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.. , .. , ..

.
.
.

2011 .

517 (378)
22.11
66
:
.. , .. , ..

. . .
66 . . .. ,
.. , .. . . , 2011. 73 .
ISBN 978-985-6868-32-3

,
, ,
.
.

517 (378)
22.11
ISBN 978-985-6868-32-3

, 2011

, 2011

..........................................................................................................................4
......................................................................................4
I. (-1).................6
1.1. -1 .......................................................................................6
1.2. ....................................................................................................................................9
1.3. ...........................................................................................14
1.4. . ..........................................................18
1.5. (-1)...............................................................................26
1.6. 1- ( -1).......................................................................................28

II.
............................................................................................................................................30
2.1. (-2)............................................30
2.2. (-2) . ....................34
2.3. 2- (-2) ..........................................................40

III. ....................................................................................................45
3.1. .................................................................................................45
3.2. .................................................................................................50
3.3. -..........................................................................................................56
3.4. . .............................................................................................58
3.5. ..................................................................................................62

......................................................................................................................................66
.........................................................................................................................69
1. ........................................................................................69
2. .............................................................................................70
3. ....................................................................................................74

............................................................................................................................77



. . .
,
,
.

, .

(),
,
.

().
( ).

( ), :
, , .

.

. ,
.
: 1)
, , 2005; 2) , , 2003;
3) .
. , , , 2010,
.., .., .. .

,










...
1

()

I. (-1)
1.1. -1
()
, ,
, .
(-1),
(-2).
(-1).

,
, .


()

, .

()

, ..

, .


()

.
, ().
:

1
,
.
2

(V )

,
R

,
1

.
1.1

1. ?
2. 1?
3.
?
x2 +

y2 z2
+
=1
2
9

-1


()

F (P),

.
:
1.


2.

()

( i )

Pi ( i )
3.

4.


(1)

( -
5.

).

6. (1):
lim S n = lim

0
( n )

F ( P ) .

0
( n ) i =1

(1)


F (P )

()

, ,

( 0)

( i )

, ,

,
Pi

( ),

(-1),


(2)

).
d

1.2
4.


F (P )

5.

()


()

-1

-1 -1
( F ( P) = ( P) > 0

d = d x.

[a; b].

F ( x)dx.

)
:
(1)
b

( D),

m = ( x )dx.

(2)

S = F ( x)dx,
a

( D ) : { a x b,
0 y F ( x)}.
2

( D) R

d =
= dS =
= dxdy.

1.

( D) :

F ( P)dS.
( )

( D) :

(3)

m=

( P)dS.

(4)
S=

( D)

dS = dxdy.

(D)

(D)

2.

(V ) ,

(5)
V=

F ( x, y)dxdy,

( D)

(V ) : { 0 z F ( x, y ),
( x, y ) ( D )}.
3

(V ) R

= d x d y .d z
d = d V =

( ) F( P)dV .
V

(V ) :

(6)
m = ( P )dV .
(V )

(7)
V = dV
=
(V )

= dxdydz
.
(V )

(V ) :

4
d = dl.
( )

( L )
L
(-1),

(9)


L ) F ( P)dl. m = ( P)dl.
(

( L)
.
5 d = d q.

( Q) R 3.
(-1),
( Q) :

( Q)

( L) :

F ( P)dq.
m = ( P) dq.

(8)

L = dl.
( L)

( Q) :
(11)

(10) Q = dq.

( Q)

( Q)

1.3
-1.

,
F (P )

( )

.

1.

( )( F ( P) + F ( P) ) d = ( )F ( P)d + ( )F ( P)d.
1

2.

c = const.

F ( P)d = c( )F ( P)d ,
( )

3.

F ( P)d = ( F) ( P)d + ( F) ( P)d

()

= 1 2 , 1 2 =
4.

,
F ( P ) = 1, P ()

( )d = ( )

( )


()

5.

P ( )

F ( P) 0

F ( P)d 0,

()

(,

F ( P) 0,

).

( )F ( P)d 0

6.

7.


F (P)

( )F ( P)d M

= ())
8.


F (P )

( )

P0 ( )

F ( P ) d = F ( P ) ( )
0

()

1.4
1.2.
,
,

( )

F ( P) = F ( x, y ),

(.. ),

, (. (2), 1.2), :

( D)

F ( P)dS = lim

F ( P ) S
i

0
( n ) i =1

F ( x, y)dxdy,

( D)


= max{i }
i

( D)

,
Si

( Di ) ,

( Di ) ,


dS

( D ).

1.5
6.
.
7. ,
(. (4), (5), 1.3):
1)

( D) :

dxdy;

x2 + y2 R2;

( D)

2)

(1 x y)dxdy,

( D) :

x 0, y 0, x + y 1.

( D)

( D)


OY ,

,
1

( D),

).
OX

y
d

( D)

x = x1 ( y )

x = x2 ( y)

c
0

. 1.

. 2.

( D)

D : a x b, y1 ( x) y y 2 ( x),

(. 1).
OY


(1)
b

y2 ( x )

y1 ( x )

F ( x, y)dxdy = dx F ( x, y)dy.

( D)

D : c y d , g1 ( y ) x g 2 ( y ),

( D)

( D)

OX .

(2)

( )
D

x2 ( y )

x1 ( y )

F ( x, y)dxdy = dy

F ( x, y)dx.

(1) (2)
.


.

( D)

1.6

8.

:

f ( x, y)dxdy,
( )

(D)

1)

2)
D : x y 1;

D : x 2 y x.

.
)
)
1

x2

dx f ( x, y)dy;

dx f ( x, y)dy;

x2

dx f ( x, y)dy.


(
), .

,

( D)

, ..
.

( )
D

y2 ( x )

2 ( x)

y1 ( x )

1 ( x)

F ( x, y)dS = dx

F ( x, y)dy = dy

F ( x, y )dx


,
.
9. :
1)
2)
3)
1

2 x 2

dx f ( x, y)dy;

2 x x 2

dx f ( x, y)dy;

4 y y2

dy f ( x, y)dx.

.
)
, ( );

( D ) : 0 y 2,

y x 4y y2

, ();

( D) : 0 y
)

( D ) : 0 x 1,

2x x 2

( ).
x y 2 x ,
2

1.
2

2
3
dx (2 xy 4 x y )dy.


, :
y

x
y =1

2 3 8 3 32
2
8
xy x y
(
2
xy

4
x

y
)
dy
=
= x x3 ,
0
3

3
3

y =0 3
1

:
x

x 2 2x 4
8 3
2
x

x
dx
=

3 3 3 3
2
2
1

1 2 (2) 2 2( 2) 4
=
+
3
3
3 3

= 9.

10. :
1)
2)
2

2 4 x 2

dx f ( x, y)dy;

1 y 2

1/ 2

dy

f ( x, y)dx.
y

.
)
)
2

4 y y2

1/ 2

dy f ( x, y )dx;
0

dx f ( x, y )dy +
0

1 x 2

1/ 2

dx

f ( x, y)dy.
0

2. ,

y 2 + 2 y 3x + 1 = 0

7
y = + x.
3

((4), 1.3),

(D )

.
S=

dxdy

( D)

1. (. 3).


,
y 2 + 2 y 3x + 1 = 0


M (0,1).

( y + 1) 2 = 3 x.

y
3

. 3.
2.

3x 3 y 7 = 0,

2
3x = ( y + 1) .

A ,2
3

.
16
B , 3
3

3. ,
.

y.

S = dy
2

7
+y
3

( y +1)
3

dx =

7 + 3 y ( y + 1) 2

3
3

1
y 2 ( y + 1) 3
125
dy = 7 y + 3
=

.
3
2
3 2 18

, (..
),
:

1+ 3 x

1/ 3

S=

dx

dy +

1 3 x

16 / 3

dy

1/ 3

1+ 3 x

dy.

7 / 3+ x

3.

x 2 + y 2 1.


.
. :
y

x2 + y2 = 1

( D)

y = 1 x2.


1 x 1,

,
1 x2 y 1 x2 .

( )
D

1 x

1 x 2

f ( x, y)dxdy = dx

f ( x, y )dy.

y,

1 y2 x 1 y2

( D ) : 1 y 1,

1 y

1 y 2

f ( x, y)dxdy = dy f ( x, y)dx.
D

1. .

f ( x, y)dxdy

(D)

.
.1.1.
(1,1), (1,3), (4,3), (4,1);

( D)

.1.2.
.1.3.
.1.4.

(1,1), (4,1), (4,4);

( D)

( D)

;
y= x , y=9
2

( D)

;
y = 3x , y = 6 3x;
2

:
.1.5.
.1.6.
.1.7.
1

dx f ( x, y)dy;
0

2x

e2

ln x 2

ln x

dx f ( x, y )dy;

dx f ( x, y)dy.

. ,
.
.1.1.
.1.2.
y = 5 x;

y = x;

x + y = 25.

y 2 = 2 x.

.1.3.

.1.4.
x + y = 3;

x + y = 3.

x = 2 y;

y 4 x 4 = 0.

y 2 2 y = x;

.1.5.

y = x.

.1.6.
2

.1.7.

x + y = 9;

x = 3 y.

y 2 12 x = 36;

x + y = 6.

.1.8.
y 2 + 2 y 3 x + 1 = 0;

3 y = 3 x 7.

.1.9.

.1.10.
x = 4 y + 4;
2

x + y = 2.

x 2 = 8 y +16;

x + y 4 = 0.

1.3.

, ..
.


f ( x, y )dxdy

( D)

:
(1)
, (1)
:
1. , ..
(u , v)

2.

x(u , v)


y (u , v)

(G)

.
3. , .. :
(2)

(G)

(1)

( 4

( D)

. 5):

vD
xy
uu
0

0
.4.

v0

. 5.

(u , v)

( D ).

(G)

( D)

( D)

f ( x, y )

(1) 1 - 3.


(3)
f ( x, y )dxdy = f ( x(u , v), y (u, v)) J (u , v) dudv.

( D)

( G)

1.7

.

M ( x, y )

( )

( ),

=| OM |,

= OM , OX

( 0,

0 < 2

< )
1

XOY

, (. 6).


:
(1)

M(x,y)

x = cos , y = sin .

x
. 6.


:
(2)
= x 2 + y 2 , tg =

y
.
x

1.8

11.
XOY

, .. : 1)

2)
= 0 ;

?
= 0

12.
: 1)
2)
3)
?
= 25;

;
4

= 2a cos


(. (2), 1.7) :
(1)

,
:
(2)
((4), 1.3)

:
(3)

(G)


1 ( ) ( ) 2 ( ), ,

(.. ),
(4)

,
- .

a

, ,
b

, :
(5)
x = a cos ,

y = b sin .

(5)
J = ab .

1.9
13.
:

( D ) : 16 x 2 + y 2 25,
1)

25

16

x y x.

2)

d f d;

/4

/ 4

3)

d f d ;

4.

5 / 4

3 / 4

d f d .

,
I=

( ) x

+ y 2 dxdy

( D)

.
x + y = 9, x + y = 4
2

1.
7.
.
0

( D)

(. 7):

2.
, ((2), 1.9):
I=

( D)

3.

x 2 + y 2 dxdy = dd = d 2 d .
(G)

3
2 d = 3
3

27 8 19
= .
3
3

I=

19

19

3 d = 2 3

38
.
3

5. ,
, ,
:
.
(x 2 + y 2 )5 = a 4 x 4 y 2 , a > 0

1. , ((3), 1.9),
:
.
S = dd
(G)

2. :
.
x = cos , y = sin , ( 2 cos2 + 2 sin 2 ) 5 = a 4 4 cos4 2 sin 2
y

4 = a 4 sin 2 cos4 = 4 sin 2 cos4 = cos sin .

3.

( S1 )

( D)

(. 8). ,

, :

( S1 ) ,

0 ,
2

0 a cos sin .

(,

sin 0

cos 0

. 8.

a cos sin

S1 = d

)

0; .
2

4.

d =
0

2 a cos sin

d =

2 2

1 2
a
a cos2 sin d =

20
2

cos

( S1 ) :

d ( cos ) =

2
a2 1
a2
a2
= cos3 = (0 1) =
(..).
2 3
6
6
0

5. :

(..).
S = 4 S1 = 4

a 2 2a 2
=
6
3

2. ,
.
.2.1.
.2.2.
36 x 2

36 x 2 y 2 dydx;

4 x x 2

dydx;

.2.3.

.2.4.

(1 2 x 3 y )dxdy ,
( )

4 y 2

(x
0

+ y 2 )dxdy;

( D)

:
x 2 + y 2 4;

.2.5.

.2.6.
9 x

9 x y dydx.
2

ydxdy,
( )

( D)

+ y 2 dxdy,

( D)

:
x 2 + y 2 9;

.2.7.

x
( )

:
x 2 + y 2 4 x;

.2.8.

(x
( )

+ y 2 )dxdy,

( D)

.2.9.
x + y 6 x;
2

y dxdy,

( D)

:
1 x 2 + y 2 4.

4 x 2

dx
0

.2.10.

x
( )

ex

+ y2

dy;

.2.1.

xydxdy
,
( )

( D)

:
x 3 y 2x 3 ,

y2
y2
x
.
4
3

. :
u=

.2.2.

( )
D

2
2
x x + y dxdy,

y
y2
,
v
=
.
x
x3

( D) ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2

a 2 ( x 2 y 2 ),

x > 0.

.2.3.
x
a2

y
b2

= 2 z,

x
a2

y
b2

= 1,

z = 0,

(b > a > 0).

.
:
x = a cos ,

y = b sin .

1.4. .
-1,
,
.

F ( P ) = F ( x, y , z )

(V ) R

,
((2), 1.2):

( )
V

= max diam ( Vi ) , dV

F( P)dV = lim

F ( P ) V ,
i

0
( n ) i =1

(V )

( ) F( x, y, z )dV
V

( ) F( x, y, z)dxdydz.
V

1.10
14. (. (7),
1.3),
:

( )dxdydz
,
V

1)

(V ) : 0 z
2)

R2 x2 y2

(V ) : x + y + z 2,

x 0,

y 0, z 0;

3)

(V ) : 0 z 1

x2 + y2

(V )


OZ

OZ ,

(V ) ,

(V )

,
OZ ,


(1)

(D )

xy

(V )

Z = Z 1 ( x, y )

XOY

Z = Z 2 ( x, y )

, .

, ,

(D )


OY

xy

y = y1 ( x)

x=a

,
y = y 2 ( x)

, , . .
x=b

( a < b)

xy

a x b,

(D )

(1)

y1 ( x) y y 2 ( x),

:
(2)

(D )


OX

xy

,
1

(3)
d

x2 ( y )

z2 ( x , y )

x1 ( y )

z1 ( x , y )

( ) F( x, y, z )dV = dy dx F ( x, y, z )dz.
V

F ( x, y , z )

(V )


,
.
1.11
6.
1

dx dy ( x + y)dz.
,
z

,
y

, , :
x

x
y =2

y2

dx
dy
(
x
+
y
)
dz
=
dx
(
x
+
y
)
z
dz
=
3
dx
(
x
+
y
)
dy
=
3
dx
xy
+
=
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0
z =0
2 y =0
1

z =3

x2

= 3 (2 x + 2)dx = 3 2 + 2 x =9.
2
0
0
1

7. ,

,
3x + 2 y + 3 z = 6

.


3 x + 2 y + 3z = 6

z
2 x
2

.
( x, y , z ) = x

,

((6), 1.3):
m = ( x, y, z )dV .
(V )

(V )

z=0

. 9.

z=

6 3x 2 y
,
3

..
0 z

6 3x 2 y
.
3


XOY

, ((2), 1.11), :

0 x 2,

0 y

6 3x
.
2
2

63 x
2

63 x 2 y
3

63 x
2

m = xdxdydz
= xdx

(V )

dy dz = xdx

6 3 x
2

y2

= xdx 2 y xy
3

0
0

6 3x 2 y
dy =
3

6 3x

2
6 3x 2
6 3x
= x 2
x

2
2
3
0

dx =

3
3
3

= x 3 3x + x 2 dx = 3x 3x 2 + x 3 dx = x 2 x 3 + x 4 =
4
4
16 0
2
0
0
3
3
= 2 2 2 3 + 2 4 = 6 8 + 3 = 1 (.).
2
16

8. ,

,
,
z = 0 z = 4 x 2 x 2 + y 2 = 4.

,
z =4x

,

,
OY


z=0

( 10).
OZ

x2 + y 2 = 4


((7),
1.3).

(V )

XOY


z=0

x + y 4,
2

4 x 2

V = dxdydz
= dx
(V )

4 x 2

= dx
2

(4 x

4 x 2

)dy =

4 x 2

(4 x

)dy =

= 4 dx(4 x 2 ) y
0

dy dz =

4 x 2

= 4 dx
0

4 x 2

y = 4 x2
y =0

.
2

3
2

= 4 (4 x 2 ) dx = 12 .
0

3. ,
:
.3.1.
x 2 + y 2 = 36,

x 2 + z 2 = 36,

.3.2.

x 0,

y 0,

z 0;

.3.3.
2z = x + y ,
2

x + y + z = 6, x = 0,

z = 2;

y = 0,

z = 0;

.3.4.
x 2 + y 2 = 9,

.3.2.
z=

y2
,
2

y 2 + z 2 = 9;

x + y 4 = 0,

x = 0,

y = 0, z = 0;

9.
,

.

(V )

x2 + y2 + z 2 1

,
z

, :
x2 + y2 + z 2 = 1 z = 1 x2 y2 .

, :

.
1 x2 y2 z 1 x2 y 2


XOY

(. 3) :
x + y 1.
2

((2), 1.11), :
1 x 1, 1 x 2 y 1 x 2 .

1 x

1 x y

( ) f( P)dV = dx dy f ( x, y, z )dz.
V

1 x 2 1 x 2 y 2


.
.

(V )

F ( x, y , z )

,
XYZ

(1)
x = x(u , v, w), y = y (u , v, w), z = z (u , v, w)

(T )

UVW

(V )

(T )

:
(2)

( ) F( x, y, z ) dxdydz = ( ) F( x(u, v, w), y(u, v, w), z (u, v, w)) | J (u, v, w) | dudvdw,


V

(1).
'
u
'
u
'
u

x
J= y
z

'
v
'
v
'
v

x
y
z

x
y
z

'
w
'
w
'
w

1.12

.



M ( x, y , z )

,
0 < +,

( , , z)

XYZ

0 < 2

.
<


OM '

z < .

-
(. 11).

,
XOY

OX , z

xy0z


:
2

(1)
x = cos , y = sin , z = z ,

(1)

x'
J = y'
z'

x '
y '
z '

x' z
y ' z = .
z' z


.
11.

(2)

( ) f( x, y, z ) dxdydz = ( ) f( cos , sin , z) d d dz.


V


x2 + y2 = 2.

(V )

XOY

( ).
1.13
15.
. 1)
2)
3).
z = 2 x2 y2;

z = x2 + y2 ;

: )

z = ;

z = R2 x2 y2 .

)
z = 2 ;
2

z = R2 2 .

16. ,
: 1)
2)
3).
z = z0 ;

= 0 ;

= 0.

:
) ; ) ; ) .
17. ,
:
2

4 x 2

dx

dy

x +y

dz
2

x2 + y2

: 1)

2)
2

dz
;
2

d d

/2

d d dz.




XYZ

M ( x, y , z )

xyz0
. 12.

,
M , (0 < +)

OM

,
OZ (0 )

OM

OX

(. 12).


, ,

x, y , z

:
(1)
x = sin cos ,

y = sin sin ,

z = cos ,

(1) :
.

(2)

J = 2 sin

(3)

( ) f( x, y, z )dxdydz = f( sin cos , sin sin , cos )


(V ')

( V ')

sin ddd ,

(1).
V

.
x +y +z =
2

()

(V )

.
1.14
18.
: 1)
2)
3)
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 81;

z = x2 + y2 ;

y=

x
3

, x 0.

: )

)
= 9;

;
6

)
=

.
4

19. ,
: 1)
2)
3)
=

3
;
4

= 3.

5
;
6

: ) :

) :
z = x2 + y2 ;

) :
x + y + z = 81;
2

y=

x
3

, x 0.

10. ,


.
z=2

z = x2 + y2


((7), 1.3):
(*)
V = dxdydz
=

(V )

( D)

dxdy

dz.

x + y2


XOY


D : x + y 4,
2

(*) :

=
V =

( D)

dxdy

x2 + y2

dz

d d dz =

0 d 0 ( 2 )d = 2 2 3 = 83 .

11.
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 1.

1. 9
:
1

V = dV
= dx
(V )

1 x 2 y 2

1 x 2

1 x

dy
2

dz .

1 x 2 y 2

2.
.
((1)-(3), 1.14), :
4

V = dV
= dx
(V )

1 x 2 y 2

1 x 2 y 2

1 x 2

1 x 2

2
2
dz = d d sin d = d d ( cos ) 0 =

dy

4
.
3

4. ,
,
.
.4.1.
.4.2.
z = 1 x 2 + y 2 , 0 z 1;

z = x2 + y2 ,

.4.3.

z = x2 + y2;

.4.4.
x 2 + y 2 = 9,

x +y
= z , z = 3;
3
2

.4.5.

y 2 + z 2 = 9;

.4.6.
z=x +y ,
2

x + y = 1,

z = 0;

z = x 2 + y 2 , x 2 + y 2 = 1,

z = 0;

.4.7.
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 16, z 2 = x 2 + y 2 ,
y = x, y = 0, z = 0, ( x 0, y 0, z 0).

.4.8.

(V ) :
( ) zdxdydz

x 2 + y 2 = z 2 , x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 , z 0;

.4.9.

( ) (x

+ y + z ) dxdydz ;
2

(V )

:
x2 + y2 = z2,

x2 + y2 + z2 = R2 ,

z 0.

. , .
.4.1.

(x

+ y2 + z2

= 2axyz, (a > 0);

.4.2.
2

x2 y2 z 2
x2 y2
2 + 2 + 2 = 2 + 2 , ( a > 0, b > 0, c > 0).
b
c
a
b
a

. , :
x = ar sin cos , y = br sin sin , z = cr cos .

1.5. (-1)
1- (-1) ,
3

, ((2), 1.2):

-1
()

dl




F ( x, y , z )

,
(, ,

, ).

( L)

( L ),

1.15

.
.

-1
L
dl
1

y = y ( x),
x = [a, b].

1 + ( y ( x) ) dx

(1)

2
Fdl = F ( x, y) 1 + y ( x)dx.

( L)

y = y (t ),

(2)

xt' + y t' dt

t2

x = x(t ),
r = r ( ),

[1 , 2 ].

x = x(t ),
y = y (t ),
z = z (t ),
t [t1 , t 2 ].

xt' + y t' dt.

t1

(3)

r + r' d

Fdl = F ( )
( )
L

Fdl = F ( x(t ), y (t ))
( )

t [t1 , t 2 ].

r + r' d .

(4)

xt' + y t' + z t' dt

t2

Fdl = F ( x(t ), y (t ), z(t ))


( )
L

xt' + y t' + z t' dt.

t1

, -1 .
1.16
1

20. -1 ((9), 1.3),


:
1)

2)

( L) :

dl,
( )

x2 + y2 = a2;

( L)

dl,
( )

y=x


O (0,0)

.
A(1,1)

12.
,

x = t cost ,

y = t sin t , z = t , t [0, t 0 ],

= z.

((8), 1.3),

, ((4),
(P) : m =

( ) ( P)dl.
L

1.10) , :
xt' = cos t t sin t

t0

t0

m = zdl = y = sin t + t cost = t (cost t sin t ) + (sin t + t cost ) + 1dt = t 2 + t 2 dt =


'
t

z t' = 1

t0

1 0
1
2
1
1
1
= 2 + t 2 dt 2 = (2 + t 2 ) 2
= (2 + t 02 ) 2 (2 + 0) 2 = ( (2 + t 02 ) 3 2 3 ).
20
2
30 3
3
3

5.
:
.5.1.
,
,

( L)

xydl
( )

A(0,0)

B(4,3)

.5.2.

( ) xydl

( L)

A(1,0), B(1,0), C (0,1);

.5.3.

y
( )

dl

( L)

;
x = a (t sin t ), y = a (1 cost ), t [0,2 ]

.5.4.

( )e

x2 + y2

dl

( L)

0 r a, 0

r,

,
4

.
.5.5.

xydl
( )

( L)

,
2

x
y
.+ 2 =1
2
a
b

.
6.


= (P )

.
P

.6.1.
.6.2.
.6.3.
.6.4.
.6.1.
.6.2.
.6.3.

( L) :

y = 2 x, 0 x 1

( L) :

x 2 + y 2 = 2ax

( L) :

=y

;
=x


O(0,0,0)

x = 3t , y = 3t 2 , z = 2t 3

( L ) : x = cos t , y = sin t , t [0, ], = y

,
x = e cost , y = e sin t , z = e , 0 t

( L) :

x = a cos t , y = a sin t , =| xy |

A(3,3,2) = c

;
=c>0

;
3

r = a(1 + cos ), = k r , (r ,

);
.6.1.

( L)

( L) :

( L)

( L)

r = a cos 2 , = kr, (r ,
2

).
1.6. 1- ( -1)
(-1)
((2), 1.2)
3

-1
,
.
-1
:

( Q)

( Q)

-1

( Q)

z = z ( x, y ),

( x, y ) ( D xy )
x = x( y, z ),

( y, z ) ( D yz )

(D )

f ( x, y, z )dq = ( ) f ( x, y, z ( x, y))
( )

xy

1 + z x + z y dxdy
2

Dxy

(1)

(D )

f ( x, y, z)dq = ( ) f ( x( y, z ), y, z )
( )

yz

1 + x 'y + x z' dydz

D yz

(2)
y = y ( x, z ),

( x, z ) ( D xz )

( D xz )

f ( x, y, z )dq = ( ) f ( x, y( x, z ), z )
( )
Q

1 + y x' + y z' dxdz

Dxz

(3)
. -1 :
1.

(Q)

.
2 ,
(1) (
z

(2) (3), ),
y

3.

dq

,
dS

(,

z = z ( x, y ),

dq = 1 + z x + z y ds =
2

).
= 1 + z x + z y dxdy
2

13. -1

I = zdq,

1.17

( Q)

z = xy,

x 2 + y 2 = 4.

(Q)


XOY

x 2 + y 2 4.

((1), 1.17)
,

z
( )

I=

1 + z ' x + z ' y dxdy =

Dxy

z = xy,

z x' = y,

z =x
'
y

xy
( )

1 + y 2 + x 2 dxdy =

Dxy

= d 3 cos sin 1 + 2 d =

1
sin 2 d 3 1 + 2 d = 0.

2 0
0

-1

F ( x, y, z ) = 0, F ' z 0, ( x, y, z ) ( Q ) ,

( Q)

:
(1)

,
2

( Q)

((11), 1.3)
(2)

( Q)

(. (10), 1.3):
(3)
m = dq.
( Q)

1.18
21. -1?
22. -1,

?
F ( ) = 1

23. -1?
24. -1,
: 1)

2)

dq,

dq,

(Q ) : x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2 ;

(Q )

(Q)

(Q )


z = 1.

z = x2 + y2

7.

.

( Q)

( ) f ( x, y, z )dq.
Q

.7.1.

,
4

( ) ( z + 2 x + 3 y)dq

(Q)


x y z
+ + =1
2 3 4

;
.7.2.

dq,
( )

( Q)


z = x2 + y2 ,

0 z a;

.7.3.

dq,
( )

( Q)

,
z = x2 + y2


x 2 + y 2 = 2 x;

.7.1.

x
( )

+ y 2 dq

( Q)


x2 y2 z2
+
=
16 16
9

z = 3;

z=0

.7.2.

xyzdq
( )

( Q)

,
x + y + z =1

.
8.


= (P)

.8.1.
.8.2.
.8.3.
.8.1.

( Q)
( Q)
( Q)
(Q)

:
P ( x, y , z )

;
=x y
2

z = 4 x2 y2

;
=x +y
2

2az = x y ,

.9.2.

,
x +y =a

(Q)

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ;

,
z = a2 x2 y2

( Q)

= k | z | k > 0

,
| x | a, | y | a, | z | a, = k 3 | xyz | k > 0.

II.

2.1.
(-2)

()

.
i, j , k

,
a ( M ) = P ( x, y, z )i + Q( x, y, z ) j + R ( x, y , z )k

M,

()

()

()

.
a(M )

,
P( x, y, z ), Q( x, y, z ),

.
M ()

R ( x, y , z )


a ( M ) = zxi + ( z + y ) j + x 2 k

P ( x, y , z ) = zx, Q( x, y, z ) = z + y, R ( x, y , z ) = x 2 ,


x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1.

2.1

y
x

()

,
b(M )

.

,

,


,
.
. 13.

, ,
( 13).
z = f ( x, y )


b(M )

,
n0
1

.
,
,
.

(. 14).

. 14.
2.2
1. :
1)
2)
?
z = x4 + y4;

z = x2 y 2

()
,

:
1.
2.


3.

()

( i )

M i ( i )

4.

5.

.
n-

S n = (a ( M i ), b( M i ))i ,
i =1

a (M )


6.

7.

lim S n = lim (a ( M i ), b( M i ))i .


0

i =1

,
Sn

( 0)

,
a (M )

Mi,

-2

()


a (M )

(1)

).
d

-
P ( x, y, z ), Q( x, y, z ), R ( x, y, z )

a ( M ) = P ( x, y, z )i + Q( x, y, z ) j + R ( x, y , z )k

(1)

()

()

.
2.3

, (-2)


1.

d = dl

( L)

2-
(-2)

( a , b ) d = ( )( a ,
( )

)dl.




a (M )

( L)
2.

d = dq

(-2)

(Q)

1.

2-

a (M )

(a, b)d = ( ) (a, n


( )

)d q.

( Q)

.
:
n

( a , b ) d = ( a , b ) d ;
i

()

i =1 ( )

i =1

c ( a , b ) d = c ( a , b ) d ,

2.

c = const.

(a, b)d = ( () a, b)d + ( () a, b)d

()

= 1 2 , 1 2 = .

3.

(a, ( b ))d = ( )(a, b)d.

()

2.4

2.2. (-2)
.

( L)

.
0 (cos , cos , cos )


, ,

( L)

. 0

,
a ( M ) = P ( x, y, z )i + Q( x, y, z ) j + R ( x, y , z )k

( L)

2- (-2)

( L)

(. 2.3):
W( L ) ( a) = (a, 0 )dl
( L)

def

= lim (a ( M ), 0 ( M i ))li .
i
0 i =1

-2:
W( L ) (a) = (a, 0 )dl =
( L)

P( x, y, z )dx + Q( x, y, z )dy + R( x, y, z )dz.

( L)

-2 :

( ((3), 2.4)).

( L ),

-2

( L ).

-1
L

(1)

P( x, y)dx + Q( x, y)dy = ( P[ x, y( x)] + y ' ( x)Q[ x, y ( x)])dx.

( L)

( L ) : y = y ( x),
x [a, b].

( L ) : x = x(t ),

(2)

P( x, y)dx + Q( x, y)dy =

( L)

t2

= ( P[ x(t ), y (t )]x' (t ) + Q[ x(t ), y (t )] y ' (t ) ) dt.


t1

y = y (t ),
t1 t t 2 .

( L) : x = x (t ),

( ) P( x, y, z )dx + Q( x, y, z )dy + R( x, y, z )dz =


L

(3)
t2

y = y (t ),

= ( P[ x (t ), y (t ), z (t )] x ' (t ) +Q[ x (t ), y (t ), z (t )] y ' (t ) +

z = z (t ),

+ R[ x (t ), y (t ), z (t )] z ' (t ) dt ).

t1

t1 t t 2 .

2.5
1.

( ) x

dx + 2 xydy,

( L)


y = x2


O(0,0)

A(1,1).

1. ,
((1), 2.5).
,
dy

( L)

.
y = x dy = 2 xdx
2

2.

dy

.
y

3. -2 :

y=x
1
1
1
x3 4x5
17
2
3
2
4
= .
I = x dx + 2 xydy = dy = 2 xdx = x dx + 2 x 2 xdx = ( x + 4 x )dx = +
5 0 15
3
(L)
0
0
0 x 1
2

( x
( )
AB

+ y 2 dx + x 2 y 2 dy

2.




.
A(1,1)

y= x

1.

(.15):
y= x
y
2

A
-2

y =| x |
B

1
-1 0

.15.

B (2,2)

2.

( L)

AO

:
OB
=

( x
( )

+ y 2 dx + x 2 y 2 dy = I 1 + I 2 ,

AB

I1 =

( x
( )

+ y 2 dx + x 2 y 2 dy, I 2 =

AO

3.

( x
( )

+ y 2 dx + x 2 y 2 dy.

OB

AO : y = x, 1 x 0; OB : y = x, 0 x 2.

4.
((1), 2.5):
.
y = x
I 1 = ( x + y ) dx + ( x y ) dy = dy = dx =
( AO )
1 x 0
2

0
0
2
= ( x 2 + x 2 + ( x 2 x 2 ) (1))dx = 2 x 2 dx = x 3
3
1
1

I2 =

( x

( OB )

+ y dx + x y
2

=
1

2
2
2
0 ( 1) = ;
3
3
3

y=x
dy = dy = dx =
0 x2

2
2
2
= ( x 2 + x 2 + ( x 2 x 2 ) 1)dx = 2 x 2 dx = x 3
3
0
0

=
0

2
16
8 = .
3
3

I=

2 16 18
+
=
= 6.
3 3
3

3.

xydx + 5 y
( )

dy


x = 3 cos t , y = 2 sin t


A(3,0)

.
B (0,2)

( L)

1.

( L)

, .
A

t = 0,

2.

t=

(. 16).

dx = 3 sin t dt,

dy = 2 cost dt

((2), 2.5). :

xydx + 5 y

dy =

( L)

x = 3 cost , dx = 3 sin tdt


=
y = 2 sin t , dx = 2 costdt

. 16.
=

/2

(3 cost 2 sin t 3 sin t + 5 4 sin

t 2 cost ) dt =

/2

(18 cost sin

/2

t + 40 cost sin t )dt = 22 sin 2 t costdt =

/2

= 22
0

/2

1
sin td (sin t ) = 22 sin 3 t
3
0
2

22
.
3

1. .
.1.1.

xydx + ( y x)dy,

.1.2.

O(0,0)

y = x2

( L)

( L)

( xy y
( )

(x
( )


y =2 x

)dx + xdy, ( L)

B(1,1);

O(0,0)

A(1,2);

.1.3.

+ y )dx + ( x y )dy, ( L)
2

B (1,1);


y=x

A(1,1)

.1.4.

( )( y + x


A(1,1)

y = 2x x 2

) dx + (2 x y )dy, ( L)

B(3,3);

.1.5.

( )2 xydx x


A(0,0)

x = 2y2

dy, ( L)

B(2,1);

.1.6.

xdy ydx,
( )


O(0,0)

y = x3

( L)

A(2,8);

.1.1.

( x + y )dx + ( x y )dy,
( )

( L)

(y
( )

( x 1) 2 + ( y 1) 2 = 4;

.1.2.

z )dx + 2 yzdy x dz ,
2

x = t , y = t 2 , z = t 3 , t [0,1];

( L)

.1.1.

(y

z )dx + ( z x )dy + ( x y )dz ,


2

( L)

( L)

x + y + z =1
2

.
,
.



-,

P ( x, y )

( L)

(S)

.
Q ( x, y )

(S)

Q
x

P
y

, :

(1)
Q

Pdx + Qdy = ( ) x y dxdy.


( )
L

, ..
(L)

.
1.
(2)
Q P

x y

(S)

, ( S ),

P( x, y)dx + Q( x, y)dy = 0

2.


Q P

x y

(S)

Pdx + Qdy

AB

,
.
A

3.


Q P

x y

(S)

,
Pdx + Qdy

,
U ( x, y )

, ..

.
Pdx + Qdy
2 = dU ( x, y )

2.

ydx + xdy

( AB )

( AB )

3.

dx + y 2 dy,

?
x +y =4
2

4.

=
I

xy dy x
2


x +y =R
2

ydx

( L)

.
1. ,
((1), 2.6). :

P Q
Q ( xy 2 )
P
( x 2 y )
2

+
= x2 + y2.
=
=y ,
=
= x2 ,
y x
x
x
y
y
2. , :

:
I=

xy dy x
( )
2

(S)

ydx = ( x 2 + y 2 )dxdy,

x2 + y2 R2.

(S)

3.
((2), 1.9):

R 4
I = ( x + y )dxdy = d d =
.
2
(G)
0
0
2

5.

dU = 2 xydx + x 2 dy.

1. ((2), 2.6)
.
(*)
Q P
=
x y

(*) , ,
P = 2 xy, Q = x 2

P
Q
= 2 x;
= 2 x.
y
x

((3), 2.6).
U
3

2.

,
U (M )

( x0 , y 0 )

. :

U ( x, y ) = 0dx + x dy = x y + C ,
2

U ( x, y ) = 2 xydx + 0dy = x 2 y + C.


. ,

( ) xdy
L

, :
(1)
S=

xdy,

( L)

( L)

(2)
S = ydx.
L

(1) (2),
:
(3)
S=

1
xdy ydx.
2 L

2.7

2.

( ) Pdx + Qdy
L

( L)

.2.1.

P = 2( x 2 + y 2 ), Q = ( x + y ) 2 , ( L )

A(1,1), B(2,2), C (1,3);

:
Q

.2.2.

, ,

P = ln(3 + x 2 sin 2 x), Q = x cos y, ( L )

5 x + y 3;

.2.3.

P = x y, Q = xy , ( L )
4

.
x +y =4

3. ,
, .
.3.1. :

.
y = x2, y2 = x

8 xy = 1

.3.2. :
x = R(2 cost cos2t ), y = R(2 sin t sin 2t ).

4.


Pdx + Qdy

( )

A, B

L AB

.
Q

.4.1.

,
A(1,1), B (2,3) P = x + 3 y, Q = y + 3 x;

.4.2.

,
A( 1,1), B(2,3) P = xy 2 x 3 , Q = yx 2 y 3 ;

.4.3.
A(1,0), B (6,8),

P=

x
x +y
2

,Q =

y
x + y2
2

2.3. 2- (-2)
1.


a ( M ) = P ( M )i + Q ( M ) j + R ( M ) k

(V ) R

.
3

2.

( G ) (V )

n0

(cos , cos , cos ).

,
n

0
lim (a ( M i ), ni )qi

0 i =1

(S)

,
Mi

(-2)
(1)

, P, Q , R

,
, -2
.

(G)

-2
(..

).
-2:
.

(2)

cos dq = dxdy cos dq = dxdz, cos dq = dydz


,
XOZ

( dq)

,
XOY

, . (2)
YOZ

:
(3)

( D yz ), ( D xz )


( D xy )

(G)


YOZ , XOZ , XOY


x( y, z ), y ( x, z ), z ( x, y )

(G)

(3)

.
2.8

( z R)

6.

(G ) : x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2 Rz ,

cosdq

(G )

(. 17).
R z 2R

:
(G ) : x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2 Rz
.


n0

x 2 + y 2 + ( z R) 2 = R 2 z = R + R 2 x 2 y 2

(. . 17), ,

, ((3), 2.8)

cosdq = dxdy

, :
P = 0, Q = 0

R( x, y, z ) cosdq = R( x, y, z ( x, y))dxdy.

(G )

( Dxy )


R ( x, y , z ( x, y )) = ( z R ) 2

z = z ( x, y )

cos > 0

OZ

(G )

= z = R + R2 x2 y2 = R2 x2 y2.


XOY

.
( D xy ) : x + y R
2

,
=

( z R)

cosdq =

(G )

( R

x 2 y 2 )dxdy.

( Dxy )


, :

= d ( R 2 2 ) d =

R 4
.
2



. 17.

( ). -2
a

((3), 2.8) .
.
-2

(G ) (a) =

( P cos + Q cos + R cos ) dq,

(G)

,
1. ,

z = z ( x, y ), ( x, y ) ( D xy ).

(G)

(G)

( G)


( D xy )

.
XOY
1

(G)

:
OZ

(G )
+
z

. ,
OZ

(G )

(G )

(G )

.
cos > 0

+
z

cos < 0

),

, ,
OZ

+
z

(G )

(G )

+
z

(G )

, (..

+
z

n( z , z ,1)
'
x

'
y

, ((3), 2.8),
n.

:
(1)

+
2.

, -

(G)

:
y = y ( x, z ), ( x, z ) ( D xz ).

:
OY

(G )
+
y

(G )

, , ,
cos > 0

(1) :
(2)

, -

3. ,

(G)


x = x( y , z ), ( y , z ) ( D yz ),

.
OX

(G )

,
cos > 0

+
x

(G )

cos < 0

(3)

+
4.

, -


(*)

,
z = z ( x, y )

F 0,
'
z

(D )

xy

(1).


z' x =

'
y

F
F
, z' y = ' ,
F
Fz
'
x
'
z

(1):
(4)

(G ))


(*)

.
3

(G)

, ,
.
2.9

7.

-2

a = (2 z + x)i + ( x 3 z ) j + ( y + z )k

, .
3x + 2 y + 4 z 6 = 0

1.
((1), 2.9).
1. :
z=

2.

3 y 3
+ x.
2 2 4

.
z x' =

3
1
, z 'y = ,
4
2

3.

3 1
n = , ,1.
4 2

XOY .

( D xy ) : 2 x 0, 0 y 3 +

3
x.
2

4.
OZ .

,
, , ((1), 2.9) +. ,
cos > 0

( ) 4 (2 z + x) + 2 ( x 3z ) + 1 ( y + z )
Dxy

3 y 3x
z= +
2 2 4

3
3+ x
2

dxdy = dx

1
7

x 3 + 2 y dy = .
2
4

. (2)

(3), 2.

2.9.

.
4

1.
.
3 x + 2 y + 4 z 6 = 0 F = 3x + 2 y + 4 z 6 = 0

2.


F = 3, F = 2, F = 4,
'
x

'
y

'
z

n=

1
(3,2,4)
4

, ((4),

F =4>0
'
z

2.9), :
=

( ) (a, n)
Dxy

z = z ( x, y )

dxdy =
0

3
3+ x
2

1
1
(3(2 z + x) + 2( x 3 z ) + 4( y + z )) z = 3 y + 3 x dxdy = dx

4 ( Dxy )
4 2
2 2 4

1
(7 x 12 + 8 y )dy = .
2

, ,
(
), :
1
= .
2

8.

,
0

a = x2 i + y 2 j + z 2 k,

= ( a, n )dq
(G)

(G)

x = c, y = c, z = c

.

,
. 2.8
:
= (a, n 0 )dq =
(G)

c
( )

dydz +

D yz

c
( )
D yz

(1) dydz +

c
( )

dxdz +

Dxz

c
( )
Dxz

(1)dxdz + c 2 dxdy + c 2 (1)dxdy = 0.


Dxy

D xy

4. ,
, -
a = xi + y j + z k ?

5.

-
= ( a, n 0 ) dq
(G)


a ( P, Q, R )

(G)

.5.1.

(G ) :

a ( y z; z x; x y ),

x2 + y2 = z2;

0 z 4;

.5.2.

(G) :

a( x 1; y + 2; z x ),

z = 1 x 2 + y 2 , 0 z 1;

.5.3.
a (2 x y; x + z; z + y ),

(G) :

x + y + z = 1;

x = 0, y = 0, z = 0;

.5.4.
a(4 x z, 2 y + 3x 2 ,

(G) :

y 2 z ),

2 z = x 2 + y 2 , z = 2;

.5.5.
a (2 x z 2 , y + x 2 , 3 z y 2 ),

(G) :

z = x2 + y2 , z = x2 + y2;

.5.6.
a (4 z 2 3 x, 6 y z 2 , z + x ),

(G) :

x = 0, y = 3, x + 2 z = 3, y = 1, z = 0;

.5.7.

z2
a y + z 2 , x 3 z ,
+ x y ,
2

(G) :

x + y + z = 1, z = 0, x = 0, y = 0;

.5.8.
a( x y, y + 3 z, z 3x ),

(G) :

x + y + z = 4, z = 0, y = 0, x = 0.

6. :
.6.1.
,

( ) xdydz + z

(S)

dxdy

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1;

.6.2.

( ) ( x + y)dydz + ( y x)dzdx + ( z 2)dxdy

(S)

,
2

z=0

x + y z =0
2

.
OZ

,
z =1

.6.3.

( ) x dydz
2

(S)


z=

H 2
( x + y 2 ), x 0, y 0, z H .
2
R

III.
3.1.

(V )

( ),

M ( x, y , z )

()

. ,
U ( M )=U ( x,y,z)


.
U (x,y,z)

U (x,y),

.
,
.

OC 3.1

.

, ,
.
. ,
U ( x,y,z)=c=const

.
:
.
1


q
q
U= = 2
x + y2 + z2
r

2
q
q
q2 .
U= =c r= , (c 0)
x + y2 + z2 = 2
r
c
c

.
OC 3.2

1. .
,
.
U=

x
x + y2

M 0 (1,1)

.
x
=c
x + y2
2

M 0 ( 1,1 )

.
x
1
= =c
2
2
x +y
2

x
1
=
2
2
x +y
2

. .
x + y = 2x
2

M 0 (9,12,28)

U = x 2 + y 2 + ( z + 8) 2 + x 2 + y 2 + ( z 8) 2 ,

U ( x,y,z)=c

,
x 2 + y 2 + ( z + 8) 2 + x 2 + y 2 + ( z 8) 2 = c.

, :
M0

U ( M 0 ) = 9 2 + 12 2 + 36 2 + 9 2 + 12 2 + 20 2 = 64 c = 64.

1. .

(.
U = U ( x, y )

M 0 (1,1)

2).
.1.1.

; .1.2.

U=x +y
2

; .1.3.
U=x y

;
U = 3x 4 y

.1.4.
U = 2 x 2 y.

,
U = U ( x, y , z )

(.
M 0 (1,0,1)

3).
.1.1.

; .1.2

U = x2 + y2 z2

.1.4.

; .1.3.
U = 2x 2 + y 2 z 2

;
U = 2x 2 + 3 y 2 + z 2

.
U = 5x + y z
2


U=U ( M )

M 0 ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) (V ) R 3

( ):
(1)

:
(2)


cos , cos , cos

..
S,

:
S0 =

S
S

.
= cos i + cos j + cos k

(2) :
(3)

U U
U
=
cos +
cos .
S
x
y

OC 3.3
1. ,

U=x + 3y
2


M 0(0,2).

1
1
S
,

2
2

2.


u = x 3 + y 3 5z


S ( 0 , 3,4 ).

M 0 (1,1,1)

:
M0

U
( M 0 ) = 3, U ( M 0 ) = 3, U ( M 0 ) = 5.
y
x
z

:
S

S0 =

S
S

3
4
j + k.
5
5

3
4
cos = , cos = .
5
5

((2), 3.3), :

U
4
29
3
= 3 0 + 3 5 = .
S
5
5
5

cos = 0,

M ( x,y,z)

U= U ( x,y,z)

grad U (M ),

,
U (M )

.:
(1)


:
(2)

S0

. (2),
U
S

grad U

, ..
=0

.
grad U

S0

:
.

(3)


.
.

grad U

.
.

grad F = Fx' , Fy' , Fz'

U = 2 x + 8 y 5z
3

M 0(1,-3,1)

.
grad U ( M 0 ) = 6 x 2 i + 8 j 10k

M0

= 6i + 8 j 10k

S = 6i + 8 j 10k


U ( M 0)
= 6 2 + 8 2 + 102 = 10 2 .
S

grad U ( M 0 ) = ( 6,8,10)

.
OC 3.4

2. ) , )


.
4
4
U = x + y 4z

M 0(1,0,2)

3.


Vmax


U=( xy) z

M 0(-1,-1,2)


U (M )

:
M0

U ( M 0 )
U ( M 0 )
U ( M 0 )
= zx( xy) z 1 = 2,
= zy( xy) z 1 = 2,
= ( xy) z ln(xy) = 0.

y
x
z

((1), 3.4), :
gradU( M 0) = 2i 2 j.

,
S = 2i 2 j

.
Vmax = gradU( M 0) = (2) 2 + (2) 2 = 2 2

2.


Vmax

.
M0

.2.1.

; .2.2.
U = 3 x + xy z , M 0(1,3,0)
2

.2.3.

;
U = x y + y z + z x, M 0(1,-1,2)

; .2.4.

.
U = x 3 y 2 z, M 0(-1,-1,-1)

U = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 , M 0(1,-2,2)

3.2.


,
a ( M ) = P ( x, y , z )i + Q( x, y, z ) j + R ( x, y , z )k

.
a (M )

, ,
.
,
.
:
(1)
.
dx
dy
dz
=
=
P ( x,y,z) Q( x,y,z) R ( x,y,z)

1
, .
2
a(M ) =

mr
,
r3

, ,
m,

.
OC 3.5

4.

,
.
OZ

V = yi + x j + 0 k

((1), .3.5),
:
.
dx
dx dz
=
=
-y x 0

, , :
.

xdx + ydy = 0, d x 2 + y 2 = 0, x 2 + y 2 = c1 ,

dz = 0,
dz = 0,
z = c2 .

,
V

.
OZ

,
, ,
(. 1).

a( M ) =

mr
r3

. 1.
OC 3.6
.
-
-
a ( M ) = P( x, y, z )i + Q( x, y, z ) j + R( x, y, z )k .

(. 2.5):
a(M )

.
W AB (a) =

a,

( )

AB

(1)

dl = P( x, y, z ) dx + Q( x, y, z ) dy + R ( x, y, z ) dz

( AB )

,
W

.
a(M )

(1)


a(M )

()

( L)

( L)

:
(2)

C ( L ) a = a, 0 dl

( L)

( L)

.
OC 3.7
1

5.


a=

x = a cost

y = a sin t z = bt

x
y
i + j + 2k
y
x

A( a,0,0 ) , B( a,0,2b )

((1), 3.7) ((3), 2.5):


W =

(a ,
( )

AB

)dl =

( AB )

x = a cost ; dx = a sin tdt


y = a sin t ; dy = a cos tdt
x
y
dx + dy + 2dz =
=
z = bt; dz = bdt
y
x
0 t 2

.
2

= (a cost + a sin t + 2bt)dt = ( a sin t a cos t + 2bt) 0 = 4b


0

6.

a = 2 y i + 3z j + k
2

( L ) : x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 25;


x 2 + y 2 = 9; z > 0,

.
((2), 3.7), :

( ) ( a,
( )

C( L ) a =

(*)

)dl = 2 y dx + 3z dy + dz.
2

( L)

(*)

( L)

x = 3 cost ;
x + y + z = 25; z = 16, z > 0; y = 3 sin t ;
( L) : 2 2
2

x + y = 9;
x + y 2 = 9;
z = 4;
0 t 2 .
2

x' = 3 sin t ;

y ' = 3 cost ;
z ' = 0.

, ((3), 2.5), :
2

C = (a , 0 )dl = (2(3 sin t ) 2 + 3 16 3 cost + 0)dt = 54 sin 3 tdt + 144 costdt = 0.


( L)

3. A.

( BC ).

A.3.1.

a = yi xj BC

A.3.2.

x = cos3 t y = sin3 t B(1,0) C (0,1)

:
,

x = 2 cos t y = 3 sin t

(0,-3),
B

(0,3);
C

a = (2 x y 2 + 1)i + (3x + 2 y 2 10) j BC

(-1,-2),
B

A.3.4.

BC

a=y i
2

A.3.3.

,
x = 3 y

(2,1);
C

a = x j BC
2

,
x = 3 cos t

(3,0),

y = 4 sin t B

(-3,0).
C


a (M )

, .
.3.1.
:

a = 2 yi xj + 4 zk , ( L ) x 2 + y 2 = 4;

z = 1;

.3.2.

,
a = 3 yi + j 2 yzk

.3.3.
.3.4.

( L)

:
x 2 + y 2 4 z 2 = 0;

z = 1;

a = 3 yi + 4 xj zk , ( L ) x = 3 cos t

y = 2 sin t , z = 5.

a = 5 yi + 2 j 3 yzk , ( L ) z = 5( x 2 + y 2 ) 1, z = 4.

( L)

a ( M ) = P( M )i + Q( M ) j + R( M )k


-2

(G)

(. (1)-(2), OC. 2.8), :


.

(1)

V (M )

(G)

(G)


( G ) (a )

(G)

,
(V)

(2)
( G ) (a ) = (a , n )dq,
0

(G)

. 2.

(. 2).
(2)
(
)

).
( G ) (a ) < 0

OC 3.8
7.

E=

er
r3

e, ,

.
R,

,
r

.
n0 =

r
r

((1), OC 3.8), :
( S ) ( E ) = ( E , n 0 )dq = (
(S)

(S)

er r
r2
e
,
)
dq
=
e
dq = 2
3
4

r r
R
(S) r

( ) dq = R

4R 2 = 4e.

( ,

, ..

( ) dq = S = 4R

).
8.

: )
r = xi + yj + zk

; )
x + y z ,0 z h
2

(.3).
) :
.
F ( x, y , z ) = x 2 + y 2 z 2 = 0

.
F = 2 x, F = 2 y , F = 2 z
'
x

'
y

'
z


, ..

( S1 )

OZ

cos < 0

n=

2 xi + 2 yj 2 zk
2z

.
((4), 2.9). ,
( S1 ) (r ) =

(r , n)

( S1 )

z = z ( x, y )

dxdy =

3.
=

( x 2 x + y 2 y z 2 z )dxdy =
( ) | 2 z |
S1

(x
( )z

+ y 2 z 2 )dxdy = z = x 2 + y 2 =

S1

(D )

xy

( S1 )

( )

x2 + y2

Dxy

(
( x + y ( x + y ))dxdy =0
2

, ..
XOY

).
x +y h
2

) :

:
F ( x, y , z ) = z h = 0 .

. ,
F = F = 0, F = 1
'
x

'
y

'
z

.
n = 0i + 0 j + 1k = k

((4), 2.9), :

( S 2 ) (r ) =

(r , n

)dq =

( S2 )

(x 0 + y 0 + z 1)dq = ( )hdxdy= h( )dxdy = h .


3

( S2 )

Dxy

Dxy

4. A.


a (M )

(S)

A.4.1.

,
a (M ) = x i y j + z k
2

(S)

,
x +y +z =R
2


( x > 0, y > 0, z > 0);

A.4.2.

(S)

a = xi + yj zk

2
2
z = 4 x y ,

z = 0;

A.4.3.

,
a = x 2i + y 2 j + z 2 k

(S)

,
x2 + y2 + z2 = 1


z = 0;

A.4.4.

,
a = yi + zj xk

(S)

,
x+ y+ z = 2


( )


a = a (M )

,
M0

, ,
a

(V), ,
:
(1)


(
) (
).
div a ( M 0 ) > 0

div a ( M 0 ) < 0

,
div a ( M 0 ) = 0

M0

; 4.2
div a ( M 0 ) > 0

. ( 4.1
).

div a ( M 0 ) < 0

| div a ( M 0 ) |

(, )

(V),
a (M )

M :
.
div a ( M ) =

P ( M ) Q ( M ) R ( M )
+
+
x
y
z

(2)

M0
M0


M 0.

.4.1

M 0.

.4.2

OC 3.9

3.

.
a = 2 xi + 3 yj 5 zk

3.3. -


a (M )

(S)

(V )

, , ..:
(1)
( S ) (a ) = (a , n )dq = div
a dv.
0

(S)

(V )

:
.
P

(2)

( ) P( x, y, z )dydz + Q( x, y, z)dzdx + R( x, y, z)dxdy = ( )x + y + z dxdydz


S

(2) -.
(1) (2)
.


a = 2 xi + yj + (3 z + 1)k

(S)

x +y +z =R
2

:
.
diva =

(2 x) y (3z + 1)
+
+
=6
x
y
z

- :
4
S ( a ) = 6dxdydz = 6V = 6 R 3 = 8R 3
3
(V )

( ,

).
4 3
R
3

OC 3.10
1

4.


a = yi + zj + xk

x2 y2 z2
+ 2 + 2 =1
2
a b c
?

8.

a = yzi + xzj + 3 zk

(S)

.
x + y + z = 2 Rz
2

div a =

( yz) ( xz) (3z )


+
+
=3
x
y
z

, ((1), 3.10), :
.
( S ) (a ) = 3dxdydz = 3V = 4R 3
(S)

(S)

R,

. 5.

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2 Rz x 2 + y 2 + ( z R) 2 = R 2

, ,

4
V = R 3 .
3

9.

a = 2 zk

(. 3),

( S1 ) : x 2 + y 2 = z ,

0 z 1.

( S1 )

-,
.
-, :

( S ) = ( S1 ) + ( S 2 )

(S)

( S ) (a ) = (a , n )dq = div
a dv = 2dv = 2V
0

(S)

(V )

, V ,

(V )

( S ) = ( S1 ) + ( S 2 )

:
2

1 r 2

V = d rdr

dz = 2 (r r 3 )dr =
0

.
2

( S2 )

n 20 = k ,


S 2 (a ) =

(a, n
( )

0
2

)dq =

( S2 ) : z = 0

(a, k )dq = ( )2 zdq = 0,

( S2 )

S2

S2

. :

( S1 ) (a ) = ( S1 ) (a) ( S 2 ) (a ) = .
2

5. -,


.
a (M )

(S )

A.5.1.

a = (cos 2 y + 2 x)i + ( x 2 z 3 y ) j + (e xy + 2 z )k ,

A.5.2.

( S ) : x2 + y2 + z 2 = 4y

,
a = (3x + cos y )i + ( xz y ) j + ( x + 4 + 2 z )k
2

(S) : x

+ y = z , z = 2, z = 3

A.5.3.

a = (2 x 12 y 2 z )i + ( z 3 1) j + ( x 3 y + 2 z )k

( S ) : 2 x + 3 y z = 6,

x = 0, y = 0, z = 0;

A.5.4.
a = (sin y 2 + 4 x)i + (e x

.5.1.

a = xzi + x 2 yj + y 2 zk

y
+ y ) j + ( 1) k
8

(S)

z = x 2 + y 2 , x 2 + y 2 = 1, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0

.5.2.

a = xzi + xyj + yzk

x + y = R , x = 0, y = 0, x = 0, z = H
2

.5.3.

a = 2x i + 3y j + z k
2

(S) : x

+ y + z = 2z + 3
2

(S)

, ;

z = x + y , z = 2R x y
2

.5.4.
z=

a = xi + yj + zk

( S )

;
2

( S )

H 2
( x y 2 ), x = R, x = 0, z = 0.
R2

3.4. .

a = Pi + Qj + Rk

( )

(1)

R Q P R
Q P
rot a =

i +
k ,
j +
Y Z Z X
X Y

.
:
(2)
i

rot a =
X
P

Y
Q

.
Z
R

V ( M ) = wy i + wx j + 0 k

OZ

(2):
i

rot a =
X
P

Y
Q

0 (x) 0 (y )
(x) ( y )
= i

j
+ k
=
Z
Z X
Z
Y
Y
X
Z

= 2k = 2 .

, ..
OC 3.11

5.

a = x 2i + y 2 j + z 2 k

,

.




a (M )

rot a

(S)

( )

( ), ..
C ( ) (a ) =

(a ,

()

(1)

)dl = (rot a , n )dq = ( S ) (rot a),


0

(S)

:
(2)

P( x, y, z )dx + Q( x, y, z )dy + R( x, y, z )dz =

( )

R Q
Q P
P R
dydz +
dxdy.
=

dzdx +

(S)

.6.

(S)

( )

(S)

(.6). ,


.

( )

(S)

(2) .

,

( )

(S)

, ,
.
(. 2.6) ,

,
.

(S)

XOY

OC 3.12
10. . ,


:
a = ( 2 y 4 x 4 )i ( 2 x + 3 y 5 ) j + ( 2 z 7 z 8 ) k

z = 0.
y2
x2
+
= 1,
25 144

( )

rot a =
X
2 y 4x 4

Y
2x 3y 5

= 0 i 0 j 4 k = 4 k .
Z
2z 7z 8

, ((1), 3.12), :

C ( ) (a ) = (rot a , n )dq.

(S)


z = 0,

n =k

(S)

( )

( ). ,

(*)

C ( ) (a ) = (4k , k )dq = 4 dq = 4Q,


(S)

(S)

(S)

, .. . ,

: =5, b=12 ,
(*) :

Q = ab = 5 12 = 60

C ( ) (a ) = 4Q = 240 .

. ,

:
,

( )

a ( M ) = zi + xj + yk

x+ y+ z = R

x2 + y2 + z2 = R2


k.

( )

rot a = i + j + k

x+ y+ z = R

grad F = Fx' , Fy' , Fz' = (1,1,1).

3
3

R R R
O' , ,
3 3 3

= 3

x2 + y2 + z2 R2

n0 =

x+ y+ z = R

A(R,0,0)

(S)

1
3

(1,1,1).

,
R1 = R

R R R
O ' , , .
3 3 3

C ( ) (a ) = (rot a , n 0 )dq = 3 dq = 3Q

(S)

(rot a , n ) =

(S)

, ,

F ( x , y , z ) = x + y + z R = 0.

(S)

2
3

(rot a , n ) =

3
3

, :

C ( ) (a ) = (rot a , n )dq = 3 dq = 3Q
0

= 3

(S)

(S)

R1 .

, Q

C ( ) (a ) = 3R12 =

2R 2
3

6.

( )

a (M )

.
.6.1.
a = ( x 3 y )i + 2 x j + 3k ,

.6.2.
.6.3.
.6.4.
.6.1.
x+ y+ z = R

.6.2.
.6.3.
.6.4.

a = x 2 z 2i + 3 j + y 3 k
a = 2 yi xj + z 2 k

a = z i +x j+ y k
2

a = 2 x 3 zi 4 j + 3 yk

( )

( )
( )

:
:

x + y =9 z =2
2

( )
( )

z = 7( x 2 + y 2 ) 1, z = 6

x2 + y2 = 4 x + y + z = 2

x2 + y2 + z2 = 4 x2 + y 2 = 1 z > 0

x +y +z =R
2

;
a = 49i + 3 j 6 yz
a = zi xj + y k
2

( )
( )

:
:

x + y z = 0 z =5
2

x + y + z =1 x = z
,
:
2

a = ( z 2 x 2 )i + ( x 2 y 2 ) j + ( y 2 z 2 )k

( )

;
,

x2 + y 2 = 2z x2 + y 2 = z 2


, (S)
a (M )

M0

( )

M0,

.
n

((1), 3.12)

M0

S 0

C ( M 0 )

( )

, :

(rot a , n 0 )

( )

M0

C ( ) (a )

= lim

( ) M 0
S 0

(1)
= C ( M 0 ),

(.. ,

a (M )

M0

.. ,
0

n ,


n0.


, ((2), 3.4):
(2)
C ( M 0 ) = (rot a , n 0 )

rot a ( M 0 )

rot a ( M 0 )

n 0 ( M 0 ).
C ( M 0 )

:
0

n (M 0 )

= rot a ( M 0 ) cos ,

(2) :
A)

M0

(rot a ( M 0 ) = max[C ( M 0 )]

rot a ( M 0 )

..

=0

, ..

.
0

n (M 0 )

,
.


.
a ( M ) = x 2 yi xy 2 j + z 2 k

M 0 (0,1,2)

:
1

i
j

rot a =
X
Y
x 2 y xy 2

= 0i 0 j ( y 2 + x 2 )k .
Z
z2

,
rot a ( M 0 ) = ( x 2 + y 2 )k

M0

= 5k .

max[C ( M 0 )] = 5k = 5.

OC 3.13
6. ,

.
M 0 (0,1,2)

a ( M ) = (3 x 2 + 1)i + (2 y 2 + 3 z ) j + (4 z 2 3 y )k

3.5.

a (M )

U (M )

a (M )

, ..
(1)

U ( M )
U ( M )
U ( M )
a ( M ) = gradU( M ) =
i+
j+
k,
X
Y
Z

(1) ,
Pdx + Qdy + Rdz

, ..
(2)

P( x, y, z )dx + Q( x, y, z )dy + R ( x, y, z ) dz = dU ( x, y , z ).

a (M )



, ..

(V )

(3)

rot a ( M ) 0, M (V ) ,

, , :
R Q
=
,
Y Z

1.

a (M )

P R
=
,
Z X

(4)

Q P
=
.
X Y


, :

,
(5)
C ( L ) (a ) =

( a ,
( )
L

)dl = 0, ( L ) (V ).

2.

U = U ( x, y , z )

, W

AB :
W( AB ) (a ) =

(a ,

)dl = U ( B) U ( A).

(6)

( AB )

3.
(. 2.5):

( x, y , z )

U (M ) =

( a ,

)dl + c =

M0

(7)

M0,M

P( x, y, z )dx + Q( x, y, z)dy + R( x, y, z )dz + c,

( xo , y 0 , z 0 )

(7),
, (
, ,
OX , OY

). :
OZ

(8)
x

x0

y0

z0

U ( x, y, z ) = P ( x, y 0 , z 0 )dx + Q( x, y, z 0 )dy + R ( x, y, z )dz + c.

(8) ,
x

.
y

( (2)).
a ( M ) = yzi + xzj + xyk ,
P( x, y, z )dx + Q( x, y , z ) dy + R( x, y, z )dz = yzdx + xzdy + xydz = d ( xyz) U ( x, y, z ) = xyz + c.

OC 3.14
7.
:
1)
2)
3)
a = xyi + xzj + xzk ;

a = x 2i + y 2 j + z 2 k ;

11.

a = (3 x 2 y y 3 )i + ( x 3 3 xy 2 ) j.

a = 2 xyi + ( x 2 2 yz) j y 2 k

, :
i
j
k

rot a =
= 0i + 0 j + 0k = 0.
X
Y
Z
2 xy x 2 2 yz y 2

.
. ((8), 3.14).
.
. 7.

OAB,
,
,
(. 7). ,
A(x,0,0) B( x, y,0) P( x, y, z ),
2

( x, y, z )

U ( x, y , z ) =

( 0, 0 , 0 )

( a, 0 )dl + c = P( x,0,0)dx + Q( x, y,0)dy + R ( x, y, z )dz =

= 0 dx + x 2 dy + ( y 2 )dz + c = x 2 y zy 2 + c.

7. , .
.
.7.1.
a ( M ) = ( x 2 y + y 3 )i + ( x 3 xy 2 ) j;

.7.2.
.7.1.
.7.2.

a ( M ) = 2 xy 4 i + (4 x 2 y 3 + 3) j;
x2
a ( M ) = ( yz xy)i + ( xz
+ yz 2 ) j + ( xy + y 2 z )k ;
2

a ( M ) = xy 2 i + x 2 yj ( x 2 + y 2 )k .

a (M )

:
(1)

div a (M) 0 , M ( V ) ,

(2)

P Q R
+
+
0.
X Y Z

a ( M ) = y 2 zi + x 2 zj + 3k
div a =

1.

a (M )

, ..

( y 2 z ) ( x 2 z ) (3)
+
+
= 0.
x
y
z


:
(3)

( S ) (a ) = (a , n0 )dq = 0, ( S ) (V ).
(S)

2. , .

, .
3.

,
:
( S1 ) (a ) = ( S 2 ) (a ).

:
, .
4.
, ..

V (M ),

a ( M ) = rotV ( M ).

OC 3.15
KB 8. :
1)
a ( M ) = 3 z ( y 2 + x 2 )i 2 y ( x 2 + z 2 ) j + 4 x ( z 2 + y 2 ) k ;
1

2)
3)

a ( M ) = x 2 yi 2 xy 2 j + 2 xyzk ;
a ( M ) = x 2 i 2 xyj.

()
( ),
, , ..
(1)
rot a 0, div a 0.

a (M )

, , ,

U (M )

V (M )

U (M )

:
(2)

U = 0,

= 2 + 2 + 2
x
y
z
2

, (

2
2
= 2 + 2
x
y

).
, (2),
.

,
, ..
U = ln r

r = x2 + y2 ,

U xx + U yy = 0.

OC 3.16
9., :
1)
2)
3)
U = Ax + By + Cz + D;

U = 3x 2 + 4 y 2 ;

U = 2 x 2 5 xy 2 y 2 .


.



( ),

(1)

=i
+ j
+k
.
X
Y
Z

div a = ( , a ), rot a = [ , a ], = grad .

2
1

a = rot b.

div a = ( , a ) = ( , b) = 0

, .. ,

, .
3

a = b

div grad U .

2
2
2
div( gradU) = ( , U ) = 2U = ( 2 + 2 + 2 )U = U
x
y
z

.
OC 3.17
10. : 1)

2)

U ;

a;

3)

( a ).

I
1.
2.
; 3.
d= 2

d = 6;

5. . 7. 1)

S = R 2 ;

2)

1
V =
6

. 8. 1)

); 2) ). 9. 1) ); 2) ); 3) ). 10. 1) ); 2) ). 11. 1) ;
2) . 12. 1)
2)
; 3)
13. 3.
x 2 + y 2 = 625;

14. 1)

2 3
R ;
3

2)

4
;
3

3)

.
3

y = x , ( x 0)

x 2 + y 2 = 2ax.

15. 1) ); 2) ) 3) ). 16. 1) ); 2) ); 3) ).

17. 2. 18. 1) ); 2) ); 3) ). 19. 1) ); 2) ); 3) ). 20. 1)


2a;

2)

24. 1)
4a ;

2.
2.

.1.1.

2)
2

2 + .


,
; .1.2.

-3

x2

,
9

dx f ( x, y)dy dy f ( x, y)dy

dx f ( x, y)dy dy f ( x, y)dx
.1.3.

dx f ( x, y )dy dy f ( x, y)dx
3

.1.4.

6-3 x

dx f ( x, y)dy

y
3

.1.5.
1

x2

ey

; .1.6.

.2.1.
.2.8.

64
3

; .2.2.

3 4
6
32
;

.2.3.

2 2 4
a
5

.3.5.
.4.6.

32
3

. .4.1.

2
3

; .4.7.

ey / 2

4
(2 2 1)
3

k (2a )

.7.2.

; .2.3.

4
(e 1)
4

; .4.2.

21

3
2

; .2.4.

; .2.10.

; .4.3.

. .4.8.

21
8

y
2

625
3

.4.9.

256a 3
15

; .5.4. 2

; .1.3. 3; .1.4.

; .1.10.

64
3

; .2.5.

2
3

4.5

3a

5c

. .7.1. 4

4a
3

18

; .4.1.

a3
;
45

.4.2.

ab( a 2 + ab + b 2 )
.
3(a + b)

; .6.2.
c 3

a 2 2

abc
.
4

; .5.5.

; .6.4. 2; .6.1.

; .7.3.

; .8.3. 4 ; .8.1.

; .2.7. 0;

)(

a a
(e 1) +
e
4

; .3.3. 36; .3.4. 144;

R 5 (2 2 )
5

; .7.2.

1
6

5
1 2 6 / 5 4 8 / 5 38 / 5
48

; .4.4. 144; .4.5.

61
4

256
3

; .2.6.

; .6.3.

; .8.2.

; .1.2.

; .2.1.

13.5

R
;
4

128
15

dy f ( x, y)dx

ka 2

. .3.1. 144; .3.2.

; .6.1.

; .1.8. 192; .1.9.

ab( a + b)
8

; .6.2.

. .8.1.
3
120

125
8

4 2

.6.3.

. .1.1.
e2

.5.1. 20; .5.2. 0; .5.3.

.6.1.

y
2

y
3

dy f ( x, y)dx

; .2.9.

.2.2.

; .1.6. 27; .1.7.

36

dy f ( x, y)dx
.1.5.

dy f ( x, y)dx

dx f ( x, y )dy
.1.7.

dy f ( x, y)dx

y
3

6 y
3

12

dy f ( x, y)dx

3x2

9
a 3
64

8ka (1 + 2 )
15
3

; .7.1.
;

160
3

.8.2. 27

a
2

II
1.
1. 1), 2). 2. . 3. 0. 4.
6c 2 .


.1.1. ; .1.2. ; .1.3. 6; .1.4.12; .1.5.
2.

8
15

1
12

.1.2.
.3.2.
.5.4.
.6.3.

1
35

; .1.1.

6R 2

16

4
.
3

.2.1.

; .2.2.

12
5

; .1.6. 8; .1.1. 0;

; .2.3.

cos3 cos5

. .3.1.
3

. .4.1. 20.5; .4.2. -6.25; .4.3. 9. .5.1. 0; .5.2.

; .5.5.

; .5.6. 36; .5.7.

1
24

; .5.8. 32; .6.1.

32
15

3 ln 2 + 1
24

; .5.3.

; .6.2.

1
2

;
;

4 HR 3
.
15

III
1.
1. , ..

. 2.

S =grad U ( M 0) = (4,0,-4),

U
3
=
<0
S
2

U
=4 2
S max

. 3.

. 4. 0. 5. 0. 6.
div a ( M ) 0.

n = rot a ( M 0 ) = 6i .

3), (
).
. 7. : 2), 1
3
3

u
=
x
y

xy
+
c
3
3
3
u = (x + y + z ) + c

8. 2), 3). 9. 1) , 2) , 3) . 10.1)


2.
.1.1.
, ; .1.2.

x +y =2
2

.1.3.

x y =0
2

; .1.4.
3 x 2 4 y 2 = 1,

, 2)

grad div a

, ;

, ;
2x 2 y = 1

,3)

rot (rot a )

.1.1.

x +y z =0
2

, ; .1.2.

2x + y z = 1
2

; .1.3.

, ; .1.4.

5x + y z = 4
2

2x + 3y + z = 3
2

. .2.1.

.2.2.

S = (-2,0,9)

Vmax = 85;

S = (2,3,5),

Vmax = 38;

.2.3.
A.3.3.

R
8

1 2 2
S = ,- , Vmax = 1;
3 3 3
15

; A.3.4. 0; .3.1.

; A.4.2.

A.5.4.

.6.1.

160
3
27

16

; A.4.3.

. .5.1.

.1.4.

,
S = (-3,-2,-1).

12

; .3.2.

; A.4.4. 4. A.5.1.

.5.2.

;
8

; .6.2 0; .6.3.

; .3.3.

32
3

2 R H R H
+
;
3
8
12

x2 y y2 z2
u = xyz
+
+c
2
2

Vmax = 14.
6

; A.5.2.

; .6.4 0; .6.1.

. A.4.1.

.5.4.
3R
;
2

4R 3
3 3

; .7.2. .

; .6.2.
;

; A.3.2. 0;

16

; A.5.3. 24;

u = x2 y 4 + 3 y + c

; .3.4.

19
3

.5.3.
3

.6.4. 0. .7.1. . .7.2.


.7.1.

12

A.3.1.

R H
3

100

; .6.3.

2
2


1.
1.

2.

3.

4.

9.

1, R;
u +1

u
du
=
+ c;

+1

10.

1
u du = ln u + c;

12.

13.

du

sin 2 u = ctg u + c;

8.

u
1
a arctg a + c,
du
a > 0;
u 2 + a 2 = 1
u
arcctg + c,
a
a

14.

du

du

sh 2 u = cth u + c;

cos2 u = tg u + c;

7.

du

ch 2 u = th u + c;

cosu du = sin u + c;

6.

ch u du = sh u + c;

11.

sin u du = cosu + c;

5.

sh u du = ch u + c;

du

u2 a2
15.

du = e + c;

16.

a > 0, a 1;
1 u
a
du
=
a
+
c
,

ln a

1 ua
ln
+ c;
2a u + a

arcsin + c;

du
a
=
a 2 u 2 arccosu + c;

du
u2 a2

= ln u + u 2 a 2 + c.

2.


y
b
-a
x

-b

x2 y2
+
=1
a2 b2

( a > 0, b > 0)

x2 y2

=1
a2 b2

x = a cost ,
t [0,2 ).

y = b sin t ,

( a > 0, b > 0)

x = a ch t ,
t ( , ).

y = b sh t ,

y
b
-a

-b

x 2 = 2 py ( p > 0)

y 2 = 2 px ( p > 0).

x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3

( a > 0)

x + y 3axy = 0 (a > 0)
3

x = a cos3 t ,
t [0,2 ).

y = b sin 3 t ,

3at

x
=
,

t3 +1

2
y = 3at .
t3 +1

( x 2 + y 2 + 2rx) 2 = 4r 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) (r > 0) = 2r (1 cos ).

(x

+ y2

) ( a > 0)

= 2a 2 x 2 y 2 ,

= a sin 3 ( a > 0).

= 2a 2 cos 2 .

10 ,

11 ,

(x

= a sin 2

(a > 0).

+ y ( x a ) a y = 0 (a > 0)
2

x = a (t sin t ),

y = a (1 cost ).

2at 2
x
=
,

t 2 +1

2
y = at(t 1) .

t 2 +1

3.


1 ,
x2 y2 z2
+
+
=1
a 2 b2 c2

( a > 0, b > 0, c > 0).

x2 y2 z2
+
=
a2 b2 c2

( a > 0, b > 0, c > 0).

x2 y2 z2
+

=1
a2 b2 c2

( a > 0, b > 0, c > 0).

x2 y2 z2
+

= 1
a2 b2 c2

x2 y2
+
= 2z
p
q

( a > 0, b > 0, c > 0).

( p > 0, q > 0).

x2 y2

= 2z
p
q

x2 y2
+
=1
a2 b2

( a > 0, b > 0).

x2 y2

=1
a2 b2

( a > 0, b > 0).

x 2 = 2 py ( p > 0).

( p > 0, q > 0).


1. .., ..
, .: , 1980. 432 .
2. .., .., .. , .2,
.: , 1990. 272 .
3. .., .., .., ..
. 2. . : .
. .. . 2- ., . .: , 2003.
504 .
4. . . 2.
: . . / ..,
.., .. . 2- . .: . . . .-.
., 1986 . 366 .
5. : .
. 3 . . 3. / .. , .. , .. , ..
: . . .. . .: . ., 1991. 288 .
6. .., .., ..
. . . .. . 2- .
.: . ., 1988. 270 .
7. .. . .
. . .: , 1973. 335 .
8. .., .. : .
. . IV. .: . ., 1987. 240 .





. . . .
.

.

1

. . .
60 84

1
16

. . . 4,2. -. .45. 500 .



. 02330/0549453 08.01.2010
. , 2 220. 220013, .