bsYf+ O<>
dT\ qT L& O<>dT \ T> rdTH
y sT< sT 1930e <X+
eTV e+<+ H{ sT< H m
e> O+~. H dd\ yTq > q>s+
<T ysT b+ ed+# |\
40 X+ eT+~... nyT]H |& s |uT
|eD\ |s+ #dH n~]
<]< sK H ~>Teq J$dTHsT.
$THk{, zy{H e+{ |D \ qT+&
y\Te& k |\T L& < $wjT+
#TTHsTT. nyT]H KCH |qT\T
#*+# Hu ~>Te 50 X+ eT+~
#T Oq d+<| <X d+|< e
\+ 2.5 X+ eyT . m>Te O+& 10
X+ Hu e+ 70 X+ d+|<q T
nqTu$ dTH sT nH ydy \qT |\T
VsZ + #dT H sTT. +{ Ls ndeq
\T Oq eedq T @+ #j *? >=sTT
rd > {\q eTdT |D[
O<< +& eTq eTT+<T ys |e
jT+ @eTH O+<?
XTe ys m& &T
eT] eTq+ | #j \+f @+
#j *. |T& < eedq T s*+
#& eTq+ #|f O<e yTq
yeT| O<eT+> eT\#>\>*. +
#| y\+f y eTq <X+ H\=
Oq |]d T \qT |=& nedsy T q
sjT ` sD <>\ |>o\
yeT|+ eTq bsTT+~. yTdtCdt
#| qT eTq \+ L& ny< deT
so\ |C O<e\T +& b eq

y[ u$ wT nH +& bT+~ nq
$wjT + L& eTq >eTq+ O+&*.
n+{ deTso\ sD sjT
yeT|+ +&be& d>+ eTq+
sD+, d+>+ eTq+ <T n #|
y*. <X+ b\ esZ\T sD
|> o\ ueC\ y| \Te]+#
& u&T ke`sjT |T&
KsT #d OHsTT. m+<T+f |
#jT b y n~s, d+|<q
\uTe&+ nk<+. ||+#+
$T> n # H & nyT]
|T&< ] eed \uTe&+
y{ \+. n+<T b\esZ\T
| #dT H sTT.
eTq $wj ed |]d T \
eTq+ sD+ m nj+ nH~ H
|d+ >q+s+ =qk> |Xs \ s
eT+ $e]k. n+H eTT+<T yT
|dtqsY nH z jTTe d&T > @&~
&d+sT s jTT< d\ du
@eTqB MT <w kqT: <X+
d+|qT\T eT]+ d+|qT\T e&+
d+, eT ks |jH\ d+ <X+
|<\q, |ssTT <X+ |<\q

wJ e\q #+|& jTT<+ yTT<\T


|{sT . HqT s jTT<+ bZ &
mH T+u\qT M<T \ bk qT. ]
+{ e<TqT >< <X+ \~
T+u\qT b\esZ\T M<T\ b
ksTT. H |&T z $wjT + nsy T + ~.
e<X sD |] nyT] |uT+
eTeT* s jTT<+ q&|++~.
yqT XTe\T> r]++~. y
}, |sT, y d+d L& e
*jT<T. bsTT jTT<+ #X+.
nd\T XTe &, >& MT< OH&T.
y |sT eTq \TdT. yqT eTq+
>TsT |>\+ L&. u\T ekjTqT
+f jTT<\L, qs yT<\L dV+
yqTBjT eed u+ <qT+f
\ ~ eT+~ Ob~ V]+ y] T+
u\qT M<T\ bdT+~. u+ <qT
+f s=s{ +|\ d..z.\T eTq
O<>\T |ksT. u+ s<qT+f
eTq u+\T eTq =+|\T y\+ yksTT.
u+ <qT+f qsH +|\T
s> ;eqT m>yksTT. n+f eTq
XTe, m& y\ yT <s+ &T.
& >& MT< OH&T. eed...

n_bj\T
d< + ne>Vq O|j >s +
e]dT d< + | edTq
yk\T e m+ O|j > s+ >
O+THsTT. eTdT\ |H , eTdT
b\|H eTT| <& sT>TTq H{
sTD+ b XDT\T |d]>
d<+ ne>Vq |+#Ty\H
O<X + |#T ]+#&T Tq |qT
| s #< y\ n_bjT|&T
THqT. e]dT edTq d]
b d+ nH >\T #dq eTV
jTT\ >T]+ \TdT+THeTT. n<
$<+> s|Te\T>sT bs\T n&>
|X \ de<H\T #<e +e\ yTeTT
|# dTq eT+ |\qT+& m<Ts=+
Tq |X\ b H $esD
e>\T>T THeTT.
E H\ |#T]+q |uY
|{jT yd+ <s eTdT\,
kw &y Oq |< q ed+
nse TsTT+~. yk . d s+H
>sT #dq nqTy<+ # ds+>,
n+<] nse TjT> O+~.

u+>, s m\ |* \ $Xw
D <s eTq+ |D b+ |\ deTd
\|q eT]+ <w |{ |#j\
\Tk+~. ||+ NsD ue T\qT+& jTTe
qT jT rdT e y] # q
|s#ed O+< nseTe+~.
d#q\T:
1. CrjT, sh sjT |]d T\T,
esT |< q yTq n+XqT |H
|+> $e]d y{ d++~+q
d q T eTq jT{ #s |Te&
u>T+T+~.
2.|uT $<H\e\ eTV, jTTe
q, $<] s+> m<Tse Tq deTd
\qT y{ |]cs esZ \qT L& eT+
|+& $e] d+f O|j>s+>
O+T+~.
3. Ms \+>D bs #],
eTdT O<eT #] e+{$ <s
yV+> |#T]d u>T+T+~.
sY.mH. e<$, < s<]
>b\|+, $XK|+ `28

sd |T&< eed eTq


e]b*
dT
yTq XTe. \ \TqT { eTq*
eTq+ n~ \+> u$dTH +. eTq*
neqMjT jTT<+ ~+q _*jT
s us+ |& e#|{ eTq
d \L, s |C OeT& XTe
& nq Cq+ | \T>T T+~.
sE e rsTT+~ nH&T qe jTTe
d &T yT |dqt sY.
<X+ ==* ]<eT+,
V es{ neTsMsT\T, <q+s \+
CV, jTH&u y] qT+& H
yTTq{ esY H es nyT]H ny<
j o\ ss\ , ]\, yT<e\
++~ L& H. yT |dtqsY
|d+ >++ HqT |&T m #| q 164
|<\ CsTTr L&q ny< s
jT ueC #+~qy. > m$T<
> eTq <X<\T #dq e+<\ e+<\
|d+ > >, us ue |{<
#dq e+<~ |d+ > > C
sTTr, d +, X, yT |dqt sY |d+ >+
ns s + OHsTT. ~ eTq+ >V d
12345
#\T. +{ eTTdTH .. <q y<\T.
12345
12345
12345
(nqTy<+: . nd)
12345

sTy yT<e\
kw &y d
d<+ es+#*
e]dT ed| d+b< \...
| E d+ yk\ u>TH
sTT. |<q+> |uY |{jT sdq
eT dT b\T kw &y { ne
s+ m? yd+ d{> ydy
|_+_++~. key<, |T&
< eed \ |qTesT\T edTH sTT.
n+ e+ # eTC \+
#*+< <T. ||+#<X nyT ]
C es+#ys+<s { <T.
sTy yT<e\T dT q kw &y d
d<+ n+<s e s +#*. jT
|Twt sdq md du bH ` <[
eqeV\T yd+ |uT + #dTq
yd|P ] $<H\qT jT |{+
T+b\ o seT eT],
+< |<X bsV \ d+|T +,
$XK n<\T,
>Ey, $XK `26
26

e]
n<djT Tq+

]q > eT+: Cq y]>&+


ke, ] |]dT\T
d. k+_s&,
. CjT,
mH. yDT>b\se
sh+ >e ]_e~ d++~+q b+rjT ndeq\| dT+<sj
T $Cq +<+,
q$Cqy~ *d {e\ eT+&\ksTT esL sV+q ds y~qT e]dT |#T ]+#+.
>MTD J$ T> |]o\q #jT &, ns+ #dT & && $<+ > j >e\ ds
$es\qT esTd> n+~dTH +. |eT ><e] ]q >eTyTq Cq y] >&+ ds
$es\T ~>Te $<+ > OHsTT:

Cqy]>&+ |eT ><e]


T{jT>&+ eT+&\+ e+~. ~
@ >eT+. msH\ \T, *b{ u eTT
\THsTT. #sTe e+f {
k>T, +f es< s| eekjT+. e]
|< q |+. yTTCq, b>, | L&
|+&dTHsT. \T ms eT&Ty\
sbjT\ qT+& 5 y\ es O+~. =+&
\Te k>T =+ O+~. n& \T 10
y\ sbjT\ es dTHsT.
>e eT+ s&T, dT, s
eT+{ ks\T OHsTT.
>eT Hu 639. T+u\T 189.
n+ V+<Te. ke+> |]o*d
<[T\T 2.12 X+, ]qT\T 62.43
X+, _.d.\T 10.05 X+, .d.\T
25.40 X+ OHsT. yTT+ 176
eekj<] T+u\T eHsTT. $T
*q 13 T+u\T eekjTs eT
OHsTT. M{ s +&T T+u\T ysd
eT, 3 T+u\T O<>,
T++ djT+ Ob~, s+&T T+
u\T q q ybs, 5 T+u\T
s y| OHsTT.
O~ |]dT\ |CJeq+
>eT+ yesD+ # O~+
> e+~. jT{y >e=d
bdT\T nsdT #ks #eT+~
27

#bsT. de#s+ sTTe& #eT+~


uj
T |&sT . eT< eT< =+<sT mqeT
ssqT u~]+#sT L&. ujT|&<T
>, u keTT\T e+ de#s$Te
& s]+#sT. ]q T+u\T
e+ de#s+ u>H #sTT.
]q u eTT\d+ yT< q b+\
ysT |< mTq & e\de#sT.
ysT nH jTT\ eT ueTT\T
CXs ]qT\T ybTHsT. eT
ueTT\qT y] u& |uT+,
syq n~sT\T, bdT n~sT\T
y] n s\ n+&<+ &\+~dTH s,
eTqT y~+ |\ >T] #dT H s, nD
ydT H s nH ]q T+u\T #b
sTT. $~ |]dT\ sD d+
$\+T\qT #|{q d+<s\T L&
eHjT ysT #bsT. s+s+ uj
+
<q\ eT< T&TdTH eT y<q
e+ #XsT.
1902 es ueTT\| V ]
qT\<q. sT y eTD\T Cs+<T
HsTT. u keTT\ eTT q |uT +
+>s& >&+, >b\|s+, =j\
d. k+_s&
d| (m+)
sh$T{ duT \T

>&+ eT+&\qT HH-@ eT+&


\T> e]+~. J\T>T$T*, b\es+
eT+&\qT b + > e]+~. $<+ >
eTD<sT\ n& # <y T q V\T
*++~. ]qT\ nHjT+ #d+ ~.
|< mTq eTD\T ]q sTy
|uT+ ]q ueTT\ sD |sT 1/
70 #{ +~. T{jT >&+ e+
@ eT+&\+>H e+&bsTT+~. Cq y]
>&+ eT+&\+ >eTyT. >eT+
1/70 #+ neT\T d+ ]qT\T
#dT q bs+ bdT \T\ es y[+
~. nsTTH bs+ ><T. deTso
\+> |{ =qk>THe+~.
ukeTT\ eTTq
|uT jT++>+
1/70 #+ neT\T d+ sT>TTq
bs+ u>+> ]qT\T 140 m
s\| sT dT yXsT. n+<T 40
ms\ d++~+ ]qT\ nqTL
\+> sT rsT e+~. $T> b\+
MT< dT q&Td O+~. 140 ms\T
bq $T*q u $T MT< L& ]q
| &|P { s T (jTdt.&.d.) sT

. CjT
jTT{m|t
eJ n< \T,

mH. yDT>b\se
eekjT Xdy ,
q$Cq y~
HjT\T

e] dT

Cq y]>&+ ke, ] |]d T \T

re s+ <+ neT\T sT>TTH, u $T ]


qT\T |+\T |+&+#sT. nsTTH, |+ uk
eTT\T bdT\qT | |{sT. u$T e~ <,
\T #*+ |+qT rdT+& n ukeTT\T
n+THsT. |{ @ eT+&\T> =qk>T
eq b+ L& ukeTT\ V\T *+#
& n~sT\T nH jTT\T |qTTHsT.

]qT\T dT yXsT. dT L& q&Td


O+~. > *q 40 ms\ |{\T sTT#
sT. , y\H n~sT\T < n&+
> #s <T . # b bdT\T dT
\T |&TTHsT. u$T e<q+
ukeTT\T eT sT dT\T yXsT.
syq n~sT\T y] u< |s+
u $T n&+> #] e+f deTd
OqeTjT~ <T. u keTT\ eTT
jsT f n~sT\T $<+ > #dT H sT.
re s+<+ neT\T sT>TTH,
u $T ]qT\T |+\T |+&+#sT.
nsTTH, |+ u keTT\T bdT\qT
| |{sT. u$T e~ <, \T
#*+ |+qT rdT +& n u k
eTT\T n+THsT.
|{ @ eT+&\T> =qk
>T eq b+ L& u keTT\
V\T *+#& n~sT\T nH
jTT\ T |qTTHsT.
ukeTT\ >&\T
eekjT+bT ]qT\T nM
OT\ qT L& d]ksT . y] eTqT>&
eekjT+ m+ eTTKy, nM O
T\T d]+#&+ L& n+ eTTK+.
>eT+ qT+& n&$ bjT &=+
<] u keTT\T $T+ y] <]
+& #XsT. n&$ by\+f |&T
#TT<] 6 .MT. <s+ q& y e\d
edTq~. &=+ <] |qsT<]d n&$
eT <>Zs <] @s&TT+~. uk
eTT\T n&T| & T THsT.
}] 4 MTs <s+
|< #&+ e+~. <qT+& \Te
<s sTT|\b&T #sTe, N*
\Te <s Cqy]>&+ #sTe
>+ sT e#~. k>T{ ~>T\T
+& e+&~. N* \TeqT
ukeTT\T $T+#sT. <>T+&

sTT|&T se&+ <T. { sTT|


\b&T #sTeqT+& < n\T>T <s
e#{ sTT|&T Cqy]>&+ #sTe
+&*. n\T>T sT s+f #sTe
+&<T . f k>T{ > e+~.
u keTT\T $T+q \TeqT |qsT
<]d Cqy]>&+ #sTe sT |w
\+> n+<TT+~.
eTs= $wjTyTeT+f - # &+
@ b++ e+~. { {|q
@ eT+&\+ eq Cqy]>&+
>e, >eT+ e+& ]qT\
V e+T+~. sTT|\b&T >eT+
+>s&>&+ eT+&\+ e+~. n~
HH-@ eT+&\+. { {|
>e m+{ V e+&<T . nsTTH
eP] neds\T r]q sT yH Cq y]
>&+ edTH sTT. s +&T eT+&\
n~sT\ #<+ #dTHsT>
deTdqT |]w]+#&+ <T.
bdT s+<\T, sT dT\ bT
sTT+{ +\H{H ]qT\T m~
]+ bs&TTHsT.
>eT+ | u keTT\T, y]
n+&> s yq, bdT jT++>\T, |q
|uT + e+&>, eTs= | s &>
&=& nejT ]qT\T, y] n+&>
]q d+|T +, e]dT b\T |ksTT.
>e #dH nse TT+~. n~
uj
T +s bs{ y~ n. ]qT\T
bD& bs &TTHsT.
T+u\ ds d+<s+> mqeT
s s n+~q de#s+ <s+> L&
>eT ], ke |]d T \qT |]o*<eTT.
], ke s>T\T: u$T,
<jT+, ks\T
m) u$T: eekj<] T+
u\ n~+ > 76.70 X+ eek
jT ] T+u eHsTT. n+<T

]qT\< d+Vu>+. $T*q T+u


\ 8.52 X+ \Ts T \T, 9.66 X+
dqsT sT\T, 4.55 X+ qsT
sT\T, 0.57 X+ eT<s> sT\T
OHsT. < sT\T, ukeTT e
mqeTss de#s$TqysT mes
sT. <&T < sT\T, uk
eTT\ me eT+~ jT{ >e\
e+THsT. { y] de#s+ n+<T
uT <T . n+<Te\ >eT+ eq
yTT+ u$T m+ \<T.
L\T sTTq de#s+ <s+>
>eT+ yTT+ u$T OCsTT+|
>HH n+#H yjTe#T.
+ eTT+< #| qT >eT+
eq yTT+ T+u\T 189. n+<T
135 eekjT ] T+u\T. ds
d e #s + | s + T+u\
(sTT<] ) d> Tq d+es 320 sE\
| <=]+~. n+<T Ob~ VMT |< +
<s eTw 60 sE\ #=|q |<=]
+~. n+f, T+u (sTT<]) 120
sE\T Ob~ VMT |~H\qT rdd
T+u, d+es 200 sE\T
eyT eekjT |qT\T <=]qT
\TT+~. n+f >eT+ eekjT
]\+<] <=] |~H\T 135 X
200 R 27,000.
>eT+ |<q |+ e]. yTT
Cq, b>, | |+\T u> e.
e] |+&+#& ms d>Tq 60
|~H\T nedse TsTT. <ec
eekjT ]\T 450 (27000/60)
ms |#d e+&*. n+f, >eT+
450 ms\ u $T e+& e+&*.
>eT+ ]q T+u\T 118
eHsTT. y]q u$T e\+ 46
ms\T eyT . n+f, d> Tq T+u
eq u $T 40 d+T eyT . f
ys+ L*|qT\ bsT. <[
T+u\T 4 eHsTT. y] d+T u $T
L& <T . _.d. T+u\T 19 eHsTT.
y]eq u$T 3 ms\T eyT.
$<+ > >eT+ 450 ms\ u $T
401 ms\T .d.\ (|<q+>
|\T, jTT\T) Bq+H e+<
*+~. y] T+u\T >eT+,
>eT+ jT *d yTT+ 50 |>
eHsTT. n+f T+u d>T u$T
28

e] dT
8 ms\T. ~ ]qT\ T+ d> T
+f 20 sT n~+.
401 ms\ u $T .d.\ Bq+
O+< #XeTT. n+<T .d.\ eq
dqsT, qsT, eT< s> s T \ e<
37.5 ms\ u $T O+~. < |s+
.d.\ eq < sT\T, ukeTT\
e< 363.5 ms\ u$T eqT>
\TT+~. n+f >eT+ u +B
sD # n~+ > eqT nse TT+~.
f & n~+> 71.43 X+
T+u\T eekjT ] T+u\T>
essTT. n+<T M] eT< L* |qT\
d+ reyTq b{ e+~. f >
eT+ XeT<|& re+> O+~. <e\
& L* sT L& e> eHsTT.
_) <jT+: |<]| V<T 20
sbjT\T> rdT+f, n++ f e
\d], ~qd] <jT+ *q s> T \T
sh+ s >e k<sD+>
eekjT ]\T, \Ts T \T, dqsT
sT\T> e+{sT. >eT+
\Ts T \T (sT.19.95\T), dqsT s T \
(sT. 15.34\T) \d], ~qd] <j\T
20 sbjT\ +f e>H eH,
eekjT ]\ e+ n~ s.
24.98\T> O+~. n+f >eT+ 71.43
X+> eq eekjT ]\T <]<
sK m>TeH eqT> \TT+~.
~ m>+f - $T> >e\ +f
>eT+ |~H\T me. sh+
d> T |~H\T 137 nsTT, >eT+
160 |~H\T eHsTT. sh+ d> T
L* s.78.46\T nsTT >eT+
s. 97.17 O+~. >eT+ 20 sb jT\
+f ~+ > \d], ~qd] <jT+
>\s> T \T (1) ysd eT\ T (sT.20.59\T),
(2) qsT s T \T (s. 22.24\T), (3)
eekjT ]\T (24. 98\T), (4) djT+
eb~ >\ysT (s. 31.12\T).
d) XeT <|&: L*sT sh d> T
+f me> eq|{ <|& re
L& me>H eq~. >eT+
e], yTTCq |+\ <|& X\qT
+#+ ]+~. n$ e] 129.61
X+, yTTCq 364.40 X+ eHsTT.
ms+ e] |+&+#{ sT
\ d>Tq 60 eT+~ L\T neds
eTjsT. y]q d> T L* s. 104.
29

Cq y]>&+ ke, ] |]d T \T


> eT+ ]q T+u\T 118 eHsTT. y]
q u$T e\+ 46 ms\T eyT. n+f, d>Tq
T+u eq u$T 40 d+T eyT. f
ys+ L*|qT\ bsT. <[ T+u\T 4
eHsTT. y] d +T u $T L& <T . _.d. T+u\T
19 eHsTT. y]eq u$T 3 ms\T eyT.
$<+ > > eT+ 450 ms 401 ms\T .d.\
Bq+H e+< *+~.

52. |+MT< s T \_+q s<jT+


(n KsT\T b> $T*q <jT+)
s.5690. B sT u+ |sT
CT ydT +{&T. BH <|& n+{sT.
yde +> sTT~ L& L\ XeT |* yT .
{ s.5690 L& L\ #+<
*. n+f &TqT 60 eT+~ L\
deq+> |+ = eekjT ]
s.94.83 (5690/60) n<q+>
edT+ ~. { <|& +& e+&\+f
eekjT ] L* s.104.52 <T,
s.199.35 (104.52 G 94.83) e+&*.
n> ms+ yTTCq |+
|+&+#\+f 30 |~H\T nedseT
jsTT. sT q d>T L*
s.83.86. s T $T*q s<jT+
s.10677. ~ L& eekjT ]\
XeT |* yT { 30 eT+~ eek
jT ]\ sTT~ L& #+<*. $<+
> |+ = eekjT ]
n<q+> s.355.90 \_dT+~. n+f
<|& +& e+f L*sT s.83.86
<T, s.439.76\T (83.86 G 355.90)
neT+~. n+f eekjT ]
eTTe\dq L* yde +> n 5e
e+T L& yTTCq |+ eTT+
<T . q XeT |* + eekjT ]
&T 80 X+ uk$T eTT#TT
H&T. 20 X+ eyT nqT L*
s|+ b+<>\T>TTH&T.
& sT\T #|H, L\T #|H
L*s |<& +#<T. sT\T
#|q < |s+ >eT+ e]
|+ L*sT s.104.52 >
yTTCq s.83.86 O+~. n>
eekjT ]\T #| q < |s+
n |+ \ *| d> T L* 97.17.
~ sT\T #|q < <>Zs>H O+~.
{ sT\T #|H, L\T #|H

L*s $wjT+ ydyH #bsT.


eTsy| d, |sTwT\ deq yq +
sTTe+& L& ukeTT\T eekjT
L\qT <|& #dTHsT. >eT+
|sTwT\ d>T L* s.108.85 e+f,
d\ d>T L* s.87.77 eyT. 20
sbjT\ |> & eq~. { |sT
wT\ +f d\T eT]+ me> <|&
>TseTHsT.
@ >eT+ u eTT\ ]
qT\y sTTH, n$ eTD >T] nj
sTT. { ]qT\T eT k+ u eTTH
L\T> essT. XeT<|& >T]
neT HsT. k+ u eTTH XeT <|&
>T]e&+ ]q >e\ | .
L* bs{\ <s <|& reqT
Z+#>\yT>, < |P]> =\+#
eTT. <|& |P]> by\+f <THy<
u $T y*. L*|< by*. <TH
y u $T d+ >eT+ ;s bs
+ sT>Te+~. bs+ $
jT+ k~d XeT <|& s<sTTqf.
>eT+ eekjT ]\T
71.43 X+ eHs #XeTT. y]
&T 7.94 X+> eq \TsT\
<jT+ L*u>+ d> |> , n+f
61.54 X+ eq~. 8.99 X+ eq
dqsT sT\ <j+ L*u>+
19.64 X+, 4.23 X+> eq q
sTsT\ <jT+ L*u>+ 33.46
X+ eq~. n> 1.06 X+ eq
ysd e<sT\ <jT+ L*
u>+ <<| d>+, n+f 45.24 X+
O+~. { Ms+<] L*sT |s>
&+ d e+T+~. Ms+ *d
>eT+ 93.65 X+ OHsT. u k
eTT\T, < s T \T yTT+ L& +|
eH, L* |qT\T #dysT 90 X
>ZsT. Ms+<] L*bs{ @+

e] dT

Cq y]>&+ ke, ] |]d T \T


L* bs{\ <s <|& reqT +Z #
>\yT>, < |P]> =\+#eTT. <|&
|P]> by\+f <THy< u $T y*. L*
|< by*. <THy u $T d+ > eT+
;s bs+ sT>T+~. bs+ $
jT+ k~d XeT <|& s<sTTqf.

#jT e#T. L*bs{\T |dT + >eT+


sT>TTq u bs{ L& \+
#L sTksTT.
ukeTT\T, <sT\
\d], ~qd] <j\ n+#H
< s T \T, u keTT\T y] u eTT
\ d++~+q, y] <jT, ej\
d++~+q de#s+ sTTe<T . nsTTH
y] <j\qT d\ +> n+#H yjT e#T.
ds nqTd]+q eZsD
|s+ 16 ms\ |> k>T{ k
s+>\ ueTT\T *q ysT uk
eTT\T. (>eT+ u eTT\ k>T{
ks+ >\ ueTT). 8 qT+& 16 m
s\ es u$T >\ysT < sT\T.
d> Tq u keTT\ dTesT 25 ms\T,
(d*+>T #{\qT+& |+#Te&
_HMT |sM T< L& u eTT\T e+{sTT.)
< s T \ 15 ms\T u eTT\T eH
sTT. >eT+ e] |< q |+. $T>
|sT\T =~> yksT.
e] |+H O<VsD> rdT+
<eTT. <T>TsT s T \ #+~q 16 ms
\ e] |+ d++~+ eT, KsT\T
+#eTT. < |s+ e] |+
ms d> Tq s.7,900 s<jT+
sT\ \_++~. { 25 ms\
u$T>\ uk$T s<jT+ s.
1,97,500 y*. y] {sT, e&y
bs\T e+f <jT+ n<q+. |+\
MT< eq <jT+ s.1,97,500 |
s+ \d], ~qd] <j +H,
n~ s.152.39> \TT+~. sTT~
ukeTT\ d \d], ~qd] <
jTeTT. s <j\T \T|+f ~
+ me>H e+T+~. eekjT
]\ \d], ~qd] <jT+ +f
sTT~ 6 sT me. dqsT sT\
b*d 10 sT, qsT sT\ b*d
7 sT me> e+T+~. n> <

s T \ d, y] |+MT< e# <
jT+ s.1,18,500 >qT, \d], ~qd]
<jT+ s.91.43 >qT e+~. M]<]
sTy >eT+ me \d], ~qd]
<jT+>\ysT djT+Ob~ eq
ys. y] \d], ~qd] <jT+ s.
31.12. n+f M]+f L& < sT\
<jT+ 3 sT, ukeTT\ <jT+
5 s T me> e+&{ >eT +#e#T.
T+ KsT\T bqT sTT+{ y]
| d+es+ $T>T\T \TT+~. n+{
$T>T\T |\\ #<Te\, ybs
|T&> e] ysT ]+> eT]+
m<>& , eT] d+|<\ T >&+ #{
O|j>|&TT+~. $T>T\T eT\+
XeT <|&jT +eTT+< #XeTT.
{ >e d+|q esZ\ u>u >
\ eekjT ]\ XeT<|&jT
|H~.
&) ks\T: u eTT\T, <j\qT
f nqTu$ +# ks\T L& e+{sTT.
ds de#s+ BH *jTCk+~. y
deTT+Tq sTT\T, eTsT>T<=&, f*$H,
>dtdy , f*bH, y{sYd y&
d++~+ de#s+ d]+#eTT. k
s\ <[T\T, ]qT\ +f .d.\
# V#T> e+&+ |++~. O<
VsD >dtdyH rdT+<eTT. <[T
\ n~ |P]> <T . n~ ]qT\
1.69 X+ T+u\ eyT e+&>
.d.\ 16.67 X eq~. |P]
e+ ]qT\ m e> eHsTT.
28.04 X+ ]q T+u\T |P]
eddT+&> 5.82 X+ .d.\T
eyT |P] e+T HsT. eekjT
]\T yTT+ > rdT+f y] 33.86
X+ T+u\T, n+f eT& e+T
T+u\ |> |P]H e+THsT.
ns d - $<
ejqT\ ns dT\qT |]o*d

<[ ejqT\ ns dT\T sT .


]qT\ ysT 11.76 X+ e+&>
.d.\ 37.50 X+, n+f ]qT\
+f eT&T s |> eHsT. nsTTH
>eT+ ]qT\ 5 eT+~ &^,
| ksTT #<T e\T #~$q ysT e+&+
y] #H *jTCdT+~.
>eT+ yTT+ MT< b<$T bsX
\ 75.36 X+ |\\T qy< eHsT.
+<T # >e\+f >eT+
eTT+<Tq<H #b*. <[T q{ qsT
eT+~ |\\T & qy< e+&>, ]
qT\ 83.33 X+ eyT qy<
eHsT. +<T L& d, |sTw $e
|dT+~. ]q u\TsT 100 X+
qy<T > u*\ 66.67 X+
eyT qy<j sT. _.d.\T yTT+ MT<
62.50 X+ |\\ T eyT qy<T >
.d.\ w+> 41.18 X+ |\\T
eyT qy<j sT. & qy<T
]q |\\ T, _.d. |\\ me eT+~
u\]\T> e]bsTTe+{sT.
.d.\ qy<q y] +f qy<T
ys me. qy<T y] me
eT+~ H+T d y e+{sT.
~ >eT+ | @MT<T. n
>eq .d.|\\T >DjTyTq
d+K H+T d yTHsT.
n+f =q>*q y] HDyTq #<T e\T,
y |uT #<Te\T nH$<+>
|]d e]bsTT+~.
>eT ds +: >eT ds+ |sT
{ >j
T . jTq ]qT&T. ds +qH
uw C \T @MTe. ed< sD, q&e&
jTw+ #d sTTs ]qT\ e~]>H
Ms eHs T . y T eTT y | {
\T +& {# T mTHsT. y+H
<X e es +~+#eTT.
MsT ]q d+|T+ HjT\T.
e]dT b duT\T. >eT+ ]>
u bs+ jTH eTTKb< ].
d+|T + #TsT> |#d e+&f Ob~
VMT |<+ <s ]q |qT\T sh
d>T 30 sE\T e+&>, >eT+
60 sE\T | *+# >*>sT. (n+f
T+u 120 sE\ #=|q |
<=]+~). 80 sbjT\ L* neT\T
# j T > * >s T . y T T + MT< w J e\
bs{\ MsT d]< jT+> OHsT.
12345
12345
12345
12345
12345

30

e] dT

|Cd+u+<\ |{w
H&T b |<q se+

yT& _.$. s|T e\T>], >+ |C


keq+ eT+ |sT#T q d|m + H&T
|C eT< T e& sD+ @$T{? |C
eT< T +f z{+>T e< m+<T #\ &T
+~? |C deTd\ |]cs+q, | +
> |C +<+ @ssT#TH b<j \T,
| j\T #d #q @yTH +<? yeT
| \ yD +Z < edTq $eTs\qT m
d]~<T qTHsT? sh, <Xy |+ > b
m \|sT #Ty\ nqT+THsT?

b\> e|k <,


y*$TH&T, {\ eT+&\+,
q\>=+&

MT |X # n+X\THsTT. yTT<
{~, |\ eT< T . |\ eT< T qT z{+>
\+ =+yT s e+ #dq |{ eT
dT b\ | |C_eH |P]>
e+ #jT<T. eTdT sb
bZH q+ <e bZH |\T,
|Cd+|\ sb b\T |+#T
=H q+ yTT<\>T n+X\T |\T @
yTs eTdT b eT<TdTHs
y\&ksTT. nsTT eT<+ =
d+<s m\ z{+> |_+_+#
be#T. eTdT\ $<H\ _qyTq
uy<\T eTT+<T eq|&T(O<Vs
D eT +, b+rjT +, CrjT
<TsV +s+) yeT| \ kqTL\+>
+& |\TL& |u $eTjT neX+
+T+~. n|&T eTq \+ >Ze#T.
nsTT sT>T<\ *yT. uy<
>\T #\& eT* deTd\T eTT+<T
eq y+H yeT| \ \+ |+Ee
&+ sT>TTq~.
nsTT |dT + ||+ #+ q&TdTq
\+ eTdT <e kqTL\yT+ ~
<T. |]dT\ >ZT> eTdT
<e |{w+> q&| nH <X
eTdT b\T \Vq |&sTT.|C
eT< T q, z{+> jsTT.
eTq<X+ =+yTs qjT+. e]dT
b |{es q z{+> , |C
eT<TqT, n&& = b+ |
\uT>*+~. +<|<X >+
31

\+> q eTdT b\T u>


\Vq |&sTT. |+Ee& #dTq
|jT \T |]$TyT q |* \qT #sTT.
=+yT s $d] +H |C|H~ |<>
|]+< #|+. n+<T |dT |
L\ sjT |]d <e \uT
e&+, |\ q d++<\T >{>
#dT e&+| +~]dTH +.
n+<T &<T&T<TsH, nqesZ
d<+\ <& reyTH T= \&+
<T b dejT+ #jT& >qT
sjT $<MT<, n<jTq+ MT< +B
]+#+. |\ d++<\qT |{w +
#dTH+<T, eTq* +] #j\
|jT dTq X \ |jT \qT |=f+
<T m& & k deTd\| s+s+
w #j \qTH+. MT d#q qT
b<j\T, d j\T, >eT |]o
\q\T, n< jTq |s q\T, s# +& du\ T
yTT<\>T y{ $d +> sVdTH +.
yeT| \ yD +Z <q MT n_b
jT+ s|+H +. m\
MT&j >+ e~] eTq se
\T q+> |+#&+<T. MT&j
d+#\H ys\, |Tq\, $y<
d< n+X\, e> <wD\ q
b<q |\, |C<e\ n+<T
q esZ <e\ ee. eTq+
|P]> \Vq esZ\ sEy] deTd\|
|#dT q +<Tq sTy MT&j |{+ #T
be&+ XsyT$T<T. n> eTq s
b\qT |<q+> |Cd+|\ <
s+ sVdTH+. sjT b\,
n+<TqT =~eT+~ HjT\ b<q
# MT&j |Cd+| \ se\qT
s + #dT q ~. |Cd+| \T, |\d+
|#d < q+ |#s+ #T
H+<T |jT+ #j*. =+
eT+~ #dT q T |#s+ dyT se
\qT dw+ #T= eTq+ #jT +. < e\q
|j q+ +&<T .
b n\ us eTVdu\T 2012
bs+u+ s>u THsTT. d+<s +
> <X+ q, sh+q b \|sT

d+<V \T
de<H\T
` _.$.s|T e\T
H+<T rdTy*q #s \ >T]+ +<
qT+& |es #]+#&+ sT>TT+~.
s|T e\T>], b _\T d++
~+ e]dT b yK ] dw+ #d $&T<\
#dq |+ ` sjT HjT\ kq+
*+#s< nHsT. bs de duT\T
eyT n$ n++ #jT &+ k< + <T.
sj \ |yT jT+ +& _\T\T sb+
~+#e#TH? b n_bjT+ @$T{? d$e
s+> *jTCjT >\sT.

d. sDY esY,
$|mdt, <>T\ $u>+,
eq|] &$H,
eTVuq>sY

b _\T |]~ sjT HjT


\ neX+ +&L &< |b<q
+~. nsTT n< d]b< ss{ d+d\
|<T\T L& +&L&< e]dT
b |+ |s=q~. _\T\T sj \
|yT jT+ +& sb+<TjT <T.
n$ s<+ d+ @sjT b
eed sjT |<T\T HjT+
eV+# < nq~ deTd. |< q+>
sjT eed n$ s< s
j\T, ybs\T $T[+ +& s~+
#& nedseTq <X+f e]dT
b | |b<qqT #d+ ~.
us <X+ CrjT b\T eT
\uTb THsTT. sqTsqT sc n~
s+ THsTT. \eT, b+rjT b\T
\+ |+E+THsTT. yeT| b\T m+
> q+ ] H yT*H m\T
eq|&T |\T |T&< b\ s D
H y{ y+&bTHsT. ~ >
=qk CrjT b\uT, yeT| \ |
nsTTbsTTqf <! < @<H eTT+|
O+T+<? +f m +T+~ \|>\ sT.

ys+ H>Xsse,
42`58`10, nY d+> q>sY,
$jTy& ` 15

e]dT\ T sjT b\qT es<Z w


|]o*ksT . sjT b\qT sTy
ukeT b\T>, |{ sTy esZ
b\T>, ] esZ b\T> y{

duy, | $<H |]o*ksT.


CrjT`b+rjT u< \qT, eT `
u < \qT L& |]>Dq rdT+{sT.
CrjT b\T \Vq |&b e&+,
b+rjT b\T \|&& + nH n+X+
| q|& n+X+ eyT. eT*+>
b+rjT bH, CrjT bq
sTy, ukeT bq|&T y{
eT[ due+ f. s V \Vq
|&, sV \|&q+<Tq b\ esZ
\ |< edyT$T s<T. |]dT\qT
{ eT neds\qT>TD+> b\
esZ\qT b\qT bVdT+{sTT.
sTV|sT dT+ {sTT.
yeT|\T , eTdT b\T
due CrjT b\T. us b\
esZ\T <X y|yTq$. y{ z&+
wJ e\T sC k|+ #\+f eTdT
b\T <Xy| <e ]+#*.
|dT + = sc eyT eTdT
<eT+ \+> +<+f n~ sTq~
<T. n+<T e\q eTdT b CrjT
b < nqTL&<T .
k+q+s+ eTdT <eT+
nH &<T &T\T m<Ts=q~. = #
\|&+~. = # \Vq |&+~.
+< \+>D b+ eTdT
<eT+ 1950 <X+ @ |< X>
+&~. 1955 m\ z$T bs+uy T ,
1964,1967 N*\ s \Vq |&+
~. |Ps| ksTT k~+# |jT \T
|<> |\|<+ <T. <eT+ =+
$d] dTH b |H~ |qsT<] +#T
bTq~. \+> q eTdT O<
eT+ 1964 N* s $Ty<T\
y| yTT>T#Z |q sc yT D \Vq
|&+ ~. |{ n& \Tb sTT+~.
64 d|m + y| <eT+ yTT>T#Z |q
sc s, u+>,|s <eT+
eT]+ \|&+~. sc |\T<b\T
|uT\qT @sT #jT>\ ksTT m~
+~.
eT&T sc \yTq <eT+,
$T*q sc \Vq+> q O<
eT+` ndeq n_e~ deTdqT +
n~>$T+#* +~. eT< ]q
m |eT u+> reyTq m<TsT
<*+~. >\TbeTT\T |< deTd
<T. eT kqTL\ |]dT\T *d ed
| C \+ |s > +&H n~ s
se#T. sTTq 8 X+ |C
] sTH ~<TuT #s\T
rdT b |C\+ eT]+ ]bjT

neX+ +~. b nTe+{ |]d


s+& b\qT |]o*+#T+T+~.
d]~<T +T+~.
yeT| <e, eTdT O<
e |+|+#+H > s+&T <X
u\T |L\yTq \+. nsTT |]d
yT D esTTq~. |T&< n_e~
ds+, XXeT #dq |#s+2008
d+u+ |Xs+> e]+~. $$<
<X |\T yeT| uy\y| yTT>TZ
#|THsT. eTdT\T bsTTH
nH eT+~ yeT| y<T\T <X~H
\T> > \TdTH sT. nyT], sb ~s
d+|q <X ], ~s keq
|\T eT Jeq |eD\qT s+#T
H+<T bs{ edTH sT. Te+{
H|<+ <X+ L& dssD
$<H\ es+> s+> bs&
|\T eT< ksT . yeT| \T nTe+{
w #dT H sTT. w { |\ eT< T
L& |sT>TT+~.
| \+>D d+, \+>D
600 eT+~ bD\T n]+#sT. \+>D
+>dt, \+>D {&| , H>+ ~s {&|
Vw H\T, {sYmdt duTs\T $jT
X+ sJHe#XsT. eTsy| sh+ dyT
+> O+&\ de+< HjT\T n+T
HsT. \+>D ed n_e~ sT>TT+<
dsY n+THsT. q sc\T Oq|&T
<T \T >T Z sTT <! eT] \+>D <
d+? MT k<s b d| L& | \+
>D edT |\T+~. eT] MTsT m+<T
e{&& + <T ? $esD e>\sT.

$. dsHsjTD, $. eTV+<,
\eTd+, +|* eT+&\+,
$XK

\+>D sh+ @sT y\


sysT nH y<q\T #dTHsT. sh+
$&BjT& #d y<q\ d|m+
@u$ +#&+ <T . sh+ dyT +> +fH
\+>D b++> eTs s yqT
&q b++> m<Ts=+Tq deTd\qT
dT\u+> |]w]+#Te# d|m+
n_bjT|&T T+~. $wj d|m +
n y~\MT< dw+ #d+~. |Du
eTTK $T{ n_bj +< $T{
sd+~. l w $T{ deT]+q s +&T
| |s=q~. <+s+ sV+q
n\| deyXqT dw+ #d+~.
d| sh $uq s>\ u$dT
q~. b n m+<T u$dTq <
n~ #| +~. y] n_bj\ nH+
d|m+ @u$+#<T.

sTy sjT be]


\T |dT\
eTHuy\qT ds #dT = \_b+<\
neX y<+ eeV]dTH sTT. +>dt,
\T>T<X+ b\T dwyTq n_bj
y\&+#+& @ b++ HjT\T
b+qT>TD+> eeV]+#{
neX+ sh XjT dT #>+
&TTHsT. sh|\ |jH\H
eT |jH\T, eTTs eTT\T,
|<M yyV\ b<q# $<+>
sTy ukeT b\T eeV]dTq+
<Tq |dT+ sh+ nded |]d
H\=q~. |]b\q d+ _+ bsTT+~.
n_e~ +T |&+ ~. |CdeTd\T eTsT
>Tq |&b jsTT.
+<+q, sh+q # \+>
d+s sj \T q&TdTH sTT. e z
me dT > \T#Te&+, d+s\ n~s+
se&+ s>T +~. z X, d
X d++<+ +& O+~. # \+
> d| (m+) m <ec |< nqTd]+
#\ &e+&T #k+< > < b<q
|#s+ #jT &+ <T . <ec m\
|< d+ b m+<T <eT+> #|
&+ <T ?

\| dsHsjTD,
4`33`37, ;eTqy] |,
$jTy&` 9

|dT + <X+ neT\T q sT


y bsyT+ m\ |< reyTq
b\THsTT. sTy eedq T b&T
e& b\T b\esZ\ u>
|j>|&TTHsTT. yTT+ sTy bs
yT+ eedq T |CqTL\+> esb
sTTH, |C_bjT+ eT]+ yTsT>Z e+
e& <ec m\ |< O|j >
|&TT+< d|m+ n_bjT+. n+<T
b seT+ L& n+X #s &+
]+~. neX+ eq|&T $$< y~
\| n+X yeT|\T eHTH
HsTT. nsTT |dT+ <X+ b\e
sZ\T B nqTL\+>e. <Xy |+ >
q+ & b\esZ\T n+^]+
#*q d # + X yeT| \ <T .
<ec |< s yeT|s X\T
<X+ HeTe+. <Xy|+> |C
<e\T \|&+& <ec |<
n+X+ MT<H <eT+ ]+#&+ k<+
<T. nsTT ~ s+s |#s H<+
> +&*. w yeT| \T sujT
\+ + \+> #j *.
12345
12345
12345
12345
12345

32

e] dT

y{ #d d\T MsHsTq y
(s+&e |J sTysTT)
dH \ |yX + nq+s+ u $T b
dT\ dV jT+ ] kBq+ #dT =q{
u k$T |jT +#&T. \+u&
s T qT u ~, +{+ b\+ qT+
y>={sT. nsTTH jTq us e+
\y=>Z < T . u $T <TqT |+qT
+{ #sT >*+~.
Mss+ >jT+ q u $T u k
$T ] $T+#T+T+f, \+u&
s T , n us *d u keTT\ >+&
\q, bdT\q m~]+#sT. bdT\T
>se>qTq yT b| d =
#+bsT.
\+>D bs{ d++~+q
b| |+q = |Tq*$.
+{ |T q\T e+<~> ]>sTT.
H&T bs+ yTT+ \+ m
]>jTq~ n e+#+&! y~ d\T
eT |sTwT\ bT s+>+ \&
u $T d+, < q u $T \T|e+
d+ bs&sT.
L*|+|<\ d+ d\ bs+
eekjT ]\ # eT+~
d\T. eTT L& L* y[ d+b~+#
< eTL, eT _&\L |PH &|
+&+ nk< +. |sTwT d+b<q
H d+ks+ s><T. n+<Te\qH ee
kjT ] dyT\q, ukeTT\,
<=s\ >&\ &+ >T\ <q+ kB
q+ #dT |+#T=q+q d\T |<
d+K bZHysT.
=+&|* b++q, |]ds
b+\q L* sE s+&T
eT&T XsT+&~. < 4 Xs |+#\
sT L\ dyT ]+~. d\T |<
d+K ~sT. C+&\T # |<
sq\T #XsT. ukeTT\qT +>Bd+
<T y] <q| =| <&Cd <q+
kBq+#dT yTT<{sT. ukeTT\T
+e L* |=q | <T .
><e] rs n&e\ ;&
|< q e. y~ d\ T < Jeq+
>&T|sT. ;& V#TL
y\ ]q bs+ d\ T eTT+<T
|]q *#sT.
33

|+&b\T, +<T |]ds b+\


90 >e\ eekjT ]
dyT\T ]>sTT. <<| 20 >e\
| + d L\ yH \ deTd $T&
e+~. >e\ d eTT+<THsT.
bdt s+<+&L, <&T\L
es+>, C+ sCsY es bs
~H\ L& kjTT< d \T ueTT\,
b ds|, eTs & >&+, <esT|\
~s nH >e\| <&Cdq|&T
y] e&X\ ||T{dTq |sTwT\T
|H \& e&X\ s+~+#sT
d\T. seT+ eT>eTsTTq
d eTs& >&+ bdT \T\
+ ~. |sTwT\qT $T\ \ m
+#TbT+f eTqT L& y]bT
rdTby\, y]H$T #dH eT
n+<T u>+ |+#Ty\ d\T
\qT *|dysT. es MqT L&
=+eT+~ \ m+#T+f |
\T ~$ e.
us dH \T |y +, +>dt |uT
+ @sT #dq s, VQpsYq>sY
\q, $jTq>s+ +<+q,
$Ts\>&+q bdT\T #eT+~
|sTwT\qT |T= \ m+#T
HsT. d\+<s \qT #TTeTT{sT.
|sTwT\+<] $&T<\ #jTe\d+~>
&e+& #XsT. |<|< # #dH
ysT +<T. >+s+ yqT
n& e~d y[be\d e+~.
><e] n&e\ >T+&\ jT
>&+ bdT\T #eT+~ eT>yqT
|T . yqT rdTb jTdT+ &>,
d+> *jT+f, | Heq 10
>&\qT+& d\ T ~* e#sT. bdT\qT
#TTeTT{sT. bdT\T \T\T k+
#sT. nsTTH ## TqT+& s $dTsT
bdT\qT Xs> ysT #~]
b<T . e] bdT\T eT>y] e~*
y |<T.
>T+&\ b++H >&+ nH
jT|| $T\ <& #dq|&T,
>&+ d\T, |sTwT\T *d ||T
{+#sT. ysT dTu<sTq, eTT>TZsT
d\q #+| y] jTT<\T >T+E

HsT. dq+ b]bsTT+~. s


dq+ |< \> dMT]+#T eT
>&+| <& e+~. >&+ yTT+>
q&$ y[ \<#T+~. d+<s +
d\T #|q zsT, dVq+, B eTs|
s$. e] y |\\ T jT&d XTe
eT O *dbT+< y] @&e
+& HeTXsT. d+<s + mH
+<T\qT m<Ts= ysT eT |T
<\, XjT+, >{q+, <&+
s|+#sT.
sCs+ +<+ \+u& <+|T
*<] >]\ dVjT|&TTHsq
nqTeq+ bdT\T +| rdT
sT. sV k\T sf+ <T +& |
\, S +& \u& O+&eTHsT.
dV<| |&b d [ dV
eq s eT \ufysT. sCsT
m+> u~+H, y] ybsTT
#bjT+<TH d<|&sT>, ys=
sV d+ L& #| <T . + yTT+&y
u+ < XTe es yqT
e~X&T.
N~s\?( #\]) >eT|+#jTr
duT\ us\+<, $T\ #\]
+| rdT y[ mksT <&#d H
MT us \ T <=s + <T . y] C& #| +&
n HHu<\T |{sT. =+d|{
e~d +eTT+<T MT sTTMT<|&
MT |X e\qT, |+qT \{#X +,
eTT+<T MT L& eTT|! MT us\T
<=sb $TeT* |Ty[ XX+>
C |&+ C> n u~]+#sT.
]eq d\ T ~>TD V+,
eT us\bT O<eT+#], eT
bdt <&T\ deTj eTT L&
n+<TuT +& <TbjsT.
< >eT+ 150 eT+~ bdT\T
wy d k HjT\qT +~+#pXsT.
|j q+ b sTT+~. |+#jTr
$T{ duT =&T 14 d+es\
u\T&=&T <=]&T. n nsdTCd
uj
T |{, u~, MT HjTq m& #| eT
V+d+#sT. n+ q|&TL&
$wjT + L& bdT\ #| b |w
\u{&T .

>] <, b HjT eT


eT \<#T+T+f,
d\T $wjT+ jT bjT+&
e+&+<T >T C>T\T rdTHysT.
b HjT\T ~dT+f nedsyT
s ysT C>s+#d | d
ysT. m+ sy <\T eT
eH, m+ bjT+> y] uq
d<Tbj\T #dysT. >] <\T
n&e\H, >T\H <+f y]
Vs+ rdTyysT. <Ts<weX
<] bdT\ , mH V +
d\L, neeH\L >TsjTysT.
eTVs bs{ BT> ysT y+
{ u]+#ysT.
mH >e\, m+eT+~ sTT
1948-51 rebs ~H HqT
O+&e\d e+~. d\ T n
C>> qqT <]+q $wjT + $qeT
, , \\+ C|+ e+#T
+{qT. O<VsD s q&,
MsT\b&T }sT jT Oq yT&
b{+& CqseTjT sTT+{ s 2
>+\ #sT HqT. deTj jTq
+{s T . HqT # n\dbsTT |&T =
<bjqT. \\ysTT+&> yT\e
e+~. #<Tq T>< jTq us, VqTe
jTeT +&T>]D. >TeT+ e<H |
dTq ~. d\ T #|q bjT, yT\e
H&T sVdJ$+ >&|q yT& n+<
] nqTueyT! |\ XjT+| y]
|eT, <sD n+{~! eTqyT q
XjT +d+ bs&TTq yTeT+f y]
n+ >sy_eH\T+&$.
n+ $\Tyq D \T, O |s# |T
q\T, c\qT #jT+& <sk
Vk\ *q H{sE\T m|{ H
eT]b>\e?
u+&\b&T >eT+ seT nH
s T eqT |T HsT. <\ n&e\
nq+ rdT yq< yT| s
|D! ms> sTTq|& \ T* yTL, yT
usL y\T |{sT. yT s=eTT|,
yT&MT<, #T\MT< y\T |{sT.
<\qT >T]+ e L& y]H{
qT+& jT s<T . H{qT+& H{e s
ysT b n+{|THeHsT. 1961
k] eT <+|T\qT #d
neX+ H *+~. b m&\ y]
$Xd+, u X<\ T qqT eTT>TD #XsTT.
Hs& >eT+ O<e \yTq
+<+. &.mdt.|. oydse. V<s

e] dT

u< n&dsY y& < >T\u&


eT u~]+#sT. k] >eT+
70 eT+~ d\qT |T + ]\
u<sT. s \T n+{ }sT
<T . y] | e\T =&+ b<\
e< >{> _>>{ | Ce|* =+&
\qT e~sT. deTjT+ d\u<
esH r+. |> >j\| s+ #sT .
<T ek\es ysT nHs>+>H
eHsT.
eTs= sEq $T\ y d\ qT
s+~+ eT |d_&\ b*ejT
<T . |\\ T * b\d+ f jT&T
|. nsTTH, d es @ sVdeT
#|<T.
>eT+ k] <H jT
D bdT\T #TfXsT. y+H d\+
\d, HjT& &|\ yw+yd
|<e Tw nsTTqT Ls|{, $T]=
b\T b&T bdT\qT @e] bdT\T y[q s, < HjTD
C>> eTs= sD kes rdT[
$& e#sT.
ds| \ e\u |s+ ;e
- y nH \+u&\ sTT d\T
y] sTT+{ sD d\ +> O+#+<T
mH C>\T rdTH ysT. HC+
sCsY ~H\qT+& +>dt dq |yX +
sL & y] dTs |<X + >
e+&~. sL & y] d\ T
b O<e\ XjTX dV]d
e#sT.
Cq HjT&T, s ds|
\ b+rjTHjT&T>eq yT&
ns& s$Ts& ds| \
|sjT|* #+~q n#eT #\+
+{s| sTT+{ |T b&+~.
seT#+<|* ns& s$Ts& ;s + >
bs& q <+ |+#TH+<T

<V<|& , neTsMsT&q ys $q n#eT


<T:U n+T<T . q q_&q T b>=T
qT yT $\|++~.
*+>eT, ds| \ \
+ >eTyd, |CXTyq uk$T
Hs& ||s& es+> ]q
bs+ *+>eT eTT+<T+~. q T+
+ yTT +< eTVdu, eTdT
b\ #TsT> |#d+<T b
V, OV sTT#~.
bs{ #\+ |PsyT q
esqT *+>s& nH n |[#
d+~. *+>s& + bVd b
|+|+~. yT| *+>s& <HjT
&H &T.
n&T #ksT Hs& >T+&\qT
]$T={&T . 1952 m\ *+>
s&, Hs& u k$T \N |&&T .
*+>eT n\TD sTT+{ sjT<T.
q, q LTq *d q n\T&T
\|sTdTq nu] es+> re+>
|#d z&+#sT. yT| *+>s&
yde + *d+~. Hs& <TssZ\T k>T
H e+&+ >eT+ *+>s& eT
q bsbT \TdT |C O<e
\ e#&T. qT #dq |\
|]Vs+> Hs& >+&\ bs
&&T. n~ ]q sH *+>eT n\TD,
LT q >&| =+~.
H&T mT+u\T $<+ > ne
eH\q,u<\ q u] +#e\de+<!
eTq ss\ #eT+~ MsyTq
#]>\ ysTHsT. d\ T yTT<{ O<eT+
sjT+> sbsTTH s
\+ eqyVd+ Ms, >
s >\ V<T\T =*#sT. bs+
y]b nqq keqyTq ~.
d+<s+> sVd kes
<\ qT+& eq ]bsT Oq34

e]
+~ $wdjT O<VsD> #&e#T:
d\ T d+|Ps dV sq+~dTH sT.
sVk\T <dTHsT. yT& sD
dTHsT. e< d\T L& eTq* b
&+ yqT+ yjT+<T. =
d+<s\ #\ d\ yT+ q&+
dd ysT nedsyTq$ e e{&
sT. me] #|sT. ds|
\ d]=+& b++ yT eTTK
yT&qT ] >TsT|{ |sT |{
|*+~. y+H |qTq d yT HsT
H=d+~. ys jT b<T.
js+ b++ eTq sD
sTT+< eTTd\eT\T L& eTq
s| \T |+#TTHsT. jTd\ T #TsT
> b dV ]dT+ f y] |sTwTsT\T
yTT<{ nu +s+ |{sT . sTT|&T y]
nu+s+ @MT bjTd] jTd\T
eT]+ #TsT> &&TTHsT. + <T
b++ d\T, < #s+<T d<|
&sT. eekjT ] d\T eTT+<T
*#sT.
>s b++ sTT+{ eTq
eTTK ss sT sD b+<TTH&T.
bdT\T +{ <| s>H nqT
b]bTH&T. sTT+{ eq 15
d+es\ |\qT bdT\T mesqT
|sT>TTq~? n n&>sT. yT
y+H H us! bdT\+f jTq
uj
T +. n+<Te\q $TeT* #d uj
T |&
| s T > T T H& # | +~. nsTTH
bdT\T qeT<T, yTqT u~]+#sT.
#eu<sT. es #]#sT L&.
nsTTH yT q < es<T.
KeT+\, >$+<|s+ e$T
H seTjT nH |C<V <\T
VessTT. bdT\T >eT+|
<&#d <\sD sTTq y] #
d+ yTT+ d |sTwT\+<] HH
V +d\ |{sT . es 4`12 d+
eT< |\\ $TssTT |{ eT #dT
de#s+ >T<eT jT+#sT.
$TssTT\T nsTT yTs> |\\ T L&
sVdeT #|<T. MMT<
bdT\T <+&bjT+ |j+H
|j q+ XSq+.
d #jT>\ > V<T\Te n
#|+<T O<VsD #| eTT
kqT....: yT eTMsT us,
|dT yTqT yT& |< n+<+.
yT, q |d| \ y & dV ebT
35sVd s\jT+ e+~. e

sV d sD+ deTsT& q ss
nqT+< |+#TH+<T yTeTT
bV+#+. y]<s nqTs><T
HsT. s$ HsjTDs& yTeT+<seT
y]<] $yV bV+#+. =
H\\ s XTe<&T\T O< yT H sTT.
q>s+ sV d sD d++~+q
ss\qT Z+yd n+<T n~
u> n&e kes |+|+#e\d
e+~. yT& |< +&T >se.
s |d$ +#qTq~. < u keTTq
yT nq\T yTqT>, yT _&qT>
rdTy+ eT |sTe e>
u$+ rdTy<T. q us L&
n&e\ ye\dq neds+ yT >T]+
+~. es HH= d\V sTT#qT. n~
m+ u<sy HL \TdT. us
n&e\ y n+f qTe nq\
<>Zs y*. n|& us n&e\
b>\&T. b $<+> |<us+
+Z #>\ e n #bqT. yT n+^]+
+~. us n&e y&T. yT d
|d$ + |\\ T me] q_&q T
sTT#d qT nq\ <>Zs y[+~.
\+>D bs $seTD s
< + | T \T keqy T q <j T +
eeT\T Jeq+ >&T|THsT. yT
|<=&T yT e+&L&<T. e+f
|& |+#Tqy q >+q
+& d nD ysdT D jTsT. s +&e
=&T d+ e #dT beeT
k<+<T. H kq *<+&T\
n~ sTTw+ <T. | |#T |{q |& qqT
|sT \ | ++< q * | ye TTKqT
q s+& =&T |+#T+ |<
w+ <T . |&T |+#Tq ysH n<

yeTTK |s>=#T.
d\VsTTq H{qT+& sy T q
|X| ue+, | #XHy nq
#q qqT y+{&TTq~. yT&
|<qT yT |\\qT sTT+&H
rdTy[, bs $seTD s
<+|T\T |\\ *de+& neX+
*+# b jH? n n|+#~. ,
H&T bs{ |yT|&T nq~ m&
*+~? d+|Ps $eTT ]>esL
Bs\+ bs&\qT +THeTT<!
Xe q n+<s n&e\ ysT. $T>
ysT m&TH J$+ ds|& $|e+
d+ ysT #jT >*+~ #j \ nqT
HsT.
sT |Tq ]q d+es+
|\H bs+ $s$T+#+. |{ sT
$wjT + H >T+& >&TT= =\TdH
e+~. 1965 E H rey T q
T#dq |]d Okj d
eHqT. H |]d |e<s+>e+<
|\T |{+#sTT. &sT # +<
q #+<TTHsT. |]dT qqT
#d+<T #eT+~ ebTHsT.
sE yT& |< e+~ qqT
|seT]+#{. HV<jTus+ ~+
qsTT+~. 15 d+es\ + y]
Hq d\V | #qT.
\+>D O<jT+ n+{ eTV
s >\qT #jTe\d e+~. \+>
D d\T n+<T qT> Oq
ksTTq+<THsT. yT& |< n+<T=
O<VsD.
(yT& |#\|* dT+<sjT
sdq Ms\+>D $|e bs+
12345
>TD bs\T >+<+ qT+&)12345
12345
12345
12345
12345

RNI Reg. No. APTEL/2006/17554

Postal Regd. No H/SD/407/07-10-12

e] dT

d+|<> \ esE\...
$+<T\T $k\eTT+<T
$wjT + ks?!

` sVQ k+jTH
sT\, ]\ @ <qe+T\dyT eT jTeq eT{ *|ks, eT jT{ <qT
>+ #ks, eT s> s ... <q e+T\T s T \q, ]\q ns* q, nsq >+>q
O+ ned\ b\T#jT &yT <T y] n&T>&T >TH nee+#&+ eT se +> |T=+{sT. s T \T, ]\T
|<ysT> m+<THsT? m+<T+f ysT eTT w|& X$T+ d+b~+q d+|<q+ eT us |\\qT
* O+ \>\ <sbXsT >qT. y] s |* O_q u\T y]H s<]ksTT. \>\
uw |<y] |yTq |<\THsTT. eTsT nH eqT nT+ e nH |< L& |<\ d+ ysT
O|j+#sT. sjYT nH |<+H n #yTq qT O|j+#&yT y] >=|<H ^TssTT> O+T+~.
keT]bT\ ujT|& |<]+ eT>Z sT\, ]\ y] m<T LssT. #|\T ydTsT.
m+& >=&T>T L& |TsT. >eT+ sT <q, eq bD\T uk$T #T O+{sTT. n&T q w+
eqT s T qT &k&T .
d+|<qT dw+# yTq O<sT\ |]d ~. sT\T, ]\T #eT{& d+b~+#<+ y]
s e+k<T\qT |* *d \>\ d+eTT+~. y]q \\ ms\ uMT, =B d m e#jTH
$wj L& ysT +# bbqbsT. d ysT b+<& sT\T eT |\\qT m ksT |dT\
|&Tu{s ukeTT\T ksH +#s? m+<sT d\T eTqT nsq>+> O+#THsT? m+<sT
;<s>T\T eT+<T\T , dsq Vs+ eT bD\T e~sT? <qe+T\T $wj\qT eT~ *d e
y\>\ bsT sTqT e~*, n+ $\Tyq s ssTTdt sTqT =qTsT. H\ y\ sbjT\qT e\+
|{\T e< #jTsT. n~s |<e\q\+]+# HjT\L, |< |dsL $+<T\, $H<\ @sT
#jT& \\ sbjT\T >jTsT.
(eTV |+& sVQ k+jTH ;VsT # b C\ T sdq yk\ d+\q+ |q + |d + qT+&
y\T >V +#&sTT. de <Tw + |q + | <T nq |sT |CX T Vdt |d \T>T
y\Te]++~.)

Marxistu, monthly organ of Communist Party of India (Marxist) A.P . State Committee.
Printer & Publisher B.V. Raghavulu. RNI Reg.No. APTEL/2006/17554. Vol.6, No.4, August 2011

36