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Chapter 9

Rizal in Peninsular Spain

Rizals Secret Departure

May 1 1882-Rizal left Calamba and was able to reach Manila after ten hours f journey via a carromata .No one among the family members of Rizal knew his departure for Spain, except Paciano,Saturnina his Tio Antonio and a few friends .the trip was secret to avoid detection by Spanish authorities,specially the friars.His brother Paciano did everything to ensure that Rizal can leave the country secretly .He secured Rizal s passport with the name Jose Mercado.

Rizal stayed a Manila for 2days before his trip to Spain .He was scheduled to depart from Manila on the 3rd day of May .He then woke up early ,heard the mass at Santo Domingo Church in the Walled City and then proceeded to Pasig to board the cruiser Salvadora,bound for Singapore.

Itinerary To Spain
From Manila ,the Salvadora sailed for Singapore.at first he felt very sad leaving his country and Family .to entertain himself ,Rizal made sketches of his fellow passengers and things he saw along the way. He arrived at Singapore after 1week and stayed for 2days.during his two-day stop over ,he took time to visit its botanical garden, art galleries ,parks ,and some historical spots .He recorded his diary every detail of what he was able to observe.

From Singapore, Rizal boarded the ship Djemnah,which shall ferry him to France. The ship stop over at Point Galle in Ceylon, Aden and Port Said at Suez Canal. June 11,1882 The steamer reach Naples.rizal was impressed with naples ,an Italian city ,for its panoramic beauty ,lively people ,and panoramic beauty. June 12,1882- from naples ,the steamer sailed to France .It dock at the Harbor of Marseilles.Rizal was impressed by the courtesy of the customs police.He was likewise ,enchanted by its graceful and impressive buildings and the courtesy and refined manners of the frenchmen.

June 15,1882 from Marseilles ,Rizal took the train for barcelona. June 16,1882- he reached Barcelona.

At first Rizal has a negative impression of the city and its people .Later, he came to like Barcelona due to the prevalence of freedom and liberalism in the city and the good qualities demonstrated by its residents open heartedness ;hospitality ;and courage.

Rizal in Barcelona Rizal was welcome by the Filipinos in Barcelona, most of who were his former classmates at Ateneo Municipal. They had a welcome party at favorite coffee house at Plaza. De Catalua. After the usual exchange of toasts and news ,Rizal joined his friends for a walk around city .He was even able to see the famous historical spots of Barcelona.

While in Barcelona ,Rizal took time writing to his family ,relatives and friend sin the Philippines. In fact, he did not forget one of his missions that of making a name for himself in the field of writing

El Amor Patrio  wrote a nationalistic essay entitled El Amor Patrio (Love of Country), his first article written in Spain  Rizal wrote this essay when he was still 21years old, under the pseudonym Laong laan It came out on Aug. 20,1882 in the Diariong Tagalog in Manila,for the first time he used the term Tierra Extranjera(foreign Land)in referring to Spain.

Rizal In Madrid September 1882 -Rizal decided to move to the capital city of Spain. - To continue his studies .He enrolled in philosophy and letters and licentiate in medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid. -He took lessons in painting and sculpture at the Academia de San Fernando. Lessons in fencing, at the schools of Sanz an Carbonell ;and lessons in English,French and German in Madrid Ateneo.He even contemplated taking the examination in Roman law for possible enrollment in law.

June 5 to 26 he took the medical examination. Fortunately, he passed the examination.at the same time ,he passed the examination in Greek,Latin,and World history. Rizal was awarded the degree of licentiate in medicine for passing the medical examination for the course.

Rizal and the Filipino Expatriates in Madrid Despite of Rizals hectic schedule, he found time to associate with Pedro Paterno, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Gregorio Sanciano, Juan Luna, Felix Hidalgo, Marcelo del Pilar and others. Hidalgo, Marcelo del Pilar and others. Rizal, Jaena and Del Pilar were closely associated and the trio were called the Triumvirate of the Propaganda Movement.

At the time Rizal move to Madrid,he learned that his fellow expatriates had formed Circulo Hispano-filipino,whose moving spirt was Juan Atayde.Knowing that Rizal was a prolific writer,he was asked to contribute a few verses to the review published by the club.Rizal submitted his poem entitled Mi Piden Versos.

Rizal Joins The Masonry Living in Madrid exposed rizal to liberal ideas ,stressing the value of individual freedom of action on matters of religion and expression .Imbued with the vitality of youth and idealism, he became fascinated with the manner by w/c Spanish masons in Madrid discussed political issues fearless. He was overwhelmed by their progressive ideas on government ,politics ,and religion.

Why he joined Masonry?

1. The abuses committed by the friars against the Filipinos 2. The possible assistance the masons can extend him in his struggle against Spanish tyranny and oppression

November 15, 1890- He became a master mason in Lodge Solidaridad . Rizals Affair with Consuelo Don Pablo Ortega y Rey he was the former city mayor of Manila during the time of Governor Carlos de la Torre. Father of Pilar And Consuelo. Rizal was attracted to Consuelo due to her refined manners and enchanting smile. He gave flowers occasionally ,w/c Consuelo appreciated.Consuello fell in love with him

However ,Rizal suppressed his emotions since he was still engaged with Leonor Rivera.Besides,he did not want to destroy his friendship with Eduardo de late, who was madly in love with Consuelo. Before living Madrid he composed a poem for Consuelo ,w/c was entitled A la Seniorita C .O. y R.

Rizals Toast To Luna And Hidalgo Juan Luna and Felix Hidalgo emerged winners in the 1884 Madrid Exposition .Luna was awarded a gold medal for his painting ,the spolarium;while Hidalgo a silver medal for his entry, Christian Virgins Exposed to the Populace. A banquet was tendered in honor of these two Filipino artist at the Caf Ingles on June 25 ,1884,with Rizal delivering the key note speech. The speech of salute Rizal delivered during the occasion came to be called Brindis .

Doa Teodoras Reactions on Rizals Speech The delivery of Brindis reached the Philippines because of its full coverage by the Madrid Press to the occasion .Nonetheless, Rizal was not Cognizant of the consequence of his speech. Rizal's mother became ill ,as his son become the talk of the town and the friars to Calamba,thus in her letter to Rizal she advise him to refrain from the articles that might offend friars and regime and that he should not fail in his duties as a Christian .finally,she warned Rizal not to continue pursuing further studies since she had that fear that it could cause him death later(Dona Tedoras letter to Rizal ,Dec. 11,1884).

Rizals response to his mother He will still have enemies, even if he puts an end to writing articles considered antiSpanish and anti-friars;

Life cant be without any sorrow; Misfortunes are welcomed when they can avert debasement and degradation;

A son can pay honor to his parents thru honesty and good name; Religion is the holiest of things but a person can only believe by reasoning; and Conscience can accept only what is compatible with reason.