Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 314

RICHARD RORTY

PHILOSOPHY AND THE


MIRROR OF NATURE

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS


PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY


. .


1997

713.12
177.3
58

,

. .
Princeton University Press

All Rights Reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording
or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing
from Publisher.
.
,
, ,
, .
Copyright 1979 by Princeton University Press
Published by Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey
, , 1997
. ., , , 1997

ISBN 5-7615-0404-9

. . .

,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
.
(Ludwig Wittgenstein, Vermischte
Bemerkungen, Frankfurt, 1977, p. 14)
? -
, ? , ? ?

, ?
( , . 163164)


............................................................................................... ix
..................................................................xviii
........................................................................................................................... 3

. .................................................................................13
1. .................................................................................... 13
2. , .............................. 17
3. ...........................................25
4. ...................................................................29
5. .............................................34
6. " ............................................................46
. .................................................................................52
1. ..........................................................................................................52
2. ............................................................................57
3. .............................................................65
4. ................................................................................................ 72
5. .........................................................79
6. .....................................................85
7. " ..........................................................93

. " ........................................................................97
1. .................................................97
2. ...........................................103
3. ..................................................109
4. " ........................................115
. ............................................... 122
1 ,
................................................................... 122
2. ........................................................... . 128
3. ...................................................................... 134
4. " .......................................................................................... 143
5. ,
........................................................................................................... 155
vii

. .......................................
1. .........................................................
2. ..............................................................
3. .....................
4. .....................................
. ..............................................
1. ..................................................
2. ?.....................................................................
3. .......................................................................................................
4. ....................................................................................................
5. ........................................................................................
6. , ........................................................................

158
158
163
170
181
190
190
196
201
210
218
226

. .................................................
1. ...........................................................................
2. ...........................................................................
3. ..............................
4. ..............................................................................................
. .............................................................
1. ...................................................................
2. ....................................................................
3. , .......................................
4. ......................................................................
5. .........................................................
.....................................................................................................................

233
233
238
247
254
264
264
270
276
280
288
293


.
1979 .
" . ,
. "
.
" , , , ,
. , - , ".
, .
. , "
, , , . . .
, , , . .
,


.
, ,
,
. , " . ,
1993 .
: " . ,
" . , "
. 1, , .
.
. / . . . : -
, 1995.
ix


,

. ,
:
, , ,
". ,
, , ,
, , .
, .
,
, -
, . , , ,
, (
, , "2),
. ,
,
, , . , ".
" . -
, , ,
, ,
.
"
, ; ,
; ,
, ", ", ,
, , . ,
,
, , ,
,
- .
2
1996 . ", . . . . .

, <
,
". ,

" ". ,
, ,
,
,
,

",

,
" , . ( ,
"
, , ,

" ,
, , .). , "
"
. , . , . ,
. " 1982 . .
,
, "
,
,
". ,
" (

"),
. ,
, ,
, .
(, , ),
, "
,
.
".
, .

.
( ) ,
.
(
)
" .
" ( )
. ",

xi


, .
, ,
,
, ,
, .

.
. , , ,
,
.
, ,
,
.
, 3. ,
, -, . . .
, ,
,
-, . . ,
, . . , ,
.
,
. , . , . , ,
.
, . , , ", ,
. ,
. .

.
,
" ", , ,
, , .
-- , ,
. ,
, ".
, ,
, , , , .
", , , ,
3
., .: Philosophy as science, as metaphor, and as politics", in Essays on
Heidegger and Others, Philosophical papers, vol. 2, Cambridge University Press, 1991.

xii

. : *
"4 " ,
,
,
, ,
, , " .
, "
, ,
,

. , ,
: ,
, .
, ,
. , .
. "

. , ,
",
,
. ,
. , ,
. ,
"
- "
. ,
,
, ,
.

, ,
, .
,
,
, ", . .
( . . : - , 1994).
xiii

,
. .
, ,
-
,
.
, "
.

".
, ,
, , .
"
, ".
, ,
.
,
"
,

".
,
", . ,
, ,
, . ,
, ,
.
" , ,

, ,
- ,
,
.
,
, .
, ,
, ,

.
, , ,
-
,
.

,
(, ).
, "
xiv

, ,
" ( "),
,
, . ,
" " ,
,
.


.
, ,
. . , , "
5. . .
. 6. ,
, :
,
, .
,
. -
,
,
.
,
, , ,
,
, .
,
. ". ,
- 1959
, 70-
",
, [] " ." (. 32).
. , .
,
,
5
6

. " : . . .: , 1980.
. . .: , 1993. . . . .
XV

. ,
,
, (,
" , ).
,
, "
-
.
, ,
. .


" ( ),
, .
,
. ,
, ",
"
.

( ,
,
)
.
,
.
,
, .
, .
. ,
, , ,
, , .
, ", . ., , ,
.
.
.
( ),
,

".
; , Princeton
University Press .

xvi

(, ) 1993
1995 ., ,
. ,
, ( )
.

. ,

,
.

, ,
. , ( ,
)
; ,
.
. .
, 1996 .



. ,
,
, . ,
,
, .

, ,
. , , , ,
, , ,

.
, , , .
, , .
(, ).
(, Sein Zeit).
XX ,
,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
, , , (
) ,
.
XViii


, ,
, - 1925
1985 . ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
, -
, 19301970 . , , - ,
,

.
19 ,
( ), XX ,
, . ,
( 50-),
;
, .
, ,
,
" ,
,
. ,
"
. , ( ,
1951 .)
.
, (
, 1956 .)
".
( , 1954 .) , " ,
-
.
,
, ,
xix


,
, .

, , ,
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
. (
D. Davidson, Inquires into Meaning
and Truth, 1984, , , )
, .
, ,
, . (Brandom, Making It Explicit, 1994) , ,

. , ,
(Ryle, The Concept of Mind)
,
. ( The Intentional Stance, Consciousness
Explained and Darwin's Dangerous Idea) , ,
.

" (,
, . . ),
, . " ( ,
The Linguistic Turn, 1967). (
, )
. , .
,
.
, , ( XX

,
),
. , ,
,

, , ,
.
( ),
XXI ,
, ,
XX , ,
.
.
,
,
1. ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
, .
( , Contingency, Irony and Solidarity,
1989 Essays on Heidegger and Others, 1991) ,

. ,
, . (
, , ),

, ,
. ,
,
, XX ,
.
, , , ,
, ,
, , , ,
. , ,
- ,
. ,
The Journal of Philosophy, v. xcii, n. 3,
1995.
xxi

, , , ,
,
,
,
2. (
) ,
,
. , (
, ) , .
,
.

3, 1995 .

, ,
, ,
. ,
,
, .


, ,
.
.

" .
- . ,

, .
.
,
,
. ,
, " ", .
, ;
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
( ).
, ", XVII , .
" , ", , .
, ,
XVIII , .
. XIX ,
3

--,
. , ", (,
. ) . " .
, ,
,
.

( ),
" ".
, . ,

. , XIX
, , , ,
, . ,
,
. XX
,
. , . " ",
.
" ,
.
, .

, .
"
.
,
,
,
, ,
. ,
, , , , ( XVII ).

" ,
, .
4

, ,
, , ;
,
.
,
, ,

, .
, " ,
,
. , ",
, ,
, ,
, .
, "
".
. ", ",
XVII
.
( ). ,
, , XVII , , XIII
. , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
,
,
. ,
" (
" ),
( ),
, .
, ,
,
. ,
" - ,
" , " -
, " ",
" .
, ,
5

, .
( . .),
, ,
, , .
-, ",
- , , . ,
, ,
, . ,

,
. ,
, ,
, , , , ,
, .

, ,
, .
, ,
,
,
,
. , ,
" ",
.
, , "

,
. ,
, , , . ,
.
,
, , , .
, , ,
,
, ,
, , ,

" . "
, ,
, ,
, "
. , , ". ,
, , ,
6

. ,
, , .
, (
, , ) ,
, , . , ,
,
,
, . "
- , ",
, , ,
,
,
. ,
, " (
, , )
" ( ,
, ), ,
. ,
, ,
, "
(justification) ,
" ".

, ,
.
,
"
,
, .
,
- , ,

.
, . ,
, , ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
", " " 7

. ,
, ,
,
. ,
, .
,
".
" XVII ", .
" ,
-- , , .
,
. ,
"
"
". ,

.
,
, ,
, , ", ". , ,
" , , ,
.
, , "
. ,
" ,

, .
,

,
, .
,
, ,
,
.
" .
" , ,
" ". 8

( " )
(, ,
),
. ,
. , " "
.
, ,
" " , " ,
- , " . , ,
, ,
, , " .
, ,
". ,
, , ,
. ,
,
, ,
, .
, .

. ,
,
, , ,
. , ", ", ", ",
", .
,
" , .

, , .


. , " . ,
9

, .
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, . , .
, ,
". , ,
" ", ,
, . ,
. , ,
, .

1.


, ,
,
, , "
(stuff), ,
. , ,
,
. -
,
?
, , , ,
", , , , ,
",
, ,
, . ,
", ,
,
, -
.
" (mind-stuff), res cogitans , ,
,
.
.
,
, ,
, ,
,
res cogitans, res
externa. , , , ,
-, - , -,
(disposition) , , ,
,
, . , , ,
13

. -
, ,
,
, ".
-
, , .

"
". ,
, ,
.
- . ?"
. " , :
?" , , , ?".
, ,
, , ( ,
)
, , . ( ,
, ). ,

, , , ,
- , .
.
, , , ,
. , ,
, ,
" .
,
, , -,
,
( )?
, , :
,
,
,
,
", ".

"
". ?
14

? , ,
,
? , ,

- , , ,
. ,
? ,
,
, , (particular and universal).
, .
- . , ,
- .
",
, , ,
"
".
, .
,
, , ,
(exemplified) . , ,
, . "?
, "?
" "
-", ,,
" " .
,
, .
, " ",
" ".
" " .

?
,
, ,
,
, , .
, : -, , ,
, . , ,
" "" " ".
, ,
,
15

1.
", .
,
, , ,
. , , ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
.
- , , ,
. ,
,
,
,
.
,
, , , . ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
,
, " ,
, . ,
- , ,
,
- .
,

.
, , ,
, , ,
.
, , , ,
(mind-body
problem), , 1

.: . . . .: , 1964. . 3. . 286295. 16

, ,
". ,
,

.
. ,
,
,
,
, .
,
, .
" "
".
, -
.
2. ,

,
, .
"
,
,
, .
ad hoc
, ,
". , ,
,
,
2.
,

- ,
.
, -,
, - ,
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
- ,
.
" , ,
2
.: George Pitcher, A Theory of Perception (Princeton, 1971); D. M. Armstrong,
Perception and the Physical World (London and New York, 1961) and Materialist Theory
of the Mind (London and New York, 1968).

17

". , ,
,
. ,
, "
. ,
,
, ,
.
, .
,
", , , . .
.
, ,
.
,
- ,
,
.
:

,

, ,

, "
,

, "
?"
,
.
,
"? " ,
"?
"? " "
?
,
: ?"
?" , ,
. " , , ", ,

. ,
",
,
, 18

. (
). ,

,
.
,
. , ,

,
, , .
"
,

", . -,

"
. ,
. ,

,
. -
,
, , X X,
.
, , ,
"
" ,
. .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
, .

, , ,
,
, . ,
.
?" :
, ,
, , ,
".
" , ",
".
19

, , ,
,
? ,
,
, .
, ,

, , . ,
,

, ,

, ?
,
,

, ,
,
. ,
" (
,
, ) "
,
, ,
.

. , , ,
, ".
,
,
,
, - ,
", .
,
, ,
, ( ) ,
. ,

, ,
.
, , ,

,
3.
3
Roderick Chisholm. Intentionality and the Mental" in Minnesota Studies in the
Philosophy of Science 2 (1958), p. 533.

20

' ,
?" ,
,
,
, ".
,
. , , ,
, ,
, ,
, , ",
, ,

, .
- .
:
?", ,
.
, , ,
-, -
, , , ,
, -?
,
- ,
, .
, , ,

", , 4.
. ? ,
, -

4
Thomas Nagel What
Is It Like to Be a Bat?", Philosophical Review 83 (1974), p. 435450.
, .
, (
) , " - ,
, , .
, , X, ", ,
, , , ,
,
" (. 437).
, .
, , 4 ,
, . , ,
, ( ),
, ,
,
, .

21

, ,
, . ,
, ,
?
, , (, -"),
(, ")? ,
,
, , - , ? , , , ,
(, ),
? ,
?
, , , ,
.
,
-,
, . (, , , , ). ,
.
?
* ,
, ?
* incorrigibility" ".

( privileged access"),
, , .

. ,

, .
. -,
, .

,
.
, ,

. , ,
, , , . ,
. -, ,
22

, , : . <
, .
. (
) ,
, , .
, , ,
, .
, ,
, " .

,
,
. ,
, , ? ,
, - ,
, .

, ,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
. , ,
,
, esse percipi
.
, ,
(self-subsistent) ,
, .
, " ,
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,

, . (infallibility),
(incorrigibility), (indubitability). , ;
( ). ,

. ,
, . ,
:
, ." (The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy.
ed. R. Audi, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 648.)
23

. ,
, ,
, .
:
?" , ,
,
.
, , . , , , , , ,
, . ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
?",
,
, , ,
, .
. ,

, , , ,
, , - . , ,
, ,
,
-.
-" ", . ,
, ,
, , ".

,
, , , ,
. ,
,
- ( ,
, ) ,
, , .
,
.
.
24

3.

,
". ,
, , ,
,
.
, , ,
.
,
, ",
,
,
, ,
. -" ,
, ,
, , , ,
, .
-, ,

,
,
. ,
,
. ,

, ,
,
,
.
,
. , ,
, - .

, ,
, .
, ,
.
,
:

,
"
?
,
, ,
, -,
?
25


, ,
, , ?
, , ,
. , , ,
, . ,
,
.
, ,
, ", ", ",
" . ., ,
. , , ,
, ,
- .
, ,
, - ,
,
,
. , ,
, ,

, .
", ",
, ,
,
.
?" ,
, , ?"
, ".

?",

?", ?"
, ?".
" ,
, .



.

. " ,
,
,
, , , , .
-

, .
( ) , .
, ,
. ,
".
.

,
"
", ", ", "
". ,
, ,
, :
1. ( ")
2.
3. ( ")
4.
5.
(")
6.
7.
8. , "
9. ".
, 5.
,
,
. , ,
". ,
( , )
, , 5
Herbert Feigl, The Mental" and the Physical" (Minneapolis, 1967)
,
.

27

.
, ,
, ,
, .
,
(1)

(2) (3).
, ( 4, 5 6), ,
( 7, 8 9),
, .
,
,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
- , (3),
(4) (5), , , ,

. -,
, ( ,
, ) ,
, ,

. , ,
. , ,
,
, .
,
,
, , . ,
,
: ",
,
",
, .

(2), (3) (4) ,
. , ,
.
,
(5) (6)
.
,
28

, (7), (8) (9) ,


, ,
, 4,
, 4, , 3.
:
- ?
,
, ,

, ,
, . ,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
, .
4.

,

, .
, ,
, .


, -
. ,
, , , ,
, , , .
:
,
?
, , , , ,
. , ,

. ,
,
, .
" (contemplation), ,
. ,
29

- (, , ,
) ,
6 ,
.
,
? , - , ,
.
,
,
,
7.
,
. ,
, . ,
, , , , - ,
",
.
, , " ,


, :
, .
; ,
, . ,
, ,
.
. (The Quest for Certainty, N. ., 1960, p. 23).
, ,
, ,
. . : . . Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being (Cambridge, Mass.,
1936), ch. 2 .
, , (. D.
Broad) (sense-data), ,
, ,
, - " (Scientific Thought, London, 1923, p. 240).
7
, .: . A. Peursen, Body, Soul, Spirit (Oxford,
1966), p. 88 and ch. 7 Bruno Snell, Discovery of Mind (Cambridge, Mass.,
1953), R. . Onians, The Origins of European Thought (Cambridge, Mass., 1951),
.
(. 93) , , , ,
, .
. Snell, ch. 1,
" .
,
( ) , , ,
". : Peursen, pp. 87, 90.
30

. "
,
* , ,
(froghood) (, , ), ,
, () -
. - ,

, 8.
, ,

Entwicklung (
. .) , ,
, III, 5 XII
9. -,
.
, ,

, ,
,
.

?" ------, ,
,
( , )
.
* " [. . .:
, 1975, . 1], intellect" . .
8
, -
(,
, III, 5 ,
, ). ,
, 408b 1920
41b 25, . .: Mortimer Adler, The
Difference of Man and the Difference It Makes (N.Y.,1967), p. 220, 429a
18 b23
. "
" .: J. H. Randall, Aristotle (N.Y.,1960) (Werner
Jaeger), . . : Marjorie Grene, A Portrait of Aristotle
(London, 1963), p. 243. .
9
; .: . . Green,
The Philosophy of Aristotle (in Collected Works, London 1885, III, pp 5291).
, III, 5
.

", .
(Kenny) ,
.
31


":
... ,
,
, ,
, ,
, , .
, , ,
, ,
, ,
10.
"
,
, , ,
, ,
; -
, "11.
XVII , , , ". , ,
.
10
. , II, iii, 11. . . 8 . . .: , 1993 .
(. .: ,
". :
Most ignorant of what he's most assured
His glassy essence

, ,
.

.) .:
J. V. Cunningham, Essence" and The Phoenix and the Turtle, English Literary History 19, 1952, p.
266 , " ",
, ".
",
Arden Shakespeare ( ). , ,
, . speculum
obscurum" . .
.: Herbert Grabes, Speculum, Mirror und Looking Glass,
Tubingen, 1973, p. 92. (Geistig-Seelisches als Spiegel").
. 1892 ",
,
, , "
" (. Collected Works, ed. Ch. Hartshorne and Paul Weiss,
Cambridge, Mass., 1935, 6.270271).
11
. . . 2- . . I, M.:
, 1971. . 322.
32

. ,
, , .
, ,
, 12 , . ,

,
, ,
.
XVI , ,
.
, ,
.
,
, .
,
, ",
. ,


: , ,
, . , , flatus
vocis .
, , ,
,
.
",
, , XVII
. , "
, ,
, . ,
, .
.
,
". , ,
. ,
12
. , , , ,
".
purumque reliquit / aethereum sensum atque aurai simplicis ignem" ...
. (, VI, 747 .
: . . . . I. M.: , 1971. . 260). ,
,
, .
, , , ,
, .
, -- , -- , .

33

, . ,
"
, , , , ( . ) 13
- (other-wordly) . "
, . ,
, ()
( and essence), , ,
, ,
- .
,

" (consciousness) " (awareness).
, .
5.

(, , ) ", ,,
, ,
.
, ,
. .
, . , .
13
, , ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
" ".
. . Onians, Origins of European
Thought, p. 480. . , ,
, ,
() , . (), , (J. . . Robinson),
" (personality)" (The Body: A Study
of Pauline Theology, [London, 1952], p. 28; . .
Campbell, Body and Mind, [New York, 1970], p. 2: , , ,
, : , ,
"). (. 31), ,
, ,
". , ,
- ; . van Peursen,
Body, Soul and Spirit, ch. 6. -
, , . .: , 15:35
54.

34

, ",
, .
,
, ,
. ,
" , "
. , ,
.
,
,
14, " , , " : , ? , ( , )
?
,
, (
")
, ", ,
.
,
, , ,
.

?"15
XVII
:
14

. . (Ph. Hallie)
",
,
,
." (Scepticism, Man and God, [Middletown,
Conn., 1964], p. 7). He , ,
, , ;
. (Charlotte Stough, Greek Scepticism, [Berkeley, 1969],
p. 24) ,
, ". ,
,
,
.
(Stough, pp. 3840),
, , ,
, ,
. . : J. . Gould, Being, the World and Appearance in
Early Stoicism and Some Other Greek Philosophers", Review of Metaphysics, 27 (1974),
PP. 261288, . 277.
15
W. Matson, Why Isn't the Mind-Body Problem Ancient?" in Mind, Matter and
Method: Essays in Philosophy and Science in Honor of Herbert Feigl, ed. Paul Feyerabend
and Grover Maxwell (Minneapolis, 1966), pp. 92102.
35

, , .
,
, ,
.
,
. , ,
, ,
( )?" .

" ,
... "
, ,
-

"16.
, ,
"
"
". , , ", , , , ,
, , , ,
, , , , ,
,

, "17.
16
Matson, Mind-Body Problem", p. 101. , ,
".
, , ,
" ,
Phantasma, .
. A. Kenny, Intellect and Imagination in St. Thomas" in Aquinas: A
Collection of Critical Essays, ed. Kenny (Garden City, New York, 1969), pp. 293294.
, ,
". .
Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (Cambridge, Mass., 1969), p. 249 (and essay II,
passim).
17
. . .: , 1989. . 2. . 25. "
" , , ,
" (res cogitans, id est, mens, sive animus intellectus, sive ratio)
: ? ,
, , , , ,
" (. . . 2. . 2324) ( ;
Nempe dubitans, intelligens, affirmans, negans, volens, nolens, imaginans quoque, et
sentiens"). , , ,
, , ..." (hoc est proprie quad in me sentire appelatur; atque
hoc praecise sic sumptun nihil aliud est quam cogitare).
Oeuvres Philosophiques, ed. Alquie (Paris, 1967), vol. II, pp. 184186 (pp. 152
153 in vol. I of the Haidane and Ross translation). . : Principles I, sec. 9:
" , ,
(tout qui se fait en nouns de telle sorte que nouns I'apercevons
immdiatement par nous-mmes). , , ,
, (sentir) , . (. .
. 1. . 316). res cogitans " .: Robert McRae,
Decartes' Definition of Thought" in Cartesian Studies, ed. R. J. Butler (Oxford, 1972),
pp. 5570.

36

, " ,
, , , 18" " .
,
,
...
"19. , ,
, , ", 18
" (1,i,8),
" [ (. . .:
, 1985) : ,
" (. 1. . 95)
" (. 2. . 338). . .].
(immediacy) (
)
. , " .
, : "...
, .
, , ,
,
,
" ( . . .: , 1965. . 1. . 303).
19
Anthony Kenny, Descartes on Ideas" in Descartes: A Collection of Critical
Essays, ed. Willis Doney (Garden City, New York, 1967), p. 226. .
penses" tout qui est tellement en nouns, que nouns en
sommes immdiatement connaissants", idee" cette forme de chacune de
nos penses, par la perception immediate de laquelle nous avons connaissance de ses mmes
penses" (Replies to Second Objections, Alquie edition, II, 586). (John
Yolton), , ( )
,
, ,
). Ideas and
Knowledge in Seventeenth-Century Philosophy" (Journal of the History of Philosophy 13
[1975], 145165) idee" une
manire ou faon de penser" Third Meditation (Alquie, II, 439)
, " (act) ,
.
, ( , , . Etienne Gilson J. H. Randall) ,
, .
. ' . O'Neil, Epistemological Direct Realism in Descartes' Philosophy (Albuquerque, N.M., 1974), pp. 9697:
esse objectivum ".
' . (J.Wahl), ait exprime les deux conception
fondamentales et antinomiques du ralisme", , - ,
.
,
, ,
, . , ,
.

37

.
,
. , ,
, , foro interno, 20. ,
( ,
"), , , , ,
", -.

,

,
21. XVII
, ,
.
20

., .: . . 263.
Adler (Difference of Man, pp. 217218) (Matson),

, , , ,
, ,
,
". , ,
.
. , ,
,
, .
. ,
,
, ,
", , . . (G. Matt
hews) Consciousness in Life", Philosophy 52 [1977], 1326)
Contra Academicos", bk. 3, sec. 11, chap. 26,
:
21

, ... ", ",


, ( , ) ,
.
, ,
. , ,
(. 25).
( )
, ,
, . , , .
(S. Hampshire) (Critical Study" of The Concept of Mind, Mind 59 [1950], 237255,
esp. sec. 2). ,
( (. Frede),
"
,
.
, 19,
(continuities) ,
, (
).
38

" ", ",


--- , . ,
, ". ,
, ,
,
toto caelo,
,
.
, , .
" , , , ,
22. ,
, ,
. ",
( , ) ,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
,
. .
",
23.
22
. " ( III The Spirit of Modern Philosophy, [New
York, 1892]) ,
" (, XI). .
1 Lovejoy The Revolt Against Dualism (La Salle, Ill., 1930),
, , ,
, ,

,
, , , ,
, ,
; , , -
, , ,
" (. 14).
, , "
, .
23
, " , :
39

, ,
.
,
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
. ,
,
( ,
),
(
), , , .
"
-- --.
, () , . II,
, : , .
, , ,
... , , . , . (Concerning the Teacher On the Immortality of the Soul
[New York, 1938], p. 61). XVII

, , ,
. ,
,
, ,
, . ,
, "
, , , ,
" (. . . 2.
. 180).
( ,
), , ,
. . . ( 5,
1649). , , "
" ". ,
, ,
.
.: . N. Malcolm, Thoughtless Brutes",
Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 46 (1973), p. 520.
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , . .,
, ,, ". (Malcolm, Descartes's Proof That His
Essence Is Thinking" in Descartes: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. Willis Doney, p.
317). , ,
, ,
cogitato pense. , . ,

, - ( ) ,
.
. , , ,
" (awareness) ".
-, .: Sellars, Being and Being Known" in
Science, Perception and Reality.
40

, :
?", , . . , ,
, ,
,
. , ,
",
, ,
,
.
, , .
, ,
,
, ,

, .
,
(,
, ),
". , ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
"24. (
),
. , ,

. ,
" ( ,
", ,
, ).
,
, ,
" (. 14).
, ,
, ,
" , ,
" (. 14).
, , ,
, , ,
,
, . , ,
, penser" 24
.: Margaret Wilson, Decartes: the Epistemological Argument for Mind-Body
Distinctness", Nous 10 (1976), 78.
.

41

", ()
, , ,
intellectus .
, "
" , . , ,
".
, " , , ,
,
", , . , , ,
(
, ,
" )

, .
, :
, ,
- , , ,
; ,
,
, 25.
, ,
,
, . . ,

. ,
", ", " . .
, ,
, ,
,
,
, 26.
, ,
", ( quaedam simplicia et
universalia), . , , , , , ,
, , ,
25
26

42

. . . . 2. . 34.
. . . . 2. . 18.

, .
,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
27. ,
,
" , ,
,
, ,

28.
, , ,
,
, ,
,
,
(eternity),
- , , .

, ,
", . .
, ,
" .
. ,
, ,
, ,
27

(A. G. A. Balz) :
, , ,
(soul) ,
, . , ,
,
, .
-
. (Concerning the Thomistic and Cartesian Dualism: A
Rejoinder to Professor Mourant", Journal of Philosophy 54 [19571, 387).
28
, , ,
. , . " ,
,
, ,
, .
, . ,
, .
43

.
,
. . ,

( , ") , . ,

, , , . , " "
- , ,

", " ". 29 (foundationalist epistemology) .
,
,
, . ,
30
,
, . "
(The Passions of the Soul).
, , , , , ,
la fantaisie corporelle"31.
29
,
(J. Hacking) The Emergence of Probability (Cambridge,
Cambridge University Press, 1975) " (evidence)
,
, . , ,
. (.: Hacking, p. 35; . Kuhn,
The Essential Tension [Chicago, 1978], ch. 3). .
30
. , les
images des choses matrielles dpeinte en la fantaisie corporelle",
( ). . Cartesian Dualism"
(in Descartes: Critical and Interpretive Essays, ed. M. Hooker, [Baltimore, 1978] , , ,
- (occurence)". , ,
" (mainline)
". (
, , , ,
, , , ,
).
31
.: . . III
V.

44

,
, " ,
",
, .
,
, .
" ,
32 ,
.
; , ,
, , , , ,
. ... ,
,
,
... ,33
" .
-- (mind-as-reason) --
(mind-as-inner-arena) , , , ,
.

, ,
. , ,
.
32
" ( ,
18) ; ,
. . . . Des vraies et des fausses
ides (Oeuvres, Paris and Lausanne, 1780, vol. 39, p. 190), ,
, 510),
:


, ,
(vue), ,
. . ,
, , .
, (presence),
. ,
, , , .
, , , , .
' '" (Sense
and Sensibilia [Oxford, 1962] (mirror-images) (ibid., pp. 31, 50).
,
" ( ,
, .), . R. MacRae, Idea as a
Philosophical term in the 17th Century", Journal of the History of Ideas 26 (1965), 175190.
33
, 28, 1643 (. . . 2. . 491492).
45

6. "

, ,
"
, ,
. ,
,
, (law-event),
" .
,
. , ,
",

.
, ,
, ,
, ( , ),
,
"34. ,
. ,
",
. ,
,
, , , : "
. :
- ,
, ,
. ,

"35,
. , 2 ,
(,
, ), ,
34
(. . 2. . 28)
sequitur :
proprie" , , , nihil
facilius aut identius mea mente posse a me percipi (Alquie, II, 192: Haldane and Ross, I, 157).
cogito
.
35
Jerome Shaffer, Philosophy of Mind (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1968), p. 48; cf. Norman
Malcolm, Scientific Materialism and the Identity Theory", Dialogue 3 (1964), 115125.

46

,
. ,
, ()
.
, " , , "
, , , , ,
, .
, ,
", .
, ,
, XVII , ,
", . , ,
.
,
,
" (
),
", . , ,
" , ,
, , 36. , " ,
",
37. - [
" ] - "38.
36
.: . 1040b, 510 ().
"
" Genus as Matter", in Exegesis and Argument: Studies in Greek Philosophy
in Honor of Gregory Vlastos, ed. Edward N. Lee et al. (Dordrecht, 1973).
37
, , ,
. . , , ,
", ,
, " (en un autre sens on les peut
appeler incompletes, qu'elles aient rien d'incomplet en tant qu'elles sont des substances, mais
seulement en tant qu'elles se rapportent a quelqu'autre substance avec laquelle elles composent un
tout par soi et distinct de tout autre). , ,
, (, ) ,
( ), (, -).
38
,
, ,

47

" ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
, .
, ,
,
,
(, ), , .

" ,
39. -- ( )-- -, (
) " (,
" , ) 40.

",
XVII . a se
, . , ,
, , ,
, ,
, . L. J. Beck,
The Metaphysics of Descartes (Oxford, 1965), p. , :
substantia, res,
" (self) Cogito,
, ".
39
.: . A. Burtt, Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science (Garden City,
New York, 1955), ch. IV. . 117 , ,
,
(permanence),
. , ,
,
".
res
extensa.
40
.: , , concevoir pleinement"
concevoir que c'est une chose complete" , , ,
, , ,
.
48

- ".
, , , , ,
, ,
. , ", , , ,
, - . , ,
, , - ,
? ,
, ,
(,
) , ,
, ".
, ,
.
, , , . ,

,
, . ,
( ) ",
, . , 41.
,
; , , ,
, .
, (vulgar)
" ,
. ,
,
41
(Hampshire),
(Austin) () Ryle, The Concept of Mind,
Ryle: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. O.P.Wood and George Pitcher (Garden
City, New York, 1970).
. Pitcher, A Theory of Perception.
, " .
James Cornman, Materialism and Sensations (New Haven, 1971). . .
R. Rorty, Incorrigibility as the Mark of the Mental", Journal of Philosophy 67 (1970),
406409.

49

,
, ,
(accidental) ,
. , ,
- (,

).
, ",

(ghost),
, res cogitans res extensa.
,
, .
"
- , ( ,
)
" -
. , ,
,
,


() (thinghood), , .
,
.
, 42. ,
, ,
"
,
".
-
. , .
, , ,
,
, .
42

, , , ,
" (Jaegwon Kim, Materialism and Criteria of Mental", Synthse 22 [1971],
336).

50

,
, XVII
, ,
. , ,
, -
, -
, .
, ,
, .
.
1 2 , -
" ,
", , , , . ,
,
, , ,

(personhood) . ,
36 ,
( ,
).

?" ,

".
,
".
, ,
. ,
"
, ", ,
.

1.

-, , ,
,
,
. , .
(-)" ( -)", , ",
" ".
, ,
, , ",
", ".
,
, , ,
, : ..."
..."
.
- ",
", " . ;
" .
, ,
, , .
", .
,
, ",
, -
.
, , : ,
,
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
"* , -

* ,
( . . . .).
52

", ", "


. ,
,
, , ,
" ,
(
" ).
, ,
. .
,
,
. ,
: -!"
, :
! G-14,
, ,
." ,
, -,
.
, - ,
, . ,
,
: S-296,
". - :
, ,
, , ".
- : G-412
F-11, S-147, ,
".
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
XXI .
, .
,
. ,
,
,
,


53

. ,
.
, .

,
( )
, ,
. ( , , ).
, ,
.
, ,
: (tender minded) ,
, (significance),
(tough-minded) , ,
. ,
, . ,

--. , Existentiale
, ,
".
" ,
, .
,
,
,
.
,
. , , ,
,

. ,

, .

. ,
,
: ,
, , ,
, . .
, ,
. ,
, :
?
: ?
, , ,
, , -
54

, .
,
, , . ., .
-.
:
, ? - ?
- ?
? ,
,
,
-,
. :
,
: - ,
, , , . ."?
, , ,
,
. ,
,
,
, - , . ,
, .
,
- , -,
.
, -, ,
", -, , .
.
,
.
,
( ,
). ,
, ,
.
, , .
, .
, ,
(, ,
-692)
. ,
, . , , .
, , -692,
,
55

" . ,
, , 692, , ,
". ,
, ,
, -692,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
-692 , ,
. ,
,
, , .
, ,
, , , , ,
, , .
,
-692, . ,
, ,
, (seeming to see)
-692.
: ?"
?"
?" ,
- . ,
, -,
, , ,
, , -.
- ,
, , -
". , -435,
, ", -497,
, -
", -293,
-!",
,
,
. ,
-435, -, ,
, , , (
), , .
:
- (,
56

)?
, -435,
? , ,
, .
- ? , . ,
.
, -,
,
. , , .
, - .
,
, . , ,
", , , ,
. ,
. ( )
, , ( , , ,
). ,
- ( , , -435)
-,
, . ,
, , .
, , ,
..." ,
. ,
... ", " (appearance),
". ; ,
. .
2.

, ,
? , ,
", ,

. ,
,
, :
,
, ,
57

;
,
, S.
. ,
, , ;
,
, ... ,

, S
.
[,

, ].
,
" ,
,
, S... ,
, - ; , ,
. ,
, , ",

. , ,
,
,
, .
,
, 1.
,
:
? ,
, ,
" ,
-? , ",
, , ,
, ,
? ,
, ",
, , ,
1
Saul Kripke, Naming and Necessity" in Semantics of Natural Language, ed. D. Davidson and G.Harman (Dordrecht, 1972), pp. 339340.
.: F. Feldman, Kripke on the Identity
Theory", and W. Lycan, Kripke and the Materialists", both in Journal of Philosophy 71
(1974), 665689.

58

?
?
,
, , : -! - !", ,
!"? ,

-",
-,
, , ,
.
,
, "
, .
,
. ,
, ,

...
, ,
. ,
, , .

-, , , ,


, -,
, -.

,
,
,
,
, , ,
. , . .
, , ,
",
2. "
2

Incorrigibility as a Mark of the Mental", Journal of Philosophy 67 (1970), 399424. .
Jaegwon Kim, Materialism and the Criteria of the Mental", Synthese 22
(1972), 323345, esp. 336-341.

59

, .
, , . . (, ,
, ", ,
, ,
,
). , , (1) ,
, (2)
(,
) ,
. ( , ,
, ,
,
). ,
: , ,
(, , !") ,
?"
, ,
, , ,
, :
,
"?
, ,
. ,

, ,
, ,
,
, , .
, ?
, ,
, " "? ,
, ,

? , ,
, , ?
?
,
,
, ,
. , ,
,
(self-image), ,
60

" '
.
-
,
,
, . ,
, ,
(
, , ),
. ( "?)
, ,
, , ,
, ",
.
, , ,
,
, .
,
, (- )
, . (
,
. ,

,
, , ,
, , ,
?)
,
,
, - .
.

,
,
, " ( " ):
, , .
",
. ,
,
- , . ,

, ,
,
, .
61

.
:
... ,
,
,
,
3.
, ,
- , ,

... , , , . (seemings),
, . :
,
? ,
?
...
,
, , , 4.
,
, , ,
", ,

, . , , ,

, , . .
, , " , ,
".
, :
() , , ,
, .
, , ,
, ",
3
Richard Brandt, Doubts about the Identity Theory", in Dimensions of Mind, ed.
Sidney Hook (New York, 1961), p. 70.
4
Keith Campbell, Body and Mind (New York, 1960), pp. 106107, 109.

62

, , 5.
, ", ... ,
".
, ,
, (),
?
-
- ?
, ? ,
. , ,
, ,
, , -,
, -,
, .
,
" , .
, ,
- ", . .? :
,
. ,
. - , , ,
, ". -
, ,
,
. , , -
, ,
, : 5

(George Pitcher) , , .
,
.
,
, (particular).
,
, ,
, mutatis mutandis, ,
. .: Pitcher, Pain Perception", Philosophical Review 79 (1970), 386393.
, A Theory of Perception
(Princeton, 1971) D. M. Armstrong, A Materialist Theory of the Mind (London and
New York, 1968). , ,
, , .
,
,
, , ( ,
).
63

- .
, ",
"; , " ".
, , . ,
, ,
,
- , .
, , . . -
. , , , "
( -)
. , ,
", . , :
", : ,
,
" 6.
,
. , ,
, .
, . , ,
.
, ".
,
(second-rate language). ,
" ,
.
", ", " . .
.
, ,
.
-, , "
. - : ,
, -?" ,
, ,
6

64

- .

, ".
, , , , ,
" ,
.
, , , - .
.
;
, ,
,
,
.
,
, ,

.
-
.
, , -,
: , ,
", , , -, :
, ".
, ,
( . .)
? ,
, , ,
, ?
3.

,
".
, . ,
, ,
.

.
, ", ,

. (
,
.)
,

. ,
,
.
" 65

, .
,
, , , ,
. ( , ,
, ,
".) ,
,
. - , , , ...",
, ,
... .
,
" " ( " , " ),
",
- :
". , ,

,
.
?
, , . " , , , ,
. , ,
,
(, , ), , ,
", " , . , ",
, , ".
?" - ", -", ", ".
, ,
, ,
,
.

,
" ,
. ,
(),
(, ),

66

(, ).
- , ,
, ", , (
) . ,

, ,
, , , . .
, " (stuff),
, , ,
(, ,
)7.
,
- : -
?
:
1. ,

2. , ,


3.

4.
.
(3) , , .
,
.

, , (Kampe) , ,
( ) ,
, ."
,
, -
, ").
, ,
". , , -
, ,
. , , ,
, - ( ")
", " . . (,
Mind-Body Identity: A Question of Intelligibility", Philosophical Studies 25 [1974], 63
67.).
67

, , (4). (4)

4'. ,
, , ,
. (: XXIII

.") (4'),
,
5.

5'. , , .

.
" ;
,
(lexicon-maker). , . "
- ", ,
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
- ,
- : ; .
, ", - :
; ,
, , ,
- ". ,
-
. :
?"
: ". :
, -?", ,
,
-, , ,
, .
, , , ,
" (noninferential awareness) " . .
, , , -
, ", " . 68

, , , .
,
, , ,
, ", , , ,
... ,
,
, . ,
, , , " ,
- . ,
,
, , ..., .
,
.
-,
.
:
6. , -,
.

, , (1),
7. , ,
,
.
(7) ,
- , :
() , , ,
,
"
, ", " . ., ,
,
.
, , ,
: .
(5) (5'). ,
,
- ,
, , ,
" ,
. , ,
, ,
, "
.
69

(5'), ,
, , (seems-statements), ,
,
, , ,
- ", , ,
.
, ,
( ). ,
,
, -
(mindless) , a fortiori .
8. , (6)

,
, , , , . ,
() .

.
, ,
, ,
,
.
(7) ,
()
,
, , (b)
, , ,
, , ()
,
,
.
8

", ,
" , " . " ,
, : ,
, -?"
", , - , :
, ,
, - ?"
.
Richard Popkin, The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes (New
York, 1964).
70


, .
, (7)
(). , ,

,
".
(Myth of the Given).
,
, ,
, ",
", ",
,
,
, , .


-- (knowledgeclaim) , (7) ()
.

" ,
", , , , ,
. , ,
, .
,

,
, ,
,
".
(Ryle The Concept of Mind).

,

,
.
. ,

, " ,

. , ,
: () ,
, (b)
, , ,
, ,

71

, ()
,
, .
,
, ,
. (
,
.
.) , "
, , , ,
, , ,
.
, ,
",
, ,

.
, ,
, () , ,
, , ,
".
(), ,
,
,
, ,
, "
. ,
XVII ,
.

, . , ,
,
.
" ,

",
.
4.

, " , ,
.
" , ,
, , ,
, 72

.
- - .
,
", ,
,
, ,
, , ,
.

- ,
.
,

. ,
", ,
", ,

" " ,
,
. ,
, , ,
,
.
, , .


,
, . , - -
. ,
,
: , ,
, , , , ".
, ,
, ,
, .
,
,
. ,
, .


:
?". , -
, , :
?", ?".
73


,
", ".
.
,
,
(, "), ,


". .
, , , , , ,
. , ,
, ,
"
. , , ( )
,
, , , ,
. , , :
(') ,
, ,
.
,
, , "9. , ( ),
.
, (Bouwsma),
, .
, (') .
, -, ():
() , , ,

, .
, "
9
X. . Putnam,
Brain and Behavior" in Mind, Language and Reality, vol. II (Cambridge, 1975).

74

, ,
( , ),
. , -
; , , ,
.
.
, ,
, , , ,
. , ,
() .
, ,
,
, , ,
, ,
, .
-",

, .
(-") , , ,
, ,
"10.
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
".
10
Gilbert Ryle, The Concept of Mind (New York, 1965), p. 155.
-" . 159.
11
Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind" (in Science,
Perception and Reality [London and New York, 1963]) ,
. , ,
, "
, , , ,
, , . ,
, ,
, ,
(, , -). ,
, , ,
", " (Armstrong, A Materialistic Theory of Mind [London, 1968]. p.
108). ,
, , , ",
. ,
,
", , .

75

, , ,
" , ,
. ,
( sequitur), ,
(), ,
,
. , , , ,
, ,
. (: , ...",
, ...", ;
..."). ,
,
, ( )
( ) , ,
( ).
"
, .
,
.
, , , :
,
?
.
. -, ,
.
.
, . ( , -
)12.
(A. Donagan)
, ,
12
Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations (London and New York, 1953),
pt. I, sec. 308. ( .
. .: , 1994, I, . 186. . .)

76

... ,
,
, ,
, , .
, , :
, ,
- , ,

.
, , ,
, ",
, , ,
, "13.
, ,
,
, ,
. ... "
, ,
, , . ,
", ,
"14
, (", ) .
,
, ",
, :
, , ,
( , , "
).
, ,
,
. , 13
A. Donagan, Wittgenstein on Sensations",
Wittgenstein: The Philosophical Investigation: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. G. Pitcher
(New York, 1966), p. 350.
14
Ibid., p. 349.

77
7*

, , ,
, . ,
, , , . ,
, , "
,
. ,
, ", ,
,
, ,
".
, . "15, , , .
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
.
,
? , ,
- ?"

. ,
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
", ,
.

, ,
, , ".
, , . ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
, . (
15
Pitcher, Theory of Perception, p. 23; . , 478 :
, - " (. 281) (so if the
real is the object of knowledge, then the object of belief must be something other than
real").

78

)
.
",
.
, .
,
,
, .
, , , , (
), ,
, ,
,
, .
, ,
( ),
. ,
- , ,
, ,
,
.
5.


, ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ?"
", ?"
?" ,
(private entities).
, , ,
,
,
,
- ". ,
, , ,
,
:
, - , ?" , ,
, , , ; .

79

1. , -

2. ,

3. , , ,
,
,
. (1) (2) ,
,
. ,
,
,
, .
, , (2)
(3) , (
- ), ,
. ,
, ".
,
, ,
( ,
), , , , , ( ),
. ,
, (
) , ,
.
, .
, , ,
(1) (2) (3). ,
, .
,
, (
) ,
. ,
, ,
.

. , , "
. ,
" , .
80

, *
16.
, ,
, ]
,
, ,
"17.
,
" .

, ,
, ,

, . ,
, ,
,
. , , , " .
, ,
, , ,
, ,
, , .
, , ,
-,
" , ".
, ,
" ,
, , 16

.: . P. Strawson, Review of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations , 13, . 62.


, ,
", ,

. , ,
"
,
, , , , ,
, .
. Wittgenstein, Privileged Access, and Incommunicability", American
Philosophical Quarterly 7 (1970), 192205, Verificationism and
Transcendental Arguments", Nous 5 (1971), 314.
17
. . .: , 1994. I.
304. . 185
81

", . , ,
, , , ,
,
, , ". ,
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
, , , ,
, , ,
, . .
, ,
,
,
,
( ,
, ,
). ,
,
, " (,
)
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
, "
, ,
". ,
,

, ,
. ,
, , " .
, 18.
, " , 18
,
, , , .
, . ,
"
. , , "
( 4 ) ,
, , 2 .
.

82

, , . , .
, , , , ,
. ,
. , , ,
" --
- .
,
.
, .
, ,
, , ,
".

. ,
, , .
, ,
, .
, , ,
. ,
, , .
, ,
.
, ,
, ( ,
),
, ", ", ",
, (, ) " (,
).
, ,
" () " (). , ,
, ,
.
, XVII
, ,
(). , ,
, , , (), (, ),
(). " 83

,
.
, . ,
, , , ,
, -
.
, - ,
.
, . ,

,
, .
,
XVII , ( ) (
) 19.

, . .
, , XVII ,
, , ,
,
, , , .
,
,
,
. ,
( ) ,
, , , , .
, ,
,
", ,

. , ,
XVII , , ,
.
,
.
.
19
. Popkin, Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes,
. M.Mandelbaum Philosophy, Science, and Sense-Perception
(Baltimore, 1964) , . .: Jacques Maritain,
The Dream of Descartes (New York, 1944).

84

.
", - ,
, .
.
6.

,
, , ,
. ,
, , ,

(, , )
. ( ,
,

, ,
, ).
, ,
. , , ,
, , ,
". .
, .
, ,
, ,
,
.
, :
,
,
:
, , ,
,
, :
, , ,
,
,
,
.


,
, XVII . ,
,
85

, , ,
, , , , ".
(topic-neutral) (
. . ) , ,
, ..."
, ..." ,
, , ,
- , , ,
, . , -
, " ,
,
20. ,
,
,
:
, . , ,
. " , , , ,
" 21.
"
:
1.
"
2.
3.
4. " "
5.
6.
,
, , ,
20
.: . . Bradley, Critical Notice", Australasian Journal of Philosophy 42
(1964), 262283 J. Smart, Philosophy and Scientific Realism.
Incorrigibility as the Mark of the Mental", Journal of Philosophy
67 (197), 399424,
.
21

, "
.

86

", (2). (3)22. "


, , " , (4). " ,
, (1). ,
" , "
, " ". , ,
", , .
, , , (4). " -" ,
, , :
".
, , "
.
, ". ,
, , ",
, .
, , , , (
),
(,
-, 2,
,
" ). ,
, , ,
, , :
1'.
" , "
", .
22
, ,
.
The Subjectivist Principle and the Linguistic Turn" in Alfred North
Whitehead: Essays on His Philosophy, ed. George Kline (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963).
(Th. Nagel)
",
" (What Is It Like to Be a Bat" Philosophical Review 83
[1974], 449). , ,
.

87

(1) (1'),
(2) :
2'. ,

:
6'. , ", ( , ) .
,
, , , , ,
" " , " ".

, , , " ",
. , , ,
,
. , "

".
:
-; , , ,
Y-", , () X" - (b)
, .
,
, "
, , "
" (b).
,

. ,


, ,
. ,
,
".
,
, , ,
,
( )" 23.
23
, ,
, . , ,

88

, -, ,
, ,
, : ,
,
". ,

, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
, -
, "
, ", " . .,
24.
,
", ,

, , , .
, , -, ,
"
, ", , -,
, ",
, , ,
( , ).
( ).
(Mind-Body Identity, Privacy and Categories", Review
of Metaphysics 19 [1965], 2554), ,
, , , .

(Bernstein), (Bush), (Coder), (Cornman),
(Hiley), (Lycan), (Pappas),
(Rosenthal), (Savitt) (Sikora). ,
,
Cornman, Materialism and Sensations
(New Haven, 1971), Lycan and Pappas, What Is Eliminative Materialism?",
Australasian Journal of Philosophy 5 (1972), 149159, Bush, Rorty Revisited",
Philosophical Studies 25 (1974), 3342, Hiley, Is 'Eliminative Materialism'
Materialism?", Philosophical and Phenomenological Research 38 (1978), 325337.
24
Incorrigibility as the Mark of
the Mental", 2 . ,
,
. ,

, ( ) .
.
The Fundamental Error of the Central State of Materialism", American Philosophical
Quarterly 1 (1973), 289298, a . Mentality and
Neutrality", Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976), 386415.
89

" ,
-25.
, ",
, , ,
,
:
1'.
"
2'.
3'.
4'.

5.
(5) (1) ,
(4') , (4). , " ,
", ,
, "
, ".

(4) . (4')
,
(, )
(, ), , ,
, " (, ),
, , (,
).
,
" ".

, ,

( " , ,
25
,
. , ,
,
, . " ( ,
", ),
, . ,
, ,
, , " . , , , ", , ", ,
.

90

). , (4'), (5), , " "



.

, .
: ? -
- ? , , :
, ,
".
, :
?
,
( ) ?"
- , , (

) " .
, , ? ?
? -
? ,
. ,
,
,
, ", .
. , ,
, .
, , .
,
.
, -, ,

, ,
. ,
,
, ,
- - . ,
,
XVII . , , , ,
: ,
".
, ",
,
. ( ,
,
91

). ,
,
,
, , :
, ?",
?", ,
, "?.
, ,
XVII ,
, ,
"
" , " .
, ,
,
, "
, .
,
: ,
, . , ,
" ,
, , .
"
, ,
. -
ignotum pro spectro, . . , ,
,
, ,
26. 26

,
(Meehl) , 1" (
1, -
") 2" ( 2,
,
,
"). ( The
Conception of Emergence", Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, I [1956], 252)
1" n",
"
("... ", " . .).
, -
,, ( n 1) ,
1 .
. (Hellman) . (Thompson)
Physicalism: Ontology, Determination and Reduction", Journal of Philosophy 72 (1975),
551564, Physicalist Materialism", Nous 11 (1977), 39346.
"
Mental Events" ( ).
92


(, , " "),
, .
-
, , ,
- "
".
,
. .

- ,
, "
",
.
7. "

, ",
, , ,
:

,
,
, , .

XVII
",

.
,
(), , , "

, , ",
.
, , XVII "
. , , -
, . ", XVII , ,
93

", ,
.
. ,
, ,
"
" ,
(personhood)
.
, ,
, ". , , ,
,
.
,
, , , , ,
.
,
, , ,
,
XVII .
, ,
, ,
,
" ,
, , .
,
.
, ,
, , ,
",
.
(, , )
, . ,
,
, ,
, .


"
..

1.

, ,
,
, . ",
,
,
, .
" . ", , , XIX
, ,
. ,
(modern) ",
( [Lecky]) ".
( )
.
, ", ,
. "
, (per
rectam radiocinationem) , ,
"1.
, ".
.
, ,
", . , , .

, "
", , ,
. , ,
1

. . . . . .: , 1989. . 1, .

74.
97

, .
, ,
, XIX .
" , "
.
, ,
. , XVII XVIII ,
, .
, ,
" ( , )
.
" ",
". ,
XVII XVIII
:
?", 2.
,
, ,
2
,
, . . . Mandelbaum, On the Historiography of Philosophy", Philosophy Research Archives, vol. II (1976); J. Passmore,
Historiography of Philosophy" in Encyclopedia of Philosophy (New York, 1967); . L. Braun, Histoire de l'Histoire de la Philosophie (Paris, 1973), esp. chap. 5; .
V. Cousin, Introduction a l'Histoire de la Philosophie (Paris, 1868), douzime
leon, Des Historiens de la Philosophie". (. 713) ,
XVIII :
,
, ,
".
Brucker, Historia Critica
Philosophiae, 17421767; Tiedemann (Geist der spekulativen
Philosophie, 17911797) Tennemann (Geschichte der Philosophie,
17891819).
" (. . , )
( , , ,
, . .) (, ,
, ). ,
".
,
,
", ,
",
. (Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. I,
Leipzig, 1798, pp. xxix, xxvi). "
, . ,
, , ,
.

98

. ,
, , ,
,
" ",
,
3. " 60
"
,
, , ,
. --" " ( " ,
, ),
, 4.
, .

Vernunftkritik , ",
Erkenntnislehre Erkenntnistheorie ( 1808 1832 )5.

".
,
3
.: Edouard Zeller, ber Bedeutung und Aufgabe der Erkenntnistheorie" in
Vortrage und Abhandlungen, Zweite Sammlung (Leipzig, 1877), p. 495.
, ,
- .
. G. J. Warnock, English Philosophy Since 1900 (London,
1958), . 171: ... "
. 172: ...
". ( 19001958). ,
, (. Reinhold)
Philosophen von Profession alle wissenschaft
lich Gebildete, Handbuch der allgemeinen
Geschichte der Philosophic (Handbuch... Erste Theil, Gotha, 1828, p. v). Einleitung
(. 2 )
" "
.
4
, ,
"
, " (
, ).
,
",
.
5
.: Hans Vaihinger, ber den Ursprung des Wortes 'Erkenntnistheorie'", Phi
losophische Monatshefte, vol. XII (Leipzig, 1876), pp. 8490 .
, , ,
, , ,
,
", ,
, (. 84).
( )
(Hocking) .

99

,
.
, , ,
- ;
, ,
Fach. , ( Mauthner)
Erkenntnistheorie" "6,
, , ,
,
, ,
( --,
) ,
, . 7
, . Erkenntnistheorie, , 1862 ", ". ,

Erkenntnistheorie,
"8.
, ,
Philosophical Review ,
,
" Erkenntnistheorie"9.


" XIX ,
, " .
( , ),
, ",
",
,
, , ,
XVII . ,
,
, ,
6
Fritz Mauthner, Wrterbuch der Philosophie (Munich and Leipzig, 1910), s.v.
Erkenntnistheorie", vol. 1, p. 296: ein ausschliesslich deutscher Ausdruck, von Reinhold
der Sohne (nach Eisler) gepragt, aber erst durch Zeller zu seiner jetzigen akademischen
Wurde promoviert". To : Wortes 'Erkenn
tnistheorie'" p. 89. ,
" ,
.
7
Zeller, Erkenntnistheorie", pp. 494495.
8
Ibid., p. 496.
9
William James, Letters, ed. Henry James (Boston, 1920), p. 228 (letter to George
Santayana of May 2, 1905.

100

XIX . , , ,
-- , :

.
, "
,
. , ,

.
"
" , . , , " - [
]... () , 10
" ,
- ,
, "11.
,

, ". ,
,
. ,
.

. " ".
",
(
) ,
. , , , , ,
,
. ,
,
" (constitute)* ,
, ", ,
10

. . . .: , 1985. . 1. . 91.
. . . 82.
* ; ,
.
, , (. .
. ).
11

101

12.

" ",
( ), " .
"
, ,
-- . -, , " () " ()

( ),
. " . -,
" ( , ),
",
" -
.
,
, .

, . -, , , " ,
, , " (, , ", ", ", " ") .
,
, , , " 13.
12
.: Kant I. K.d.r.V., Bxvixvii. , (conform) ", , , a priori,
, " (. : .
., . 3. ". . 88
. .). , , (knowledge-claim)
c ,
.
13
.
. ., , Zeller ber
die Aufgabe der Philosophie und ihre Stellung zu den brigen Wissencshaften" (Vortrage
und Albandlungen, Zweite Sammlung, pp. 445466). ,

102

2.

", ,
,
, ,
.

-,
.
"
,
. , ",

",
14.
"
, .
, ,
",
" ,
", ,
.
- ,
.
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
, , , Rechtstitel
( ),
, , ,
,
" (. 465).
14
XII
, ,
". (, ,
) -,
, -,
" ( . . .: , 1965. . 2. . 155), ,
(. 163). , ,
" " "
. ,
; , ,
(
), .
. Richard Popkin History of
Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes (New York, 1964).
103

" .
, . (. . Green)
, ,
: ?
: ,
?15
" "
,

.
, , , ,
", , ,
", ,
?
, :
, ;

,
16.
, ,
,
(fallacy) ",
"?17 , ,
, ?
, , , XVII

. ,
.
S " ,
S,
, , ..."
,
, ", = m2",
", ",
, ", ",
. , "
15
. . Green, Hume and Locke [Green's Introductions" to Hume's Treatise],
ed. Ramon Lemos (New York, 1968), p. 19.
16
Wilfrid Sellars, Science, Perception and Reality (London and New York, 1963),
p. 169.
17
Ibid., p. 131. ,
.: . Williams, Groundless Belief (Oxford,
1977), esp. chap. 2.

104

. , ,
(-)" (knowledge of) , " (knowledge that), , ,
,
. " , ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
,
.
" ,
" XVIII , (. A. Prichard, Wilfred Sellars, J. L. Austin, Jonathan Bennet) .
:
, , . , , ,

,
, ,
,
18.
, , , , ()

"... , ,
() "19. (
, )
1.
,
,

2. ,
20.
, - ,

, , .
18
Thomas Read, Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, reprinted with an introduction
by Baruch Brody (Cambridge, Mass., 1969), p. 1.
19
Green, Hume and Locke, p. 11.
20
Wilfrid Sellars, Philosophical Perspectives (Springfield, 111., 1967), p. 211.

105

, ,
", ,
, - ,
, . , :
, - , ,
.
- ,
, "21. tabula rasa
, , , , .
, , , ,
,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
--
, .
, ,
,
. (impressions)
,
, , ,
, , , ,
, , - -
. ,

(ghost) -,
.
,
- -22, ,
,
"
. , (mind),
,
,
, ",
,
.

--- ----21
. . . .: , 1985. . 1. . 97.
(", - , ,
, ,
- .)
22
, , , , . . Essays, p. 133.

106

, "
" -
23.

, , ,
, .
, -, .
,
...
, ,
,
; ,
... , ,

;
, 24.
, ", , ", :
,

. , "
. ", .
... ,
. ,
..."25
, , , ( )
,
,
(, ) ,
, ,
, , ",
. "
, ,
, .
, ,
23
The Emergence of Probability
(Hacking) , (evidence), XVII .
, () .
. , 19.
24
Reid, Essays, pp. 147148.
25
Green, Hume and Locke, p. 11; . . 163.

107

, ,
, "
", ".
,
" . ,
. ,
",
.
, , ,
- ,
, , - ,
.
, ",
"

".

,
, .
, "
", .
, ,
XIX , . :
, , "
.

,
, , ? in
limine , ,
, , ,
, ? ,
- 26.
"
,
: .

, ". , , 26

108

Ibid., pp. 185186.

", . . , "
". ,
, ,
.
"
, ", "
,
, . , ,

: , , .
, Vorstellungen
(), .
XIX ,
, ,
,
, , ."
, ,
, , ,
,
--. ,
" , XX ,

( )
( ).
3.


.
(Vorstellungen) (
): , , , . ,

XVII , , , , .. .
"27. ",
",
, ", .
,
,
- ,
27

. . . 3. . 321.
109

, ,
. "
, , ,
".
, Z,
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, " ,
.
XVII
,
. ,
.
, .
,
( ,
,
). ,
" (, , ,
) , .
", :
; , , ,
, , , ,
28.
", , , .
, , -
, ".
,
cogitationes, .
" ( , ,
", ). , ,
, , ,
, ,
,
. , , " ,
28

110

Lewis, Mind and World-Order (New York, 1956), p. 38.

" (judgements), ,
, ,
,
"29, ,
, , .
, ,
... , " ,
30
" . ,
, ,
". ,
, , ,
, ".
, ",
, .
, blosse Naturalismus
".
, , , , ,
.
, , , , ,
, ,
,
31. ,
, ,
, ,
,
,
. , , ,
, 29
Heinrich Ratke, Systematisches Handlexikon zu Kants Kritik der Reinen Vernunft
(Hamburg, 1929), p. 62: Erfahrung bezeichnet sowohl den Gegenstand als die Methode
der Erkenntnis, den denkgesetzlichen Zusammenhang aller Funktionen der Erkenntnis".
, ,
, ,
. " .: John Dewey, Experience
and Nature (New York, 1958), p. 11.
30
P. F. Strawson, The Bounds of Sense (London, 1966), p. 2.
31
",
" ,
" " .
,
", .
, , ,
Strawson's Objectivity Argument , Review of Metaphysics 24 (197), 27244.

111

, .

,
.
, versus ", versus
", versus ",
versus ", ()",
".

, ".
,
, ,
. , , ",
, ,
. , -, "
,
, ,

, .
"
". ,
"
" (, , , ),
,
".
, ,

( ). ,
?"
?", :
, ?" ,
" "
".
, ,

, . ,
, ",
, ",
. " , , , ,
,
, ",
. ,
,
, ",
" " ,
"
112

( ) , -,
. , ,
,
,
,
32.
" , "
. " , ,
.
, ,

,
... ,
, , ,
,
33.
, , ,
? ,
"34
, , , ,
"35 ,
?
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
.

,
,
? , , , ,
, ? ,
32

K.d.r.V., xvii. . .: . . . 3. . 8788 (. .).


Ibid. 130. . .: ,
... , ,
, ,
", . . . 3. . 190 (. .).
34
Ibid., A 100.
. . . 3. . 190 (. .).
35
Ibid., A 99. , , ,
-.
(., , 12, 16on),
, . .: Robert Paul Wolff, Kant's
Theory of Mental Activity (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), pp. 151 ff.
33

113

,
,
?
, , ,
?36
, , .
. ,
, , ,
,
, . , ,
, " ",
, ;
" ",
, - .

, ,
" ".
, ,
, ,
"
.37


, ,
- , ",
,
" . ,
(") , ,
,
. . ,
, .
, , ,
,
.
36
, ,
(
) . ,
,
? ?
37
, -
", () (, ), ",
. , , ", . ,
( , ").

114

4. "

, ,
, ,
, . ,
, , ,
,
. ,
, , ,

, ,

. ,
,
. . ,
". , " " , , ,
? , ,
, ,
(, ) ?
,
, ". , ,
, . ,
, ,
" 38. " , ". ,
, " ,
( ,
),
, . ,
, ,
.
"
, ".
, , "
, ,
, , ,
.
, 38

.: , 15.
115

,
,

. , , . " " .
, ,
. , ,
,
": ,
.
, ",
39.

, " ,
, -
( ) .
,
- . ,
, .
" , ,
" , , .
, ,
, , , .

.
, ,
, , , ,
. ( (, , ().
" , ,
", ,
,
.
,
,
".
39
, ,
, .: Laszlo Versenyi, Socratic Humanism (New Haven, 1963). .
The Question Concerning Technology and
Other Essays, trans. William Lovitt (New York, 1977), pp. 143 147.

116

, . " (
, "
[ ] ]),
,
, -
". ,
, ,
.

" ( )
,
, .

, , , ,
. ,
,
, .
, , ,

, ,
.
, , ,
40.
, .
, " . , ,
,
,
. , .
,
-----.
, ,
, , , ,
. ,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
. 40
, ,
.

117

,
, .

.
" ,
" .

. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
()
( ) .
, ,

. ?"
?"
:
,
- (
, , ).
, , , ,
.
, ,
, , ,
"
.
,
, ,
,
, , , ".

. ,
, ,
, .
"
.
,
( "). ,
, .
- ,
,
,
, ,
( , , ),
.
, , ,
118

". ,
,
",
"
, .
,


,
(),
(). , ,
, , ,
"
.
, ,
,
", ", ", " . .
" "
XX
. ,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
. , ,
"
. ,
,
( ),
" , ,
, .
,
, , -
" .
,
" ,
",
( ).
-, ,
. , "
, , ,
119

" " , , ,
, ,
".
, -, , .
" , , , .
, " , ,
, "
41. ,

, , , ,
.
-
, ,
, ,
"

42.

, , ,
,
(, , ).
, ,
, ,
, ,
. ,

,
, .
,
, ,
. ,
, . -- ,
, ,
, . , ,
.
41
Martin Heidegger, Introduction to Metaphysics, trans. Ralph Manheim (New Haven,
1959), p. 185.
42
Martin Heidegger, The End of Philosophy, ed. and trans. Joan Stambaugh (New
York, 1973), p. 88.

120

, ,

, ,
. , ,
( )
, XX ,
,
".

.
" --, , ,
.

1. ,

XIX
. , :
, ?"1


, . " , . ,

,
".
", ,
,
(
).
.

,
,
.
" ",

.
, ,
,
. ,
,
,
.
1
, ,
. ,
.
( , ).

122

,
1900 , , , . ,

",
, .
.
, "
", ", , , 2. ,
,
3. , ,
", ", "
, "
.
, 4, ,
. ,
( )
( )
,
. 2
.: Husserl, Philosophy as Rigorous Science", in Phenomenology and
the Crisis of Philosophy, ed. and trans. Quentin Lauer (New York, 1965), p. 12.
( 1910 ) ,
. ., .: . 7679, 122.
, ,
Logical Investigations (. . 80
).
3
"
Our Knowledge of the External World (London, 1914) :

, .
, ,
, , , ,

. , ,
, ,
, , .
( , ,
), ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
" ". . , 1,
.
4
. Russell, Our Knowledge of the External World, p. 61 (in American edition
[New York, 1924], and Husserl, Phenomenology, pp. 110111.
123

, "5, " (
") " ( , , ,
). ,
" "
, :
, ; ,
, " 6.

, , . ,
, ,

. ,
"
, ,
,
. ,
, ", , ",
" (contingent) (
, ) " (
" ),
,
5
.: Herbert Spiegelberg, The Phenomenological Movement, 2d ed. (The Hague,
1965), 1, 275283, David Carrs, Translator's Introduction" to Edmund Husserl, The Crisis
of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology (Evanston, 1970), pp. xxv
xxxviii. . Sein und Zeit,
, ,
: ,
, " (Mind, 1929; cited by
Spiegelberg, 1, 347). ,
" ".
6
,

. . Harold
Bloom A Map of Misreading (New York, 1975), p. 39
,
, ,
, , ,
, , , .
, . , , ,
". . Professionalized Philosophy and
Transcendentalist Culture", Georgia Review 3 (1976), 757769.

124

" . ,
.

. , ,
,
" " . , ,
50- , "
.
" "
,
" ". -
50-
, ( , ),
,
.
( ) , ,
", ", ,
" ,
,
.
" , , ,
,
.

" . .


,
, , .
, "
.
,
, ( ) ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
125

. ,
,
-versus-, -versus-.
, ,
, , ,
.
,
.
, , , . ", ",
" , ,
" ", ",
, ".
,
( ) , ,
.
, , ,
.
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
, .
, , ,
. , ,
. " " (posits),

. ,
,
", . ,
, -, - - ,
. ,
, , . ,
"
, ,
. , , ,
126

. , , ,
,
,
, ".
, . ,
( Aufbau),
,
" ( "), ,
.
, ,
.
30- 40- ,
, 50- ,
1, ,
" , ,
.
,
, ,
, . , ,
,
, (ex officiis suis,
) , .
,
, , .
, ,
", . , ,
. (
)
,
. ,
,
, , , .

, . .
7
, 1965 .,
The Linguistic Turn, ed. Richard Rorty (Chicago, 1967).

127

2.


,

,
.
, ,
,
, , .
, ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , .
:
, ,
?" ,
,
, ,
".
,
, ,
- , "
. ,
. , ,
,
", " ,
,
. "
,
, .
"
". , " ,
*, 8,
"9.
, ,

*
, , - ,
, "
. . . 1. . 177. (P.P.
).
8

" . G. Harman, Quine on Meaning
and Existence, I", Review of Metaphysics 21 (1967), 124151, esp. 125, 135141.
9
Wilfred Sellars, Science, Perception and Reality (London and New York, 1963),
p. 67.
128

,
,
.

, , , ,
", ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, (
, , , ,
, ,
, ).
,
.
, ? ,
, ?10 - ,
?
:
"
, ( )? S , "
( S , ", S ,
", S, , ")
S ,

, ?
(
,

). ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
10
.
. P. Grice and P. F. Strawson In Defence of a Dogma", Philosophical
Review 65 (1956), pp. 41 156. . .
R. Chisholm Minnesota Studies in the
Philosophy of Science 2 (1958), p. 521.

129


,
.
" , , , ,
.
,
. ,
- , ,
" (warranted assertability): ,
, ,
. , , ,
" .

, "
".
, ,
, "
" (knowledgeclaims) .
( ",
)
, . , ,
, ,
( , . .)..
,
S , ";
. ,
S , ", S , ", S
, ".
, ,
, , ,
:
,
" "
,
.
, -, ,
?

, , ", ",
. .
-
, " ,
a priori, , ,
130

,
11. , " " ,
". ,
,
,
" " (, , ) .
, ,
" , , , , . -
-
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
, " ,
.
,
, , . ,
, - ,
, ,
, , . , ,
",
, -
, (
),
, - ,
",
.

: , , , ,
" .
, ",
11
.
, , .
. 3 .
, mutatis mutandis, ,
" ;
. , 5.

131

, ,
, , " , .
,
", ,
. ,
, . , -, ,
, , , ,
", . ,
,
, ,
- ,
.
,
, ,
, .
. ,
,

- ,
, ,
. ,
, , , , ,
,
. ,
,
, , -

".
. ,
,
,
" - , ,
,
. , , ,
, , ,
- , .
, ,
,
132

" 12.
, , -
, "
, , " ,
,

". : , ,
, 13.
, .
", ",
". ,
, (
") ,
.
", ,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
, "14. ,
, , 15, ,
12
, , , "
( , ). ( . )
- ,
( , 5).
( ): , " (P. F. Strawson, Truth", reprinted in Truth, ed. George Pitcher
[Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1964], p. 32), , ,
. (.: Robert Brandon, Truth
and Assertability", Journal of Philosophy 73 [1976], pp. 137149.)
13
. , ,
"
, , , , , ,
" " (Science, Perception and Reality, p. 131).
,
,
(, ) (), , , ,
. (. 17 ).
14
Sellars, Science, Perception and Reality, p. 170.
15
Quine W. V. O., From a Logical Point of View (Cambridge, Mass., 1953), p. 42.

133

. ,
, ,
", ,
.
, - ,
.
,
.
"
,
,
. ,
, , ,
.
,
, .
, ,
" "
. , ,
,
(
),
.

" , ,
- . ,

"
Geisteswissenschaften.
:
"
,
. ,
, ,
" , ,
.
3.

"
" ,
, , . ., ,
,
. ,
, ,
134

, 16.
, , . . .
,
---
- , , , " (.
169). ,
; . , .

, .
Epistemology and the Philosophy of
Mind ,
, .
,
(
) , , .
, , ,
, , , .

" (
) , " ", .
,
, , ,
" ,
. ,
, - "? .
, X" ,
X". - ,
-. ,
,
. ,
16

Sellars, Science, Perception and Reality, p. 160.


135


. -
, , ",
,
, ,
" (. 176). "
- ,
- .
, ,
, ?
, .
, , ,
,
, , , ,
,
. ,
. ,
, ,

. ,
, .
,
, , . ., , " ,
. ,
, , , , , , , , , . . " ,
.
, .
,
- .

, ( )",


, , ,
. ,

. ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
, , , ,
, , .
, ,
; , , ,
, .
,
136

",
",
", "
. , ,
,
17.
, : ,
, .
, , ,
, 18.
, , "
,
, , . :
- (, ), ,
,

, , ,
.
17

.: , . 169: ,

; ,
".
18
.: Roderick Firth, Coherence, Certainty, and Epistemic Priority", reprinted in
Empirical Knowledge, ed. Roderick Chisholm and Robert Schwartz (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
1973). ,
": , "
, ",
"
[ . "] ,
" (. 461). ,
, , . , ,
", , " ... "
" ,
,
, , ,
; , -
, (. 461462).

-- .: Bland Blanshard, Reason and Analysis
(La Salle, Ill., 1962), chap. IX. - "
. (W. S. Robinson) The
Legend of the Given", in Action, Knowledge and Reality, ed. H.-N. Castaneda (Indianapolis,
1975), pp. 83108.
137

,
,

, , ,
.
:
, ?
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
. -,
, ,
,
, ,
(acquisition).
, ,
,
, ,
(
),
.
,
, ,
,
" . ,
,
, .
, ,
, , ,
", -.
, ,
,
, .
, , , , ,
,
- ,
. ,

,
.
, ,
,
(, , ").

138

,
,
. , ,
, , ; ,
, , . , ,

, , " ( ) .
,
", ,
, ,
, .
. , ,
, "
. , (, , ") ,
,
,
. , ,
, .
, ,
.

, * ,
*
. ,
, , ,
! , ,
-, . ;
, ,
. , , ,
- . ,
. , ?
. :
. , ,
, " ( .
. .: , 1994. . I. 293. . 183). [
( ), , , . . P.P.
].

139

" 19.

, ,
, ,
,
.
",
( , , ,
) ". ,
- . , ,
20. , , ,
,
, ,

, . , (
, ),
", , ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
( , ,
), ,
21. , ,
, ,
19

,
(, ,
, ,
- )
. ,
,

(, ) .
20
,
, Virgil Aldrich, On What It Is Like to be a Man", Inquiry 16 (1973), pp. 355
366. . : Stuart Hampshire, Thought and Action (London, 1959), ch. 1.
21
.: Hilary Putnam, Robots: Machines or Artificially Created Life?", reprinted in
Modern Materialism, ed. J. O'Connor (New York, 1969), esp. p. 292: ...:
? :
, , ".
140

, ", ,
,
22.

,
", . ,
. , , , .
, , , ,
,
, , ,
. ,
, "; ,
,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
,
. ,
. ",
,
( , ,
) . ,
, "
" , , ", .
,
, ,

, , ,
, ".
", 22
, , ,
. ,
, ".
, -
, " ,
en-soi, pour-soi ." ,
, ,
. .

141

, "
23.
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
, "
. , ,
, ,
, , ,
, -
, (, ,
), .

, "
(cognition), , ,
.
,
?
,
. ,
,

,
. "

"24

. ,

, ,
.
, ,
,
.
23
,
, , , ,
, , ,
, ,
. .
,

" " (Science and Metaphysics [London and New York, 1968], p.
225). ,
, . J. B. Schneewind, Moral Knowledge and Moral Principles", in
Knowledge and Necessity, ed. G. A. Vesey (London and New York, 1970).
24
Sellars, Science, Perception and Reality, p. 148.

142

4. "

,

, , ,
, "

Geisteswissenschaften. " " ,
,
". ,
, , , ,
,
".
", ,
- ", , ,
, (, ,
).
- "
",
,
.
" (
[ ] , [ a priori ])
( ).
. ,
, , , ", " "
(

), ,
" " ( " ),
" ":


, .
, , .
, , ,
,
.
143

,
, ,
25.
, -
. .
" ,
, ,
,

. ,
,
(
, ,
, ,
) ,
.
, , , , Hund" "
", ,
"26. , ,
, ,
, . ,
, - , ,
, ".
", , ,
, .

27.
25

W. V. . Quine, Word and Object (Cambridge, Mass., 1960), p. 221.


.: Words and Objections: Essays on the Work of W. V. Quine, ed. Donald
Davidson and Jaakko Hintikka (Dordrecht, 1969), p. 303, :
... , ,
, .
, , .
, , , , ; .
27
(Chom
sky) Quine's Empirical Assumptions" in Words and Objections.
(Putnam)
The Refutation of Conventionalism", Nous 8 (1974), 38:

26

144

( ,
, ", , ,
, Naturwissenschaften). "
" ,
"
.

", :
, , ,
... ,
, , ,
, .
, , :
, ,

...
, (background)

28.
,
,
, :
". ,
-?
?" , ( )29,

, , , . .,
, "
, ?
. , , , , ,
, ,
", .
.: Christopher Boorse, The Origins of the Indeterminacy Thesis", Journal of
Philosophy 72 (1975), 369387, and Richard Rorty, Indeterminacy of Translation and of
Truth", Synthese 23 (1972), 443462.
28
W. V. O. Quine, Ontological Relativity and Other Essays (New York, 1969),
pp. 5051.
29
Ibid., p. 47. (Field) ,
" "
. . Quine and Correspondence Theory", Philosophical
Review 83 (1974), 207.
.
145

?"
?"
, ,
.
, ; ,
-versus--.
.
, .
, ,
, ", :
, () "...,
,
,
,
... ,
, . ,

. -
30.
" , ,
, .
,
", --,
, ,
". , ,
,
-, " ".
, ,
"
" ", ( )
, "
", " "
",
, - ( )31.
30
31

Quine, Ontological Relativity, p. 34.


,
Quine", p. 142. " Realism
and Reference", Monist 59 (1976), 321340, , 4.
146

", ,
,
, ; ,
. ,
, ,
. ",
" " ;
.
32.
, , , , , .
, ,
, , ,
" q", , []
, [q], - 33. ,
, , ,
,
34.
, , . ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
" (, ,
, "),
, ,
, - ,
"
". "
, ,
,
,
,

.
32
33
34

Quine, Ontological Relativity, p. 35.


Quine, Word and Object, p. 200.
Ibid., p. 206.
147

35,
,
. , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
" ,
,

36. ,
, , ,
, "37. , ,
, :
, ,
, ,
38.
, , , :
,

,
. ,
, , ,
. ,

, .
, , ;
? ,
,
;
(. 161).
, , "
". , Geisteswissenschaften
,
35
36
37
38

148

.
.: On Catnap's Views on Ontology", in Quine, Ways of Paradox (New York,
1968) and Epistemology Naturalized" in Ontological Relativity.
Science, Perception and Reality, p. 173.
Quine, Word and Object, p. 221.

. ,
, , . ., -
,
. ", ", ..." . .
, ,
;
39.
, , ..." ..."
, , ..."
, ..."? Naturwissenschaften ,
Geisteswissenschaften
? , , ,

, ,
,
"?

( Naturwissenschaften, Geisteswissenschaften),
?

.
, ,
:
"

...


...
"
. ,
, 40.

39
(Quine", p. 126)
. ,

, ,
(
). , ,
, ,
... ... ,
( ) ,
, .

( ).
Words and Objections, p. 296.
, Word and
Object , , .
40
Words and Objections, p. 318.
149

, ,
,
, ". ,
, ,
, .
, ,
:
1. , , , ", "41.
2. , ", , ,
.
3. ,
,
.
4. ,
, , ,
.
5. , , , , , .
(5) , (1) (4),
"
", ,
, , ", . ,
, ,

" , ,
" , ,

.
41

150

Quine, Word and Object, pp. 119120.

, , ,
" .
, . ,
,
. ,

( ),
42
, ,
.

, , , ,
, ,
" .
, , 42
. Dagfinn Follesdal (Meaning and Experience" in Mind and Language, ed.
S. Guttenplan [Oxford, 1975])
, " ,

" (. 33). :

... . ,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
, , .
. -
, , ,
(. 32)
, ,
. , , ,
" - , ,
", , ,
.

. (Truth Conditions, Bivalence, and Verification" in Truth and
Meaning, ed. G. Evans and J. McDowell [Oxford, 1976]). , ,
,
" (. 65).
, ,
", , ",
, " (.
64). , , , ,
". , ,
, ",
, , -,
. , (4) (5) ,
,
, ,
, (,
, ).
151


, , ,
.
,
. , .

, ,
, .
,
. , ,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
- ,
.
,
,

-
.

,
:
, ,
,
,
, .
; ,
. , ,
,
,
.
.
, ( )
. , , ,
, ,
.
..., ,
, ,

...
,
,
,
152

, , , 43.
, , (grue)".
, .
,
( , ).
, .
,
, ,
. , ,
.
, ,

--

, .
,
, ",
, ",
,
",
, ",
( , )
,
. ,
,
,
.

, ,

"
,
. ,
, ,
:
, .
,
,
43
Donald Davidson, Mental Events", in Experience and Theory, ed. L. Foster and J.
W. Swanson (Amherst, Mass., 1970), pp. 9496.

153

.
,
,
, ,
( ) , , , ,
". ,

, , , , .

",
, , .
, ,
, , ,
,
"44,
, ,

"45. , , , ,
. " . , , ,
" . ,
, ; , ,
, , , .
, ,
"
, ", ,
,
.
,
, , , ,
, , Geisteswissenschaften
wissenschaftlich, 44
45

154

Ibid., p. 97.
Ibid., p. 97, Word and Object, p. 221.

, ,
. , , -
",
, "
, .
,
"
" , ,
,
. ; , , ", .
, ".
, ,
,
. "

" "
, .
, .
( , ),
,
, ,
. ,
XIX
,
, , Geisteswissenschaften , ,
. , "
" .
, , ,
, "
" .
5. ,

,

.


. , ,
155

, ,
, , ,
- . ,
. ,
,
, , ,
, ,
,
.
, , ,

.
. , ,
- , ,

.

,

. ,
,
,
". ,

XVII ,
.

.
- ,
,
, * ",
, .

, ,
, .
", ",
,
-

* (hook) , (, -, -)
, ,
, ,
. (P.P. .
.)
156

(,
).
, ,
, .
, , ,
,
,

". XVII
, , . ,
",
, , , ,
, .
.
,
. ,
,
,
, , ,
.
.

12'

1.

, ",
".
,
, , ,
, , , .
, XVII
" , , ,
. , " , ,
, . "
,
".
, "
, , ,
,

"
. , ,
:
, , , (recognition). -, .
,
, , , ,
, "1.
, ,
1
Norman Malcolm, The Myth of Cognitive Processes and Structures" in Cognitive
Development and Epistemology, ed. Theodore Mischel (New York and London, 1971), p.
387.

158

, , ,
. , , ,
,
" , ". , , , , " ",

... .
, , ,
...
.

,
(. 389).
,
-
" (. 392), , ,
- .
, , ",
2. ,

. , , ,
. ,
,
, .
( )
1. , ,
( "
,
"),

2.

.
, ,
, , 2
., .: J. . Flugel and Donald J. West A Hundred Years of Psychology
(London, 1964), ch. 1, 2.

159

3. (Fodor), , , ,

, . ., ,

4. , ,
, , " , ,

. ,
? , , ", ,
,
. (. . Dodwell), :
,
, ,
.
, .
,
, .
,

? , , 5.
, ,
, ,
,
.
,
?
: (1) (2) .
,
, (Winch)
(Kenny), ,
" , , Geisteswissenschaften,
, Naturwissenschaften.
,
.
3
, , Albert Hofstader, Professor
Ryle's4 Category-Mistake", Journal of Philosophy 47 (1951), 257270.
Jerry Fodor, Could There Be a Theory of Perception?" Journal of Philosophy 63
(1966), 371.
5
P. C. Dodwell, Is a Theory of Conceptual Development Necessary?" in Cognitive
Science and Epistemology (. 1 ).

160

, ,
.
, ,
, .
,

, , XVII ,
,
. , ,
,

. " , " ,
". , " , ,

" , . . , , ,
, , ,
", (, ") (, -").
, ,

, , , .
, ,


, ?
,
.
, ?
,
, . , ,
. , , ,
, . ,
, "
, .
,
161

,

(
,
-), -- , .
, -
,
6. ,
"
",
".
, ,
, ,
, , , .
, , , ,
, , , , . ,
, , ,
. ,
, , ,
-

. ,

,
, . "
" , , ,
. "
, -
,


.
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
6
., ., "
, .

162

, Geisteswissenschaften, .
:
-
? ,
" , , , .
, ,

, ,
" ,
. , "
, ,
, ,
XVII XVIII
.
, ,

.

, ,

, , , , .
, , ,
", . 2
,
. ,
, "
, ".
; 3 4 ,
", , ,
.
, , .
2.

" , ",
:
163


" ;
".
, , , ,
, :
, - .
, ,
,
. , ,
, , ,
. ,
.

,
,
.
,
,
; , ,
,
7.
, ,
, ,
,
".
,
, ",
XVII .
, ,
. ,

,
, ,
".
.
,
, -,
",
.

;
. -

164

W. V. Quine, Ontological Relativity and Other Essays (New York, 1969), pp. 8283.

IV ( ,

, ). ,
XVII , , ,
. , ,
, , , ,
, 8.
, XVII
, ,
. ,
, , , ,
"9.
? -
, ,
? , ,
, , ,
,
, .
, , , .

. , , ,
, , , ,
.
"
, , ,
, .
, ,

,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
8
, indisciplinatus
, , , ,
, .
, ;
",
(Etienne Gilson, Etudes sur le Role de la Pense Mdivale dans la Formation du Systme
Cartsien [Paris, 1930], p. 235).
9
W. V. O. Quine. Grades of Theoreticity", in Experience and Theory, ed. L. Foster
and J. W. Swanson (Amherst, Mass., 1970), p. 2.


.

, ,
,
", " ".
:
...
"10
"11. , :
, ( , )?
,
,
? ,
, ?
, , ,
"
". , , ,
. ,
" (datal): " ". , ,
, , , ,
.
,
, ,
,
...
,

.
"12.

, .
,
" .
,
, .
10
11
12

166

Ibid., p. 3.
Quine, Epistemology Naturalized", in Ontological Relativity, p. 84.
Quine, Grades of Theoreticity", in Experience and Theory, pp. 23.

, .
, .
, , , . ,
, , , .
,
, ,
" 13,
, . , . ,
,

, .
, ,
.
, , ,
, 14. , ,
.
" ,

.
, , ,

"15. ,
, , - " (. 88), ,
,
".
" .
,
,
".
, ,
, ,
, " ,
, .
. ":
13
14
15

Ibid., p. 3.
Ibid., p. 5, Epistemology Naturalized", p. 87.
Quine, Epistemology Naturalized", pp. 8687.
167

,
, ,
.
. ? Gestalten
...? ,
, ;
,
, , . ,
,
(. 8485).
,
" consensus gentium;
, ,
,
, ". , , .

, , , ".
,
, , , ", ,
, , .
,
? ,
... -
,
.
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
16.
, ,
. ,
; " .
", , ,
, : ?"
, ,
16

168

Quine, Grades of Theoreticity", pp. 45.


, , ,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, , "
, , , .
, "
, ,
.

. , , ". , , ,
, . ,
",
"
. ,

, .
, , , 17.
, "
,
, ,
, :
.

,
", .
17
.: . , . 319 ": ,
, ". .
, ", :

;
..."; , ...
. ,
,
". (The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology in The Early Works
of John Dewey, vol. 5 [Carbondale, 1972], pp. 96, 107).

169


. -"
,
, ,
.

":
, ,
, , , ().
, :
,
(apprehension) ,
.
,
,
. , ,
. , ()
, .
" (
),
.
,
,
" . ,
,
, , -, , ,
: ,
, ".
: ,
"18.
3.

, - , ,
, , "
"
. , ,
,
18

170

. . . 130.

. . ,
, ". , :
, , ,
, ,
" ,
: ,
"?"
? ,
, -
? ,
"? ... ,
19.
, , ,
"
,
, .

, :
?"
, ,
. , - --, .
,
, " ,
, ,

, "20. , , "
:
,
", ,
, ,
, . ..
19
Malcolm, Myth of Cognitive Process", p. 391. Ryle, The
Concept of Mind (New York, 1949), ch. 7, ,
, . 297299. . : . Passmore J., Philosophical Reasoning
(London, 1961), ch. 2 (The Infinite Regress Argument"),
.
Pragmatism, Categories, and Language",
Philosophical Review 49 (1961), 197223.
20
Fodor, Could There Be a Theory of Perception?", Journal of Philosophy 63
(1966), 375.

171

... , .
"
, , ,
(. 377378).
, ,
",
. ,
" (, ,
) ,
. , ,
, , " ,
?" ,
, :
,
, - - ,
". , " ,
.

. , , - ", ". ,
?" ,
. - ",
. ,
, . ,
" (
", "),
- "
, , (
) .
:
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
: ,
172


, -
".
, , ", , ", . , , "
"
. - -
", ,
",
"? (, , ,
), ,
, ".

, , , ,
, ,
,
, , . ?
"? -,
,
( , ,
), ,
.
.
,
, , , ,
.
: ,
, ,
"21.
, :
,
,
,
,
... ,
" ,
, "
(. 371372)
21

Dodwell, Is a Theory of Conceptual Development Necessary?", p. 370.

173

,
, :
... ,
, ...
, ,
,
.
, ,
"
, ... , ,
,
.

...
,
, " (goal directedness) (. 372).
, , , , ,
- (template-matching),
(feature-extraction) (. 379).
" , " (
"), , ,
. ", ,
, -
,
.

? , ,
", ( )
, ",
. , ,
, ,
(, )?"

" (inferer)
, (
) .
"
, , ,
, ( ) ,
174

22.
, , ,
, ..." ,
" "
, , ,
, ,
. ,
,

( )? ", , ",
, 23. ,

:
,
,
" (
", ")
, ,
.
, "
22
.
(Gregory), " ,
, ,
, ",
. , " ", , , , .
.
, . (The Intelligent Eye [New York, 1970], p. 30).
,
", ", . ,
" ,
, ,
, ", ,
. ,
, , ", ,
,
. ;
.
23
.: Wilfrid Sellars, Science, Perception and Reality (London and New York, 1963),
p. 182 " . 192 .

175

, " ". "


, .
, ,
,

( ). ,
"
. "
( ,
, , ).
, , "
,
,
,
".
, ,
.
, , ( ),
, ,
"24. .
, ,


, , ,
, .
, ,
, . , , ,
-,
: ,
" ( ).
, ,
24
, " (
") ( ")
. .
Explanations in Psychology", in Philosophy in America, ed. M. Black (Ithaca, 1965), p. 177.
Functionalism, Machines, and Incorrigibility", Journal of
Philosophy 69 (1972), 203220.

176

, , ,
. Ad hoc


25.
". , ,
, ,
.
,
,
. , ,
. , , ,
,
.
,
,
. ,
, ,
,
. , , ,
, . ,
,
, , 26.

. ,
, , ,
, ?"

: ?
"; 25

.: William Kalke, What Is Wrong with Fodor and


Putnam's Functionalism", Nous 3 (1969), 8394.
( 24) . : . J. Nelson, Functionalism
and Identity Theory", Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976), 379.
26
, , ,
,
, . .
",
.
, ,
.
177

? ".
,
, .
,

"
27. , ,
,
( "), ( "),
, . .
,
,
, , ,28
.
, , " - ,
.
27
., .: Seymour Papert, Introduction" to Warren S. McCulloch,
Embodiments of Mind (Cambridge, Mass., 1965). ,
, , "
... , ,
, , ,
, (p. xiv)
, , "
, , , , : , (p. xvi).
, ", ,
(purposiveness). ,
. , , .
28
" (intervening variables), ( ", ),
.
, , ,
". , -
, ,
, ", ".

178

, ,
,
, .
, ,
,
. ?
, , ,
, tabula rasa
, ,

. ,

, ,
29. , ,
" ( ) " , -.
,
", ,
, .
, , ,
" ". , , .
, " "
, ,
, -
.
,
, 29
, , ",
, : (, )
, ?" (J. J. and E. J.
Gibson, Perceptual Learning: Differentiation or Enrichment?" Psychological Review 62 [1955], 32.)
. . ,
, ( )
,
" (. 40). ,
, ,
. .: R. L.
Gregory, Eye and Brain (New York and Toronto, 1966), , p. 11:
; ,
, ". . ,
4.

179

, ,
.
"
, ,
, . , ,
, ,

, ; ,
", .
, ,

, ( ) , .
, , ,
, , " .
, ,
" ,
,
, . , ,
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
, " .
, , , ", , , . ,
, ,
, ,
" , ,
,
. , , " , . , . , ,
". -, , , , ,
,
,
.
180

4.

, , ,
, ; , ,
. ,
,
:
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
30.
, -
",
. ,
, () ", ( )
( )", :
... .
, ( ) ( , , , ),
(
)? ,
?" :
, .
... , , ,
, ,
( )
. , ,
(. 49).
, 30

Jerry Fodor, The Language of Thought (New York, 1975), p. 47.


181

: , ,
, , ,

"? ,
, , , ,
".
:
,
, ?", , ,
: ,
,
,
".
, - ?"
,
?"
?" , ,

, " "?"

?" , ,

"?" :

,
,
(. 52).
... , ,

, , . ? ,
. , ,
,
(. 53).
, , ,

.

, , .
,
,
,

182

, . , ,
,
,
.
,

, . ,

?"
" . ,
, ,
, , ,

. , , , . ,

( ) " (. 45).
" "
, -
,
.
.
", ,
,
( )
,
" .
-
" ,
,
, ,
, , ,
.
"
, "
. ,
,

.
,
,
, ",
.

; , ,
,
.
183

, , .
, ,

, , "
. ,
,
. , :
, , , , , ,

... / ,
.
, , ,
, , ,
. ,
... ,
(. 201202).

, , , ,
, , ".

", , .
, ,
,
,
, 31.
. ,
, , :
, . ,
31
.: Hiram Caton, The Origins of Subjectivity: An Essay on Descartes (New Haven, 1973),
p. 53: ,
".
,
, " ,
", , (
,
( .), , ." ( . . .: ,
1985. . 1, . 92).

184

, , ,
-, ,
, ,
, , .
,
, ,
,
.

, ,
.
, ,
,
, , , ,
- ,
. , , , ,
,
, ".
, ,
:
, ; , ,

, ...
, , ,
, ,
,
,
... ,
, .
,
,
, ,
32.
" ,


, .
,
32

Fodor, The Language of Thought, p. 172.


185

, - ,
, ",
- , , , ,
,
. , ,
, , ,
, .

( , )
, ,
, . " , " ( ", " "),
, ,
, . ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
.

, " ,
, . - ( ) (Vendler).
:
... ,
, .
,
(native equipment), , ... (native) "
, , ,
... ,
, . , ,
: , , ,
... "
. "
:
.
186

, ,
, ,
, , , ,
, , , .
,
,
,
.. .33
,
", ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,

. , , ,

, 34.
, , , ,
, , , ,
. , ,
,
, ,
, ".
, ; ,
35.
,
.
33

Zeno Vendler, Res Cogitans (Ithaca, New York, 1972), p. 140141.


. . . 3. . 88.
35
, ,
(G. Harman) Thought
(Princeton, 1973). ,
(Gettier)" ,
, , ,
, .
" , ,
" (. 15). ,
" ( "),
. .: Michael Williams, Inference,
Justification and the Analysis of Knowledge", Journal of Philosophy 75 (1978), 249263,
Harman Using Intuitions about Reasoning to Study Reasoning: A Reply to Williams",
ibid., 433438. ,
.
.
34

187

", , ,
,
(
) , ".
, " (unmeditated),
, . - , ,

". , ,
. , ,
,
. ,
,
36.
,

,
. "
, , , , , .
, , ,
, ,
,

. ,
,
, , ,
, . ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
, .
, ,
,
. , ",
36
Daniel Dennett, Critical Notice" no The Language of Thought, Mind 86 (1977),
278: ,
, ,
, ,
".

188

. , , , -",
, , .
, ,

, , ,
" 37.
.
,
" ",
, " "38.

"
:
, ,
, ?"
XVII ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
, , .

,

,
. ,
.
.

37

. J. . Urmson, Recognition ,
Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 56 (195556), 259280.
38
. Putnam Minds and Machines", reprinted in Mind, Language and
Reality (Cambridge, 1975), pp. 362385 ( ).
, ,
,
", ,
".

1.

,
". , , ,
.
,
,
, ,
,
", ", "
" .
" (,


). , ,
, ,
, 1 " .

. "
,

. ",
,

".
, , ",
. ,
( , , )
.
, ,
. , , , , 1
, .

190

. "
( ) , . ,
, " , , ,
. ,

, " , ,

, 2. ,
, ,

, .
. , ,
,
(
), (
).
, ,
.
, .
. , "
, ,
, ", , ,
,
, 3. ,
", ,
"4. ,
, ,

,
,
, , 2
. Mind, Language
and Reality (Cambridge, 1975), pp. 1419.
, , "
.
3
.: Donald Davidson, On the Very Idea of Conceptual Scheme", Proceedings of
the American Philosophical Association, 17, 197374, 11.
4
Donald Davidson, Truth and Meaning", Synthese 7, 1967, 316.

191

5.
", , ,
, "
( ), .
, , ",
, ". ,
,
,
:
,
,
, ,


.
"
,
, ,
6.
,
( ",
", ")
, ".
,
, , , ,
. ,
,

. ,
, :
( )
( )
"7.
, " .
, ,
5
. . Putnam, Mind, Language
and Reality, pp. 151 191 (The Refutation of Conventionalism"). ,
, .
6
.: Davidson, Truth and Meaning, pp. 316318.
7
D. Davidson, In Defence of Convention T, in Truth, Syntax and Modality, ed. by
Leblanc H., Amsterdam, 1973, p. 84.
. Davidson, The Method of Truth in Metaphysics, Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2,
1977, pp. 244254, .

192

, : , ,
, ,
" .
: ,
,

" .
,
, ,
.




, . ,
, .
, , ,
, .
, " "8,

.
" ,
,
( )
( ).

.

, ,
". , ,
".
, , , ,
: ,
, , ,
"9.
8

W. V. . Quine, Word and Object, Cambridge, Mass., 1960, p. 221.


Michael Dummett, Frege's Philosophy of Language, London 1973, p. 559.
,
(
9

193

, , . , ,
. ,
, . , ,
,
, .
, ,
".
, , XVII
XIX , ,
, , .

,
. , ,
,
.
,

10.
, , , ,
,
.
, , ,
,
.
, ",
,
. ,
,
(, ),
, ,
( ). ,
, : ,
,
versus versus ),
. .: What is Theory of Meaning? (I) in S. Guttenplan, ed.
Mind and Language, Oxford, 1975, pp. 97138.
. 137, . 117.
10
.: Ian Hacking, Why Does Language Matter to Philosophy? (Cambridge,
1975), p. 43.
194

.
, ,
, , .
"
.
,
, , (")

.
,
" , "
, ,
, , .
, " ,
, ,
. , ,
" ( ),

, ,
( , ,
), -, - (, , , , , ), , ,
. ( ",
) ,
,
, .
( , ) ,
, .
,
" ,
.
"
, (, , ) .
, "
. ,

, ,
, , ,
" , ,
195

. ,

", ", ", "
". , ,
" ,
, ,
.
,
,
, . ,
, "
,
". " "
", , , ,
( , , , ). ,
, --,
. , (
) ,
,
" " ( ") ,
". ,
, ,
"
.

, " a priori", ."
" " ,
,
.
, , ."
, ,
.
2. ?

,
?
, , ?
,
? ?
196


. ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
, ?
, ?"
?" ?
, ,
,
?
, ,
, , , , ,
,
, , . ,

"?
*?" ,
,

. , ,

11.
. ,
, (,
, , , ,
,

).

,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, - ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
,

". ,
* Kwoth Nuer ( ),
Evans-Pritchard
Nuer . (P.P. . /

.)
111
.: Clifford Geertz, Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture"
in his The Interpretation of Cultures (New York, 1973).
197

- , , "
- , (
"* ),
" , ,
-, . ,
, ,
,
, ,
"

,
.

".
, ,
", .
, " , , ,
, .
,
, ,
,
, , , , .
,
,
, ,
" ,
.
, (soft)
, "
, ", -
, , , .
, " , , , ,
* " , 30-
, ,
.
"
, 16601715 .,
, II
. - ,
. (P.P. .
.)
198

,
. ,
, "
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
, ,
.

, ".
,

,

.
,
", .
,
,
,
.
, , (
, ).
, ,
,
, () ,
, (b)
, () ,
( , ).
,
", ,
".
, , , , ". , ,
,
"
,
,
, [] ,
, "12.
,
12

Paul Feyerabend, How To Be a Good Empiricist" in Challenges to Empiricism, .


Harold Morick (Belmont, Calif., 1972), p. 169.
199

, , ,
, ", , ; ,
,

, ,
. ,

, , ,
. , , , " , ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
"
". ,

" ,
". , ,
, , ,
,
. ,
,
, "13.
,
, ,
, 13
Fred Suppe, The Search for Philosophic Understanding of Scientific
Theories" (in The Structure of Scientific Theories, ed. Suppe [Urbana, 1974], pp. 3241)
Weltanschauungen " , (. . 127). ,
,
.
. ,
, Conceptual Change, ed. Glenn Pearce and Patrick
Maynard (Dordrecht, 1973).
", , Binkley, Sellars,
Putnam, Barrett, Wilson.
, , ,
:
?" (. 71). ,
.
, (Fine) . ,
26.

200

,
. , ,
, ,
, , ,
.
. ,
, ,
. "
,
, , ,
. , " (, , ,
Etats-Generaux ) " (, ),
,
. ,

, "
" ,
".
, ,
.
, ,
,
".
", ( ),
.
" "
, , , , ,
,
.
,
, ,
(, , ").
3.

,
, ,
,
. ,
,
".
:
201

,
... , , , . ...,
, ,
...
, .
,
- X,
.
,

,
... ,
. "

14.


. , ",
:
------------- "?" ?
, ,
. , :
",
: ,
", , , . ,
: ,
", :
, ,
, , , , ,
". ,
, , , , ,
,
,
-" ".
(
, , , )
( , ,
, , ,
, , ),
" 14

Putnam, Mind, Language and Reality, pp. 124125. 202

." " ,
,
, ,
, , .
, ,
, " ,
.
,
, ,
",
, .
" , - ,
15 .
; ,
,
" ",
". ,
, , (
),
, , . "
, , , "
,
" . , ,
,
. , ,
,
, , , , , , ,
16. ,
15

Ibid., p. 196.
,
, . .: Suppe, Search
for Philosophical Understanding", p. 151: ...
...
?" (Sheffler)
1 Science and Objectivity (Indianopolis, 1976),
, , , , ,
" . ,
, , ,
( ).
(. 39),
,
16

203

,
"
, ,
- -
, .
" . (),
, ,
, ,
,
".
. , ,
", ,
.
, , , , .
, ", , ,
, , " ,
, ,
. ,
" , ,
, . ,
, - , ,

" ,
" " .
, ,
"
. , , :
,

, .
; , , ,
",
, . . c (Williams)
, ,
, , , ,
.
204

,
, 17.
" ,
, ,
"
,
" (. 209). , , ,

, ,
(, ),
. , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, ,

" (. 209). ,
, ":
...
-- , "

, .
,
, X ,
,
, X .
, , , .
,
, -
... - ";
, -.
. ,
.
,
,
( - ). ,
, , " (warranted assertability)
17

Putnam, Mind, Language and Reality, p. 207.


205

15*

... , X ()"

... , X
, , , X ()" , (. 236).
, " . ,
" , , ,
. -, ,
, , ,
, " , ,
, , , .
, "
, , , , . , , ,
, ", ,
, ,
-- " -- ".
" ", .
, ,
, ,
, .
, , , ()
( ) ".
,
,
.

", " " ,
. ,

. ,
, ,


. ,

206

, , " ,
", , 18. , - , , .
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, "
, ", .
, - . , , "
", ()
, ,
, (b) , ",
".
, ", . , ,
", ,
", . ,
" ,
, "
, ". , (
, ) , ,
, ,
" ", , ,
.
.
, , " , , ,
, , ,
. ,
19.
18
Putnam, What Is Realism"?" Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 1976, p. 194
(Reprinted with changes as Lectures IIIII in his Meaning and the Moral Sciences [London,
1978]). , .
19
.: Nelson Goodman, The Way the World Is", in his Problems and Projects
(Indianopolis, 1972), pp. 2432, esp. p. 31: ,
". ,
, On the Very Idea of a
Conceptual Scheme" ( ) Mental Events" (
, 5).

207

" , --
", , " ",
. ,
, ,
: ,
-- ?"
, : ,
" , , , , ", ,
, , " , , , "
?
, ,
, .
,
, (assertibility) (,
, :
, ;
, ; ,
). ,
, " .
, , ,
,
.
", , ,
, "
. transcendentalia ,

, .
, , , .
, ,
:
?" , ,
.
, "
, , ,

20.
, " 20
.: Putnam, Reference and Understanding", in Meaning and Moral Sciences",
pp. 97119. ,
.

208

.
( ,
), ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
. , , "
, ,
. ,
,
" " , ,
,
, ,

,
, ,
,
,
, 21.
-, , ,
,
,
":
, ",
,
, , ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
... , ,
? ,
... ,
, , ,
21

Richard Boyd, Realism, Underdetermination and a Casual Theory of Evidence",


Nous 7 (1973), 11.
209

(. 12)
,
( ), ,
, . . ? ,
,
, .
,
- . , "
,
, ,
,
. " . ,
, ,
" ", .

,
,
.
, "
".
4.

, - ,
,
", . ,
, , "22.
,
!
,
. , ?
,
(, . ., ), ", ? , ,
" ,
? ,
22

210

Putnam, What Is Realism?", p. 194.

, ".
, ,
, , , : ,
, (
), ,

(, , ,
) (. 183184).
,
".
. -, ,
,

,
.
? , ,
, ?
, , :
, ,
" ? ,
, , , ,
, , ,
"
, "
23.

,
, ,
.
,

.
, ,

,
.

, .
,
, , ,
23
Rom Harre, The Principles of Scientific Thinking
(Chicago, 1970), p. 55.

211

.
, , , ,
- , , , - ,
, .
,
, , , ,

,
. , , , ,
". ( ,

,
.
" .)
,
" . "
--. , ,
" , ,
, " "
( )
, .
,

, .
, ,
,
,
,
. ,
"
",
".
, ,
", , ",
".
. ,
, " .
,
, ,
. . ,
, ,
, . ",
212

, ,
.
:
,
, ( " ).
,
".
, ".
,
, , , , , ,
? ,
, ,
, :
, , ,
-, S
X" ,
X
24,
, (, , ) ,
, (, ,
), , ,
,
" .
, , , " , ,
.
"
, " ,
, , , (
) , " - 23.
,
( ) , ",
.
24

Keith Donellan, Proper Names and Identifying Descriptions"
Saul Kripke, Naming and Necessity".
Semantics of Natural Language, ed. Davidson and Harman (Dordrecht, 1972).
, ,
, . Naming, Necessity and Natural
Kinds, ed. S. P. Schwartz (Ithaca, 1976);
.
25

Putnam, The Meaning of Meaning" and The Refutation of Conventionalism" (
Mind, Language and Reality).

213

, ,

- , " (, ,
, , ")
.
". ()
,
, - ,
(b) "
. "
". ,
: . "
, ; "
. "
,
. , ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, , . ,

(,
,
" .), ,
, , ,
,
-.
, .
(, ,
,
) , -,
. , ,
, 99 %
,
,
, ,
, .
- " , ( ),
" , ,
-" ". ,
a.
, , ,
?

b. - ,
" ?
, ,
(b), ().
214

(), ,
, , (b).
, (b) .
, ,
,
.
, ,
( -)
:
1. ()
(),

2. ,
, , ,
" - ,
, ,

3. ,
, , ,
" , ,
, , ,

4. (2) (3).
" "
" -,

.
", ,
, - ,
,

.
;
,
.
, .
,
- " , . .
, "

N" N 0

N ( ),
215

, , .
",
. , ,
", , " ",
". " ,
, , ,
(1)(4) "
, ,
. , ,
" . ,
, . ,
", -,
, , ,
, ",
" .
? , ".
, (1) (4),
, .
,
" ,
, , , , ",
, , , ,
", , ,
,
. , , -,
,
,
. X ,
X. "
"
, .
,
. , , : ,
, ,
"; ,
, "; ,
,
,
IX . ."; ,
,
"26.
26
Realism and
Reference", The Monist 59 (1976), 321340. .
Arthur Fine, How to Compare Theories: Reference and Change", Nous 9 (1975),
1712.

216

, , "
, ",
"
, .
" .
, ,
, . . , ,
.

,
. (
, ,
, ,
", , ,
).
?"
( , . .) ,
, .
-
, ,
.
,
. ,
, ,

.
" .
( ,
)
"
, .
,
". , ,
, ,
"
, , "
, ,
", , " . .,
" 27. ,
,
" ". , 27
Putnam, Realism and Reason", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Association, vol. 50 (1977), p. 485. ( Meaning and the
Moral Sciences. . 125.)

217

, "
,
. ,
,
, , . ,
,
. , ..." (
) : , "
,
, ,
"28. , ,
"
, , ,
, ,
- .
5.

,
,
,
, , ,
.
, ,
.
, "
, ,
",
, ". :
, ,
,
, ,
. , ,
,
; -
, ,
, , ,
".
, .
- "
28

218

Putnam, Realism and Reason", p. 486 (p. 126 Meaning and Moral Sciences).

" (
), " (picturing) , , ,
, , , .
,
:
,
, ?" ,
, " , --,
.

. :
,
,
... ( ) , ,
, ,
, ,
", ,
, 29.
:
... " ,
"
, ,
. ,
, ",
,
,
30.
, "
, ",
, , ,
, .
,
", ,
- . ,
29
30

Putnam, Realism and Reason", p. 489 (p. 130 Meaning and the Moral Sciences).
Wilfrid Sellars, Science and Metaphysics (London and New York, 1968), p. 142.
219

, :
...

, , , , ,
, . ,
, "
31.
,
,
, (
),
, .
, ,
, ,
, :
(picturing) ,
, ,
"32.
, ,
, . ,
(,

" ) ,
.

, , ,
", ,
,
, . .", ,
, ,

" 33.
,

, - . , ,
, ,
, .
" , ,
31
32
33

220

Jay Rosenberg, Linguistic Representations (Dordrecht, 1974), p. 144.


Sellars, Science and Metaphysics, p. 136.
Putnam, Realism and Reason", p. 483 (p. 123 Meaning and the Moral Sciences).

, ,
, ,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
. , ,
", ,
. , ,
, , ,
,
, . , ,
,
,
.
, ,
-- ,
,

,
. " , ",
,
,
, : ,
,
, , ,
. , , ,
" , , -, ,
, , ,

.
, , ,
" - . -, , (", ")
, ,
".
",
",
221

". ,
,
. ,
", ,
, . - ,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
( ,
)
,
".
, ,

. , ,
,
, , .
, ,

34.
34
, ,
, "
". , ,
",
. ,
"
", ". ,
, .
, "
" , , " ".
,
" ,
. ,
, , , ,
, , ",
" , .
, , "
" .
, ,
",
Sprachstreit.
, -
" (Science and Metaphysics, p. 82)
" " ",
- (. 143).
, ,
" .
John Wallace, On the Frame of Reference", in Semantics of
Natural Language, ed. Davidson and Harman, Hartry Field,
Tarski's Theory of Truth", Journal of Philosophy 69 (1972).

222

-, ,
", ", " " "

.
,
" , ,
, , , ". ( "
"
) :
,
", ",
",
".
, ,
,
,
.
, ,

"
,
, . ,
, ,
, .
, , : , . , ,
,
, .
, , ,
35.
",
" (asserlible) " .: Robert Brandon, Truth and Assertibility", Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976), 137149. ,
" " ,
" , ,
, . ,
,
, ,
" .
35
Davidson, On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme", p. 16. ,
, "
" (. 12).
. . , 1.
223


, ":
,
,
( ) ,
( ) 36.
,
,
, " (. 304). , ,
, , ,
, " (. 305). ,
(
,
")
. - ,
" "

, , , (. . 308).
( , -
) ,

. , ,
,
,
, ()
--L",
L ,
- ()
" [
: s , ] ,
s"
L, "
... [ ] ,
, , ,
(. 309).
:
36

224

Davidson, Truth and Meaning", p. 308.

, ,
, , ,
,
37.
,

".
, ,
:
,
,
. , ,
", "
,
. ,
,

.
, , - (, )
" - ,
, " . , ,

"
,
.

,
(
") . ,
"
,
38. ,
, ,
.
37
Davidson,
38

On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme", p. 17.


Max Black, Linguistic Method in Philosophy" in Language and Philosophy (Ithaca,
1949), pp. 38. "
, ,
. , . , ,
, ",
, .
225

, ,
,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, .

" "39.
.
6. ,

, :


,
,

( , . .)
.
,
,
, , , ,
, .
"
- , ".
,
, ,
?
, ", ", ,
. : , ?",
, . , , ,
39

. Barry Stroud,
Transcendental Arguments", Journal of Philosophy 65 (1968), 241256.
Verificationism and Transcendental Arguments",
Nous 5 (1971), 314,
Transcendental Arguments, Self-Reference and Pragmatism" in Transcendental Arguments
and Science, ed. Peter Bieri, Rolf Horstmann and Lorenz Kruger (Dordrecht, 1979), 77
103.
226

- ,
. , ",
, , , .
focus imaginarius, ,
,
. , ,

, ,
, (
). ", , ,
, , ,

-.
",
, , , ,
, . "
Euthyphro, ,
.
", ,
, -
. , , (good) ,
, ..
, , , ,
,
.
" ,
".
,
" , ,
, ,
,
. , , " ,
"
, .


, .
" ,
, , ,
227

", "
" ,
,
( ,

"). ,
", ,
".
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
", ,
", ", ,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.

", , "40. . " , , ,
",
" . " ,

, , ,
. , , -, , .
,
-" , .
, ,
,
,
, ".
,
40
.: Reference and Understanding" (Meaning and the Moral Sciences, p. 108),
"
".

228

, , , ,

, ,
... ", . , , ,
,
, ,
.
- .
,
" " ", ,
, , ,
, , .
, , , " ,
, , , .
, , .
" "
- ,
. :
: ,
, , ,
, . ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
, .

, - , ,
. . , , .
. , , , ,
. ,
,
229

, 41.
, , ,
(,
), , "
,
,
(, ", " ).
"
". ,
, , ,
, ,
.
, ", , ,
: " -
, .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
, ,
. ; ,
,
-
.
"
, , " ,
, , ,
", , ,
. , ,
, ,
", " ", ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
41

Davidson, On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme", p. 20.


( )
( --, ,
), The World Well Lost", Journal of Philosophy 69 (1972),
649666, esp. 662663.

1.

( ),
:
", , ,
, , , , .
" ( ),
, ,
" . , ,
,
. , , , , ,
- .
.
,
:
", ,
, . , " ,
, . , , ,
, ,
, . , ,
" , ,
(confront) ,
, ,
, . ,
,
. , ,
.
"
, ,
, , ,
233

1. ,
, ",
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
.
, , ,
, , ,
.
. , ,
, . ,
, , ,
. , ,
XVII ,

.
, , ,
. , , ,
.

. , ,
,
, .
, ,
, , , , ,
,
, , ." , ,
,
, , .
, , , ,
,
, , ,
1
, " ,
". ,
, ,
".
, ", ,
, ,
. . , 3.

234

, .
,
,
.
, ,
,
, .
, ,
. , ,

. . , , , ,
, , ,
(, , ),
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
, .
, , , .
, , ,
,
, .
,
, , . . . ,
, universitas, , . , ,
societas, , , , , ,
,
, 2.
2
. On the Character of a Modern European State" in Michael Oakeshott, On
Human Conduct (Oxford, 1975).

235
17-2125


.

".

, ,
,

"

",
" ".
, ,
:
,
, .
,
" ()
.
, , "
" .
, ",
, ,
, , . . , ,
, ,
. ,

, .
,
,
, , , ,
. ,
,

,
,
, (, .

,
,
" (,
),
. , , ,
,
.

", ,
, " ".
, ,
, ".
236

, ,
, , ,
, " " ,
" " .
"
,
. " " ,
, . ,
, , .
, , . ,
,
, , , .
" , , ,
,
. '
,
, ". ,
,
,
". ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
, ".

,
".


" ",
, ,
" - .
. , ,
, , ,
, , ,
".
, , ,
, ,
" .
,
237

, (, , ), " , " , " , " .


,
", ,
, ,
,
, , .
,
,
3;
.
, , ,
". ,
" ,
, , .
, ", , , -
, , , .
2.

, ,
.
- , -
. , ,
, , . ,
(
, ,
, ) ,
. , , .

3
, , -,
:
" ...
... , ,
; , ,
." (Fact, Fiction and Forecast [Cambridge, Mass., 1955], p. 67).

238

, , ,
,
, " ".
" ,
, ,
, , , . , 4:
,
,
, .
, ...
, , , ,
.
, ,
". , ,
,
( ", " . .),
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
5,
. "
, ,
.
, , post factum ( ,
), , , " .
, ",
,
, ,
4
5

. S. Kuhn, The Essential Tension (Chicago, 1977), p. xii.


.: Second Thoughts on Paradigms" (in ibid.)
" ",
, "
".
239

,
" ". , ,
, .
,
,

" 6. ,
,
, (
", " , ,
!"). ,

, ,

, . ,
,
, ,
"
, .
.

" 7 ,
, , ,
[ ] ".
, ,
,
, ",

".
,
. ,
,
, ,
,
. , , ,
",
, "
,


6
7

. . .: , 1977. . 162163.
, .
163.
240

.
" , ,
,
, , ".
,
, .
,
,
. , , ,
, .
" , ,
. ,

, ,
,
. , :
, ,
, .
... ,

,
...
, ,
,

8.
, ,
:
...
, ... , , ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
... , , ,
. ,
8

. , . 149150.
241

, :

9.
,
", .
, -

,
. ;
, ,
... , , "10. ,
, ,
",
( , , The
Copernican Revolution, ),
, , ,

.
, (
,
) ,
, , " (.
321). ,
, ,
,
" ( ,
. .), . ,
, , , " (. 322), ,
, "
, , .
. :

, , , , ,
, 11.
9

Israel Scheffler, Science and Subjectivity (Indianopolis, 1967), p. 84.


Kuhn, Essential Tensions, p. 326.
11
. , . 209.
10

242

,
, ,
?"12
, ,
. XVII , ", , ", , ,
. ,

- , , ".
",

13. , , ,
,
, , .
, .
, , . ,
, , ,
" ,

" 14. , , ,
,
, ,
12


: Giorgio de Santillana The Crime of Galileo (Chicago, 1955).
: Michael Polanyi Personal Knowledge (Chicago, 1958).
13
"
. , "
, ,
, , . ,
, ,
" ( ,
).
14

"",
. ., .: Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man (Boston, 1964),
ch. 67. , ,
"" ""
. , , ,
(") .
, , ,
,
".
243

.

" . ,
, . ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , , .
,
, , , ,
()
, , , .

?"
,
, ?
, , , .
,
, ?
, ,

(, ) ,
. (
XIX
(Genesis) ).
, ,
,
. , ,
(, , )
. , (,
, ) "
, ,

, " ( ),
, .
, , , ,
", XVII XVIII ,
XVII , .
,
" ,
. , ",
.
, ,
,
244

". , , (
, , )
.

, , . .
.
, . ,

.

" "
. , , ,
" , "
. ,
" , ,
(1910 )
?
",
, . , ,

,
, ,

. , ,
, ,
, ",
", ".
, ,
(", "),

. ,
"
, ,
, .
,
, "; , ,
"15. , ,
,
". , , ", " (,
15

Kuhn, Essential Tensions, p. xvi.


245

, " "),
". , , , ,
, ,
, ".

, . 1550

" , 1750
. ,
, ( ) ,
, , (",
),
.
, ,
, ", ", , ,
, ,
, " .
:
, ,
, , "
(,
). - , , ,

" " . , ,
, " "
. .
, 16, ,
, ,
, .
16
, , , .
, , ,
.
,

. ,
, , ,
. , , .

246

,

, ,
. ,
XVIII , , .
, .
3.

,
,
, " , .
" , , ,
", , ".
,
. :
, , ,

?" -

, , ,
?",
.
, .
.

: ",
: ", ,

.
, ,
",
, ,
. , , , ,
, (
) ,
() ,
247

,
. point d'appui ", ", " ,
. , , , , .
,
,

". , , ,
, , , . , , ,
",
, , , ,
.
. ,
( ) ,
,
" ,
(, -
). , ,
,
, ,
".
,
, ", " " .
, ", ", - ,
.
, ,

" ,
, , ,
. -,
( ) ,
.

.
, ,
".
:
" ,
: ", ".
,
248

, , ,
, . ,
,

17.
, " , , "
, ,
. , ,
. , ,
,
".
" ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
, :
1. ( , ), ().
2. , , , .
3.
, ,
, , ,
.
, , , " ,
" " "
, ,
.
, :
,
" ", .
, ,
,
, "18, " 17
18

Kuhn, Essential Tensions.


A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic (New York, 1970), p. 100.
249

, . , , ,
, ad hoc
" (. 95), ,
, " " " " - .
, , ,
, :
4. ,
.
, ,
(, )
, ,
, , ,
, , , ,
." , , "
" ,
, ,
,
19. - ,
,
,
, .
, " ,
", ,
.
",
", .
19

(,
fortiori, ,
).
(coping) . ,
. , ,
", ( ), ", , .
(, ,
), ,
, .
250

" ,

. "
, ,
, . ,
" ,
, , ,
, .
,
" ( ), " (
). . , , .
, "
-, " ,
, ,
" ( ,
, ,
, ). "
" ",
,
, ,
.
",
(
) .
, .
, ,
versus " versus ".
" "
, .
, ,

, ,
.
, ,
, , ,
,
. , :
, ,
,
, , , ,
. , ,
,
. 251


, .
20 ,
.

" , .
,
, . ,
,
focus imaginarus
, , , ,
.
,
...,
?" , 1750 ...,
?"
-
..."
".
", ",
,
", . ,
. ,
" " ( , )
, (, ,
, ).
, . , ,
" ,
,
20
Kuhn, Essential Tensions, pp. 332333. ,
, ,
, . p. xxiii, ,
"
. . 14, ,

: ,
,
". , , ,
, ",
; ,
,
.

252


, .
" ,
";

. ,
";
, "
, ,
.
, , ", ,
-- " . ,
" , " ,
, , ,
, , ,
.
" ,
,

. , ,
, ,
,
". , -,
,
" " "
.
" ,
, - , ,
. .
,
", ,
,
(4)
"
, . , , "
, " "
" .
, ,
,
" , , -
". , ,
, ,
, " , ".
253

4.

, , "
Geisteswissenschaften - .
, " ,
XIX ,
Geisteswissenschaften ( ),

" 21.
,
, , () ,
, , - ,
.

Geistes Naturwissenschaften.
- , ,
",
(, " , , ")
( " ).
, -- () " , (b) "
, ()
, , . ( ,
, ",
, -
, , .
).
", ,
( , ), ,
, , ,
, .
- , , -
21
Karl-Otto Apel, Analytic Philosophy of Language and The Geisteswissenschaften
(Dordrecht, 1967), p. 35. . . 53.

254

( 2)
", ".
, ,
. , , " ", " ", .
, , ".
, ,
- , ,
,
, (,
) . ,
, . " ,
( , )
,
. " , , ,
, , , ,
,
. ,
,
, , ,
" ( ", "). ,
,
. -
(world-story) ( , )
, ,

.
, , ".
, . , ,
, , ( , ), ,
", , ,
, . ., ,
. ,
-
, ,
",
255

,
, .
, , , ,
. , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, . ,

, ,
"
.
,

,
, .
",
", Geistes Naturwissenschaften.
,

.
, ,
" ",
( "
" ) ".
, ,

, ,
, , .
, ,
.
,
( ?
), ,
, . ,
, ,
, ( ", ) . , ,
( viscousness"), " . , -,
, ,
, ,
; ,
256

,
, . ,
. , , ,
, , ,
(
)
. ,
, ,
. ( )
( ),
.
"
. , " (, , ) , , ." ,
, ,
",
.
. ,
" ( Geisteswissenschaften)
( ) . " , "
-, :
, ,
. , , ,
, , "... 22.
, ,
, , ,
, ,
,
, , ,
. , , ,
, ,
(
, , ),
, .
"
, ,
22

Ibid., p. 30.
257


.
, ,
( Aufbau),
,
, , ,
. ,

.

, , , ".
,
, ,
. ( ,
, , ).


.
, " ,
, , ,
, .
,
.
, -
. ,
, ,
, , . ,
, ,
.
, .
,
, ,
, .
.
, .
, ,
. ,
.
, ,

" ,
,
, .
,
, , ,
, .
, , 258

, , (
),
,
(, ,
). ,
:
...
,
.
,
,
?23
, ,
". ,

, -
. - .
, , ,
.
, , ,
, ,
(. 49).
,
, , ,
, :

, , ,
, , , . ,
,
, ...
,
,
.

, ,
, (. 49).
, , (,
23
Charles Taylor, Interpretation and the Science of Man", Review of Metaphysics 25
(1971), p. 48.

259

, ) ,
. , etres-en-soi,
, ,
.
,
. , ,
, ,
, .
, :
. , , ,
, ,
" (. 50), ,
. , ,
,
, . ,
( , , ) .
(, , ,
. .) , . , ,
, , ,
,
,
, , . ,
, - Geistes- Naturwissenschaften. .
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
pour-soi .
, , ,
, " . - ,
, , , , ,
, . ,
, , ,
, ,
" , ".
,
, ,
,
260

, ."
, ,
.
, ,
" " . , , ,
- - ,
. ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
.
, "
",
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
: () ,

; (b) , ( , 3),
, ,
.
() ( , 3)
( ) . (
,
", ,
). - (
, )
- (
),
" , .
,
, ,
. " , . ( ) ,
, , , ,
" " Naturwissenschaften (), Geisteswis261

senschaften ( ),
.
(, ,
)

".
, ,
( ),
,
, , ,
",
.
,
Geisteswissenschaften", :
, , , ,
" (
) .
,
"
( ),
.

, ,
.
, ,
, , ,
- , .
, ,
4 000 ,
. 24.
, , ,
,

,
, , . ,
, -
, - ,
, ,
.
24
, : Geisteswissenschaften ". (R. Geuss) : ,

, , ." (Quine
und die Unbestimmtheit der Ontologie", Neue Hefte fur Philosophie, Heft 8 [1973), p. 44).

262

,

, 25.
,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
, . ,
, .
" "
() ".
.
,
" ". , ,
,
", ,
, ,
".

25
, ( ,
), ,
( "). ,
, , , , , ",
, .
, ,
. , , ;
, .

1.

, ,
, ,
. ,
,
",
,
, , , ,

. ,
, , ,
, . ,

, ,
, , , .

,
. "
,
. ,
, , : , .
,
",
:
"1. , , , , , , "
,
1
. . . .: , 1988. . 38. ,
,
.
.
; . Contexts of Interpretation", Boston
University Journal 24 (1976), 4146.

264

. , , ,
, ,
,
, ,
"2.
,
, , ,
"
, .

, "

,
. ( , )
, " ( , )3. , , " , ,
Geisteswissenschaften"
" ,
, . Bildung
(, ) "
. , ,
" ,
,
, , , , , ,
, . . ,
,
, " (
, , ), ,
(" " ).
wirkungsgeschichtliches Bewusstsein ( , ) ,
,
, ,
.
(
2

. . . 41.
. . , . 56. , ,
,
.
3

265

)
, , . ,
, , ,
, 4.
" , a Bildung
, " (edification)
, ,
. ( )


,
, ,
,
. "
, ,
, , ,
:
.
, ,
, "

, .
,
, .

, , ,
. ,
- ,
,
(
), ,
,
.
(
, )
4
, " ",
". ,
(
) ( , ).
(, , A Vision ), . :
". ,
, .

266

5.
, , , ,
6.
, ,
, - . ,
,
, ,
, , , .
,
,
, ,
, , ,
.
" :

( ),
.
,
- , ,
-, " -
. " ,
,
". ,
,
, - , , ,
- ,
, - ,
. ,
",
" 7.
,
,
,
" 5
. , -
" , . 293,
Being and Time, . 32.
6
. Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness, trans. Hazel Barnes (New York,
1956), pt. two, chap. 3, sec. 5 and the Conclusion" of the book.
7
, ,
, , ,
. ,

, ,
(, , ).

267

8. " ,
, ,
, ( ) Naturwissenschaften,
,
, , , , .
, ( )
, .
, .
, gebildet,
Wissenschaften .

Bildung - , 9 ". ( ") .
, ,
. , . ,
",
. , , ,
, ,
,
( , ).
( )
" Geisteswissenschaften
,
. ,

, .
" ,
" . ,
wirkungsgeschichtliche Bewusstsein 8

, , ,
, ,
".
, , ,
,
.
9
. , . 53.
268

, ,
,
, . ,
( )
, , ,

.
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
10. ,
", , "
, .
,

,
. ,
,
" , , . - ,
, .
, , ,
.
. ,
, ,
,
.
---- , ,
, ,
" .

, ,
". ,
10
. " , . 133,
, 2. . 1, 4. (
, . 582).
11
. "
( , . 142) "
, (Heidegger, Basic Writings, ed. Krell
[New York, 1976], p. 232).

269

, -
, (grid)"
. " ,
,
" ", ,

wirkungsgeschichtliche Bewusstsein.
, , , ,
.
, ,
,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
.

.
2.

,
, , -
. .
, ,
gebildet.
en-soi , , ,
pour-soi.
, , (,
). ,
",
,
,
.
,

,
" ,
, .
,
"
, (, ,
) , 270

. de
novo, , .
, ,



, .
"
, , ,
,
. " ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
" "
.
,
, ,
. ,
.

, , , ,
.
, , , , XIX , , .

, ,
,
, ,

. , ", :
- -
,
,
,
,
.
271


, , ",
,
. ,
, , , ,
. . , ,
- - -
, .
,
, ,
. , "
, , , , ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
", ".
,
, 12.
, , .
,
13. , ,
12

" , La Mythologie Blanche" (in Marges de la


Philosophie [Paris, 1972], p. 250):
... ,
. , , ,
,
, : , ,
; , , ,
, ,
, .
13
. - ,
,
." (Transformation der Philosophie [Frankfurt,
1973], vol. 1, p. 228). ,
, ,
272

, '
.
,
,
, , ,
,
,
14.

.
(") , , .
. ,
, , ,
, , -. , , ,
.
( ) . (
) 15. . - , , , . ,
, , ,
. .
, , .
- .
-
. -
, ,
, - , ,
Keeping Philosophy Pure" (Yale Review [Spring 1976],
pp. 336356), in Overcoming the Tradition: Heidegger and Dewey" (Review of Metaphysics 30 [1976], 280305), and in Dewey's Metaphysics" in New Studies in the Philosophy
of John Dewey, ed. Steven M. Cahn (Hanover, N.H., 1977).
14

La Voix et le Phnomne, .
(Allison) Speech and Phenomenon (Evanston, 1973). . .
(Newton Garver) .
15
,
, , ,
. , ,
,
, .
273

, , ,
( , )
.
-, , .
.
, , . - ,
, ,
. " ,
, . , "
,
.
, ,
. ,
-,
. - , ,
,
,
(, " ). , ,
( , ),
,
,
, ,
. -, -, ,
-.
(, , ).
, ,
,
. , ,
, " , . , , , ...
(, " ")" .
, - , -
,
16.
16
Die Zeit des Weltbildes (
The Age of the World-View" (M.Grene) in Boundary II [1976])
, .

274

, .
.
, ,
,
. ,
. , ,
, . ,
, , .
, ,
, , . , ,
- .
,
, , ,
17. ,
, .
,
,
, .
, "
, ,

.

, :
.
, , ,
, ;
.
, ,
.
, , .
, ,
?
, , -
(, ,
) , ,
( , ) .
, . , ,
, , -
,
17
,
. Aus einem Gesprach von der Sprache
zwischen einem Japaner und einem Fragenden" (in Unterwegs zur Sprache [Pfullingen,
1959]),
.

275

, , .
-
, .
,
,
.
,
.


. -
, .
3. ,

,
,
, ", . ,

pour-soi en-soi ,
, - ,
,
, . .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , " .
,
, ,
,
.
-, .
, , , " ,
", ,
,
". ,
, , , ", , ,
", ", ,
,
. ,
, . ,
276

, , ,
,
, ",
,
.
-
", ", -
"?

, ,
, " , ( , 6).
, (,
, ) - , . ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, (, ).
, , ,
, ", 18. ,

, ,
,
" ",
".
, .
" ,
.
, ,
,
, 19.
, ?
, , ,
18
. : William Frankena The Naturalistic
Fallacy", Mind 68 (1939).
19
, , , ,
(,
, ).

277

(, , -- ) " (, ,
, ). , "
, ,

".
. .


.
,
. ", , , "
",
, ,
. , ,
,
, , .
- , -
, ,
, -, ,
,
, .
,
etre-en-soi.
,
, "
" "
. ,
, ,
.
, , , ",
, , .
, ,
, ,
-, ,
, ,
.
,
,
,
. 278

, , , , .
,
, ,
, . - ,
.
. ",
,
", .
, , ,
. , , ,
,
- ,
.
,
,
", ,
" " "
.
, , ,
,
, , , . , ,
.
,
,
. , , ,
, ,
, ,
, , .
, , . -, , ,
"20.
- "
, .
,
20

". .: Concluding Unscientific Postscript, trans. David Swenson and Walter
Lowrie (Princeton, 1941), p. 97.

279

---, ,
,
.
,
, , ,
, .
, ,
, , en-soi, poursoi en-soi , . ,
,
, ,
. , --- ".
, ,
, ,
. ,
, pour-soi, en-soi, . , ,
, ",


.
" ,
,
,
, .
, , , ,
, , .
,
.
, ", ,
, - , .
4.

,
,
,
280

, .
,
, " ,
, ,
. ,
, , , , pour-soi,
,
, .
"
", . , ,

, ,
, . , , , ,
" , , ,
, .
, " ,
,
" , ".
,
,
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
" " " . ,
, , ,
,
(, ,
"
, ).
,

. .
:
...,
,
.
281

, ,
. ,
,
.
" , ,
, 21.
, ,
" , ",
( ,
) , .
, , , ,
".
"
. ,
, ,
, , ,
."
, ",
,
,

22.
, ,

,
, .
.
, ,
, .
21
Jrgen Habermas, " Erkenntnis und Interesse
(Frankfurt: Surkamp, 1973), p. 410; . (Christian Lenhardt)
A Postscript to Knowledge and Human Interests in Philosophy of the Social Sciences 3
(1973), 181.
.: Michael Theunissen, Gesellschaft und Geschichte: Zur
Kritik der Kritischen Theorie (Berlin, 1969), p. 20. ( . (Geuss)
).
22
Habermas, Nachwort", p. 411; English translation, p. 182.

282


23.
, , , ,
-, , ", ,
".
, ,
, (,
,
" (life-world), " ). , "
, "
24.
-

, , .
.
,
"

. ,
?",
, ?"
, ?"
,
(" ")
( ,
", ", ").
, 23

Ibid., pp. 408409; English translation, p. 180.



, , " ",
...",
. , , ,
4. . .
Science and Metaphysics (London and New York, 1968), ch. 7 Science and Ethics in
Philosophical Perspectives (Springfield, Ill., 1967).
24

283

.
" , .
- ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
",
.
, ,
( ,
)25.
,
"
" .
,
, , pour-soi
en-soi. ,

, " ,
,
,
.

, ,
, , ( )
.
, ,
, " , .
,

, , . , 25

.
( . . . 3. . 676678),
Unternehmung .
,
" ( . . . 3. .
95) , . ,
,
.
284

,
, ( ),
,
26. , ,
,
, , , ,
.
,
. ,
, , , .
, ,

.
(pattern)
, .
, , , , . , ,
,
,
, " ,
,
, .
, , ,
", ,

.
" ", ". ,
, ,
.
- ".
,
(,
, ) .
, 26
. ,
,
,
"
".

285

, .
, .
, .
( , "
"
). ,
. ,
,
, , , ,
, .

. -, ,
, ,

. ,

. , " (
", ", ") . , ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
- , - ".

. , ,
,
, .
, , ,
,
,
.
, , -, , .
, ,
,
(, versus versus ),
(, versus ), (,
286

versus ) , ,
.
,
, , . ,
,
, . ,
, ,
-, .
, .
, , , ,
. --
, - .
.
, ,
, . . ,
, . (
, ,
, "
"). ( ) , en-soi
pour-soi.
, , ( --)
"
, .
( ,
), ,
(, ,
, ).
, ,
"
-" --
.
( ,
).
, per impossible,
, .
, .
, .
, ,
287

.
, , ",
, .
,
, . ,
.
, ", ", ,
,
, , .
,
, ,
, . ,
, -
, , , .

.
. , ,
, ,

, ,
,
.
5.


27, , . ,
,
,

; , 28.
,
,
, ,
.

27
Michael Oakeshott, The Voice of Poetry in the Conversation of Mankind", in
Rationalism
and Politics (New York, 1975).
28
Wilfrid Sellars, Science, Perception and Reality (London and New York, 1963), p.
169.

288

,
. ,

, ,
:

, , , ,
, ,
,
? (. 196)

- . ,
,
,
, .
"
,
. , , ,
.
.
,

,
. , ,
,
.
, . , .
, , , -
.
, , ,
, ,
, Fach, . , ,
, ,
, .
" , , , ,
,
" .
,
289

, ,
. , ,
, , ,
(, ),
, 29 ,
. ,
,
".

, .
.
, ,
, XVII ". " ",
, .
, , , ( , ,
, , -
), ,
. ,
quaestiones juris
, .
,
,
.
,
, , , ,
,
29

. .:
Bloom, A Map of Misreading (New York, 1975), p. 33:
. ,
". ,
, ". (The Discourse on Language", included in the Archeology of Knowledge [New
York, 1972], p. 231).
, , " ( ) ", . , ,
, , ,
,
, .

290

, .
, ,
", ",
", ,
ex officio, , ,
, ,
, "
. .
,
,
. ,
( - ),
.
, ,
,
, ,
,
,

.
, ,
" ".
,
,
. .
, . ,
,
, ,
, .
" ,
. ,
. , , ,
, . ,
- "
- .
, , ,
. ,

, " "
quaestiones juris
.
, , ,
".
, 291

.
" , ,
XX ( , ,
XVI ), ,
" .
, ,
, , , , , .
, . ,
. , ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, , ,
.
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
,
.

110
. 34, 39, 227
31, 38
. . 49, 83, 249
. 3334, 3941,
47, 93, 271
3334
56, 9,
124127, 142, 254, 289

8, 237, 238, 246, 251, 256, 266268,
270271, 275, 279, 283, 286288
. 110
. . . 123
. . 30, 34
- 254, 257, 262, 272,
281
27, 31, 34, 3841, 47
49, 105106, 112, 118, 120, 156
157, 165, 177, 184, 186, 194, 260,
266, 269, 271, 292
17, 63, 75, 8687
45
. 43
200
. . 74, 169
122
. 48
, 157, 243, 245
37, 105
130131
122, 130, 178
37, 48, 205, 217
89
. . 48
200
13,
49, 69, 71, 85, 130, 155157, 169,
191

7374, 81, 125, 128130, 143,
155158, 225, 233, 241, 276, 281,
285, 290
137
124, 290
225
209
98
62, 64, 69, 87
98
14, 45, 143, 147,
154, 155

. . - 6, 30
98
. . 86, 122
133, 223
145
89
3233, 98
269
186187
191, 196, 226, 229,
230
116
. 159
8, 21, 29, 38, 69,
75, 78, 94, 106107, 116117, 120, 134,
275, 278
46, 79, 10,
19, 20, 2526, 51, 7477, 80, 8384,
100, 120, 123, 125, 129, 137, 140, 151,
156158, 164, 169170, 190, 195196,
218, 224226, 238, 254, 272, 273275,
283, 291292
113
- 9, 254, 264,
269271
48, 97, 167, 183, 185, 243,
244245, 247, 271
273
45
. . . 4, 37, 54, 90, 98100,
122124, 142, 195, 265, 268, 290,
292
197
175, 179
233, 239244, 253,
257, 259, 261264, 270, 281
262, 282
124
272
. . 187
. . . .
179, 181
4445, 9798, 100, 271, 287
34
35
32
. . 129
. . 175, 179
31, 105, 107, 256
31, 37, 45, 104,
108, 188
293

149, 207, 218, 238


4, 45, 123, 125,
160, 199, 273, 283, 289
123, 193, 195
.
244, 268, 271
35, 7, 9, 14, 21, 32, 34, 35,
3840, 51, 54, 83, 9293, 9798, 101, 103,
106, 107, 111, 114, 117118, 121, 138, 142,
156, 158 159, 165, 177, 184, 186, 194
195, 240, 264, 271, 273, 287, 289, 292
255, 264
175, 188, 221
270, 272273, 275
4, 100, 122, 206,
210, 272
122, 155, 160
. . 160, 173, 174, 176,
178
7677
213
34, 41, 47, 5051, 57
67, 9, 10, 30, 39, 100, 111,
117, 120, 122, 129, 130, 158, 165, 169,
170, 206, 230, 268, 272, 280, 282, 283, 291
6, 152, 153, 191, 196,
207, 121, 217, 218, 221, 225, 226, 228,
230, 256
3
29, 32, 34, 39, 50,
64, 66, 7680, 83, 91, 94, 249, 261, 264
910, 31, 34, 45, 74,
90, 94, 120, 134, 156, 183184, 217, 218,
220223, 229, 246247, 249, 261, 264,
275, 278, 289, 291
78, 99, 100, 109, 114, 129,
191, 196, 201, 213, 221, 227, 240,
247, 253, 261, 262
" "" 37, 38, 45, 101, 105,
108, , 122, 194
- 199202, 204,
234
. . 266
.

37, 45
7, 26, 97, 102, 109, 123,
124, 132, 142, 195, 201, 208, 253,
272
98
177
67
. . 32
294

3, 5, 7, 9, 16, 27, 47, 48,


83, 97102, 108, 114, 118 119, 122
123, 125, 127, 143, 179, 186, 190195,
199, 217, 229, 238, 240, 244, 247, 250,
261, 270, 273, 281, 283, 290292
6, 125, 127, 151, 154,
164, 190, 191, 222, 258, 268, 271
124
184
31, 3637, 160
98
50
89
196
97, 243, 244
49, 89
24, 57, 58, 82, 86, 213 215
221
. . . 68, 75, 87, 89, 110, 123,
125, 129, 131, 134, 143144, 152, 154
155, 158, 161, 170, 175, 182, 187, 191,
193, 196, 198199, 203, 204, 221, 233,
248, 262
, .
37, 97, 120, 143, 163, 233, 234
. . 56, 44, 124, 156, 167,
169, 195, 200, 203204, 206, 223,
234, 237, 238, 246, 248, 253255,
283
272273, 279
. 34, 62, 64, 69, 87
. . 30, 39
- 185
. . 20, 109, 110, 194
. . . 97
279
58, 89
37, 20, 25, 37, 52, 101, 114,
118, 120, 122, 138, 158, 159,
170, 175, 184, 187, 189, 194, 243
. . 110, 116, 125, 137, 191,
203
151
98
256, 264
17
36, 45
48
6, 40, 46, 158,
160, 171 172, 174, 177, 179
84, 98
84
185, 195, 243, 281, 286
243
1314, 27, 60, 62, 64,
71, 78, 85, 281

100
92
. . 122, 228, 268
71, 75, 7780, 82,
203
103
102, 130, 132,
141, 194, 207, 208, 215, 221, 226,
229, 247, 248, 269, 277, 283
. 45, 207, 227
36, 38
38
. 21, 87
5, 9, 264, 276
27, 123124, 221, 255,
267, 276, 280, 288
68, 75, 78, 129
66, 83, 87, 91
125
. . 177
1314, 21, 24
4, 99, 102, , 119,
121, 132, 164
22, 27, 35, 37, 41,
57, 59, 62, 6472, 74, 79, 8283,
9091, 129, 162
203, 223, 233235,
254257, 259, 264, 270, 273, 286
287
4, 122, 273, 274,
292
101 102, 240, 255,
271
-
57, 67, 247, 253, 255256, 266, 276
140
.
' 37
, 134
. 39, 45, 49, 105, 125, 158
195, 234, 288
. 3233, 44
178
89
98, 171
X. 6, 20, 74, 140, 144, 180, 189,
191, 193, 195196, 200, 202, 204, 211,
213, 215, 217, 221, 228
230, 252
, . 134,
143144, 155
, 30, 34
185
. . 32, 171, 219, 220
1718, 49, 63, 78,
115

24, 25, 3135, 40, 43, 54, 78,


115, 118, 132, 164, 190, 227, 247,
250, 251, 266, 273, 274, 277, 279, 285,
288, 289, 292
34, 227
8
167, 169, 243
70, 84, 103
8, 130, 132, 196, 228, 230,
234, 247, 282
. . 37, 105
122, 151, 156
116117, 120, 126, 234,
238, 275, 279, 280, 286, 288289,
292
6, 14, 24, 38, 49, 50,
74, 75, 76, 83, 84, 106, 124, 137,
156, 158, 159, 162, 171, 172, 173,
174, 177, 179, 243
99
4, 6, 83, 119, 123,
124, 125, 127, 191, 194, 199, 273,
289
. 111
196, 220, 221, 252253,
262, 283, 286
10, 123, 132, 145, 206,
226, 234, 272, 276
,
. 5, 274
36, 45, 105107, 243
. . . 34, 138
133, 219, 220
89
41, 122
. . 31, 37, 38
4, 7, 9, 276
2, 72
243
- 9, 123, 256, 267, 269,
278, 286
165
6, 8, 19, 20, 37, 40, 67,
75, 81, 92, 104105, 123, 139, 142, 145,
151, 155, 158, 162 163, 175, 180, 188,
196, 200, 203 204, 206, 212, 218, 221
222, 233, 282, 288, 289, 290
. 213214, 216
89
5, 9, 272,
274, 283, 285286, 292
5, 35, 37, 69, 7071, 74, 79,
8384, 103, 106, 123, 134, 158, 170,
183, 204, 217, 228, 230
69, 7778
. . 156, 158
. . . 6, 24, 83, 8687
295

30
.
132, 208
69, 142
116
7, 71, 76, 90,
125, 132, 138, 193, 270, 275, 277,
279, 286, 289
271
14, 27, 44, 48, 83,
98, 194
35
226
13, 47, 54, 80, 86,
110, 112, 116, 129, 133, 206, 213,
216
. -
200
- 191,
196, 201, 218, 221223, 228
18, 27, 49, 57, 79,
135, 138, 142
89
191, 207, 212, 218,
222, 224, 228
256, 259260
86, 88,
90
98
98
282
92
83, 87
169
44, 200
. . 41
104, 187, 204
6, 88, 143, 148, 156, 190,
213, 222 " "
222
:
26, 29, 41, 43, 46,
51, 93, 162

23
26, 91, 94, 162
33, 39, 40, 45, 50, 93
3, 13,
38, 39, 41, 4647, 49, 50, 93
16, 19, 25
16, 18, 19,
24, 31, 34, 50, 256
41, 43,
46, 51, 57, 59, 60, 62, 64, 71, 74, 79,
82, 83, 90
17, 21, 27, 40,
51
296

13, 15, 27,


39, 40, 46, 47, 49, 51
18, 51
, .
13, 16, 23,
47

222
. . 99
. . 189
99
200, 217
- 269, 277,
286
136
27
87, 195, 199, 202,
203, 204, 210, 234, 245, 264, 282
58
, .
17, 20, 22,
26, 57, 67, 76, 81, 86
6, 9, 124, 281, 283
. 137
145, 222
:
; .
; . 3, 7
199
6, 99, 193, 195
190, 195, 213, 228,
248
190217
221
. . 159
160, 163, 171, 172,
176, 181, 186
151
277
38
6, 123, 190, 191, 194,
195, 213
165, 185, 195, 281,
286

244, 290
4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 54, 116
117, 120, 123, 133, 195, 265, 266, 267,
269, 271, 275, 290, 291 292
35, 89
44, 99, 107, 194

. 124, 167, 169
129, 146, 149, 187
124, 211
83, 87

92

125, 126, 129, 133, 134, 144,
145, 149, 155, 224, 225, 234, 235
144, 151, 159, 185,
186
160
38, 49, 14
99, 100, 102, 164
14, 20, 21, 130, 131, 143
. 32
. 46
. 203, 241
. 142
. 124
267, 268, 270, 271,
280281, 283
151, 153

233, 270, 279


280, 286
7, 116, 233,
278
98, 102, 120,
125, 165, 193, 261, 285, 290
118, 120, 250
. ,
.
89, 145, 198, 267, 269,
272, 274, 277, 280
37, 45, 54, 103, 105, 108, 113,
118, 179, 191, 193, 199
Geisteswissenchaften 134, 143, 148 149,
154, 155160, 163, 254, 262, 265, 268
Nous 29, 31, 33, 34, 41, 48, 50, 106, 108,
115

P.
58
. : -
. -, 1997. 320 .
ISBN 5-7615-0404-9
. "
, ,
.
, . "
. .
713.12

. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
302 020618
13.08.92

05.04.96. 17.12.96. 60x90/16. .


. . . . 20,0- . .-. 20,2. .-. . 23,42. 3000
2125

630058, , . , 35


.
143200, . , . , 93.