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ICS 23.020.30 Equipment, installation and marking of pressure vessels

Till TI 1111
October 2000 edition

Openings, closures and closure elements

AD 2000-Merkblatt A5

The AD 2000-Merkbltter are prepared by the seven associations listed below who together form the Arbeitsgemeinschaff Druckbehlter (AD). The structure and the application of the AD 2000 body of regulations and the procedural guidelines are covered by AD 2000-Merkblatt G 1. The AD 2000-Merkblatter contain safety requirements to be met under normal operating conditions. If above-normal loadings are to be expected during the operation of the pressure vessel, this shall be taken into account by meeting special requirements. If there are any divergences from the requirements of this AD 2000-Merkblatt, it shall be possible to prove that the standard of safety of this body of regulations has been maintained by other means, e.g. by materials testing, tests, stress analysis, operating experience. Fachverband Dampfkessel-, Behalter- und Rohrleitungsbau e.V. (FDBR), Dsseldorf Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften e. V., Sankt Augustin Verband der Chemischen lndustrie e. V. (VC1), Frankfurt/Main Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau e. V. (VDMA), Fachgemeinschaft Verfahrenstechnische Maschinen und Apparate, Frankfurt/Main Verein Deutscher Eisenhuttenleute (VDEh), Dsseldorf VOB PowerTech e.V., Essen Verband der Technischen Uberwachungs-Vereine e. V. (VdTUV), Essen. The above associations continuously update the AD 2000-Merkbltter in line with technical progress. Please address any proposals for this to the publisher:

Verband der Technischen Uberwachungs-Vereine a V., P.O. Box 103834, 0-45038 Essen.

Contents 0 1 2 3 Foreword Scope Openings Closures 4 Closure elements 5 Materials, calculations and manufacture of closures and closure elements

0 Foreword
The AD 2000 body of regulations can be applied to satisfy the basic safety requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive, principally for the conformity assessment, in accordance with Modules G and B + F. The AD 2000 body of regulationsis structured along the lines of a self-contained concept. If other technical rules are used in accordance with the state of the art to solve related problems, it is assumed that the overall concept has been taken into account. The AD 2000 body of regulations can be used as appropriate for other modules of the Pressure Equipment Directive or for different sectors of the law. Responsibility for testing is as specified inthe provisions of the relevant sector of the law.

Requirements for closures and closure elements are also given. 1.2 Where other regulations apply to particular pressure vessels, these are given in AD 2000-Merkblatt A 8011).

2 Openings
2.1 General requirements 2.1.1 Pressure vessels shall be provided with openings the nature, dimensions, number and siting of which shall enable inspections to be carried out. These are manholes (easy-access and restricted-access openings) and inspection ports (head holes, hand holes and peep holes).

1 Scope
C 0) Co 0)

2.1.2 Manholes and inspection ports are not necessary if the tests can be carried out in some other manner, e.g. via nozzles, pipe adaptors or other detachable parts.



1.1 This AD 2000-Merkblatt applies to openings, closures 2.1.3 Manholes and inspection ports are not necessary if and closure elements of pressure vessels. It contains re- they are unviable or unsuitable due to the type of construction quirements for the nature and dimensions of openings to of the pressure vessel (e.g. tube apparatus, plate heat enable inspections to be carried out. Requirements regarding the number and siting of openings are presented in ) In preparation taking intoaccount the PED (97/23/EC) by incorporating the necesAppendix 1 to this AD 2000-Merkblatt. sary technical requirements from the relevant TRB.

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AD 2000-Merkblatter are protected by copyright. The rights of use, particularly of any translation, reproduction, extract of figures, transmission by photomechanical means and storage in data retrieval systems, even of extracts, are reserved to the author. Carl Heymanns Verlag has taken all reasonable measures to ensure the accuracy of this translation but regrets that no responsibility can be accepted for any errdr, omission or inaccuracy. In cases of doubt or dispute, the latest edition of the German text only is valid.

Page 2 AD 2000-Merkblatt A 5, 10.2000 edition

exchangers, heating and cooling jackets, pipe arrangements), the method of operation or charge material. 2.1.4 Where necessary, attention is drawn to Annex V No. of the Hazardous Substances Order (GefStoffV) as well as the Guidelines for Working in Containers and Confined Spaces (Order Number ZH 1/77 obtainable from Carl Heymanns Verlag, Cologne). 2.2 Nature and dimensions of openings The minimum dimensions specified in the following Table 1 for the effective size of openings may be reduced by 20 mm at most on account of the presence of coatings or linings only in the case of easy-access and restricted-access openings.

The nozzle height or ring heightspecified for openings represents the maximum distance to be negotiated and maximum height restricting the view of the inside of the vessel. 2.3 Siting and accessibility of openings 2.3.1 The positioning of the openings in the vessel shall be governed by practical considerations and shall allow the openings to serve their intended purpose; it is also necessary for the space required inside vessels to be available to permit a person to climb inside, to move about within the vessel, or to enable inspections to be carried out, or, when necessary, to enable persons to be rescued from the vessel. In the case of an oval opening in a largely perpendicular wall, the major axis should generally be horizontal.

Table 1. Overview of requirements and dimensions of openings Type of opening Inside diameter! nominal width! DN minimum Round (mm) Easy-access opening normal minimum Restrictedaccess openings in special cases DN 600 DN 500 450

Nozzle or ring height Maximum (mm)

Definitions and requirements

Oval (mm)

Access into the vessel shall be possible with the help of aids and personal protection gear. 250 150 Only when indispensable for design reasons e.g. acc. to Annex V No. 1 of the Hazardous Substances Order and Guidelines for Working in Containers and Confined Spaces (Order No. ZH 1/77 obtainable from Carl Heymanns Verlag, Cologne) for containers up to 10 m3 capacity and when at least one additional vent DN 100 is present It shall be possible to move about within the vessel without personal protective gear or aids; conical designs shall not be allowed to impair accessibility. Only when indispensable for design reasons; restrictions due to coatings or linings are not permissible. Opening through which a head, an arm and a light source can be introduced into the vessel simultaneously. Opening through which a hand-held lamp and a hand can be introduced into the vessel simultaneously. If the maximum dimension of the nozzle or ring height is exceeded for design reasons, the opening shall be enlarged in such a manner that the field of view afforded is preserved. Opening through which the inside of the vessel can be inspected with the aid of special lighting equipment. Smaller diameters or greater nozzle heights are only permissible if they are indispensable for design reasons and the field of view afforded is preserved and/or the inspection is made possible by additional means (provision of suitable inspection equipment).

350 x 450

Restrictedaccess openings normal minimum

420 420 400 400 320

320 x 420 320 x 420 300 x 400 300 x 400 220 x 320

150 straight 175 tapered 150 straight 175 tapered 120

Head hole

Hand hole

120 120

100 x 150 100 x 150

65 straight 100 tapered

Peep hole




AD 2000-Merkblatt A 5, 10.2000 edition Page 3

2.3.2 If special aids (e.g. ladders, platforms, hand-holds) are required for climbing into the vessel, moving about inside it, or carrying out inspections through the openings, it is necessary either for provision to be made in the design for such aids, or it is for the operator to make them available at the time of the inspection. This also applies for the removal of closure covers which are difficult to manipulate.

The seal shall be prevented from being forced out. This requirement is regarded as having been satisfied if metal seals or metal braided seals are used, or if covers of the type in question have a bead, a shoulder, or are of convex form on the low-pressure side. In the case of pressed plate components with a bead or a convex profile, the latter shall be at least 5 mm higher than the thickness of the seal. 3.3 Additional requirements for yoke closures, quickacting closures and covers with special closure elements 3.3.1 Yoke closures shall be designed so that the cover is positively ventilated before the closure element releases the cover. This requirement is, for instance, fulfilled by yoke closures in accordance DIN 28 126. Yoke closures for openings whose maximum aperture dimension exceeds 500 mm shall meet the requirements for quick-acting closures.

3 Closures
3.1 Definitions 3.1.1 Closures are, for example, blanking flanges, covers which are located on the inside, covers with special closure elements, yoke closures and quick-acting closures. They form a direct closure between the pressure vessel and the surrounding atmosphere. 3.1.2 The term quick-acting closure describes all forms of closure, with the exception of yoke closures, which compared with closures where the closure elements have to be operated individually have shorter opening and closing times.

3.3.2 Quick-acting closures shall be designed so that opening under pressure is not possible. An interlocking device is necessary for closures which due to the geometry can exert a force from the internal pressure on the closure in the opening direction. This shall be designed so that opening is securely prevented even without a selflocking device. In the case of non-interlocked quick-acting closures the pressure warning device in accordance with 3.3.4 shall be connected to the locking device. For non-interlocked quick-acting closures the locking device in accordance with 3.3.7 shall be included in the lock. 3.3.3 The suitability and reliability of quick-acting closures shall be verified. In the case of interlockedquick-acting closures on pressure vessels, the interlock shall be tested by an individual test or type test. The functional testing of quick-acting closures shall be carried out as part of the acceptance test in accordance with AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 5131). Interlocked quick-acting closures are those where the opening process and/or the pressure application is interlocked in such a waythat unwanted functional processes are not possible. Non-interlocked quick-acting closures are those

which do not meet the requirements for interlocked quick-acting closures. 3.1.3 The term yoke closure describes an externally applied cover mounted on the pressure vessel at one side and closed by means of a closure element, e.g. a clamping bolt. 3.1.4 Covers with special closure elements have at least two closure elements to be operated individually without the use of a tool.

3.3.4 Non-interlocked quick-acting closures shall have a pressure warning system which is connected to the closure system in such a manner that the quick-acting closure cannot 3.2 General requirements open until the pressure warning device is open. 3.2.1 Closures shall be designed so that they are suitable It shall not be possible for the pressure warning device to for their intended purpose and cannot fail under operating close until after the quick-acting device has closed complestress, i.e. automatic opening under pressure is not possible. tely. 3.2.2 Parts of closures in accordance with 3.1.1 which are The closure of the cover or of the closure elements with the subject to pressure form part of the test as specified in AD pressure warning device closed shall be precluded. The pressure warning device shall have an internal diameter 2000-Merkblatt HP 511 and HP 512. of at least 8 mm. If there is a danger of obstruction, special 3.2.3 If there is a danger due to delay in boiling of the measures are required. It shall be possible for a clearing charge material, e.g. when sterilizing liquid-filled containers device to be pushed through the pressure warning device in pressure vessels, it shall be ensured that the pressure ves- and any discharge shall not constitute a hazard. Where a dissel cannot be opened until the temperature of the liquid has charge pipe is connected this shall not incorporate any shutdropped sufficiently below the boiling point at~atmospheric off device or have the effect of constricting the cross section. pressure. A thermal safety device, for instance, meets this The route adopted for the discharge pipe shall not incorporequirement. rate any bends which appreciably impede the flow. The outlet of the pipeshall be in the field of view of the operating person3.2.4 Covers located on the inside shall not be used on pressure vessels with a dangerous charge material, e.g. sub- nel, or itshall be possible to see the flow through the pipe. stances in accordance with the Hazardous Substances 3.3.5 Non-interlocked quick-acting closures shall be Order. designed so that a gap is formed on opening through which the pressure in the pressure vessel can be safely discharged 3.2.5 In the case of covers which are located on the inside before the cover is opened further. and which are secured by means of a yoke and a central bolting arrangement, the clearance relative to the edge of the Where the charge material has atendency to adhere, a posihole uniformly distributed all the way round may not tive gap shall necessarily be formed on opening. exceed 3 mm in the case of vessels with operating pressures When designing the restraining device which limits the gap, up to and including 32 bar, and may not exceed 2 mm in the dynamic forces such as those produced when the cover is case of those with operating pressures in excess of 32 bar. opened shall be allowed for.

Page 4 AD 2000-Merkblatt A 5, 10.2000 edition

3.3.6 Where non-interlocked quick-acting closures are used, manual means only shall be employed for opening and applying pressure. 3.3.7 In the case of interlocked quick-acting closures it shall be ensured that the closure cannot be opened until the pressure is equalized with atmosphere. During closing itshall be ensured that the vessel can be pressurized only after the closure is fully sealed. In the case of electrical components of interlocks, the requirements are considered to be complied with, for example, if the specifications of DIN VDE 0116 are met. This also applies as appropriate to non-electrical components. 3.3.8 Covers with special closure elements shall be designed so that a gap is formed on opening through which the pressure in the vessel can be safely released before the cover is opened further. Where the charge material has atendency to adhere this gap shall be produced in a positive manner. 3.3.9 It shall be possible to detect whether all the closure elements have reached their terminal positions. 3.3.10 In the case of quick-acting closures fitted to pressure vessels, where the charge material is of a caustic, extremely toxic or combustible nature, leaktightness shall be ensured through the adoption of special design measures such as the application of pressure from an external source to the seal. When pressure from an external source is used to effect a seal, there shall be no possibility of the charge space being pressurized until afterthe external pressure has been applied to the seal. 3.3.11 All safety devices on quick-acting closures shall be designed and fitted so that: (1) they cannot be rendered ineffective by the charge material; (2) the functional safety is not impaired by environmental influences; (3) functional inspections and maintenance work can be carried out at suitable intervals.

4 Closure elements
4.1 Clamp-bolts Clamp-bolts which clamp the closure cover to the mating flange shall be design-tested or subject to individual tests (Guidelines for component testing of clamp-bolts, see Appendix 2). They shall be secured to prevent them from slipping off, and shall be attached to the vessel in such a manner that when they are swung away they cannot drop off. 4.2 Hinged bolts Hinged bolts which are let into the closure cover slots, e.g. eye bolts according to DIN 444, shall be secured against unintentional slipping. Nuts and washers shall be fully seated outside the slots.

5 Materials, calculations and manufacture of closures and closure elements

5.1 The requirements for closure covers, flanges, bolts and other closure components subjected to pressure, in respect of materials, calculations and manufacture, are satisfied if the relevant AD 2000-Merkbltter are employed. 5.2 The permissible surface pressure K~, .g. at the projece tions of bayonet-type closures made from rolled steel, can be assumed to be 1,0. In the case of unmachined surfaces or surfaces which have not at least been finished to give a smooth fit, it shall be assumed that the surfaces are loadbearing to the extent of no more than 75%. 5.3 Allowance shall be made for any weakening of the closure components due to wear or corrosion by increasing the calculated dimensions through the addition of appropriate margins. 5.4 In the case of closures with several locking elements, the closure components shall be designed and machined so that the individual components are subjected to uniform loading during service. 5.5 In the case of closureswith more than three locking elements, the theoretical load on a locking element determined on the basis of the prevailing conditions in the case in point shall be increased by at least 20% when carrying out calculations.


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