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Directed Independent Adult Learning

STUDY GUIDE
INTRODUCTION TO CHILDREN'S LITERATURE

LIT-221-GS
Compiled by Sylvia Baer
Material adapted and reproduced from Instructor's Resource Manual to Accompany "Through the Eyes of a Child: An Introduction to Children's Literature," 4th through 7th eds., by Donna E. Norton and Saundra E. Norton (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill/Prentice Hall, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007). Used with permission.

2007 by Thomas Edison State College

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Contents
_______________________________________________________________________________
Introduction v

Response to Literature 1
3

Lesson 1: The Child Responds to Literature

History and Evaluation 13


The History of Children's Literature 15 24 Evaluating and Selecting Literature for Children

Lesson 2: Lesson 3:

Realm of the Artist 33


Artists and Their Illustrations Picture Books 44 35

Lesson 4: Lesson 5:

Literary Forms 53
Traditional Literature Modern Fantasy Poetry 73 64 55

Lesson 6: Lesson 7: Lesson 8:

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Realistic and Historical Fiction 83


Contemporary Realistic Fiction 94 85

Lesson 9:

Lesson 10: Historical Fiction

Nonfiction 103

Lesson 11: Biographies 105 Lesson 12: Informational Books 114 Appendix: Answer Key to Multiple-Choice Study Questions 123

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Introduction

What was your favorite childhood storybook? What was your favorite fairy tale? Surely you remember fondly at least one story, and most likely two or three. A friend of mine in his fifties can still tell the tale, almost word for word, of The Little Engine That Could. Another friend, in her thirties, loved every single word and picture in her Cinderella book. My first friend heads a major corporation, but his childhood was filled with desertion and poverty. He credits reading that childhood book every night while waiting for his mothera waitress and single parentto get home in the evening with inspiring him to get ahead in the business world. My other friend is now a New York designer who specializes in evening wear and whose name you'll see in fashion magazines. She insists that the image of Cinderella guides all of her designs. That childhood influences greatly affect who we become as adults is no surprise to psychologists, sociologists, educators, and the rest of us. If that is true, then imagine the importance of what children read! Often our first view of the world outside our nest comes in the form of books. We learn how to act in the world, what is right, what is wrong, what will be praised, what will be punished, what is expected from others, and what we can expect from others all from books. Is it any wonder, then, that the study of children's literature is of great

importance? Do you know what makes a children's book good? Do you know how to choose a good book from among the myriad choices in libraries and bookstores today? Do you know what books are appropriate at what age levels? Do you know what books contain controversial themes, what those themes are, and how you feel about them? Introduction to Children's Literature is intended to help you answer those questions. More specifically, what I hope will happen is that you'll learn how to evaluate books, how to explore ideas, and how to determine readability. Most important, however, I hope you will appreciate and enjoy these wonderful pieces of literature. If there are youngsters in your life, I hope you will share this exploration together. All exploration of literature is ultimately a voyage of discovery of ourselves. Words and illustrations transport us, like sturdy ships, into the sea of our souls. There we are tossed and rocked onto the shores of understandingalways changing, always fascinating. I wish you interesting travel.

A NOTE ABOUT THE COURSE


This Study Guide is intended for use with the three-credit, Thomas Edison State College course Introduction to Children's Literature (LIT-221-GS). The syllabus for that course is published separately as part of the Course Manual provided to enrolled students. In addition to the Study Guide and Course Syllabus, the textbook required for the course is: Donna E. Norton, Through the Eyes of a Child: An Introduction to Children's Literature, 6th ed. (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill/Prentice Hall, 2007)

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1 Response to Literature
In Module 1 you explore the complex and interesting development of children and how it relates to children's literature. Obviously, children are ready to read and learn different things at different ages. What you read to a two-year-old is very different from what an eight-year-old would choose to read. Why? How has the language development, cognitive development, personality development, and social development of children informed their literature? What kinds of books should we as adults offer children at different developmental levels? How do we decide what's appropriate for each child at each level and for groups of children at various levels? These are some of the questions we'll seek to answer in this module.

Lesson 1

The Child Responds to Literature

Lesson 1 focuses on the values of literature for children and the promotion of child development through literature. The literature recommended in the textbook and the discussions about the literature emphasize the promotion of children's development through literature that enhances language development, cognitive development, personality development, and social development. Charts and discussions identify characteristics of children at different ages and stages, implications for selecting and using literature with children, and literature suggestions that enhance each stage in development.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify the role of literature in the language development, cognitive development, personality development, and social development of children. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate five children's books according to stated criteria.

LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________


Read and study chapter 1 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read ten (and evaluate five) children's books chosen from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and six essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

1. Which of the following is NOT a major value of sharing literature with children? a. nurturing and expanding the imagination and aesthetic development b. understanding of cultural heritage c. transmission of literary heritage d. curriculum modification 2. Studies of language show that a. language development is the same for all children of a specific age. b. language development is the same for all children of equal intelligence. c. children go through the same stages of language development, although the rate of development varies. d. children do not go through the same stages of language development. 3. Using words, stories in rhyme, and acting out sounds and movement are important aspects of a. cognitive development. b. language development. c. personality development. d. social development.

4. Walter Loban's research suggests that discussion should be a vital part of elementary literature programs because it helps children a. mature. b. be more accepted by peers. c. organize ideas and illustrate complex generalizations. d. None of the above

5. How can wordless picture books stimulate oral and written language development? a. They encourage children to tell the story in their own words. b. They do not stimulate oral and written language development. c. They help children understand story forms. d. They help children learn the parts of a book. 6. The processes involved in perception, memory, reasoning, reflection, and insight constitute a. language development. b. cognitive development. c. social development. d. personality development. 7. A teacher who is leading children's discussions about a series of books written about the same subject, setting, or theme is encouraging cognitive development through a. organizing. b. observing. c. hypothesizing. d. comparing. 8. Why are concept books (colors, shapes, sizes) particularly excellent resources for developing the cognitive skill of classifying? a. They reinforce basic concepts while providing concrete practice in ordering and classifying. b. They allow children to compare literary works. c. They help children summarize material. d. They encourage children to hypothesize about what they will find when they turn the page.

9. Which of the following types of stories would be LEAST appropriate for development of organizational skills? a. folktales with strong sequential plots and repetition of sequence and detail b. cumulative folktales that repeat the sequence each time a new experience is added to the story c. concept books that use different levels of abstractness to introduce children to concepts d. "why" tales that depict a series of events to explain something 10. According to child development authority Joanne Hendrick, which is NOT a stage of emotional development encompassed by early childhood? a. trust versus mistrust b. autonomy versus shame and doubt c. initiative versus guilt d. insight and perspective versus self-condemnation 11. The ability to express emotions, express empathy toward others, and develop feelings of self-worth and self-esteem describes a. language development. b. social development. c. personality development. d. cognitive development. 12. Encouraging a child to read a book because of the possible therapeutic effect that may be gained from the reading experience is called a. stress therapy. b. bibliotherapy. c. literary response therapy. d. bibliofeedback.

13. Why might books that stress creative problem solving be especially valuable for personal development of young children? a. Children may not realize that there is more than one way to solve a problem. b. They encourage children to overcome fear. c. Children may not realize they can overcome problems without adult help. d. None of the above

14. According to David Shaffer, "the process by which children acquire the beliefs, values, and behaviors deemed significant and appropriate by the older members of their society" is a. cognition. b. personification. c. socialization. d. humanization.

15. Socialization is said to occur a. when children learn the ways of their groups so that they can function acceptably within them. b. when children begin to read and write. c. when children know the difference between right and wrong. d. All of the above

16. Three processes that are MOST influential in the socialization of children are a. reward/punishment, observation of others, identification with models. b. observation of others, classification of objects, organization of time c. hypothesizing, applying, and criticizing. d. preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.

17. How can books be expected to aid in the social development of children? a. Books help children deal with various emotions related to friendship. b. Books help children become aware of different views about the world. c. Books help children realize that both girls and boys can succeed in a wide range of roles. d. All of the above 18. This age child develops an understanding of chronological orderings, experiences rapid changes in physical growth that may cause self-conscious behavior, develops strong associations with gender-typed expectations, and enjoys books such as A Swiftly Tilting Planet: a. early elementary, ages 68 b. middle elementary, ages 810 c. upper elementary, ages 1012 d. high school, ages 1618 19. This age child uses connections such as "meanwhile" and "unless," attends to certain stimuli and ignores other stimuli, values cooperation, develops flexible concepts of right or wrong, and enjoys reading books such as Little House in the Big Woods: a. kindergarten, ages 56 b. early elementary, ages 68 c. middle elementary, ages 810 d. upper elementary, ages 1012 20. This age child develops a sense of justice, wants to complete jobs, values independence, and applies logical rules of reasoning. a. kindergarten, ages 56 b. early elementary, ages 68 c. middle elementary, ages 810 d. upper elementary, ages 1012

21. During the conventional level of moral development, or Kohlberg's stages 3 and 4, the child is concerned with a. external, concrete consequences. b. the rights of others. c. social expectations of family or groups. d. All of the above

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22. How might the stages of moral development be used in children's literature? a. to evaluate the moral decisions of characters in biographical literature b. as guidelines for categorizing and evaluating the moral decisions of characters in realistic fiction c. to help students discuss decision-making processes of characters and consider ways they might have responded in similar circumstances d. All of the above 23. Children's responses to literature are influenced by a. the age of the main character. b. the children's development. c. the literary genre. d. All of the above 24. When Purves and Monson analyze children's responses to literature, the analytic response a. considers the language and structure of the work. b. places the work in its historical context. c. makes inferences about the work. d. judges the work's merits. 25. Phyllis Reynolds Naylor's Shiloh and Molly Cone's Come Back, Salmon are especially good for motivation because the books encourage responding to a. prestige in history. b. problem solving. c. aesthetic senses. d. escape into fantasy worlds.

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ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________

Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor. 1. Contrast the characteristics of books that you believe are good for the language development of kindergarten and first-grade children with the characteristics of books that you believe are good for the language development of children in the upper elementary grades. Provide examples of specific books in your answer. 2. Choose one of the eight operations associated with thinking. Describe in detail the books and literature-related activities that you would use to encourage the development of that specific operation. 3. Choose a book that you believe encourages the social development of children. Describe in detail why you believe the book is appropriate. Contrast this with a book that you believe would be inappropriate. 4. Choose a book appropriate for readers in the middle elementary grades. Discuss the factors within the readers, the factors within the text, and the factors within the contexts that might influence readers' responses to that specific piece of literature. 5. Choose a book appropriate for readers in the upper elementary grades or in middle school. Discuss the factors within the readers, the factors within the text, and the factors within the contexts that might influence readers' responses to that specific piece of literature. 6. You are asked to present a speech to the PTA in which you persuade the group to introduce children to literature at an early age. Write your speech in which you persuade this group about the benefits and values of introducing children to books.

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TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. What did you learn from books you read as a child? What books do you remember? Why did they make an impression on you? 2. Many people, when questioning the merit of a specific book or other printed matter a child is reading will add, "at least they're reading." Where do you stand on this issue? How important is simply reading without attention to the educational aims we are about to cover in this class?

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2 History and Evaluation


In Module 2 you explore the history of children's literature and learn how to better evaluate literature for children based on specific criteria. You also review what elements authors use to create literature for children. Most of us were exposed to some form of children's literature as youngsters, and many of us read and tell stories to young people. But often we are unaware of the history and the structure of some of those stories. Certainly most of us are unaware of the exploding children's literature field of the past decades. Why is this happening now? Why weren't more children's books written in the 1800s or the 1700s? What purpose did the few books that were around years ago serve? What changed, if anything? Why are children's books published today? Why do we choose certain books for children? These are some of the questions we'll seek to answer in this module.

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Lesson 2

The History of Children's Literature

Lesson 2 focuses on milestones in the history of children's literature. The major milestones covered include (in chronological order): the oral tradition, early printed books, the Puritan influence, John Locke's influence on views of childhood, Charles Perrault's collections of folktales, adventure stories of Defoe and Swift, Newbery's books for children, Rousseau's philosophy, William Blake's poetry, fairy tales of Andersen and the Brothers Grimm, early illustrators of children's books, the Victorian influence, and stories about real people.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify milestones in the history of children's literature. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate five children's books according to stated criteria.

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________


Read and study chapter 2 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate five children's books chosen from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and five essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

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1. The history of children's literature is MOST strongly influenced by the a. invention of the printing press. b. social attitudes toward children. c. mortality rate of children. d. number of doctoral dissertations that critically evaluate certain aspects of children's literature.

2. The earliest history of children's literature begins with a. the invention of movable type. b. Mother Goose. c. the oral tradition. d. the first fairy tales.

3. How is the literary role of the sixteenth century storytellers MOST like the role of the modern American children's authors? a. Authorities seek to control the stories they tell. b. They can be jailed if they anger a ruler or the church. c. They both tell stories that are the same for people of all ages. d. They both are entertainers.

4. What was the attitude toward children in feudal Europe that led to the conclusion that stories for children were NOT necessary? a. A child should be seen and not heard. b. A child was considered a small adult who should enter into adult life as quickly as possible. c. A child's mind was a blank page on which ideas were to be imprinted. d. Children were expected to spend their lives attempting to prove predestined worthiness to be saved.

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5. The MOST significant event related to literature in the 1400s was a. the creation of the hornbook. b. Johannes Gutenberg's discovery of movable type. c. William Caxton's establishment of England's first printing press. d. the Puritan influence. 6. What characterized hornbooks? a. They were printed sheets of text mounted on wood and covered with translucent animal horn. b. They were used to teach reading and numbers. c. They included the alphabet, numerals, and the Lord's Prayer. d. All of the above 7. Chapbooks were a. crudely printed, inexpensive books sold by peddlers or "chapmen." b. expensive books containing hand-drawn illustrations. c. books containing stories of high literary quality. d. instructional books that usually included the alphabet, numerals, and the Lord's Prayer. 8. Puritan influence on literature emphasized a. enjoyment. b. moral development of children. c. intellectual development of children. a. None of the above 9. The enlightened belief for the late 1600s that children should go through a period of childhood rather than be treated as little adults was credited to a. John Bunyan. b. Jean Jacques Rousseau. c. John Locke. d. Daniel Defoe.

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10. What was literature?

Charles

Perrault's

contribution

to

children's

a. He was the first to publish a book of children's poetry. b. He was one of the first writers to recognize that fairy tales belong to the world of children. c. He was the first to publish an adventure book for children. d. He was the first illustrator of children's books. 11. The original Mother Goose of 1698 contained a. verses about manners for children. b. retold German fairy tales such as "Hansel and Gretel" and "The Frog Prince." c. English nursery rhymes such as "Humpty Dumpty" and "Mary Had a Little Lamb." d. retold French fairy tales such as "Cinderella," "Little Red Riding Hood," and "Sleeping Beauty." 12. Two eighteenth-century authors whose adventure stories were "adopted" by children were a. b. c. d. Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift. John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. Hans Christian Andersen and Oliver Goldsmith.

13. What is the major reason that today's prized Newbery Award was named for John Newbery? a. He was the first to be successful in publishing and marketing children's books. b. He published Oliver Goldsmith's History of Little Goody Two-Shoes. c. He was the first to illustrate children's books. d. He was the first to write books for children.

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14. Change occurred in children's literature in the mid-1700s, the time when children's books began in Europe because a. the middle class was growing and was centered on home and family. b. more people had time, money, and the education necessary to read. c. people realized children were children rather than small adults. d. All of the above 15. What was philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau's "totally new approach" to educating children? a. He envisioned the child's mind at birth as a tabula rasa, a blank page on which ideas were to be imprinted. b. He believed children were little adults. c. He maintained that children could and should develop naturally, with gentle guidance from wise adults who could supply necessary information. d. None of the above 16. Which eighteenth-century English poet is credited with "writing verses as if a child had written them"? a. John Newbery b. William Blake c. Edward Lear d. Robert Louis Stevenson 17. Where did the Brothers Grimm find their fairy tales? a. They made them up. b. They listened to German storytellers. c. They found them in libraries. d. They read them in chapbooks. 18. The first person to create and publish an original fairy tale, using his own experiences to stimulate his writing was a. Charles Perrault. b. Hans Christian Andersen. c. Wilhelm Grimm. d. William Blake.

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19. Which of the following is NOT one of the nineteenth-century English artists who had an enormous impact on illustrations for children's books? a. Edward Lear b. Walter Crane c. Randolph Caldecott d. Kate Greenaway 20. Which of the following did NOT characterize the Victorian Age? a. the rise of a highly competitive industrial technology b. the growth of rural traditions and movement from large cities c. an emphasis on strictly controlled social behavior d. a romantic focus on home and family 21. Horatio Alger wrote books in the mid-1800s concerning a. poor children. b. fantasy. c. adventure. d. children as adults. 22. Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is considered one of the first children's books a. written purely to give pleasure to children. b. written without a trace of a lesson or moral. c. written as a fantasy for children. d. All of the above 23. The historical novel became popular in the 1800s with the publication of stories by a. b. c. d. Mark Twain. Louisa May Alcott. Sir Walter Scott. Kate Douglas Wiggins.

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24. In the 1980s, what type of literature was most frequently banned? a. b. c. d. seditious racist anti-American All of the above

25. Optimism, religious values, patriotism, stability, respect for older generations, and traditional family models characterize the children's literature of what age? a. b. c. d. Puritan Victorian 19381960 1960 to the present

ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor.

1. Compare and contrast the changing attitudes toward children over the last 400 years. Explain how the different attitudes are reflected in the literature of the various time periods. 2. Choose an early illustrator of children's books. Describe the role that illustrator has had in the history of children's literature. 3. Choose three time periods discussed in the history of children's literature. Compare and contrast the role of female characters during these three time periods. Use specific examples and books in your discussion. 4. Choose three time periods discussed in the history of children's literature. Compare and contrast the role of the family during these three time periods. Use specific examples of books in your discussion.

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5. Choose an author of children's literature who wrote during the 1800s whose work is still considered a classic in children's literature. Discuss why you believe that book was influential when it was written and why the book is considered a classic today.

TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. In Chapter 2 the textbook makes the case that literature available at the time reflects society's views on childhood. Take a look at your local bookstore or online bookstore in the Children's section. What types of books do you see first? How many are tied to television, movies, or toys? What does this reveal about our society's views on childhood? 2. Write a short reflection on the piece presented on page 70 of the textbook (entitled "What is the Future of Children's Book Publishing and Literacy?") Defend your ideas with evidence.

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Lesson 3

Evaluating and Selecting Literature for Children

Lesson 3 focuses on the standards for evaluating and selecting literature for children. It places special emphasis on the literary elements of plot, characterization, setting, theme, style, and point of view and how these elements are developed by authors in excellent literature. The text also discusses selecting the right book for each child with an emphasis on accessibility, readability, and interest.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify criteria by which to evaluate literature for children. Recognize the elements of plot, characterization, setting, themes, style, and point of view and how authors develop these elements in excellent literature. Discuss the criteria for selecting the right book for each child, with an emphasis on accessibility, readability, and interest. Identify techniques for involving children in the literary elements by developing appreciation and understanding of plot, characterization, setting, theme, and style.

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Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate five children's books according to stated criteria.

LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________


Read and study chapter 3 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate five children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 3, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and six essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

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1. Why is it important for a literature program to provide a balance of selections, including classics and contemporary stories, fantasy, prose, poetry, biographies, and nonfiction? a. Children do not know what they will like until encouraged to read different types of literature. b. A balanced literature program will develop children's literary heritage. c. If they are exposed to a wide variety of literature, children will develop recognition and appreciation of good literature. d. All of the above 2. What is probably the MOST important reason that people responsible for choosing books for children read literary criticism? a. They do not have to read the books themselves. b. They can be guided by experts to identify quality literature about which they might not otherwise have known. c. They can be persuaded not to acquire certain books that may be controversial. d. None of the above

3. Which of the following guidelines is NOT important for literary criticism? a. an interpretation of the text b. a condemnation of the book on censorship charges c. a personal judgment about the quality of the text d. a comparison and contrast with other books

4. If you read a descriptive review of a book in the Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, you would expect to read a. characterizations of particular groups, distinguishable ethnic characteristics, moral values, and potential popularity. b. factual information about the story and illustrations of the book. c. a discussion, comparison, and evaluation of literary elements in the book. d. All of the above

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5. If you read an analytical review in The Horn Book, you would expect to read a. characterizations of particular groups, distinguishable ethnic characteristics, moral values, and potential popularity. b. factual information about the story and illustrations of the book. c. a discussion, comparison, and evaluation of literary elements in the book. d. All of the above 6. The reviews in Social Education tend to emphasize a. human relations. b. the work in isolation. c. reader response theory. d. the controversial nature of the books. 7. To develop the order of events in a biography, an author would probably organize the narrative in which of the following ways? a. chronological order b. flashbacks c. problem and solution d. cause and effect 8. Which of the following is NOT the contribution of plot to the development of a story? a. It provides a background and creates a mood. b. It relates the events in order. c. It introduces the action of the story. d. It creates an element of suspense. 9. What is the usual source of plots in literature? a. characterization b. point of view c. conflict d. setting

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10. Literary conflicts in which the main character's actions, desires, or values differ from those of others around him or her represent conflicts of a. person against nature. b. person against self. c. person against society. d. person against person.

11. Why is person-against-self conflict a popular plot device in children's literature? a. Children do not tend to understand themselves. b. All children must face extreme personal challenges. c. All children must overcome fears and personal problems while growing up. d. All of the above 12. Authors may develop the full nature of a character by a. describing the character's physical appearance. b. showing the character in action and revealing the perceptions of others. c. revealing the character's thoughts and conversations. d. using all of the above techniques.

13. Which of the following is NOT a purpose for setting? a. to create a mood b. to provide historical background c. to create a theme d. to symbolize the story conflict 14. In which genre would accuracy in setting probably be MOST important? a. fantasy b. mystery c. biography d. adventure

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15. Which of the following is the theme of a story? a. the story's location in time and place b. the sequence of events in the story c. the underlying idea that ties the plot, characters, and setting together d. the resolution of the conflict 16. What is a good way to identify the theme in a story? a. Ask how the main character has changed in the course of the story and what he or she has learned. b. Analyze the title of the story. c. Explore the central conflict and its outcome. d. All of the above 17. The MOST effective way to evaluate the style of a story is to a. analyze the author's use of descriptive words and figurative language. b. read the story or a portion of the story aloud. c. compare the story with other books of similar content. d. assess the relationship between the conflict and the resolution. 18. The literary element of style involves a. word choice. b. figurative language. c. sentence structure. d. All of the above 19. Contemporary realistic fiction written for children in the middle elementary grades is usually told through a(n) __________ point of view. a. first person b. second person c. third person d. objective person

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20. Which of the following is MOST likely true about consistency in point of view? a. Consistency encourages readers to believe in the characters and plot development of the story. b. Consistency in point of view is not as important as consistency in characterization. c. Readers are not confused by changes in point of view within a story. d. Consistency in point of view is not as important as consistency in theme. 21. Drawing a plot diagram that asks students to identify the problem, the incidents that reflect increasing struggle, the point of self-realization, and the point of attaining peace or truth would increase children's understanding of a. person-against-self conflict. b. person-against-nature conflict. c. person-against-society conflict. d. person-against-person conflict. 22. __________ is an effective technique that encourages children to understand inferencing in characterization. a. Creative writing b. Modeling c. Dramatic play d. Drawing an illustration 23. To involve students in settings that create moods, Norton suggests which of the following activities? a. examining story illustrations to determine the mood b. reading books from several different genres to compare moods c. dramatic play d. writing descriptions of the setting

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24. What is a literary symbol? a. some story item that has a literal meaning in the story but suggests or represents other meanings as well b. the underlying idea that ties the plot, characters, and setting together c. a story's location in time and place d. the usual source of a story's plot 25. Why are themes difficult to identify? a. They are short phrases hidden in a story. b. They are often implied rather than directly stated. c. They are not always in stories. d. All of the above

ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor. 1. List five major objectives of a literature program. For each of these objectives, identify one title that might be read to accomplish that objective, and describe the book's specific contributions. 2. Identify the qualities that differentiate between excellence and mediocrity in books. Provide an example of a mediocre book for children and an excellent book for children. Specify why you have labeled each book as you have. 3. Choose one book that you have read. Describe in detail the techniques the author uses to develop believable characterization. 4. Propose a common theme found in multiple pieces of children's literature. Then list several books that you would use to help children develop and understand this theme. Defend your choices with evidence from the chapter's content.

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5. Identify four purposes for setting in children's literature. a. Describe how authors develop each type of setting in credible ways. Use specific titles of and examples from books in your discussion. b. Describe how you would teach understanding of one type of setting to children. 6. Modeling is considered one of the best ways to improve understanding of literature. a. Describe how you would develop a modeling lesson. b. Using an example from literature, develop the introduction and the first set of modeling experiences.

TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. The text stresses the value in sharing multicultural books with children. What is the value in sharing multicultural books? What is the danger of lumping all multicultural books together and sharing them in their own category instead of integrating them throughout the curriculum? 2. Pages 99 to 102 in the text discuss selecting the right book for the child. Can children pick their own books? Why or why not?

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3 Realm of the Artist


In Module 3 you explore the realm of the artist. We all know that illustrations are an integral part of children's books. But many of us are unfamiliar with the elements that artists use. What are the types of art used? What are the different types of picture books available, and how is art integrated into the story? How can we evaluate good picture books? These are some of the questions we'll seek to answer in this module.

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Lesson 4

Artists and Their Illustrations

Lesson 4 focuses on developing an understanding and an appreciation for the visual elements used by the artist, including line, color, shape, and texture. Examples of illustrated books introduce the artistic media, including lines and washes, watercolors, acrylics, pastels, oils, woodcuts, and collage. The textbook discusses both representational art and abstract art. It presents evaluation criteria for illustrations in children's books and discusses outstanding illustrators of children's books.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to:

Identify the visual elements used by the artist, including line,


color, shape, and texture. Identify examples of artistic media, including lines and washes, watercolors, acrylics, pastels, oils, woodcuts, and collage. Describe both representational and abstract art. Name outstanding illustrators of children's books. Apply criteria for evaluating illustrations.

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Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate five children's books according to stated criteria.

LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________


Read and study chapter 4 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate five children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 4, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and five essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

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MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

1. The role of illustrations in children's literature is to a. inspire the imagination. b. complement the text. c. invite the reader. d. All of the above 2. How are illustrations in picture books different from illustrations in most older children's literature? a. They add interest to the story. b. They join the text in telling the story. c. They invite the reader to read the story. d. They excite the reader's imagination. 3. What do artists mean when they talk about the visual element line? a. a row of words printed across a page or a column b. any of the marks that make up the formal design of a picture and suggest direction, motion, energy, and mood. c. a thin, usually straight, continuous mark scratched in or made by a pen, pencil, or brush d. a border or start or finish mark 4. In the relationship between line and natural phenomena, vertical lines suggest a. danger. b. lack of movement. c. calm. d. All of the above

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5. Which type of line usually suggests loss of balance? a. jagged b. horizontal c. diagonal d. curved 6. In the relationship between color and natural phenomena, which of the following colors have "warm" or "hot" connotations? a. white, ivory b. black, gray c. blues, greens d. reds, yellows 7. A book page design with text placed opposite bordered illustrations on adjacent pages is considered a. the most formal arrangement. b. abstract. c. informal. d. None of the above

8. The level of formality of page design is MOST important to evaluate in light of its harmony with the a. particular story. b. artistic medium. c. genre of literature. d. visual elements. 9. A very informal design with text combined with two or more arrangements and text printed in different forms, colors, and sizes might be appropriate for which of the following types of literature? a. fairy tales b. fables c. nonsense rhymes d. science fiction

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10. The most informal type of page design would be with a. text placed above or below an illustration. b. no text or words printed in different sizes and colors. c. text shaped with irregular boundaries to fit around the illustration. d. text combined with two or more arrangements. 11. Artistic media refers to the a. genre of literature an artist is illustrating. b. type of paper on which an artist's illustration is printed. c. materials and techniques an artist uses to illustrate a book. d. news of the artistic world. 12. Of the various media available to the artist, which of the following is among the oldest? a. woodcuts b. cardboard cuts c. collage d. linoleum cuts 13. The earliest books for children were illustrated with which of the following? a. watercolors and pastels b. collage c. oils d. black and white woodcuts 14. A technique in which bits of objects are pasted to a surface is called a a. mural. b. woodcut. c. collage. d. frieze.

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15. A representational style of art in picture books can be described as a. symbolic. b. literal and realistic. c. abstract and subjective. d. All of the above 16. Illustrators who draw pictures that focus on the play of light over objects in the natural environment, similar to those of the French artist Monet, are drawing in a style called a. cubism. b. impressionism. c. realism. d. abstract expressionism. 17. An art style that uses visual elements to express an artist's deepest inner feelings is called a. impressionism. b. abstract. c. expressionism. d. cubism. 18. An art style that takes ordinary objects as its subject but emphasizes certain characteristics of a subject by changing or distorting the usual image, or that focuses on pure form, is a. impressionism. b. abstract. c. expressionism. d. cubism. 19. Which of the following would probably be the MOST productive roles of the author and illustrator in creating a book? a. The illustrator tells the author what to write to fit the drawings. b. The author tells the illustrator what to draw to fit the story. c. The author and illustrator do what the publisher wants them to do. d. The author and illustrator are partners who place their talents in the service of a certain story.

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20. Which of the following is NOT a criterion to consider when evaluating illustrations in children's books? a. the use of visual elements b. the accuracy of the illustrations c. their contribution to the moral lesson of the story d. how the artistic style enhances the literary style 21. Aesthetic scanning encourages viewers to a. locate and identify properties in artwork. b. critically evaluate the artist's works. c. copy visual elements in their own art works. d. illustrate stories in which there are no illustrations. 22. Helping children respond to art through the illustrations in books helps children to a. Develop their appreciation for and understanding of art, artists, and texts. b. Foster understanding of specific cultures and the artists whose works represent them. c. Awaken their visual perceptions. d. All of the above. 23. Eve Bunting, Robyn Montana Turner, and Carmen Lomas Garza are contemporary artists from which culture? a. Latino b. Jewish c. Asian d. African American 24. Asking children "Do you see more red or blue in this painting?" or "Is the surface texture rough or smooth?" fall into the following category of initiating questions: a. leading b. selective c. parallel d. productive

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25. Sometimes teachers ask older children to evaluate art from a critical perspective to determine where art is shaped by ideology and social and economic power. ALL BUT WHICH of the following questions would support a critical, or Marxist, approach? a. In what way might the artwork serve as propaganda? b. What culture is evident in this art? c. What does art reveal about the society the artist is depicting? d. What roles does class play in the work on both the artist and the viewer?

ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________

Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor. 1. Choose one of the visual elements: line, color, shape, texture, or design. Describe how a specific artist uses that element to create effective illustrations in children's literature. Refer to specific books in your answer. 2. List the criteria you would use when evaluating the illustrations in children's literature. Choose one book and discuss how that book meets the evaluation criteria. 3. Name and describe three different kinds of media used by book artists to create illustrations. For each kind of media, identify an example of a picture book and illustrator that exemplifies that medium. 4. Describe how page design influences the formality of a text. Discuss the different levels of formality that are possible within illustrated children's books. Refer to specific examples of literature in your answer. 5. Discuss the ways specific cultures can be reflected in art using specific books from various illustrators.

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TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. Pick one of the books discussed in Chapter Four. What type of media does the artist use to create this book? How does the art reflect and tie in to the story? 2. After reading Chapter Four, what ideas would you use to share artistic books in a classroom setting?

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Lesson 5

Picture Books

Lesson 5 focuses on evaluating and discussing different types of picture books, including Mother Goose, toy books, alphabet books, counting books, concept books, wordless books, easy-to-read books, and picture storybooks.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify different types of picture books, including Mother Goose, toy books, alphabet books, counting books, concept books, wordless books, easy-to-read books, and picture storybooks. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate five children's books according to stated criteria.

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________

Read and study chapter 5 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate five children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 5, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and six essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

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1. Which of the following distinguishes picture books from other types of books? a. A picture book has pictures and other books do not. b. In picture books the text is always more important than the pictures. c. In picture books the illustrations are as important as the text or even more important than the text. d. Picture books are written and illustrated for preschoolers. 2. Which of the following is probably the LEAST important criterion for evaluating picture books? a. accuracy of illustrations b. relationships between words and pictures c. size of the type d. importance of the theme 3. According to Cianciolo, which of the following is NOT a major factor in how a child responds to a picture book? a. the background of the artist b. age and stage of development c. emotional state of readiness d. extent of preparation provided by an adult 4. According to Cianciolo's analysis of children's choices of picture books, children prefer illustrations that a. depict the here and now, fantasy, and/or humor. b. are colorful and add detail. c. are in a realistic or cartoon style. d. All of the above 5. Mother Goose serves as an excellent introduction to verse for very young children because of its a. rhyme, nonsense, and rhythm. b. imagery and introspection. c. subtle lessons for children. d. All of the above

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6. The Mother Goose rhyme "Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers" has a repetition of sound called a. rhythm. b. alliteration. c. exaggeration. d. onomatopoeia. 7. Which of the following is probably the STRONGEST reason there have been so many collections of Mother Goose rhymes? a. They have strong, enduring appeal for children. b. They are not expensive to reproduce. c. They are familiar to adults. d. They are among the earliest literature for children. 8. It is correct to refer to traditional nursery rhymes and children's jingles as "universal" because they are amazingly alike in a. style. b. content. c. setting. d. characters. 9. Why might it be important to share nursery rhymes from other nations with children? a. They foster self-esteem of children of ethnic minorities. b. They encourage the language development of children of ethnic minorities. c. They help all children appreciate the values of other cultures. d. All of the above 10. Toy books can include a. board books. b. pop-up books. c. cloth and plastic books. d. All of the above

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11. Like Mother Goose rhymes, which of the following were among the first books published for children? a. concept books b. wordless picture books c. toy books d. alphabet books

12. In alphabet books specifically designed to teach young children the letters and their sounds, which of the following is particularly important? a. Numerous objects beginning with the same letter should be presented. b. The pictures must be bright and appealing. c. Pictured objects should not have more than one commonly used name. d. The page should be rich with detail. 13. When analyzing counting books for preschoolers, which of the following statements is LEAST important: a. The format of the book encourages manipulation of concrete objects. b. The objects and numbers are clearly separated and identifiable. c. The books are designed to develop the concepts of addition and subtraction. d. Photographs of common objects illustrate the number concepts. 14. Concept books are excellent sources of materials for stimulating children's a. moral development. b. personality development. c. social development d. cognitive development.

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15. Which of the following is NOT a major value of wordless picture books? a. Children of different backgrounds and reading levels can enjoy the same story. b. Oral and written language skills are reinforced as children provide the missing text. c. Concepts are introduced and reinforced. d. Creative thinking and visual literacy are stimulated. 16. What is the MOST characteristic feature of an easy-to-read book? a. short chapters b. sequential plot c. controlled vocabulary d. harmonious illustrations 17. What is the MAJOR value of easy-to-read books? a. They appeal to special interests of children. b. They allow children to reinforce reading skills independently. c. They stimulate cognitive, social, and personal development. d. They introduce and reinforce important concepts. 18. Which of the following are NOT crucial elements in outstanding picture storybooks? a. originality and imagination b. plot and characterization c. historical realism and moral teaching d. humor and style 19. Which of the following is MOST important in developing characters for picture storybooks? a. The main characters should be children. b. The characters must experience situations and emotions immediately familiar to children. c. The characters must experience situations and emotions from which children can learn. d. None of the above

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20. When analyzing setting in picture storybooks, which of the following statements is LEAST important? a. The illustrations enhance a setting that is carefully developed in the text. b. The illustrations create detailed descriptions of time and place. c. The illustrations enhance the mood of the story. d. The illustrations depict the setting as the antagonist. 21. Which of the following is NOT one of the sources of humor identified in Caldecott Medal books? a. wordplay and nonsense b. allusion c. exaggeration d. the ridiculous and caricature 22. Which of the following activities for children is NOT recommended in the text when sharing Mother Goose with children? a. orally filling in missing words or rhyming elements b. dramatizing favorite nursery rhymes c. investigating the sources of Mother Goose d. individually memorizing specific nursery rhymes to "read" or recite in class 23. Which of the following activities is MOST appropriate for stimulating cognitive development and language development when sharing wordless picture books with children? a. dramatization of the stories b. writing or telling stories to accompany the story c. drawing additional pictures to accompany the story d. comparing illustrations of different picture books

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24. What is probably the GREATEST value of reading to children? a. helping beginning readers develop an appreciation for books and literature b. improving reading skills c. exposing children to other cultures and experiences d. improving listening skills 25. Which of the following is not a way to motivate writing with picture storybooks? a. Writing letters to friends, relatives and authors. b. Creating different endings to mysterious storybooks. c. Drawing new illustrations to replace some of the pictures. d. Rewriting a story using a different point of view.

ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________

Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor.

1. List at least five values, in addition to pleasure, that are provided to children who read picture books or have them read aloud to them. For each of the values, name and discuss at least one book that fosters the realization or development of that value. 2. Contrast the characteristics of alphabet books for younger children with the characteristics of alphabet books appropriate for older children. Refer to specific books in your answer. 3. Compare easy-to-read books and picture storybooks. Discuss the style of the books and their potential use with children. 4. Are picture books meant to be read primarily by children or to children? Defend your answer. 5. Choose one of the categories of picture books discussed in chapter 5. Discuss your criteria for selecting appropriate literature in this category and provide examples of books that meet your criteria.

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6. Identify one of the ways that authors and illustrators develop humor in picture storybooks. Choose three books and discuss how the authors or illustrators of those books developed humor.

TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. Page 175 features an issue discussion on picture books, asking Does controversy change with the times? Where do you stand on this issue? What are the new controversies we face? 2. Pick a wordless book. How would you share this book with a child?

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4 Literary Forms
Module 4 introduces a variety of literary forms. First you examine traditional literature and explore its depth and breadth from various cultures. Through this exploration you discover just what traditional literature is and how it differs from place to place. Next you leap into modern fantasy, where you examine this form of literature and learn how to help children enjoy this genre. Then you take another leap, this time into the realm of poetry. Here you discover styles and learn about several poets. In its entirety the module takes you on a giant ride around the past and present in children's literature, in verse and prose.

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Lesson 6

Traditional Literature

Lesson 6 focuses on the types and characteristics of traditional literature, including folktales, fables, myths, and legends. The textbook includes a discussion of folktales, myths, and legends from various countries.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify types and characteristics of traditional literature. Discuss folktales, fables, myths, and legends from various cultures. Identify the differences between forms of traditional literature. Understand the cultural information found in folktales. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading.

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Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate four children's books according to stated criteria.

LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________

Read and study chapter 6 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to children's literature issues (text, p. 213). Read and evaluate four children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 6, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and six essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

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1. In general, why were traditional literature stories told? a. to speculate about the beginnings of things b. to relate stories about people who performed brave deeds c. to relate stories about mythical heroes d. All of the above 2. Which of the following was a popular theme in the traditional literature of common people? a. princely valor b. overcoming social inequality to obtain a better way of life c. great deeds of the nobility d. None of the above 3. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of traditional literature? a. has been handed down from generation to generation b. is both universal and ancient c. has no identifiable author d. reflects only the peasant classes 4. Why are cumulative tales, which sequentially repeat actions, characters, or speeches until a climax is reached, appealing to young children? a. Because the main characters have intelligence and reasoning ability. b. Because children know the repeating part of the story, they can join in as each new happening occurs. c. Because they are often about personified objects or animals. d. Because they are often humorous. 5. The type of folktale that explains why an animal has certain characteristics or why people have certain customs is a a. magic and wonder tale. b. beast tale. c. pourquoi tale. d. realistic tale.

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6. Folktales provide an excellent source for making discoveries about people living in earlier times because they a. reflect actual happenings. b. reflect the values of the people. c. depict people who lived in earlier times. d. reflect settings that are historically accurate.

7. Which of the following is NOT a value of traditional literature for children? a. understanding and identifying with universal human struggles b. understanding the world c. pure pleasure d. identification with realistic and contemporary heroes

8. Folklore from around the world should a. reflect the original culture's beliefs. b. reflect current American beliefs. c. reflect current beliefs of the culture. d. None of the above

9. Which is the MOST likely reason that folktales have so much immediate conflict and action? a. Children's attention spans are short. b. Because the stories were originally told orally, people had to be quickly brought into the action. c. In the past, people did not have time to listen to or read long introductions. d. Most folktales are adventures rather than psychological dramas.

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10. What is the MOST likely reason that so many folktales, even folktales of different origins, have the same types of themes and recurring actions? a. Folktales reflect universal themes and morals. b. Storytellers were not as inventive as they could have been. c. Children wanted to hear the same stories over and over again. d. Because communication was so limited, people rarely heard the same story twice. 11. Which of the following characteristics are folktale characters MOST likely to have? a. They are more fully developed than characters in other types of literature. b. They change during the course of the story. c. They are one-dimensional, all good or all bad. d. Their characters are not immediately apparent; rather, these characters develop over the course of the folktale. 12. Which of the following is a common theme in folktales? a. Good overcomes evil. b. Intelligence wins out over physical strength. c. Foolishness causes the loss of possessions. d. All of the above 13. A motif in literature is a. a border or frame around the illustrations. b. the main idea of a story. c. a recurring element used in the development of a story. d. the climax of a story. 14. The MOST common motifs in folktales include which of the following? a. person against person, person against society, person against nature b. supernatural beings, extraordinary animals, magical objects, powers, and transformations c. problem, rising action, climax, denouement d. None of the above

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15. Many of French folktales portray a. human foolishness and humble peasant cottages. b. an enchanted or mystical forest. c. enchantment and the splendor of the royal court. d. the consequences of foolish boasting. 16. Which of the following characterizes Norwegian folktales? a. a strong sense of wonder b. northern climate and culture c. a good sense of humor d. All of the above 17. In which of the following types of folktales are respect for elders and the dragon as a symbol of imperial authority common elements? a. German b. African c. Chinese d. Russian 18. In which of the following types of folktales are dragons, tigers, and cranes recurring elements? a. Jewish b. British c. French d. Japanese 19. The only folktales considered truly indigenous to the United States are a. Native American folktales. b. Black African folktales. c. tall tales. d. All of the above

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20. The original purpose of myths was probably to a. entertain royalty. b. describe and explain the heroic deed of Greek rulers. c. provide explanations for happenings in nature. d. frighten the lower classes into submission. 21. Which of the following is NOT one of the four functions of myths according to Joseph Campbell? a. to allow people to experience the awe of the universe b. to support and validate a certain social order c. to teach people how to live d. to see how literature can affect society 22. Which of the following distinguishes legends from myths? a. Legends are primarily about humans rather than gods. b. Legends deal primarily with nature. c. Legends are based on historical events. d. All of the above 23. Which of the following characteristics makes folktales appropriate for storytelling? a. strong beginnings b. easily identifiable characters c. familiar climaxes and satisfactory endings d. All of the above 24. What is the major benefit noted in the text for using felt boards to share folktales? a. Children learn about different types of materials. b. Children learn about sequential order and improve their language skills. c. Children learn how to tell stories. d. Children learn about different types of folktales.

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25. Which of the following activities would be MOST appropriate for older students? a. dressing up as folktale characters b. comparing different versions of the same folktale c. dramatizing a folktale d. using a felt board to tell a folktale

ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________

Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor. 1. Identify and define the four types of traditional literature. Use examples of each type of literature to develop your definition. 2. Identify at least four common motifs in folktales of different cultures. Select one motif from among these, then identify three specific stories that originated in different countries but share the same motif. Compare and contrast how this motif is characterized in each story. 3. Choose a specific country that has numerous examples of folklore. Pretend that you are an anthropologist and are using the folklore to make discoveries about the ancient peoples from that country. Discuss your findings by using specific examples from the folklore to make your points. 4. Differentiate between a myth and a legend. Provide an example of each from children's literature. Discuss why you would categorize each one as either a myth or a legend. 5. A group of parents contact you about the use of tall tales in your fifth grade classroom. They feel you should not use tall tales because they are misrepresentative of historical events and seem frivolous. What will you say to the parents about your use of tall tales? 6. Discuss the importance of variants in folklore. Give specific examples and strategies that you would use to develop under-standing of variants for a specific grade level.

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TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. Page 213 discusses multicultural folklore. What is the value in exploring the folklore of other cultures alongside the folklore of your native culture? 2. What methods for sharing folktales with children did you find most useful from chapter 6? Why? 3. What role do modern revisions of traditional stories play in the education of children? Should we include modern revisions in our classroom? Why or why not?

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Lesson 7

Modern Fantasy

Lesson 7 focuses on the evaluation of modern fantasy with particular emphasis on the authors' ability to suspend disbelief in characterization, setting, theme, and point of view. The text discusses relationships between traditional literature and modern fantasy. Various categories of modern fantasy are identified and discussed.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Discuss the relationship between traditional literature and modern fantasy. Identify categories of modern fantasy. Describe techniques that help children recognize, understand, and enjoy modern fantasy. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate four children's books according to stated criteria..

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________

Read and study chapter 7 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate four children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 7, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and six essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

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1. When writing modern fantasy, authors a. alter one or more characteristics of known reality. b. write about the contemporary world as they know it. c. usually place their characters in the future. d. develop themes that are very different from other types of literature. 2. Persuading readers to "suspend disbelief" is MOST successful in modern fantasy when a. the characters are fully drawn. b. the plot is tightly sequential and fast-paced. c. there is an internal consistency in the story. d. the setting reflects the known world. 3. What is a requirement of settings in modern fantasy? a. If in the past, they must accurately describe the past. b. If in the future, they must fully describe the future. c. They must be developed so completely that readers will believe anything is possible. d. All of the above 4. Which of the following is NOT usually a theme of modern fantasy? a. importance of personal and social responsibility b. battle between good and evil c. power of love and friendship d. value of facts and information 5. What is a major difference between myths and modern fantasy? a. Myths are only about Greek and Roman gods. b. People at one time believed that myths had a basis in fact. c. Myths deal only with supernatural events. d. Myths are more believable than modern fantasy.

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6. The first author of literary folktales is usually considered to be a. the Brothers Grimm. b. Mary Godwin Shelley c. Hans Christian Andersen. d. J. R. R. Tolkien. 7. Which of the following is LEAST true about literary folktales? a. They have been retold for hundreds of years. b. They incorporate a theme of goodness rewarded. c. They use motifs involving magic. d. They may include "once upon a time" and "happily ever after" language. 8. According to Bruno Bettelheim, why do many folktales have religious themes? a. Religious themes are universal. b. Many folktales originated in periods when religion was a most important part of life. c. Religious themes are very popular. d. All of the above 9. Which of the following authors is BEST known for religious allegories? a. J. R. R. Tolkien b. Jane Yolen c. C. S. Lewis d. Beatrix Potter 10. What theme BEST characterizes mythical quests and conflicts? a. continuing battles between good and evil b. need for a realistic portrayal of modern life c. importance of gaining self-knowledge d. power of love

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11. The writings of which author have been said to "form a continuation of the mythic tradition into modern literature"? a. E. B. White b. Margery Williams c. J. R. R. Tolkien d. A. A. Milne 12. Many of the fantasies written by Lloyd Alexander have foundations in __________ legends. a. Welsh b. German c. Arthurian d. Norse 13. Of the following statements, which MOST accurately characterizes the appeal of E. B. White's Charlotte's Web? a. The harsh realities of life on a farm are kept from the reader. b. Because animals are treated as if they were humans, the reader gains respect for animals. c. The book deals convincingly with the universal themes of the importance of friendship and loyalty. d. The book's animal characters have superhuman characteristics. 14. What is the MOST likely reason that toys are chosen as subjects of modern fantasy? a. Many children already believe they are real or almost real. b. Both children and adults think they are cute. c. They can be easily characterized as innocent. d. They encourage young readers to suspend their disbelief. 15. Mary Poppins, Pippi Longstocking, and Mr. Popper are all characters in which type of modern fantasy? a. little people b. articulate animals c. preposterous characters d. strange and curious worlds

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16. What is the MOST likely reason that modern fantasies about little people are popular among children? a. They are usually magical. b. Because they are small, children identify with them. c. They are not threatening to children. d. They are like characters in traditional literature. 17. What distinguishes time warp stories from other types of modern fantasy? a. The problems are solved by the characters, not by supernatural powers. b. They encourage children to think about what might have happened in the past and what might happen in the future in places they know. c. They focus on human development rather than the forces of good and evil. d. All of the above 18. What do science fiction writers MOST often rely on to create their plots? a. hypothesized scientific advancements and imagined technology b. probable future events c. creative problem solving d. scientific quests and conflicts 19. Science fiction written for young children tends to a. humanize animals in alien worlds. b. hypothesize about the future of humanity. c. rely on a developed sense of time, place, and space. d. emphasize the adventure associated with traveling to distant galaxies.

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20. The science fiction of Madeline L'Engle is distinguished by a. stories with simplified concepts written for very young children. b. unusual characters and plots that combine technology and mythology. c. characters that are credible and realistic and that are tied by strong bonds of love and loyalty. d. dragons that can travel from place to place by teleportation. 21. Which of the following would BEST introduce and help children understand the more complex elements found in modern fantasy? a. science concept books b. analysis of figurative language c. fantasy picture books d. studying science textbooks 22. One way to help children respond to the illustrations in modern fantasy books is by encouraging children to a. Dramatize the texts and the illustrations. b. Create new stories to accompany the pictures. c. Conduct research to decide on the authenticity of the settings. d. Observe, compare, and discuss the illustrations. 23. How might the process of identifying plot structures help children to interpret modern fantasy? a. It could help them to identify topics, books, and activities related to a theme b. It could help them to outline the plot of a modern fantasy book c. It could help them to identify figurative language in modern fantasy d. It could help them to identify settings in modern fantasy

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24. How might science fiction appropriately be used in a science class? a. as a springboard for discussion b. as reinforcement of scientific facts c. to sharpen children's research skills by verifying scientific information d. All of the above 25. How might science fiction MOST appropriately be used in a social studies class? a. to stimulate debate that is unhindered by children's stereotypes b. to reinforce historical facts c. to provide ideas for social studies projects d. to sharpen children's research skills by verifying social studies information

ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________

Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor. 1. Choose an author of modern fantasy and describe how he or she encourages readers to suspend disbelief. 2. Define modern fantasy. Compare and contrast the similarities and differences between modern fantasy and traditional literature. Use specific examples of stories from both genres in your response. 3. List the criteria you would use to evaluate modern fantasy. Write a review of an author's work or a particular book and defend your reasons for citing it as exemplary in the genre. 4. Select a modern fantasy that has mythological foundations. Discuss how the author uses the mythology to develop the modern fantasy. What are the similarities and differences between the mythology and the modern fantasy? 5. Choose a classic in modern fantasy other than Charlotte's

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Web. Either defend or reject the identification of the book as a classic in children's literature. 6. Discuss how you would use modern fantasy to make connections with either the social studies or the science curriculum. Use specific techniques and books in your answer.

TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. On page 272, your textbook paraphrases Chet Raymo, writing that fantasy writing helps children to expand their curiosity, become observers of life, learn to be sensitive to rules and variations within the rules, and open their minds to new possibilities. Select a work of Fantasy or Science Fiction discussed in chapter 7. How does this book stack up to Raymos goals for fantasy writing? 2. No class on childrens literature would be complete without a chance to discuss the phenomena known as Harry Potter. Should this book be taught in our classrooms?

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Lesson 8

Poetry

Lesson 8 focuses on the development of understanding and appreciation of poetry, including the elements of poetry, the forms of poetry, and the poetry of various poets. The textbook section on involving children in poetry emphasizes developing understanding and appreciation through such areas as choral speaking, dramatization, and writing.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify the elements and forms of poetry. Discuss different poets and their styles. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate four children's books according to stated criteria.

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________


Read and study chapter 8 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate four children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 8, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and five essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

1. Which of the following is NOT a definitive quality of poetry? a. Poetry is words performed. b. Poetry is literal and explicit. c. Poetry has an emotional impact. d. Poetry has visual significance.

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2. Researchers who investigated children's preferences in poetry concluded that a. children enjoy poems about familiar experiences. b. children enjoy complex imagery in poetry. c. children prefer poems that include subtly implied emotion. d. All of the above 3. When selecting poetry to share with children, which of the following is NOT a criterion? a. Poems should emphasize the sound of language and encourage play with words. b. Poems should have exciting meters and rhythms. c. Poems should be written down to a child's level of understanding and readability. d. Poems should tell simple stories and introduce stirring scenes of action. 4. Rhythm in children's poetry works particularly well when it a. changes frequently. b. reinforces the content of a poem. c. emphasizes specific words. d. is very repetitive. 5. The repetition of initial sounds in a line of poetry is called a. assonance. b. alliteration. c. onomatopoeia. d. hyperbole. 6. The repetition of vowel sounds by a poet to create interesting and unusual sound patterns is called a. assonance. b. alliteration. c. onomatopoeia. d. hyperbole.

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7. Which of the following refers to words that imitate the actions or sounds with which they are associated? a. assonance b. alliteration c. onomatopoeia d. hyperbole 8. Which of the following primary elements in poetry encourages children to see, hear, feel, taste, smell, and touch the worlds created by poets? a. repetition b. imagery c. rhyme d. shape 9. Which of the following are implied comparisons between two things that have something in common but are essentially different? a. idioms b. hyperboles c. similes d. metaphors 10. Word division, line division, punctuation, and capitalization make up the poetic element called a. rhythm. b. imagery. c. shape. d. repetition. 11. One of the first poets to write limericks was a. Robert Browning. b. Robert Louis Stevenson. c. Edward Lear. d. Christina Rossetti.

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12. Five-line poems in which the first, second, and last lines rhyme are called a. haiku. b. cinquains. c. ballads. d. limericks. 13. In which of the following types of poetry does the shape of the poem MOST emphasize the meaning of the poem? a. free verse b. concrete poetry c. lyric poetry d. ballads 14. Which of the following describes the structure of haiku? a. a three-line poem in which the first and third lines have five syllables and the second line has seven b. a five-line poem in which the first, second, and last lines rhyme c. a poem with little or no rhyme and with rhythm similar to everyday speech d. None of the above 15. Humorous poetry is closely related to a. irony. b. lyrical rhymes. c. nonsense poetry. d. free verse. 16. The famous poem "Jabberwocky" was written by a. Jack Prelutsky. b. Lewis Carroll. c. John Ciardi. d. William Blake.

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17. Shel Silverstein wrote the popular poem a. "The Baby Uggs Are Hatching." b. "Ickle Me, Pickle Me, Tickle Me Too." c. "The Land of Ho-Ho-Hum." d. "Bickering." 18. Jack Prelutsky writes poems that emphasize a. humorous situations. b. nature. c. moods and emotions. d. ghostly happenings.

19. Which of the following poets is particularly well known for writing poetry that offers a special way of looking at and listening to nature? a. Valerie Worth b. John Ciardi c. Jack Prelutsky d. Byrd Baylor 20. Robert Frost, Aileen Fisher, and Paul Fleischman are well known for writing poetry that emphasizes a. nature. b. moods and feelings. c. humor. d. situations. 21. Which of the following explains the reason for the neglect of poetry in the language arts curriculum? a. The poetry anthology format does not sustain interest. b. Adults are not as interested in poetry as in other forms of literature. c. Forced memorization and one-sided interpretations of poetry discourage enjoyment. d. All of the above

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22. Which of the following describes the BEST way to teach poetry? a. Teach it as an isolated unit. b. Read, reread, and share poetry at appropriate times throughout the day. c. Encourage memorization of poetry. d. Ask good critical thinking questions about poems after they are shared.

23. Of the following types of arrangements in choral speaking, which would be MOST appropriate for young children? a. refrain arrangement b. voice arrangement c. cumulative arrangement d. dialogue arrangement 24. A __________form of poetry has five lines with each line having specific requirements. a. cinquain b. free verse c. diamante d. concrete 25. A __________ form of poetry has seven lines with each line having specific requirements. a. cinquain b. limerick c. diamante d. ballad

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ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________

Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor.

1. Identify five values or reasons for sharing poetry with children. For each value, name and discuss at least two poems you would select to help children realize each of these values. 2. Compare and contrast the poetry written by one of the classic poets such as Edward Lear or Robert Louis Stevenson with the poetry written by a contemporary poet such as Jack Prelutsky or Nancy Willard. 3. Describe the sequence you would use to teach poetry to an elementary grade. Use specific examples of poetry in your discussion. 4. Explain probable causes for the neglect of poetry in the language arts curriculum. List at least three ways poetry can add to the curriculum. Then describe ways to include poetry more often in the daily classroom experience. 5. Select a childrens poet and describe the kinds of poems she or he writes. Explain what makes this poets work so popular with children and provide a rationale for selecting this poet.

TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. Choose one of the poems printed in Chapter 8. How would you share this poem with a group of children? What do you feel this poem has to offer them? How does it fit into the objectives for a study of literature?

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2. Reflect on your own experience with poetry. Many people have a negative reaction to learning about poems. What is your gut reaction? When was this formed? How could childrens experience with poetry be better formed in the classroom?

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5 Realistic and Historical Fiction


In Module 5 we explore realistic fiction and historical fiction. In both these categories, children encounter authentic ideas, places, people, and situations. How do we evaluate the validity of the material children are exposed to, and how do we evaluate the topics addressed? How do we decide the appropriateness of a specific work or issue for a particular child or group of children? These are tough questions and topics that we'll seek to answer and address in this module.

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Lesson 9

Contemporary Realistic Fiction

Lesson 9 focuses on the characteristics of realistic fiction, evaluation criteria for realistic fiction, the development of literary elements in realistic fiction, changes in realistic fiction, controversial issues, and subjects in realistic fiction.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify the characteristics of realistic fiction. Apply the evaluation criteria for realistic fiction. Discuss the development of literary elements in realistic fiction. Identify changes in subjects and issues in realistic fiction. Formulate responses to censorship issues. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate five children's books according to stated criteria.

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________


Read and study chapter 9 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate five children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 9, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and six essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

1. The term contemporary realistic fiction implies that everything in the story a. happened in our contemporary world. b. could happen in our contemporary world. c. is told from the viewpoint of a real person. d. is true.

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2. In contemporary realistic animal fiction, animals a. could have human emotions. b. could talk. c. must be realistic by the standard of what we know and expect. d. None of the above 3. Which of the following is the GREATEST value of contemporary realistic fiction for children? a. It allows children to identify with and learn from characters who have similar interests and problems. b. It broadens children's horizons. c. It allows children to experience new adventures. d. It provides children with pleasure and escape. 4. In which of the following time periods was realistic fiction characterized by traditional family roles, strict roles for males and females, and strong religious commitment? a. 1400s b. 1700s c. late nineteenth century d. late twentieth century 5. In which of the following decades was realistic fiction characterized by wise grandparents, respected parents, happy and secure families, and white, middle-class, family values? a. 1950s b. 1960s c. 1970s d. 1980s 6. Overcoming fear, meeting responsibility, and problems related to adoption, divorce, disabilities, and minority social status are common themes of which time period? a. early twentieth century b. 1940s and 1950s c. 1970s to 1990s d. late nineteenth century

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7. Young people in much of contemporary realistic fiction reflect a. resilience, resourcefulness, and hope. b. love, friendship, and hope. c. depression, fear, and anger. d. abuse, strength, and hope. 8. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the problem novel? a. The characterizations are the most important part of the story. b. The narrative is frequently in first person, and theconfessional tone is self-centered. c. Unconventional adults help the characters overcome problems. d. The vocabulary is limited. 9. Which two issues does sexism in realistic fiction frequently involve? a. job opportunities for females and abortion b. exclusion of males and stereotyped roles for males c. exclusion of females and stereotyped roles for females d. equal pay for females and day care 10. Why is it MOST important that picture books are NOT sexist? a. Children decide early in life what roles are appropriate for males and females. b. Art can display sexism when the text does not. c. Young children read many picture books on their own. d. Picture books are the major factor in a child's attitude about appropriate roles for males and females. 11. In 1981 a book by which of the following authors was taken from library shelves and burned? a. Lois Lowry. b. Judy Blume. c. Virginia Hamilton. d. Cynthia Rylant.

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12. In Walk Two Moons, Sharon Creech develops the story through a. allegory. b. metaphor. c. symbolism. d. descriptive language. 13. Which of the following is the MOST accurate statement about children's literature about families since the 1960s? a. Authors have acknowledged new social realities and tried to focus on the need to overcome family disturbances. b. Discussions of disruptions in family life, such as divorce or death, have been avoided. c. Literature has focused on traditional family units. d. All of the above. 14. Good-Bye and Keep Cold and Where the Lilies Bloom focus primarily on the subject of a. single-parent families b. peer relationships. c. inner-city survival. d. disabilities. 15. Unlike literature of the past, current realistic fiction often suggests that which of the following is the MOST important influence in a child's discovery of self? a. a person outside the family b. a strong parent c. understanding siblings d. people who are considered heroes in the society 16. Authors frequently use a first-person or limited omniscient point of view in survival stories because they want to a. encourage readers to believe in the protagonists. b. reinforce a plot that stresses person-against-person conflicts. c. define the setting in considerable detail. d. develop a theme about the need for animal protection.

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17. Problem-solving strategies and contrasts between life in the wilderness and life in the city are used to effectively create characterization and conflict in which of the following books? a. Lois Duncan's Don't Look Behind You b. Gillian Cross's On the Edge c. Gary Paulsen's Hatchet d. Katherine Paterson's Park's Quest 18. Which of the following is the GREATEST value of writing meaningful and realistic stories about the physically different or disabled? a. It provides physically disabled people with role models. b. Readers can empathize with people who are courageously overcoming their problems. c. Readers can see how the problems relating to physically disabled people can be resolved. d. It teaches readers about the consequences of prejudice caused by ignorance. 19. When evaluating realistic stories dealing with physical disabilities, which of the following is NOT appropriate? a. The condition should be accurately portrayed. b. A happy ending is essential for children to have positive attitudes about physical disabilities. c. The story should include honest advice. d. The story should include realistic interactions with

individuals who are not disabled.


20. Of the criteria provided in the text for evaluating realistic animal stories, which of the following is NOT accurate? a. The writing should encourage the reader to respond to the needs of animals. b. The animal stories should be based on true stories. c. The author should portray animals objectively without giving them human thoughts or motives. d. The behavior of the animals is in keeping with the actual, known animal behavior.

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21. Authors Marguerite Henry and Walter Farley are well known for their stories about a. dogs. b. horses. c. cats. d. wildlife. 22. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be a value of mysteries for children? a. They provide escape and entertainment. b. They allow children to understand the problems of people in other cultures. c. They allow children to become involved in the solution to the mystery. d. They suggest that children, if they are observant, creative, and imaginative, can solve mysteries. 23. Which of the following is LEAST true about the value of sports stories for children? a. They deal with the ideals of fair play. b. They portray the process of overcoming conflicts between fathers and sons. c. They emphasize the therapeutic value of sports. d. They focus on girls who enjoy participating in sports. 24. Why is role playing of value as a follow-up to reading realistic fiction? a. Role playing enhances children's understanding of various ways to handle common problems. b. Adults can learn a great deal about children as they listen to the children's responses during role playing. c. Role playing helps children develop an understanding of the world around them. d. All of the above

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25. Which type of questioning technique requires children to hypothesize about details, main ideas, and cause-and-effect relationships? a. literal questions b. evaluative questions c. inferential questions d. appreciative questions

ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor. 1. Contrast the role of plot, characterization, and setting in contemporary realistic fiction and in modern fantasy. Use specific examples of books in your discussion. 2. Respond to the following statement: Contemporary realistic fiction is a mirror of American society. 3. Choose a book that has literary merit and that has been a cause of censorship. Develop a defense of the book on literary merit. 4. Describe a problem novel. Explain how a problem novel would differ from a Newbery Award-winning contemporary realistic novel. 5. Identify the values of role playing with contemporary realistic fiction. Describe how you would use role playing in a classroom situation. Include specific books that you believe are important for role playing. 6. Choose a book of contemporary realistic fiction. Describe the questioning strategies that you might use to lead a discussion about the book.

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TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. Contemporary realistic fiction is some of the most challenged/banned fiction for children. What might raise parents objections to realistic fiction? How should educators/librarians balance the need to share realistic fiction with students/children and the opposition they might face from some groups in the community? 2. Select one of the books discussed in Chapter 9. How would you share this book with a class?

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Lesson 10

Historical Fiction

Lesson 10 focuses on evaluating historical fiction with a special emphasis on the themes in historical fiction. The textbook discusses historical fiction chronologically, beginning with ancient times. Each section not only evaluates the literature but also addresses the themes developed during the time period and the relationship of those themes to what was happening in history.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify themes in historical fiction. Identify the elements used in evaluating historical fiction. Discuss the themes developed during a particular time period and the relationship of the themes to what was happening in history. Identify the values of historical fiction. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant issues in children's literature.

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Evaluate five children's books according to stated criteria.

LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________

Read and study chapter 10 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate five children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 10, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and six essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

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1. Which of the following is NOT a major value of historical fiction for children? a. Children can gain an understanding of their heritage. b. Children can begin to visualize the sweep of history. c. Children can develop empathy for other viewpoints. d. Children can be introduced to contemporary role models. 2. An emphasis should be placed on human relations when selecting notable historical fiction so that children will realize that a. in all times people have depended on one another. b. when human relations deteriorate, tragedy usually results. c. their own present and future are linked to the actions of people in the past. d. All of the above 3. Which of the following is NOT a criterion for evaluating historical fiction for children? a. The characters' actions express realistic values and beliefs of the time period. b. The setting is authentic in every detail. c. The characters' experiences reflect what is known about the time period. d. The plot is full of adventure and is fast-paced. 4. Credible plots in historical fiction MOST often emerge from a. person-against-self conflicts. b. authentically developed time periods. c. elements of fantasy. d. technological advancements and scientific discoveries. 5. Which of the following is the MOST important concern in developing characters in historical fiction? a. Characters must reflect contemporary actions and values. b. Characters' actions, beliefs, and values must be realistic for the time period. c. Characters must have modern-day significance. d. Main characters must be famous people.

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6. What is probably the MOST serious difficulty with making a famous person the pivotal character in a fictional story? a. The story may not meet readers' expectations of the famous person. b. It is difficult to find specific information about clothing or homes of the past. c. It is difficult to document evidence about specific dialogue or feelings and thus difficult to be accurate. d. People are not interested in true stories about historical figures. 7. Which of the following literary elements is MOST essential in providing historical fiction with authenticity? a. theme b. plot c. characterization d. setting 8. What is a major problem authors of historical fiction encounter when describing settings for very young children? a. Young children cannot read many descriptive words. b. Young children do not understand figurative language. c. Young children generally have little prior knowledge of historical periods. d. Young children are not usually interested in the past. 9. Which of the following is one of the MOST common themes in historical fiction? a. Loyalty and honor are essential. b. Battles between good and evil are constant. c. Goodness is rewarded. d. War is noble.

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10. Which of the following statements is LEAST accurate concerning style in historical fiction? a. An author's style influences the mood. b. Suspense is not a feature of historical fiction because the events take place in the past. c. A particular style can clue the reader in to the fact that unpleasant events may occur. d. Figurative language can be used to convey themes. 11. Which of the following BEST describes an allusion in historical fiction? a. an implied reference to another event b. a gross exaggeration of the facts c. a misleading image of the facts d. a fictional event to be read for religious interpretation 12. In which of the following periods of historical fiction is the theme "hate, not people, is the greatest enemy" MOST common? a. ancient times through the Middle Ages b. American Revolution c. western frontier d. early twentieth century 13. Person-against-society is the MOST common conflict in historical fiction written about a. pioneer America. b. Salem, Massachusetts c. Medieval Europe. d. Vikings. 14. Which of the following is NOT a theme developed in historical fiction about the Salem witch-hunts? a. Prejudiced persecution is a destructive social phenomenon. b. People seek freedom from persecution. c. Moral obligations motivate people to defend others. d. Persecution is sometimes necessary for the good of the whole.

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15. Which of the following is NOT a theme of children's books set during the time of the American Revolution? a. Persecution is a destructive social phenomenon. b. Everyday people are heroes. c. Freedom is worth fighting for. d. Strong beliefs require strong commitments. 16. What is the STRONGEST reason that stories about early pioneers are particularly popular with children? a. In these stories young characters often show extraordinary courage and prove they can be equal to adults. b. In these stories frontier settings are vividly described. c. Many of these stories depict strong family bonds. d. These stories are often based on person-against-nature conflicts. 17. In which of the following periods of historical fiction are the themes of love of land and the freedom that land ownership implies MOST common? a. World War II b. Salem witch-hunts c. American Revolution d. early expansion of the United States and Canada 18. What is the MOST sensitive issue faced by authors who write about slavery? a. They do not know how to accurately describe the experience of slavery. b. To accurately describe the experience of slavery, they may use terms considered offensive today. c. There is little documentation about the experience of slavery. d. They have trouble authentically recreating the speech patterns of the era. 19. Which of the following themes would BEST characterize historical fiction of the early twentieth century? a. People have strong dreams of owning land. b. War creates tragedy. c. Monetary wealth does not create a rich life. d. Moral obligations must be met.

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20. Which of the following is NOT a topic of children's novels set during World War II? a. the Holocaust b. the internment of Japanese Americans c. the love of land d. the role of personal conscience 21. Considering the common themes found in historical fiction, which of the following is LEAST true about contemporary interpretations of historical time periods? a. The Salem witch-hunts are perceived as wrong. b. Americans are proud of the American Revolution. c. The western frontier fulfilled the dreams of many people. d. Americans take great pride in the outcome of the Civil War. 22. In which of the following periods of historical fiction are the themes MOST alike? a. American Revolution and the Civil War b. Early U.S. and Canadian expansion and the western frontier c. The Civil War and World War II d. Salem witch-hunts and the early twentieth century 23. In which of the following periods of historical fiction was freedom from persecution NOT a major theme? a. American Revolution b. World War II c. Western frontier d. Salem witch-hunts 24. Why might historical fiction be preferable to history textbooks in teaching history? a. Historical fiction helps children realize that history is people rather than a series of events. b. Historical fiction is often more factual than textbooks in teaching history. c. Historical fiction covers more time periods than most textbooks. d. Historical fiction provides a more accurate portrayal of time periods than textbooks can.

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25. Why is it important that children develop an awareness of and an appreciation for the past? a. They may be more aware of their family heritage. b. They may realize they also have obligations to future generations. c. They may be able to correct wrongs of the past. d. They may be able to avoid repeating history.

ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________

Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor. 1. Identify four criteria for evaluating historical fiction. Name at least three titles of historical fiction that you especially like. Explain how they reflect the criteria you have listed. 2. Compare and contrast three historical novels set in three different periods of war. Identify the theme in each novel. Then describe how the author of each book creates credible conflicts and themes. 3. Choose an example of historical fiction that you believe would make an excellent movie. Describe specific characteristics about the setting, plot, characters, and theme that would lend themselves to film interpretation. Describe characteristics of the novel that would greatly challenge the filmmakers. 4. Name at least three historical novels about the same era or event. Compare and contrast each author's point of view and treatment of this aspect of history. 5. Choose a time period or theme in historical fiction. Describe how you would develop instructional activities that encourage students to appreciate and understand that time period or theme. Include specific books in your discussion. 6. Identify two time periods in which person-versus-society is an important conflict within the historical fiction. Compare and contrast the techniques that authors use to develop understandings of the society and the resulting conflict.

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TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. How does studying a work of historical fiction help students to better understand a time in history? How do these books also help students to reflect on conditions in their own time period? 2. Page 435 raises the issue of balance in historical fiction. Many works of literature tell only one side of the story. What is your stance on this issue? Should historical fiction be more balanced in its telling? Why or why not?

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6 Nonfiction
Module 6 explores nonfiction literature: biographies and informational books. As in earlier modules, we examine issues of evaluationdetermining the reliability of books, the appropriateness of certain biographies for specific age groups, and the value of informational books for children.

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Lesson 11

Biographies

Lesson 11 focuses on one type of nonfiction: biographies. The text considers changing views about biographies for children and the evaluation of biographies. Special consideration is given to the unique requirements for writing biographies.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify changing views about biographies for children. Apply evaluation criteria for the selection of biographies. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate five children's books according to stated criteria.

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________


Read and study chapter 11 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate five children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 11, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and five essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

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1. What has been the major influence on the authors of biographies for children over the years? a. Social attitudes toward children b. Religious convictions c. Political persuasions d. Knowledge of stages of childrens cognitive development 2. Biographies written for children in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries usually emphasized which of the following? a. Developmental character b. Political values c. Religious values d. Social values 3. In the late 1800s the goal for childrens biographies changed from a. A political to a religious one b. A religious to a developmental one c. A social to a religious one d. A religious to a political one 4. What is the main reason that few biographies of the early 1900s dealt with women, African Americans, Native Americans or members of other ethnic and racial minorities? a. The contributions of women and non-whites were not highly regarded. b. Traditional social patterns kept women and non-whites out of positions of power. c. Americans did not consider women and non-whites to be appropriate subjects for biographies. d. All of the above.

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5. What is the MOST likely reason that biographers writing for young readers have often focused on the boyhood years of their characters? a. They wanted to show the roots of the characters greatness. b. They wanted to increase the ability of the children to empathize with political heroes. c. They wanted to show how the American Dream can come true. d. They wanted to simplify the characters so that children could understand them. 6. What is the MOST serious result of glorifying biographical subjects, avoiding any of their weaknesses, mistakes, and flaws? a. It discourages children from trying to be great because they cannot possible be as great as the biographical subjects. b. It gives children a distorted, rather than a realistic model of the contributions people have made and can make. c. It gives children a false view of history. d. It diminishes the value and importance of the contributions of people children know who have flaws. 7. The GREATEST change in the attitudes toward the biographical content of childrens books occurred in the a. 1920s b. 1930s c. 1950s d. 1970s 8. Why are there not many biographies written for very young children? a. Peoples lives cannot be simplified enough for young children to understand. b. Biography requires a great deal of prior knowledge that young children do not have. c. Young children have difficulty stepping out of their own time and space to explore the lives of people they will never meet. d. Young children would rather read about animals than about people.

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9. What is the MOST important literary element in biography? a. Plot b. Characterization c. Setting d. Style 10. Which is probably the MOST appropriate and practical way that authors of biographies for children begin their research on their subjects? a. They visit original sites. b. They study original materials such as autobiographies, diaries, journals, and letters. c. They interview their subjects or people who knew their subjects. d. They read other books about the time in which the subject lived. 11. Which of the following is the MOST important question an author should ask before deciding to write about a particular person? a. Has the person made a significant impact on the world for good or ill that children should be aware of? b. Will children have a better understanding of the complexities of human nature after they read this biography? c. Will children discover that history is made up of real people when they read this biography? d. Will children appreciate the contributions of their ancestors or their heritage through the life of the person in this biography? 12. A well-known author of historical biographies for young children is a. Leonard Wibberley b. Jean Craighead George c. Jean Fritz d. Milton Meltzer

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13. According to Joanna Rudge Long, how should illustrated biographies be evaluated? a. The style and visual references should be appropriate for the intended audience. b. The pictorial motifs should suit the text. c. The author and illustrator should provide sources. d. All of the above. 14. Of the following subjects for biography, which has traditionally been the MOST common in childrens biography? a. Explorers of earth and outer space b. Political leaders and social activists c. Artists, scientists, and sport figures d. People who have persevered 15. The subject of Russell Freedmans biography about a religious leader who lived more than 2,500 years ago and whose teachings have influenced millions of followers featured a. Crimthann b. Saladin c. Confucius d. Muhammed 16. Of the many biographies written about Abraham Lincoln, which author wrote the text that is likely the BEST known? a. Cheryl Harness b. Carl Sandburg c. Suzy Schmidt d. Amy Cohn 17. What is the main value of biographies about civil rights leaders? a. They encourage readers to examine historical, political, and social perspectives of the movement. b. They provide opportunities to compare the authors techniques and the content they include. c. They support students questions about existing boundaries. d. They teach children how to evaluate illustrations.

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18. Persevering may require the survival of body and soul is a theme in a. Artist biographies. b. Sports biographies. c. Political biographies. d. Holocaust biographies. 19. Who is the subject of a biography featuring a controversial painter and sculptor who broke down barriers in the maledominated art world including how she ran away from a past controlled by her father? a. Persepolis b. Anne Frank c. Ange Zhang d. Louise Bourgeois 20. A reader response activity that works well with biographies is to a. Have students develop hypothetical question and answer interviews b. Create a lesson plan for writing biographies c. Dramatize a biography of their choosing d. Make a timeline

21. Which of the following is NOT a theme that emerged from a study of biographies of the lives of scientists? a. The scientists exhibited a total preoccupation with the problem. b. The scientists had confidence in their experimental abilities. c. The scientists tried to replicate the work of their peers. d. The scientists understood the importance of observation.

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22. If children are reading an autobiography written by Eleanor Roosevelt, Russell Freedmans Eleanor Roosevelt: A Life of Discovery, and Jane Goodsells Eleanor Roosevelt, they are probably a. Writing journal responses to the books b. Developing imaginary conversations between people of two time periods c. Comparing different biographies for attitudes and facts d. Preparing for a dramatization about Eleanor Roosevelt 23. If children are reading Norma Johnstons Louisa May: The World and Works of Louisa May Alcott and Alcotts Little Women they are probably a. Applying data from reading to practical problems. b. Comparing biographies. c. Analyzing literary elements. d. Analyzing the relationships between a biography and an authors works. 24. What is the MOST important value of asking students to read the biographies of authors? a. Students learn about a lot of authors. b. Students want to read and discuss the books written by the biographical subjects. c. Students discover authors who write at their reading levels. d. All of the above. 25. All but which of the following are criteria for evaluating and selecting biographies? a. Illustrators should never contradict the text. b. The biography should have a balanced view of the personage as well as distinguish between supposition and fact. c. Biographies for young adults should include complete footnotes or source notes. d. The writing style is not important; a listing of events is fine.

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ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________

Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor. 1. Trace the changing role of biographies from the 1700s to the present. Refer to specific authors or biographies in your answer. 2. Compare and contrast the development of effective characterization in realistic contemporary fiction and in biographical writing. Use specific books or authors in your response. 3. If you were going to write a biography for children, who would you select as your subject? Why? Recall the ideas presented in this chapter and provide support for your response. 4. Identify at least three common subjects in biographical writing. Explain why each of these appeal to children and give an example of at least one book in each category. 5. Prepare a letter or newsletter for the parents of your elementary grade students (you can specify a grade if youd like) that explains why students will be reading biographies in your classroom.

TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. Pick one of the biographies discussed in chapter 11. Which classroom strategies would you use to share this book with children? 2. The books in chapter 11 focus on quality biographies of noted historic figures. What value might there be in sharing biographies of contemporary figures and sports heroes?

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Lesson 12

Informational Books

Lesson 12 focuses on another type of nonfiction: informational books. The text considers the value of information books and their evaluation. Common topics for informational books are explored in this lesson.

OBJECTIVES _____________________________________
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: Identify values for informational books. Apply evaluation criteria for informational books. Identify topics for informational books. Answer knowledge-based, multiple-choice study questions on the assigned reading. Formulate responses to essay questions based on the assigned reading. Analyze and respond to relevant topics for reflection in children's literature. Evaluate five children's books according to stated criteria.

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES ____________________________________


Read and study chapter 12 in the textbook. Answer the Study Questions (multiple-choice questions and essay questions) in the Study Guide. Read, analyze, and formulate responses to one essay and one topic for reflection in children's literature. Read and evaluate five children's books chosen from the extensive bibliography at the end of chapter 12, from the accompanying CD-ROM included with the text, or based on the recommendation of your local librarian.

STUDY QUESTIONS
The Study Questions consist of twenty-five multiple-choice and five essay questions based on the lesson's textbook assignment. These questions serve as the basis for the examination and thus enable you to check your understanding and mastery of the material while preparing for the exam. Please answer both sets of questions on your own. Do not send your responses to the faculty mentor. Answers to the multiple-choice questions are at the back of the Study Guide.

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question or completes the sentence. Check your answers with the key at the back of the Study Guide.

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1. Which of the following is a value associated with reading informational books? a. Children will learn to look at the world in new ways b. Children will learn to discover laws of nature and society c. Children will learn to identify with people different from themselves d. All of the above 2. Which of the following is probably the most important criterion in evaluating informational books? a. The facts are accurate. b. There are no stereotypes. c. Illustrations clarify the text. d. The style stimulates interest. 3. Which of the following is more important when evaluating informational books than when evaluating fiction? a. The authors style b. The characterizations c. The setting d. The authors qualifications 4. An author of an information book who discusses both the benefits of and the detrimental consequences of forest fires is concerned with a. Distinguishing between facts and theories b. Providing differing views on controversial subjects c. Demonstrating that he or she has the qualifications to write the book d. Providing up-to-date information 5. Anthropomorphism means a. Writing fictitious dialogue for biographical characters. b. Describing the life cycle of an animal. c. Giving human emotions and attributes to animals. d. Using stereotypes to describe females.

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6. An informational book that would NOT encourage analytical thinking and evaluation would a. Provide differing views on controversial subjects b. Encourage children to withhold judgments until all facts are explored c. Present facts and theories without differentiating between them d. Encourage children to experiment and to compare 7. Which of the following is NOT a common organizational technique in informational books? a. Simple to complex b. Familiar to unfamiliar c. Early to later d. Flashbacks 8. Which of the following would be the best way for an author to ensure that an informational book is not too difficult to understand? a. Omit all technical terms b. Write short sentences c. Use only words with a few syllables d. Use comparisons between known objects and animals and the unknown 9. How can authors develop credibility in writing about the ancient world? a. By citing the latest information gained from their own research or that of others b. By describing details so that the readers can visualize the ancient world c. By including drawings or photographs of archaeological sites d. All of the above

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10. Which of the following informational books trace the history of important developments that have changed the world? a. Millers Just What the Doctor Ordered: The History of American Medicine b. Giblins Secrets of the Sphinx c. Hinds Life in the Roman Empire d. Tanakas Secrets of the Mummies 11. Jim Murphys The Great Fire distinguishes between a. Facts and rumors b. The volunteer and professional fireman c. Documents and personal accounts d. All of the above

12. Alice Provensens The Buck Stops Here: The Presidents of the United States is an example of what type of informational book? a. The human body b. Crafts c. The ancient world d. The modern world 13. A strong sense of history can be developed in books about the modern world through all but which of the following? a. Detailed illustrations b. Photographs c. Figurative language d. Interviews with people from the time period 14. What is the purpose for writing informational books about nature for children? a. To help children to understand the balance of ecosystems b. To encourage children to observe nature c. To help children to explore the life cycles of animals d. All of the above

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15. Writers of books about animals must consider ALL BUT WHICH of the following when writing books for children? a. They must not give their animals human emotions or qualities. b. They must use accurate photographs. c. They must consider the background knowledge of their intended audience. d. They must present their facts clearly. 16. Joanna Coles series of books about The Magic School Bus appeal to children through a. The use of full-page colored photographs that include considerable details. b. The use of humorous cartoon-type illustrations. c. The use of time lines that help children reconstruct history. d. The use of maps that carefully develop locations. 17. ALL BUT WHICH of the following is an informational book about plants? a. Fishers The Story Goes on b. Micuccis The Life and Times of the Apple c. Millards A Street Through Time: A 12,000 Year Walk Through History d. Lockers Sky Tree: Seeing Science Through Art

18. ALL BUT WHICH of the following topics is part of the geology and geography category of informational books? a. Natural disasters b. Weather c. Exploration d. Dinosaurs

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19. Books that appeal to childrens curiosity about home appliances and machines include: a. Macaulays The Way Things Work b. Bangs My Light c. Janeczkos Top Secret: A Handbook of Codes, Ciphers, and Secret Writings d. All of these books are about how things work 20. Which kinds of informational books are MOST popular with young adult readers? e. Nature f. American and world history g. How things work h. All of the above 21. Books written by which authors are especially good for developing science curriculum? a. Russell Freedman and Jean Fritz b. Millicent Selsam and Seymour Simon c. Milton Meltzer and Robyn Montana Turner d. David Macaulay and Barbara Rogasky 22. Which of the following activities would be an appropriate use of informational books in a science class? a. To learn to read for the main idea. b. To extend knowledge and understanding of science content. c. To learn to use the parts of a book and locate sources of information. d. All of the above. 23. Why are activities involving reading skills such as noting supporting details and seeing an authors organization appropriate when reading informational books? a. Informational books are factual. b. Informational books do not include any literary elements to confuse the reader. c. Informational books tend to present information in a simple, consistent format. d. All of the above.

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24. Which of the following would NOT be a critical reading of scientific materials? a. Interpreting implied ideas b. Weighing the validity of facts c. Suspending disbelief d. Determining the adequacy of a source of information 25. Which of the following questions would most likely encourage a reader to critically evaluate an informational book? a. When was the book written? b. How competent is the author to write about this topic for this purpose? c. What is the book about? d. What sources did the author use to write the book?

ESSAY QUESTIONS ____________________________________


Formulate responses to each of the following essay questions. You will submit only one essay response to your mentor. 1. Identify the criteria for evaluating informational books. Choose one book that you believe meets the majority of your criteria and explain your reasons for thinking so. 2. Respond to this question, Who should write science information books for children? Defend your answer with evidence from the chapter. 3. Name four of the most common categories for informational books for children and provide the titles and authors of at least one book in each category. 4. Select an informational book and describe one instructional activity that you could use with that book and elementary school children. 5. Discuss the values of using informational books with children.

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TOPICS FOR REFLECTION


Choose one of the following topics for reflection. Submit your response to your mentor as directed in the Syllabus. 1. On page 531, James Rutherford, the chief education officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, advocates the use of informational books instead of standard science textbooks for younger children. Do you agree or disagree with his points? Why or why not? How can the pictures and the stories that often accompany these books work to educate children in ways textbooks do not? 2. What qualities should a writer of an informational book possess? Does such a writer need to be a subject matter expert? Can research stand in the place of personal experience? 3. Select one of the books discussed in chapter 12. How would you share this book in a classroom setting? What lesson would it be part of? What activities could you use to extend the book into the real life setting of the children?

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Appendix
Answer Key to Multiple-Choice Study Questions
Lesson 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. d c b c a b d a c d c b a 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. c a a d c c d c d d a b

Lesson 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. b c d b b d a b c b d a a 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. d c b b b a b a d c c c

Lesson 3
1. d 2. b

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

b b c a a a c c c d c c

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

c d b d a a a b a a b

Lesson 4
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. d b b b c d a a c b c a d

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

c b b c b d c a d a b b

Lesson 5
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. c c a d a b a b d d d c c 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. d c c b c b a b d b a c

Lesson 6
1. d 2. b

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

d b c b d a b a c d c b

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

c d c d a c d c d b b

Lesson 7
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. a c d d b c a b c a c a c

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

a c b d a d c c d a d a

Lesson 8
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. b a c b b a c b d c c d b

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

a c b b a d a d b a a c

Lesson 9
1. b 2. c 3. a 4. c 5. a 6. c

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

a a c a b c a b a a

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

c b b b b b d d c

Lesson 10
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. d d d b b c d c a b a a b

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

d a a d b c c d b c a b

Lesson 11
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. a c d d b b d c b b a c d

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

b c b a d d a c c d b d

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Lesson 12
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. d a d b c c d d d a a d c 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. d b b c d d b b d c c b

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