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T"5

THE

/9Z2

MATERIA MEDICA
OF THE HINDUS
BY

UDAY CHAND DUTT


LATE CIVIL MEVTCAL OFFICER, SEE A MP QBE.

WITH

A GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS


BY

GEORGE

KING,

It.

C.

I.

E., f., R. b.

Superintendent, Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta.

REVISED EDITION.

WITH ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS


BY
Kaviraj Binod Lall Sen

Kaviraj Ashutosh Sen


and

Kaviraj Pulin Krishna Sen (Kavibhushan).

CALCUTTA.

NOVEMBER,

1922

KlSSOURi BOTANICAL ***OEN LIBRARY

Printed and Published ry Madan Gopal Dass FOR THE

Machine
Road

\%
%

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


:0:

? ,
vb

That the ancient Hindus made considerable progress in the / science of medicine is fully acknowledged by European savants
S^. who have studied both the western and eastern systems, anoient and modern. Hindu medicine, however, is specially indebted to ;V Dr. Wise for the masterly way in which he placed its merits
before the western world.

The
effect.

efficacy

of medicines

is

best proved by the cures they

The

beneficial results,

specially in chronic cases, obtained


is

by the use

of

drugs prepared according to the Hindu system

often found to be simply marvellous.

The large number

of

Hindu

physicians successfully practising in Calcutta, in competition with


Allopathic, Homoeopathic and

Yunani

practitioners, is a standing

testimony to the value of indigenous drugs manipulated aooording


to the directions left

behind by the sage? of

old.

The

rale

among

the natives of Bengal seems to be to resort to western systems in the


first

stage of diseases,

it

being the general belief that the

ancient

Hindu system
trials of the

is

slow in giving relief to the sufferer.


side

But the

two systems, that are daily taking place

by side of each other, are now gradually creating a oonviotion in


the public mind, that the
sure
in its results,

Hindu system though slow


it

is

ultimately
after

and that

never

produces

those

disturbances which the administration of violent foreign medicines


so affects the debilitated systems of patients. If the
of medicine is so beneficial

Hindu system
in

for the allevition of

human misery

this world, it is necessary that the

knowledge which hitherto lay


view that the
late Dr.

hid in anoient Sanskrit works should be placed within the reach


of all searchers after truth. It is with this

^
V

*\

Uday Chand Dutt

published the present work in 1870.

The book

was universally received with favour as the best contribution ever made to the literature on the subject of the indigenous drugs of India, and within a few years the first edition was entirely
exhausted*

**

IV

Though

there was a great

demand

for this valuable work,

second edition was not brought out owing to the untimely death
o the author.

Great interest ha?, however, been awakened of


Indian medicines.

late in the subject of

At the Medioal Congress

held in Calcutta in 1894, a Drugs Committee was appointed with

the late Dr.

Kanny

Lall
ftlso

menfc of India have

and the Governsinoe then appointed a Commission with


aa Joint President,

Dey

the object of considering "the desirability of extending the use of

indigenous drugs of India."

The

advisibality of using serviceable


is

Indian medicines as remedial agents

also

admitted by medical
a considerable fresh

men

all

over the country.

As a

result,

demand has lately sprung up for this work, to meet which we now publish a new edition. Every pains have been taken to make this edition as accurate as possible, and a considerable amount of new
information, which the publishers gathered in the oourse of their

long experience as Ayurvedic physicians, have been added to

it.

With

these remarks

we now venture
it

to place

the work in

the

hands of the public, hoping that

will be

found useful by medioal

praotioners and prove beneficial to suffering humanity at large.

CALCUTTA.

-|

KAVIRAJ ASHUTOSH SENT


KA-VIRAJ PULIN KRISHNA SEN

NOVEMBER,

1922

PREFACE.
This
treatise,

work

ia

not a literal translation of

any particular

but a compilation from standard Sanskrit Medical works,

arranged somewhat upon the plan of Waring's Manual of Therapeutics,

and intended

to give a concise exposition of

the Materia

Medioa of the Hindus.

commentary on the Hindu system of Medicine, has given a pretty full and accurate account of the Anatomy, Surgery and Pathology of the Hindus. With regard to his work I may here repeat, what I have stated in the preface to my translation of the Nidana, "That the natives if India cannot be too grateful to him for the trouDr. Wise,
in his

ble he has taken in bringing to light the contents of their ancient

medical works, and establishing their right position in the history


of

medicine."

The scope and plan

of

his book did not, however,

admit of his treating of Sanskrit Materia Medioa in the manner


of
to

modern works on the subject. I have, therefore, undertaken publish this work under the impression that it will prove

an acceptable contribution to the history of drugs, and will

form a basis for farther researches on indigenous medicines. In the first part of the work I have given an account of
the mineral medicines used by the Hindus, the

mode

in

which and
in

they are prepared for use,


the
principal

their chemical

composition,
are

combinations in

which they

employed

different

diseases.

With

regard to the

Vegetable Materia
scientific

Medioa, I have endeavoured to give the correct


of the plants described,

names

by procuring the drugs through

practis-

ing Kavirajas.or native physicians, and having them


in the

identified

Royal Botanic Gardens.


describing the general properties of individual articles

In
I

have not followed the


under
this

Sanskrit

texts literally.

Sanskrit

writers,
perties,

head, after recounting their sensible pro-

enter into

minute

details

regarding their cooling or

VI

heating effects on the


the humours which
of
life,

system, and their special influence on

are
bile,

supposed

to

Bupport the
blood.

machinery
experience

namely,

air,

phlegm and

Theee details

are not so

much
I

the result of

observation

and

as the outcome of
therapeutics.
tions
of the

an erroneous

system of
selected

pathology

and

have, therefore,

for notice

such porthe drugs

texts

as relate to the practical use of

and their tangible effects on the system. departing from the texts, has enabled me
in one place,

This latitude in
to

bring together
of

useful hints regarding the uses

particular

drugs from different Sanskrit treatises on therapeutics. I have occasionally added remarks on their history and economic
uses

where

thought

had Lew or additional information


These remarks are for the most

to afford on the subject.

part based on personal knowledge.

In describing the preparation and useE of medicines employed


in different

diseases I have confined

myself strictly to the texts

of the authors

whom

have quoted, and have given the original


I

Sanskrit

verseB in foot-notea.
results of

have not incorporated with

them the

modern researches on indigenous drugs, or


ohject here has been to

my

persinal experience of their use.


future essay.

These I have reserved for a

show the extent of knowledge attained by Hindu physicians by their own praotice
and observation.
In the selection of the prescriptions for illustrating the uses of medicines in individual diseases I have, as a rule, given preference
oians.

My

to such reoipes as are

commonly used by native physiwell-known medicines of similar

Where

there are several


use,
I

have described in detail only one, and given under it the names of the others with a brief allusion to their composition. My main object in inoluding the names of
the priDcipal or generally

composition and

known preparations

of the

Hindu

Materia Medioa in the text and index, is to enable the practitioner of European Medicine to get an idea of their nature and composition when he comes to hear of their having been used by
patients

who had been under


care, as is

under his

native treatment before coming very often the case. The list is by no means
I

an exhaustive one, nevertheless

have, at the risk of being tedious,

Vll

endeavoured

to

include under some head or other most of the

combinations which were pointed out to me by experienced native


physicians, as generally used in practice.

In detailing the uses


exaggerated statements.

of

particular combinations of medicines,

Sanskrit writers are, sometimes, in the habit of indulging in

Thus

for

example a medicine, which


i9

is

really used in a special disease,

say jaundice,

described in the

chapter devoted to the treatment of this disease, but a host of


other diseases physicians
irrelevant
C

may

also

be

recited

as

cured by

it.

Native

who regard

these writings as sacred,

explain these

statements by

saying that they are secondary uses,

have, for the most part, omitted

them

in

my

translations of the

texts,

hence their English renderings will sometimes

appear

deficient or incomplete.

The names of the works given below the Sanskrit texts merely shew that those texts are to be found in them, and not that they
were originally composed by the authors or compilers of those
books.

The combinations or formulae generally


it is

used, are to be

found in most compilations, and


trace

not alwajs prasticable to

them

to their original sources.

In quoting these authorities


the principle upon which the

I have, as a natural consequence of

prescriptions were selected,

had

to give

preference to works that

are used as text books by native physicians.

The number
indefinite

of Sanskrit medical works, and especially of small


is

oompilations on the treatment of -diseases,


to
is

too

numerous and

admit of detailed enumeration here.

The enquirer

after

them

sure to fiad, in different parts of the country or seats

of learning,

many

little

manuals, essays and digests of which


It

he did not hear before.


containing such

would seem that in the absence


as

of printing, teachers of medicine used to prepare small compilations

prescriptions

they were in the habit of


often dubbed

using for the guidance of their pupils, who copied them for
personal
use.

These manuals
less

are

with fancy

names,

and have more or

circulation according to their

merit or the extent of influence of their authors.

There are

however a few works


India. I will here notice

which

owing
briefly.

to

their

comprehensive

character, ancient date, or real merit, are well-known throughout

them

Vlll

The two works

Galled

Charaka Sanhita and Susruta Xyurveda


treatises

are the oldest and most celebrated

now
in

extant.

An

older

work

oalled

on Hindu medicine Ayurveda is mentioned

both these works as having formed a part of the Atharva


It is said to

Veda

have been originally composed by Brahma,


Afterwards,
consideration of
beings,
it

the creator, and to have consisted of a thousand chapters and

a hundred- thousand

slokas.

in

the short lives and small intellects of

human

was

abridged into eight chapters as follows


1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

Salya or surgical treatment.

Sdlakya or diseases of the head, eyes, ears and face.


Kdyachikitsd or treatment of general diseases.

.Bhutavidyd or diseases caused by evil

spirits.

Kaumdra-bhritya or the treatment of infants and of the

puerperal state.
6.
7.

Agada or antidotes
Rasdyana
or

to poisons.

medicines

which

promote

health

and

longevity.
8.

Vdjikarana, or aphrodisiacs.

The Ayurveda with a hundred thousand slokas is probably a myth, but the abridged Ayurreda with its eight divisions seem
to

have had a real existence, although


day.
It

it is

not available in the

present

probably

became

obsolete after

works

of

Charaka and Susruta were composed. Charaka is generally believed to be older than Susruta and consequently to be the oldest work on Sanskrit Medicine now
In the introduction to this work it is said that Xtreya, a learned devotee, taught the holy Ayurveda to six pupils namely, Agnivesa, Bhela, Jatukarna, Pardsara, Harita and Kharapani.
extant.
;

Agnivesa

first

wrote a treatise on medicine,

and afterwards

Bhela and others followed, eaoh producing a separate work and thereby acquiring great renown. The work of Agnivesa was
regarded as the best.
in

whose name
this

it is

was edited or corrected by Charaka now current. At the end of eaoh book
It

of

work

it

is

said,

that tanira or scientific treatise

was
later

composed by Agnivesa

and correoted by Charaka

writer Vagbhatta in his introduction to his Asht&nga-hridayasanhita says, that that work had been compiled from the treatises

IX

Agmvesa, Hutita, Bhela, Susvata, Susruta, Kavala, and others. From this it would seem that the six disciples of Xtreya, mentioned in Charaka, were not mythical beings, but authors of books, for two of them, namely, Agnivesa and Bhela are mentioned by Vagbhatta. It would appear also, that at the time Viigbbatta lived, Agnivesa's work was not called by the name of Charaka, and Susruta had also been written. Hence it follows that Charaka's edition of Agnivesa, that is the work now called Charaka, was probably edited after Susruta had b6en written. Atreya is said to have lectured somewhere near the Himalaya, and his name occurs very frequently in the Vedas. His father Atri was a renowned sage, 'and the author of a law
of
treatise

which*

is

current in his name.

There

is

no clue

to the
*

nativity of Charaka, but Dridhabala,


his work,
calls himself a native of
is

chapters to Panchanada or the Panjab. *

who added some

Sasruta, on the other hand,

said to
it is

have been written in Benares,


clear that

From

the facts detailed above,

the work called

Charaka was composed at a very early age. I will not attempt to hit at the century before Christ in which it was probably written as it is a question which can be best discussed by professed antiquarians.
I

may

notice, however, that the

book

is

composed in an

antiquated style and appears to have been written before the

spread of the Puranio form of Hinduism, as the names of modern

gods and goddesses do not occur in


at the

it,

and the author does

not,

commencement

of
is

the work, offer his salutations to any

mythological deity, as

usual with later writers.

Beef was not


of it as

then, apparently, a forbidden food, for


article of diet that should not be

Charaka speaks

an

taken daily, t

* *

^^i*?

??rat

*w: s^tI at

w&\ *? >w^^^t

Pifrqra

^ira^f
I

OTsiftwari:
t

fafwks.wi
fagreta
aft^iT

WcZTTS^StfofWITI
T=Tmf3
I

f fl3ifa

*mi*{ 3fa

M Wta

ST**ite

*ta^l
ts

^^^ni ffTmfsKftaramr:

The work next


systematic in
its

in

point of

age,

namely, Susruta,

arrangement, contains better details of

more anatomy
is
i

and pathology, and shews on the whole more advanced state of knowledge, both of general principles and of details of treatment.

The

origin of the

Susruta Ayurveda

is

thus described in the

introduction to that work.

Dhanvantari, the surgeon of heaven,

descended upon earth in the person of Divadasa, king of Benares,


for the purpo36 of

teaching

surgery

along

with the other

branches of medical knowledge by which the gods preserve themeelves from decline, disease and death.

Sasruta and other pupils

besought him for instruction in surgical knowledge,


vantari asked them
plied "you will
of

Dhan-

what they wished to learn. The pupils rebe pleased to make surgical knowledge the basis
to Sasruta,

your instruction, and to address your lectures

who

will take notes."


is

Dbanvantari replied, "be

it so.

For surgery

and most important part of the Ayurveda, inasmuch as the healing of wounds was the first necessity for the medical art
the
first

among

the gods on account of their battles with the demons.

Besides, surgical

treatment effects rapid cures, has recourse to


appliances,

instruments,

mechanical
is

caustics

and

the actual

cautery and

intimately connected with the other branches o

medioal science."

Accordingly -we find that Susruta devotes the

greater portion of his

work

to

sach subjeots as anatomy, surgioal

instruments and operations, inflammation and surgical diseases, care of the king and his troops *in the battle-field, obstetrical
operations, poisons, etc.

The general
etc,

diseases such as fever,

diarrhoea,

chest diseases,

are treated of in the last book called "TJttira-tantra," but there are reasons for believing, that this portion did not originally

form a part

of

the work,

but was

subsequently added
it.

by some writer with the object of giving completeness to is evident from several reasons. The very name
mental"
thought,
is if

This

Uttara "supple-

enough

suggest the idea of its being an after not a subsequent woik. Had it been an integral

to

part of the original treatise,


the original scheme.
first

would have been included in But at the end of the firtt chapter of the
it

book, an analysis of the contents of the entire given wherein it is said that this work consists

work

is

of five parts

containing 120 chapters in all.*


effect,

This

is

followed by a line to the

that in the Uttara-tantra the remainder of the subject will

he described.

This last

line,

however,

is

evidently an interpola-

tion, for if the original

writer of the work had divided his book


it

into
parts.

six part?,

he would not have said that

consisted o five

Besides the

Uttara-tantra has a separate introduction in


it is

which the writer says

compiled from the works of learned

sages on the six divisions of KayachikiUd or the treatment of

general diseases, and from the work of Videhidhipa on Salakya


Sdfetra or diseases of the head, eyes, ears

and nose.

of

we leave out of consideration tie Utlara fantra Susruta, the work resolves itself mainly into a treatise on the
If therefore
It

principles of medicine as bearing on surgical diseases.

would

thus appear, that from a very early age, Hindu medical practitioners

were divided into two


called

classes,

namely, Salja chikitsaka or

surgeons and Kayachikitsaka or physicians.


also

The surgeons were

Dhanvantaryia sampradaya after Dhanvantari the reputed teacher of Susruta, or from Dhanvantari the mythological
surgeon of the gods.
This division existed before the work of

Charaka was compiled, for as pointed out by Kaviraja Brajendrakumar Sen Gupta, Charaka, like our modern physicians, refers his
readers to surgeons

when

surgical aid

is

necessary, as for example


therefore, that

in the passage quoted below, f

We may conclude,
.

Charaka

is

the oldest treatise on Medicine and Susruta the oldest

treatise on Surgery

now

extant.

These two works, namely, Charaka and Susruta mark the highest phase of development of the Hindu system of Medicine in ancient ti aaes. Their comprehensive ohareater and superior
merit probably
led, in

course of time, to the extinction of the

<ta%i

^^fafafajt^iT^ffireirc:

* *

XII

manuscripts

of

authors

who had preceded themman.

Succeeding
of

writers and practitioners eatne to regard these


origin and

works as

divine

beyond the criticism of

Accordingly they dared

nob add

to or

amend what

these ancient sages had recorded regard-

general principles of medicine and special pathology, hut ing the


confined
their labours
to

making better arranged and more


and to explainCharaka and Susruta, while in
students,

compendious compilations

for the use of

ing or dilating upon the texts of

the matter of surgical practice, there


in knowledge

has been a gradual decline


present day an educated
is

and experience

till

at the

surgeon of the Dhanvantariya gampradaya

phenomenon un-

known in Hindustan. The next compilation on Hindu Medicine is said to be the Aehtanga-bridaya-sanhita by Sinha Cupta Sena Viigbhatta. This work is a mere compilation from Charaka and Susruta methodically arranged.
It contains
litte

or nothing that
it

is

original

or that

is

not to be found in the works from which

was compiled,

This circumstance, together with the fact of Yagbhatta being alwajs mentioned by later writers as an old authority, seems to

Bhow that his work was compiled not long after those of Charaka and Susiuta. Like these two writers he does not mention the use of mercury in the treatment of diseases.

Next in point of age, are the two works called respectively the Niduna by Madhava Kara and Chakradatta-sangraha bj Chakrapani Datta.

The

first is

a concis? treatise on the causes,

symptoms

and prognosis
students of
is

compiled from various authors, and has been used from a loog time as the text- book on pathology by

of diseases,

Hindu Medicine throughout

India.

Professor Wihson

Arabians of the eighth century cultivated the Hindu works on Medioine before those of the Greeks and
;

of opinion that "the

that the Charaka, the Susruta, and the treatise called Nidana were translated and studied by the Arabians in the days of Harun and Mansur ( A. D. 77: 1), either from the originals, or more probably from translations made at a still earlier period
into the language of Persia."

Chakradatta-saograha, describes in detail the treatment of diseases arranged in the order in which they are
desoribed in the Niduna of

The

treatise called

Madhava Kara, and

to

which

it ia

companion volume.

Its

author deals chiefly with vegetable drugs.


in

He

gives a few prescriptions containing mercury,


is

which

this

mixed with sulphur and vegetable substances, but the preparations of mercury produced by sublimation and chemical
combination
with
ealts, etc.,

metal

were unknown

to him.

It

would and

appear, therefore,
time.

that mercury was just coming into use in his


so

He

does not mention opium,

that his work,

consequently the Kidana, must have been composed before the


intracluction of this drug into India

by the Mussulmans
is

The
treatise,

last

great work on Hindu Medicine

that called the

Bhavaprakasa, compiled by Bhava Misra.

It is a

comprehensive

compiled from the works of preceding authors, with much additional information on the properties of drugs, accounts
of

new

drugs, and of some

new

diseases,

as

for example,

the

syphilis
in this

introduced into India by the Portuguese and described

work under the name of Phiringi roga. By the time this work was composed, opium had been largely employed in practice,
the use of mercury had extended to almost all diseases, various

preparations of gold, silver,

tin,

copper, orpiment, arsenic,

etc. f

had come into fashion, superseding to a considerable extent the


vegetable drugs of the older writer
;

in short,

and therapeutics had reached their acme.

Hindu patholozy Dr. Wise sajs that

Bhavaprakasa was composed about three hundred years ago. It China root, called cannot, at any rate, be a much older work.
Chobohini
in the vernacular,
is

described in

it.

According

to

Fluckiger and Handbury the use of this drug as a remedy for


syphilis was
traders,

made known
(

to the
).

about

A. D. 1533

Goa by Chinese Hence the Bhavaprakasa must


Portugueese
at

have been compiled after

this period.

Besides the systematic treatises on the description and treat-

ment
ties

of dieases above noticed, there are several

devoted especially to
of individual

works in Sanskrit the description of the synonyms and properdiet.

medicines and articles of


is

The

oldest
It is

treatise

on this subject

the one called Rajanirghantu.

generally ascribed to Dhanvantari, but Pundit Madhusudan Gupta estimated the age of this work at 600 years. As both mercury

and opium are mentioned

in

this

treatise,

it

cannot be older.

Some

later compilations

on this subject are in general use at the

iiv

present day.

In the

North- West
is

Provinces,

the Nirghantu,

compiled by Madanpala,

generally perused by students. In

Bengal, avery superficial compilation, under the


vallabba,
is

name

of Raja-

in currency.
is

In Orissa, a superior work, called


used.
oalcining,

Satkantha-ratnabharana,

The progress
dioal use,

of chemistry or rather of the art of

subliming and of otherwise preparing mineral substances for me-

was comparatively slow in the early ages. Susruta used


salts,

the natural
of potash

such as chloride of sodium, impure carbonates


etc
;

and soda, borax,


to the

he emplojed iron in anaemia, and


tin,

briefly referred

supposed properties of silver, copper,

lead

and the precious

stones,

but he gave no detailed instructions


preparation or administration in

regarding their
special diseases.
to

calcination,

Chakradatta gives some processes for reducing

powder

iron,

copper and

ing these remedies.

and a few prescriptions The olde&t work containing a


talc,

containdetailed

account of the calcination or preparation of the different metals


(

such as gold,

silver, iron,

mercury, copper, tin and lead


is

),

for

internal use, with formulae for their administration,

believe

a concise treatise on medicinal preparations by Sarangadhara.

Opium and

pellitory

root are mentioned in this work, hence

it

must have been compiled during the Mussulman period. Since then a host of works on metalio preparations and combinations have been prepared both in Bengal and the North- West Provinoes,
and mineral medicines have been largely adopted in the treatment of diseases. The more important parts of the information contained in these works are embodied in the

Bhavaprakasa and tho

two works on inorganic medicines generally used in Bengal, namely, Rasendra-chintamani and Rasendrasarasangraha. As observed on page 54, most of the mineral preparations of the Hindus consist of their few metallic remedies combined or mixed
together in an endless variety of forms. Nevertheless we cannot help admiring the ingenuity and boldness of the Hindu physicians, when we find, that they were freely and properly

using such

powerful drugs as arsenic, mercury, iron, etc., while the Mussulman Hakims around them, with imperial patronage and the
boasted learning of the west, recording such remarks regarding them ae the following
:

*v
"Soomboolkhar,
kinds of this, one
Daroaa, the fifth
to 'the white

oxide ol arsenic'

There are sii

named Sunkia the third Godanta, the fourth Huldea. The Yunani physicians do not allow this

form a part of their prescriptions, as they believe, it destroys the vital principle. The physicians of India, on the contrary,
find these

drugs more effectual in many disorders, than others

of

less

power, such as the calx of metals.

For

this reason too

am

in the habit of

seldom giving these remedies internally, but


use of them to external application and as
to

I usually oonfine

my

aphrodisiacs which I prescribe

a few friends,
l

who may have


It
is

derived no benefit from

Yunani prescriptions.

better

however
in

to use as

few of them as possible."


It is

"Para, 'Mercury.'

very generally used throughout India


cautious,

many ways, both in its latter we ought to be very


removed from
Iron.'
is

native and prepared state, but in the


fox it is

seldom
it is

sufficiently

killed or

its

native state, in which

a dangerous

drag."

"Loha,
but

It is

commonly used by physicians


it

in India,
3

my

advice

to have as little to do with

as possible."

At the end

of the

present work

is

appended a glossary of
In the body of the

Indian plants described by

Sanskrit writers.

work I have selected for notice only such drugs and plants as have some definite U3e in a particular disease, or class of diseases. Numerous other plants used in medicine incidentally, or for
economic purposes, are mentioned by Sanskrit writers, but these
are not of sufficient importance in a medicinal point of view to

deserve detailed

notice
list of

in a

work

of

this sort.

had prepared

an alphabetical
scientific

these plants with their vernacular and

names

for

my

personal use.

Dr. King kindly undertook

to revise this glossary for me, and, at his suggestion, it is printed

as

an appendix

to this work.

The Bengali equivalents

of the Sanskrit terms in the glossary

have been taken mainly from

Sir

Raj 4 Rudhakdnta Deva's

Encyclopasdia of Sanskrit learning entitled the Sabdakalpadrurna.

The Hindi names have been obtained from the vernaculars given
1.

Taloef Shareef. translated by Geerge Playfair, page 99.

2.
3.

Idem, page

26..

Idem, pag e 146.

iii

the Bhavaprakasa

the A.mrita-stigar, a Hindi translation of a

treatise

on

Sanskrit

medicine

and

Kesava-binoda-bhasa

Nirghantu, a Hindi treatise on therapeutics translated from the


Sanskrit by Pandit Kesava-prasada Dvivedi of the Agra College. The scientific equivalents of these Sanskrit and vernacular

terms have been gleaned chiefly from Roxburgh's Flora Indica, Jameson's Report on the Botanical garden of the North- West
Provinces
for

1855,

O'Shaughnessy's

Bengal

Dispensatory,
of
to

Powell's Report on

Punjab Products,

these writers have been verified,

The translations whenever it was practicable


etc.

do

go,

by identifying the plants in the Royal Botanic Gardens.

The

rest

have been given chiefly on the authority of Roxburgh


comparing his descriptions with the characters

after carefully

assigned to them by Sanskrit writers.


fication of

Some

plants,

the identilist.

which was doubtful, have been omitted from the

The

scientific

names

of

many

of these plants

have been ascertained


specimens

for the first

time, by Dr. King, after examination of

procured by me. Dr. King has also furnished the reoent botanical

names

of

numerous planta the old names for which have now

become

obsolete.

With regard
I

to the

spelling of the

Sanskrit

vernacular terms,

should

mention that professor H. H.


or as
it is

Wil
called the

now sometimes
is

Hunterian System, has been adopted, so far as

necessary to arrive at the correct pronunciation of the words, bub the minute distinctions between the two varieties of the dental and palatal S, the four varieties of N, and the long and short

sounds of some of the vowels, which are not always practically obserred in pronouncing them, have not been insisted upon in
correcting the proof-sheets.

The vernacular terms have been


varies
so

for

the most part, spelt as they are written in standard Bengali and

Hindi

dictionaries.
parts" of

different

The spoken language the country and among

muoh

in

different

closses of

people, that it would be

hopeless to attempt any thing like a

complete vocabulary of nameB as pronounced by the people of the


different

provinces

of

which

Hindi

and

Bengali are the

vernaculars.

great peculiarity of the Sanskrit language consists in its having numerous synonyms for material objeote, and medicines

One

9 9

XVll

form no exception to this rule. Almost all well known plants have several synonyms, and some have as many as twenty to forty names gulancha has thirty-nine, chebulie myrobalan thirty, the
;

lotus thirty-eight, with half as

many

for

ifc 3

varieties,

and so on.

Native physicians learn these synonyms by rote, just as they do their grammars and dictionaries. Sanskiit medical works, like most other works in the laDguage, are composed in rhyme, and

any one

of
it

the
in

numerous synonyms

of

a drug

may

be used to

designate
the fancy
tion.
it is

prescriptions containing the article according to

of

the writer and the necessities of metrical composiagain are

Many names
is

common

to

numerous

articles,

and

often impossible without the help of annotations to

make cut

which drug
times

meant by a particular term.

In the absence of any

scientific description of

plants, however, these

synonyms some-

serve to describe their prominent characters, and thus


to their indentification.

prove an aid
to this

In the glossary appended


a complete
list of

work,

have not attempted


of each plant.

to give

all

these synonyms.
pal

or

As current name

a general rule I

have given only the princi-

Some

plants have however

more than one well-known and currently-used names. In such instances, I have given those names in the first column only, with a reference to the synonyms under which their vernacular and
Sanskrit equivalenta have been given.
I

avail

myself of this opportunity, publicly to tender

my

cordial thanks to those gentlemen

who have

assisted

me

in carry*

ing this work through the press.

To Dr. George King, Superin-

tendent of the Royal Botanis Gardens, I feel myself particularly beholden. He has helped me most materially in a variety of

ways and has thereby enabled me


mistakes.

to

avoid

many

errors

ard

On many

occasions he has spent hours in identifying

and he has revised nearly all the last various dru^s for me; The recent names of sheets were printed. proofs, before the entirely due to his pen, and they plants in the glossary are
considerable and tedious labour. entailed on him

Without these

names, I should have been obliged


of

to content

myself with the old

Roxburgh and others, which names, gleaned from the woiks synonyms, ani which would have are now only tclerated as of the glossary as a work of seriously impaired the usefulness
C

xviu
reference.
1

am

indebted to him, likewise, for his permission to


Sen, Overseer of the Royal Botanic
enquiries,

allow Babu Prasaima Kum*r

Gardens,
to solve

to assist

me

in

my

and

this has

enabled

me

many

a donbtful point in the translation of the scientific

names of plants into the vernaouJar. Daring the absence of Dr. King from the Gardens, Mr. S. Kurz cordially helped me
whenever
medicines.
I

had occasion

to

seek his aid in identifying native

Dr.
forms,

Norman Chevers kindly corrected f j>r me some of the and put me in ihe proper way of doing this work. Rai
sacrifice

Kauai Lai Day Bahadur has, at considerable


the chemical composition of
part of this work.
first

of hia

valuable time, analyzed the mineral substances "and preparations,

which has been described in the


these preparations

first

Most

of

have now for the

time been analyzed by him.

To Dr. Rajendralala Mitra,

am

indebted for valuable advice regarding the plan of getting

up

this work,

and for explanations of some obscure questions


Sen,

regarding the history of of Indian medical works.

To Kaviraj Binod Lai

my

grateful acknowledgments are

due for the very liberal manner in which he has furnished me with lists of medieines generally used in practice, supplied me with specimens of native medicines, and practically shewn and
explained to

me

the processes by which metallic medicines are

prepared in the dispensary under his charge. His cordial assistance has enabled me to bring out this work with greater confidence than if I had had to depend upon my knowledge of
Sanskrit books alone.

Kaviraj Brojendra

Kumar Sen Gupta, Eon

of the late learned

Hiiiadban Sen Gupta, the leaiing native physician of his time in Calcutta, and latterly physician to his Highness

the Maharaja of

me the meanings of many obscure passages in Sanskrit, furnished me with specimens of drugs from his dispensary, supplied me with a list of the preparations ordifor

Kashmere, has interpreted

narily used

by him

in prwtice,

and cordially rendered


to

me

such

other assistance as I had oocasion

seek from him.

THE

MATERIA MEDICA
OF THE HINDUS.
/
.

INTRODUCTION.

MATERIAL OBJECTS AND CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINES.


Charaka divides material objects into three classes, namely, mineral, animal and vegetable. Minerals consist of gold, silver and other metals; diamond, emerald and olher gems; realgar, orpiment and other ores and the various sorts of earths. Vege;

tables are

divided into

four classes, namely, Vanaspati, Vn"ksha


fruits,

Virudh and Oshadhi.


first

Those plants which produce


called

without

showing their

flowers, are

Vanaspatu

Plants which

produce fruits from flowers, which are known by their flowers and
fruits,

and which wave small branches from their trunks, are called Vrihsha. Plants which during their growth are supported by other plants, like orchids are called Virudh, Pratunavatya or
Vallili.

Lastly, those grasses,

fruits, are called Oshadhi.

which die after maturing their Animals are divided into four classes,
etc.,

namely, Jarnyuja or mammalia, Andaja or oviparous, Svedaja or


those produced from animal excretions, as parasites,
etc.,

and

Udbhijja or those produced under ground

or from vegetable

matter, as for example Indragopa, a sort of red insect.

All parts of vegetables

may

be used in medicine, namely,

Root, as of Chitraka (Plumbago Zeylanica*)

Under ground stem,

as of

Sarana (Amorphophallus campanulatus.)

Leaves, as of V<'isaka ( Justicia Adhatoda. Fruits, as the three Myrobalans.

Flowers, as of Dhdtaki ( Woodfordia floribunda. ) y Extract, as Catechu, Opium, etc.

Malati

eic.

Bark, as of Kurclii ( Holarrhena antidytpuf erica. )

Wood,

as of

Asoka etc. Ddrvi ( Berberis Asiatica or aristata. ) Chandan


etc.

(sandal) etc.

Gum,

as

Myrrh, Assafcetida,

SANSKMT MATERIA MEDICI.

Sometimes the
Xanthocarpum.

entire plant

is

used as Kantah'iri (Solatium

The

skin, hair, wool, nails, horns, hoofs, milk, bile, honey, fat,

marrow,

blood,
all

flesh,

urine,

faeces,

seiner,

bones and nerves of

animals are

used in mecieine.
-

Sasruta divides remedial agents into two classes, namely, Pdrthiva or material and Kdlakrita or effected by time, such as
wind, sun-shine, shade, moon-light, darkness, heat, cold, rain, day

and night, changes


etc.

of the moon,

months and seasons of the year,

These are

all said to affect

the

humours

of the

body, and,

through them, the diseases caused by their derangement.


influence of these

The
of,

agents,

if

properly r3gulated or availed

sometimes cures diseases, without the aid of material remedies.


Sanskrit writers do not agree in the
classify

mode

in

which they

medicines

when

describing their properties.

Charaka

divides medicines into

fifty classes,

according to their supposed


system, or on particular
:

action on the different organs

of the

symptoms
1.

of diseases.

These classes are as follows

*ntef)j

2.

softer

Medicines which prolong Vrinhaniya Medicines which promote


Jivaniya
life.

nutrition

and increase corpulency.


3.

^<gT|q

Lekhaniya

Medicines which thin

the tissues, or

reduce corpulency.
4.
5.

5^ffcf Bhedaniya
^ERT^fta

Promote excretions. SandJidmya Promote the union


divided
parts,.

of fractured

or

[power.
the
appetite
Tonics.

6.
7.
k.

^faifta

DipaniyaIncrease

?*$ Balya
<ro

Increase strength.

and digestive

8.
9.

10.
11.

Varnya Improve the complexion. ^jgj Kanthya Improve the voice, or cure hoarseness. ^q- Hridya Promote cheerfulness or relish.
<5fw
TriptigJinaRemove

a supposed

phlegm

which

causes a sense of satiety.


12.
13. 14.
15.
^snrrfa

Arsoghna Cure

piles.

^W Knshthaghna Cure

skin diseases.
pruritis.

WQp

KandughnaCnve
Krfnughna

i%

Cure worms.

16.

fare VishaghnaAct as antidotes to poisons.

INTRODUCTION
17.

^WaTTT Stanyajmana

18
19. 20.

Promote secretion of milk. Stanyasodhana Improve the quality of milk. ^r^tw^T Sukrajanana Increase the secretion of semen. W*^
ijsft^^ SukrasodhanaVuv'rfy the semen, Snehopayoga Emollients. ^TTf<*sfFT

21.
22.
23.

Svedopayoga Diaphoretics. ^jfTWPT Vamanopayoga Emetics, ^H*ftWt*F


^WTT^^I^T
Asthdpanopayoga

24.
25.
s

fctf^ifMftr Virecha+opayoga Purgatives.

Medicines

for

use

in

26.
27.

q^ & 0fto<
i

enemas. mlM ^fftr Anuvdsanopayoga


Tfr rafrr

Medicines for

oily

enemas.

SirovirechanopayogaTromoto

disoharge

from the nose.


28. 29.

^fw^ff

Chhardinigrahana~Rel\ere vomiting.

<S*ufaT?^ Trishmnigrahana
f%^Tfinrenr Hikkdniqrahajia

30. 31.

Relieve hiccupRender the


fasces

gfta^^
sistent.

con-

32.

Alter the color" of the Tr^fawffa Purishamrajaniya


fgeces.

33. 34. 35. 36.

*jf*w?<jfta
ijsrfaT^TJffr

Reduce 3ecretion of urine.

Mutravirajanhja Alter colour of urine.

ijwfat^rta MutravirecTiantya
'*fiT*r?T

urme

Kdsahara Cure cough.

87.
38.

Cure difficult breathing or asthma. *ror?T Svdsaharar Sothahara Cure anasarca or swellings. -sjtsrST
*k<6< Jvarahara

39.
40.

Febrifuges.

41.
42.
43.
44.

SramaharaRemove fatigue. wfT Bdhaprasamana Relieve burning or heat of bodj. q ^HWH


i

rTV|9{*re Sit aprasamana

Relieve sense of coldness.


urticaria.

^rSlWH

U'darddhaprasamana Cure

[limbs.
in the

45.
46.
47.

AngamarddaprasamanaRelieve pam *T5^ir?!*R Stdaprasamana Cure pain in the bowels. ^HiUHT Styptics. Sonitastlidpana sfffaWNT VedanrUthapana Anodynes. t^^HEim

48.
49.
50.

Sanjnddhdpana Restore consciousness. raiq m Praj&athdpano Cure innw ^ of age. Prevent the <w;WTT Vayahsthdpana
n
1

sterility.

effects

SA^SKHIT MATERIA MEDICA.

Susruta divides medicines into thirty seven classes,


the
first

named

after

article

of each class.

The medicines included in each

have certain common properties, snch as acidity, sweetness, astringency, etc., are often used in combination, and can be
class

substituted for one another.

This has the advantage of bringing

analogous substances under one head, but numerous medicines come to be written under two or more heads. The Nighaut u and

some other works on the properties of medicines adopt the scented 1. Strongly following classification in describiag them:

substances.

2. 4.

Moderately scented substances.


Extracts.
5. 9.

3.

Weak

scented

substances.
plants. 8.

Precious stones.

6.

Metals.

7.

Sweet
Large

Acid plants.
Middle

Potherbs.

10 Bitter herbs. 11. Flower


13. Eoot-stocks.
16.

plants.
trees.

12. Fruitbearing creepers.


15.

14.

sized

trees.

Small

trees

or

shrubs.

17. Creepers. 18,

Corn and

Pulses.' 19.

Cooked

food. 20. Different


22. Necessaries

sorts of water.

21. Fluids as milk, honey, etc.


etc.

of

life,

such as baths, dress, ornaments,

23.

The

influence of

the elements and imponderables etc.

THE PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL OBJECTS AND THE ACTION OF


MEDICINES ON THE
Mateeial

HUMAN SYSTEM.
have
six sorts

objects, according to Sanskrit writers,

of tastes, twenty sorts of qualities, and

two sorts of forces in them.


.

The six tastes are sweet, acid, salt, bitter, acrid and astringent. The twenty qualities of objects are as follows : Heavy, light, soft,
dull, oily, consistent,

watery,

hot,- fixed,

sharp, tremulous, delicite,

demulcent, smooth, harsh, transparent, hard, pungent, coarse and


cold.

and coolitg. All sut stances are supposed, after digestion, to assume one or other of three sorts of properties thus sweets and salts are supposed to be turned after
:
;

The two

forces are heating

digestion into sweets


astringents,

acids, into

acids

and

bitters, acrid s

and
each

into acrids.

Besides the
its

above

properties,

medicine has a special action of

own.

It is that quality

which

shows

superior to the usual properties of taste, force, and result of assimilation as for example, Danti ( Baliospermum Monitself
;

) )

The

result

INTRODUCTION.
is
is

owing to
1

its special action,

the nature or ultimate cause of which


of the

beyond the comprehension

The various

actions of

Gods themselves. medicines on the human system are


All diseases being supposed to
bile,

described in considerable detail.

be caused by derangement of the humours, namely, wind,

phlegm, blood,

etc., all

medicines are likewise supposed to have

some influence upon one or other of these humours. Susruta divides medicines into two classes, with reference to their action on the humours, namely, Sansamana and Sansodkana. Sansair<ana are medicines which reotify the deranged state of the humours

and c&lm their excited


Sansodhana
are

action, without

promoting the excretiors.


of

which remove collections humours and discharge them by the excretions. The
medicines
bile,

bad
is

first

subdivided into three orderg, namely, medicines influencing wind,

and phlegm, respectively. The second includes emetics, purgatives, errhines and other depuratories. Sarangadhara and

other writers describe the actions of medicines in further detail

and mentian the following


^txpf

classes

Dipana are medicines which promote appetite, but do

not aid in digesting undigested food.


TTT^*T

Pd^hana are medicines which


is,

assist

in digesting undi-

gested food, but do not increase the appetite.

Some medicines
as-

have both these properties, that


digestives.

they are appetizers as well

^3^+H Anulomana
and
set

are medicines which digest the


is,

humours

them

free,

that

promote excretions and favour their

discharge.

fa^^f Virechaka or purgatives are described under threeheads, namely, ^j^ff Sransana, ^T Bhedana, and T^3f Rechaha.. Those medicines which hurry the chyle or materials for digestion,,
without allowing them to be properly digested, are called Sransana,
as for

example the pulp

of Cassia fistula.

Those medicines which

and other contents of the intestines, and discharge th^m from the bowels, without producing watery stools, are called Bhedana, as for example KatuTci ( Prt'corrhiza Kurroa.) Those
set free soybala

medicines which cause the discharge of the digested or undigested


contents of the intestines in a liquid form, are called
for

Hcrhaho, as
last

example, Trivrit (Ipom&a Titrpethum.

These

again are

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDTCA.

subdivided into three orders, namely, mridu or mild, madliyama


or intermediate, and knira or drastic.
^FfiT

bile,

Vamana or emetics are aiedicines which cause emesis mucus and other contents of the stomach.

of

%^T Chhedana are medicines which remove by force as it were and diri&harge from the body adherent phlegm or other humours. Emetics, expectorants, errhines, caustics, etc., would probably
come under
this head.

Black pepper and alkaline ashes are given

as examples of this class of medicines.


#*<PT Lelihana

con tituents of
clearing

humours and altered the body by thinning them gradually and thus
or attenuants remove bad

the sjstem of them.


/

Warm

water, honey, barley etc,

are examples of this class.

Medicines whish promote the secretion of perspiration, urine,

and milk are


<rt^3i*i*T

called, respectively, %%*\

Svedana, ?m*$ Mutrala and

Stanyajanana.

mrrfe Pramdthi are

medicines which

facilitate

the exit of

tubes or receptacles, as for example

Vocha

Acorns Calamus

).

?nf? Grdhi or inspissants are medicines

which from their

sto-

machic, digestive and heating qualities, dry the fluids of the body.
/

W^
their drying, astringent
digestibility,

medicines which from

and cooling

qualities,

and from their easy


secretionf
,

increase the air and retain the

as for

na antidysenterica)
^ftrcjf^

qualities or heaviness, retain the

secretions and
pie,

cause heaviness

fulnes

Dadhi or curdled milk.

Rasdyana or alternative tonics are medicines which prevent or remove the effects of age, increase the vigour of healthy persons and cure the ailments of the sick.
*

T^H

V*

ym
_

Balya or tonics are medicines which increase strength. Vrinhana are medicines

which promote nutrition and

increase the bulk of the body.

a
INTRODUCTION,
^r^r
7

are medicines

which

in-

crease the sexual power.


fsrsr

Visha or poisons are said to be endowed with the following

namely, ^T*ft Vyavdyi, that is affecting the entire system, as for example, opium and hemp. *j^ Stikshma, that is,
qualities,

penetrating
that
is

into

the minutest pores of the body,

fsrcfnfaj

Vikdsi,

drying the humours, depressing the system and causing


^TT^^f

relaxation of the joints, as for example betel-nuts.

Agneya,

Maddcaha, that is depriving men of their senses and enveloping their minds in darkness as
that
is,

heating or stimulant.

*r?Tcr?

spirituous liquors.
but,

Taken

in large

doses,

poisons destroy

life,

judiciously used,

they act as curatives and restore health

even in dangerous d seases.

Nine active or virulent poisons are mentioned by most writers, saktu, pradipana, namely vatsandbJia, hdrtdra, saurdshtrika sringi, kdlakiita, licddhala, and brahmaputra. These cannot all
be identified at present.
aconite, (see page 97).

Most of them are apparently varieties of The following seven drugs are described,
,

as

minor poisons,
roots
)

viz.,

opium, gunjd (seeds of Abrus precatorius)


(

datura,
(

of

Nerium odorum
(snuhi).

karavird

),

and Gloriosa superb


(arka)

languli

and the milky juices


neriifolia

of Calotropis gigantea

and

Euphorbia
orpiment.

The mineral poisons mentioned


arsenic,

in Susruta are

phendsma bhasma or white


poisons,

and haritdla or
is

Of animal

the poison of the serpent

the

only one used in medicine.

WEIGHTS AND MEASUEES


The
differed
scales

of weights

and measures used in ancient days


of the

in different parts

country.

Separate scales are

modern compilers, under the names of Mdgadhi, Kdlinga, Chdraka, Sazisruta, etc. The number of gunjds making a tola varies in these scales from forty to ninetj -six. The scale
described by
of

weights and measures in ordinary use in Bengal, at the prqpent


has the gunjd,
(seed of Abrus precatori
is
>)

day,

for its

lowest

weight.

The

gunja, however,

divided into fractional parts

by

other seeds, thus eighteen mustard seeds, four grains of paddy,

8
three
88 id to

Sanskrit mxterfa medica.


grains of barley and two grains of wheat are respectively

be equal to one gunjd JUT6 Gunjas

This scale
and.
*TT*rT

is

as follows

make one

8 Mdshds or 16 dnds

make one
^f

told cTHi<*.

WT3
2 Seers make one Prastha
8 Seers
jfvg.

make one ddhdka ^TT^f. 32 Seers make one drona ifftT100 Palas or 12| seers make one Tula
In the scale obove described ninty-six gunjas
It

g^ff.

make one

tola*

would seem, however, that in ancient -days Susruta's scale of

forty gunjas to a tola


confections,

was

in general use, for the doses of powders,


etc.,

decoctions,

given in the older works, are con-

sidered monstrous for the present age, and

much

smaller doses are

given in practice.

Orthodox physicians explain the large doses

by saying that they were intended for a superior race of men of ancient days. The subject is involved in much obscurity and this
is

scarcely the place to discuss

it

thoroughly.

In giving the
will
state

doses of medicines described in this


quantities

work,

the

now

prescribed by native physicians in current weights,


differ

hence they will

from the Sanskrit texts from which the


fluid

prescriptions will be translated.

There

is

a peculiarity in

measures which must also be


a prattha or two

noticed in order to prevent misapprehension of the Sanskrit texts.

When
seers

a fluid article

is

ordered in measures

of

and upwards, twice the quantity mentioned should be taken.


if

Thus

in a preparation it is seated, take of solid paste of certain


oil

substances one seer,

two

seers,

and water eight


one

seers,

the

quantities aitually taken are

solid paste

seer, oil four seers

and water sixteen

seers.

En measures

below two seers or in those


sixty palas
etc.,

indicated by pala sach as eighty palas,


quantities are not doubled.

the

The

doses of medicines are not fixed.

They

are regulated by

the age, strength, and digestive power of the patient, the nature of the illness, the state of the viscera and humours, and lastly by the properties of individual diugs.

"\

INTKODUCTIOX.
-

dose of a medicine for adults to he two tol'is, the doses for children of different ages would be as follows.: For infants a month old, one gunjd, and an additional
full

Supposing the

gunj& for each additional mouth.

For children a year old, the d^sa would be one mdshd or twelve gunjd*, and an additional
for every year,
till

mdihd

the full dose of sixteen mdshds or two

tolis is reached at the sixteenth year.

From
which

sixteen to
it

seventy

the full dose

shouM be

used,

after

should be again
take decoctions

gradually

educe i.

When

infants are unable to

and other bulky medicines, their nurses are made to take them. Sometimes small quantities of medicines are applied to the
nipples,

and the infants made

to

suck them.
four periods
of the

Medicines

may be administered during


Morning

day, namely, sunrise, mid-day, evening and night.

Sometimes

they are administered frequently.


be.^fc

is

regarded as the

time for administering such medicines as purgatives, emetics,

decoctions and pills which are generally given once daily.

When

no

specific direction is

given regarding the time of administration,


for granted.

morning must be taken


medicine
is

Very

often one sort of

given in the morning and another in the afternoon.


for dyspepsia are given before,

Some medicines
after meals.

along with, and

FORMS OF MEDICINES.
Churna or powders are* prepared by pounding dry subdances in a mortar with a pestle and passing the powder through
^Tff

cloth.

^T^ Svarasa
through cloth.

or expressed juice

is

prepared by pounding fresh


it

vagetables in a mortar, expressing the juice and straining

KalJca or paste

is

prepared by grinding dry or fresh

vegetable substances on a stone with a muller, and then making


>aste,

with the addition of water when necessary.


are, as a general

IR
water,

Kvdtha or decoctions
the latter

rule,

prepared by

boiling one
till

part of vegetable substances with sixteen parts of


is

reduced to one-fourth.

The medicines
fire,

should

first

be pounied small, then boiled over a slow

and the

decoction strained through cloth.

When

decoctions are prepared

10

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEPIOA.

with dry substances, eight parts of water are


used.

recommended
oil,

to

be

Decoctions are administered with the addition of


treacle,

salt,

honey, sugar,

alkalies,

clarified

butter,

or some

medicinal powders.

Phdnta or infusions are prepared by steeping one part of tffT*U powdered herbs in eight parts of hot water, for twelve hours during
the night.

They

are administered in the

same way as decoctions.


is

aHd^Miq Sitahashdya or cold infusion

prepared by steeping

one part of a drug in six of witer for the night, and straining the
fluid in the
tjrftei

morming.
is

Vdiiya

a weak form of decoction prepared by boiling


of

one part
latter
is

of medicinal substances in thirty-two

water
is

till

the

reduced to one*half.

This preparation

usually taken

ad libitum for appeasing


TTJTSTT

thirst or

some such

object.

which the medicines are first reduced to a pulp and then boiled in eight pirts of water i ill the latter is reduced to one- fourth. It is administered with
Pranithyd
is

a sort of decoction in

the addition of honey.


*f*T

Mantha

is

an emulsion of medicines in

fine

powder with

four parts of cold water.

Kshirapdka or decoction in milk.


in this

preparation,

are one part of

The proportions medicine, eight of milk and


till

thirty-two of water.

The materials are boiled together,


;

the
is

water

is

evaporated and the milk alone remains


-

the decoction

then strained.
*T^Rr

rice,
is

Sometimes medicines are added to powdered wheat, barley, etc., and boiled with water into a gruel which
Yavdgu.

taken as aliment.

The proportion

of

water in this preparation

is six to

one of solid materials. This preparation is called Kall<asddhya-yavdgu or gruel made with medicinal paste, in contradistinction to ai-other form called Kvdtha-sddhya yavdgu or gruel

made

with a decoction

of medicines, for

which

last see

Oryza satrva.

To prepare it, decoctions, after being strained, are agiin boiled down to the consistence of a thick extract. This extract, when properly made, does not readily
dissolve in water,

*PRTf Avaleha or extiact.

can be drawn out into wires, and will receive


its

impressions of coins on

surface.

Extracts are administered

with the addition of sugar, decoctions, or powders.

INTRODUCTION.
qf^cM Vatihd and

11

^ft?h|

Gudikd or

pills

and boluses.
of

These

are usually prepared by reducing a

decoction

vegetable

substances to a thick consistence and then adding some powders

making a pill-mass. Sometimes pill-masses are made of powdered medicines with the addition of treacle or honey. ModaJca are boluses prepared by adding powders to cold syrup and stirring them together till uniformly mixed. No
for

boiling

is

required in this preparation.

^^"m^f Khandapdha or cpnfections. These are made by adding to syrup medicines in fine powder and stirring them over
the
fire till

intimately mixed and reduced to proper consistence.

Honey is often subsequently added to confections. Syrup may be mide with sugar and water or milk or the strained decoction
of

some medicinal substance.

Confections

should be of the same

consistence as extracts abDve described.

W^TT Bhdoand or maceration of powders in fluids. Powders, and especially mineral substances, are often soaked in various
fluids,

such as expressed juice of herbs, decoctions,

etc.,

and then

dried.

For this process the quantity of


be

fluid

added
is

to the

powder

The mixture

then allowed to
is

dry in the sun.

single operation of this sort

completed in

twenty -four hours, but the process is generally repeated from three to seven times, and often with a variety of fluids, so that the
resulting mass combines in
it

the active principles of various

drugs,
t

tj^qi^f

Putapdka or roasting.
is

In this process vegetable drugs


in jamvii or

are reduced to a paste which


(

wrapped up

vatapatra

leaves of Eugenia Jambolona and Ficas Bengalensis), firmly tied


fibres of

with
to

some

sort,

covered with a layer of clay from half


fire.

one inch in thickness amd roasted in cowdung

Wben

the

layer of clay assumes a brick red colour on the surface, the roastirg
is

known

to
fire

be completed.

The

ball should

now be withdrawn
drug

from the

and broken, and the

juice

of the roasted

expressed and administered, with the addition of honey or such


other adjuncts as
itself is

may

be directed.

Sometimes the roasted drug


pill.

given in the form of a powder or

^*JPT3JT

Sandhdnavarga or products of
4

at:ioue fermentation.

'

12
cffrf^T

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDTCA.

Kdnjika.

This

is

a sour liquid produced from the

acetous f armantation of powdered paddy.

Two

seers of

powdered

du$ dhdn, (

paddy grown
and

in rainy

season), are steeped in eight

Beers of water

laid

aside in an earthen pot for fifteen days

and upwards, when the mixture undergoes acetous fermentation. The resulting fluid is called Kdnjika or Dhdnydmla, that is, the
acid produced from paddy.

Kdnjika

is

a clear transparent fluid


It is cooling, refrigerent,

with an acid taste

aiid

vinous smell.

and useful

as a drink in fever, burning

of

the body,

etc.

It

is

BonntimtfS applied externally upon the principle of


packing, cloth steeped in the fluid being
for relief of high fever

wet-sheet

wrapped round the body


It
is

and heat of body.

also

used as a

vehicle for other medicines and for preparing decoctions, oils, etc.

Other grains besides paddy are sometimes used


fermentation.
If

for

acetous
sativus

mustard

or the

seeds

of

Baphanus

(mulaka) are added If the husked grains

to paddy, the resulting fluid is called Sintdki.

of barley are boiled


is

the resulting acid liquor

called

and steeped in water, Sauvira. When tbe husks of

fried mdshakaldya ( pulse of Phaseolus Roxhurghii )

and barley are


is

boiled

together

for
is

acetous fermentation,

the acid

called

Tushdmvu Arndla
"boiled ri3e.

a sour gruel made from


Sukta or Ghukra
is

fermentation of
thus prepared
:

A mixture called
whey

Take

of treacle one part,

honey two

parts, kdnjika

made

as above

described, four parts,

eight parts,

earthen pot, and bury the pot in a heap of

mix together in a clean paddy for three days.


similar,

Tha

properties of thes* preparations

are

they being

regarded as cool'ng, refrige^eul, diuretic, and useful in nervous diseases, rheumatism, dyspepsia, indigestion, urinary diseases,
intoxication from
spirituous drinks,
etc.
is

What

is

ordinarily

spoken of as crajee water in EngVsh,


3TTO Brdvaka or distilled

a decoction of rice and not


'

the Tcdnjika of Sanskrit Materia Medica.

mineral

acids.

Several formulas

are given in different works fir the preparation of mineral acids. nnmber of mineral snbstances of salts are heated in a retort and

the distilled flaid collected in a glass receiver. The test of acids is said to be their property of dissolving a cowrie or ihell thrown into them. The following are two examples of the compositions used for preparing mineral
acids.


INTKODF0T7O*.
tg^MSi^r Svalpadrdvaka.

13

Take of alum, chloride of ammonium, borax, sulphide of antimony, impure carbonates of potash and soda
called yavakshdra
tolas,

and
tolas,

svarjikdkshdra,

and rock
;

salt,

eaoh eight

nitre

six

orpiment four tolas

powder, mix and rub


Introduce

thorn together repeatedly with lemon juice and dry.

mixture into the receptacle of a distilling apparatus, and distill over the fire. The dose of the acid thus distilled is two drops.
the
It

should be taken with six grains of long pepper.


is

One week's

use of this medicine

said to cure spleen disease, dyspepsia, etc.

W^^T

Sankhadrdvaka.

For

this preparation take of sulphate


salt sixteen tolas each,

of iron thirty-two tolas,

alum and rock


;

mire
the

one hundred and twenty-eight tolas

powder, mix and


is

distill

mixture from a glass retort. The dose of this acid twelve minims. The tongue should be anointed with
before using this medicine.
^Hqift'er

said

to

be

clarified butter

It should not also touch the teeth.

Asava and arishta or medicated spirituous liquors.


treacle,
all

These are prepared from honey and


various medicinal substances.

with the addition of

They are

steeped in water and

laid aside in earthen jars for vinous fermentation.

The proportion
is

of the

different ingredients,
seers, treacle

as a general rule,

as follows

Water thirty-two
seers

twelve seers and a half, honey six

and a quarter, medicinal substances one seer and a quarter, in powder or decoction. When raw vegetables are used for fermentation,

the resulting fluid

is

called Asava.

When
is

the decoction

of drugs only is added,

the fermented liquor

called Arishta.

These preprations combine the properties of spirituous drinks and those of the drugs used in preparing them. They are
heating, stimulant, easily digested and stomachic.
called Drdkshdrishta is
raisins,

The preparation made with honey, sugar and decoction of


Vffis vinifera).
is

with the addition of a few aromatics, (see

Its action

must be analogous

to that of

wines.

It

used as a

stimulant in exhausting diseases.

i^ftf^fa: Medicated oils and Ghritas.


(

of vegetable drugs in oil or ghrita

clarified

These are decoctions butter) and form a


are prepared in great
all sorts

prominent feature of native practice.


varieties

They
almost

and are extensively used

in

of diseases.

The

ghritas are chiefly used

internally,

and the

oils are

rubbed

on the body.

They

are prepared by boiling vegetable drugs in

14
oil,

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

with the addition of water or other fluids such as ghrita or milk or a decoction of drupes, etc. As a general rale,the K'hijika, proportion of the different ingredients used is as follows
:

substances, in form of paste, one part, ghrita or oil four Medicinal


parts,

water

or other

menstruum

sixteen parts.

When

the fluids

used

are thick,

such as decoctions or the expressed juice of


is

vegetables,

the proportion of solid paste

reduced from one-

fourth to one-sixth and one-eighth respectively of the oil or ghrita.

Sometimes no
.

solid paste is

used at

all.

If

more than one variety of

fluid

is

ordered,

then up to four
oil
is

sorts the usual proportion of four of fluid to

one of ghrita or

observed, and these are boiled

separately with each

fluid;

bu%

when
is

the

number

of fluids exceed four, each

of the fluids ordered

taken in quantity equal to* the oil or ghrita, and the whole

boiled together.
ydm=*i Ghritapaka

or preparation of medicated
is

ghrita.

The
little

ghrita

or clarified
it

butter

first

of all heated on a fire so as to


it.

deprive

of

any water that may be mixed with


is

turmeric juice

then added to purify

it,

as

it is

said,

but the
is

object, I suppose,

must be

to

colour

it.

Ghrita thus

purified

placed on a

fire

in

an earthen, copper, or iron pan and melted with


fluids to

a gentle heat.

Then the medicinal paste and


till
is

be used are
all

added, and the whole boiled together

the watery parts are


It is

evaporated and the ghrita

free

from froth.

then strained

through cloth and preserved for use. Ghrita thus prepared should be imbued with the colour, taste and odour of the medicines with which it has been boiled. It is recommended that the preparation
of ghrita

by boiling be not completed


so

in

one day, and that the

medicines be allowed to remain in contact with the butter for

some time,
extracted.

that their active principles

may

be throughly

boiling process is carried on to three degrees, called, respectively, mridu, madhyama and khara paht. In the first,

The

the boiled paste in somewhat soft


just soft

in the second,

it is

dry and
In the
is

enough
it is

to be

made

into pills

with the

fingers.

third form,

turned bard and dry.

The intermediate foim


and
injection
into

preferred for

internal a] ministration
is

the

rectum, wlr le the over-boiled form

used for external application

The under-boiled form

is

said to be suitable for use as snuff.


INTRODUCTION.
W^nrrar

15

Tailapdha or medicated
oil

oils.

Id

preparing

these,

sesamum
oil,

should be used unless otherwise specified. Sesamum before be'ng boiled with medicinal substances, is coloured and

purified as follows

: "First

of all

it is
it
;

heated to deprive

it

of

any

water that

may
it

be mixed with

then the following substances

are steeped in

for twenty-four hours, viz.,


oil,

part in weight of the


i),

madder one sixteenth turmeric, wood of Symphcos rncemosa


la)

tubers of Cyper its rotundu* (mustaka)

shoots of Pandanus odoratissimus

(ketrtki),

each

one sixty-fourth

part in weight of the oil. These ingredients in fine powder should be soaked in the oil, with the addition of an eiual quantity of

water for a day.


is

The mixture should then be boiled till the water evaporated, and finally strained. To the oil thus prepared,
etc.,

medicinal substances, in the form of paste, decoction,

are

added in the same proportions as for the preparation of ghritapdl-a. They are then boiled together till the watery parts are all
evaporated.

When

cool,

the

oil is

strained throi
oils,

separate the solid particles.

Some medicinal

and especially

those used in the treatment of nervous diseases, rheumatism, etc., are subjected to a third process of boiling with various aromatic

and fr^grint substances. This

is

called the Gandlia pdka or boiling

for rendering the oil fragrant.

The following

substances, or as

many

of

them

as are available, a^e used for scenting medicated oils,


saffron,

namely, cardamoms, cinnamon, cloves, fenngreek seeds,


leaves of

Cinnamomam Tamala, white


Curcuma Zedoaria
(saff),

sandal wood, aloes wood,

jatarnansi root,

Cypervs rotund tis

(mustalifi),

hahhola (an aromatic seed,) resin olPinus longifolius (gandhavtrajd),


storax, long

pepper root, root of Andropogon muricatus (vsira), naklii (Unguis odoratus)* pouch of civet cat (JcJiattdsi), camphor, musk,

Permelia perlata (saileya), root of Aplotaxis auriculata (Jcushta),


seeds of Abelmosclius moschatus (latdkasturi), etc.

This nalchi according" to Rnmphius


ferous

who

describes ten kinds of the odoriin the Indian

onyx which serve as the basis of the principal perfumes

Islands, (Herb.

Amb.

ii.

c.

17)

is

the operculum or
like

lid of

the shells of

Purpura
its

and Murex.
name,

This being

flat

and something

a nail explains the origin of

RoyWs

Antiquity of Hindu Medicine, page 144.

16

SANSKRIT ilVTERIA MKHTCA.


,

For four seers

of

oil,

one tola of each of the above

ingredients

should be taken, with the eiception of camphor which should be four tolas. These ingredients, with the exceptions noticed below,
are reduced to a paste with water and added to the
oil,

which

is is

then boiled with an equal quantity of water


evaporated, and lastly strained.

till

the lather

Camphor, musk, storax and the


Oils for

substance called nakhi should be added after the process of boiling


is finished,

and the

oil strained.

rheumatism and nervous

diseases,

are

sometimes rendered fragrant by the addition of

camphor

aloneoil

Castor

and mustard
oils-

oil are

sometimes used in the prepars-

The proportions of oil, medicinal substances and fluids are the same as with sesamum oil, but the preliminary preparat on of thesp oils is different. Mustard oil is purified by being boiled with the following ingredients, namely,
tion of medicated

emblic myrobalan, turmeric, tubers, of Cyperus rotundas (mustaka),


root bark of JEgle Marmelos (rilva), pomegranate

b\rk,

flowers

of

Me*ua ferrea
(bdld), the

(ndgrikesara),

Nigella seeds, root of Pavonia odorata

bark called nalikd, and belleric myrobalan, two tol^s


tolas, for

each, and

madcer sixteen
oil

four seers of

oil.

These should
is all
fit

be boiled together with sixteen seers of water,


evaporated, and the

till

the latter
It is

should then be strained.

now

for
is

being boiled with medicinal substances, the process for which the same as for sesamum oil above described.

For purifying castor oil, the following ingredients are used, namely, madder, tubers of Oypenu rotundas (Mu.^aka), coriander,
the three myrobalans, leaves of Sesbania aculeate (vaijayanH),

Poronia odorata
Brngalensis
(

hrivera

),

wild dates, tender red buds


turmeric,

of

Fi us

vatasunga

),

wood

of Berberu Asiah'ca

the bark called nalikd, ginger and the shoot* of J'andanns odoratissimm ( ketaki ), each half a tola for four seers of oil. Castor oil should be boiled with equal parts of whey and
),

ddrvharidri

\Anjika

(fermented

paddy

water)

along

with

the above

iugredients.

The processes above

described, for the preliminary purification of

oils

before being boiled with medicinal snbstances are not adopted by the phyaicianj Of ..pper India. They are not ,, ntion,,| by the ancient writer! and an t'i inventions of recent Bengali anthers.

INTRODUCTION.

17

ON THE DIFFERENT MODES IN WHICH MEDICINES ARE APPLIED.


Besides being taken internally, medicines are applied in various other ways, such as by injections into the rectum, urethra and female organs application to the nose to the mouth to the
; ;

eyes

to

the

skin in the

shape of plasters, ointments,

oils

and

fumigations, and to the lungs by inhalation.


^ftr^F^T

Vastlkarma or injections into the rectum, were thrown

by means of a tube with a membranous bag tied to its end. The bag was recommended to be made of the bladder of some animal, such as bull, goat, etc. It was filled with the fluid to be injected and tied to one end of a tube, about eight inches long and
in

with a tapering rounded extremity for introduction into the rectum. Injections into the urethra and vagina were thrown in

by similar contrivances, the tubes being adapted

in

length and

thickness to the passages for which they were intended.


4i<s!mf

PJmlavarti or suppositories were


size

made

of the

of the

patient's

recommended to be thumb. They were smeared


into

with clarified butter and introduced


following
is

the

rectum.

.The

an example of a suppository.

Take

of assafoetida

and rock-salt equal parts and make a suppository with honey,


for use in tympanitis.
iT^T

Nasya or the application

of

medicated substances to the

forms a prominent feature of native therapeutics. Two primary classes of medicines for this organ are recognized, namely
nose,
Strotrirechana

or medicines causing a flow of secretion from the


relieving

nose and thus

cerebral
tfie

congestion, and

Vrinliana

or

medicated

oils

applied to

nose with the object of cooling the

head and relieving affections of the neck and chest*


the head and
juice of

For clearing

promoting discharge from the nose, the expressed


is

pungent drugs

poured into the nose, drop by drop, or

powders are blown into the nostrils by means of a tube. The former process is called Avapula and the latter, Prodhamana. For cooling the head and relieving affections of the upper part
of the body, various medicated
oils

are used.

In one form of
oil

snuff called

Pratimarsha, two or three drops of medicated


till

are

directed to be snuffed up the nostril

they reach the throat,

SANSKRIT MATERIA MKDICA.

when

expectorated and not swallowed. Tn another they should be

Marsha about a drachm of oil is form of application called to be gradually poured into each nostril from a spoon recommended
or
s hell.

ra*r

la.

Liquids used as gargles are so called.

Some-

mixture of liquid and solid substances or solid balls of times a are taken into the mouth and retained in it till they bring medicine

on a discharge from the nose and


is

eyes.

This mode of application


the finger, the process of

called ims

Qahdusha.

When

powders or thick solutions are

applied to the teeth and

gums with

medicament

is

called

irfwPW

Pratisdrar/a.
to

ftTCfa1% Sirovasti, etc.

or applications

the

head.

Oils

or

other fluids are applied to the head in four different ways.


first

The
lower

form called

Sirovasti, consists in

tying a piece of leather four


its

and a half inches


margin
filling

in breadth all

round the head, luting

to the skin

by a paste

of pulse called

mdahdkaldya and then

the cavity thus formed on the top of the head with luke^
is

arm
till

oil.*The oil

directed to be retained

till

relief

of

pain,

or

there

is

discharge from the eyes and nose. It should then be

removed and the head washed with warm water.


medication
the head.
is

This sort of

said to be useful in severe

headache and shaking of


fluid

Tn the second form, oil or other


Is

poured in
and

stream on the head. This

called
is

Parisheka,

In the third form,

called Ptcku, cotton soaked in oil

applied to the

scalp

in

the fourth, called Avyanga, the

oil is

simply nibbed on the head.

Applications of liquids and medicated oils to the ears are nsrcd


in diseases
of

the head as well as of the ears.

The external
it

meatus

is filled

with the

fluid
is

which

is

allowed to remain in

from one

to

twenty minutes and

then withdrawn.
to the eyes

sHnro NetraJearma or applications

receive

various

names according to the nature of the substances used and flu manner in which they are applied. Pouring of drops into the eyes
is

called Athotana*

poultice enclosed

wwhin

a piece of cloth

and applied ever the

lids is called

Pinda.

paste applied to the

lids is called Vi.lalab,.

Medicines applied to the margin of the lids or to the conjunctiva with the finger or a Metallic probe an- .-ailed
Atyana.

These

last

may

be in the shape of

powder or

liquid

or

INTRODUCTION.

19

they

may

be made into sticks or


use.

pills

which are rubbed with

water before

The probe
six:

for applying medicines to the

margin

of the lids should be


It

inches long with a rounded bulbous end.


silver,

may

be made of gold,
a

copper,

iron
is

or

stone.

For

habitual use of collyria

lead

probe

preferred.

When
is

medicines

are

applied
to

not only to the lids but also to the


the
finger

margin of the cornea, conjunctiva up recommended to be used, as it is soft and safe.


the

Applications to the skin. These consist of ghritas, oils, plasters, baths and hot applications for inducing perspiration. poultices,

Medicated

ghritai

and

oils

have been already described.

They

are

part rubbed all over the body, except those intended for the most Frabgb are applied moist Plasters called for local ailments.

n%

and

cold.

y^%

Pradeka or poultices are applied moist and hot.

They are
'

also thicker than plasters.

$3* Svedaw
is
1.

or application of heat to the skin for inducing


:

perspiration

carried oat in four different ways, namely

<nw<?

Tdpa.u-t-da or

the application of dry

heat by means

sand, clobh or the palm of the hand only. of heated plates, bricks,

Those are recommended


2,
is

to be heated by catechu-

wood

fire.

^T#?

TJihmasveda or the application of hot

steam.

This

effected in various ways.


cloth.

The part

to be heated is covered with

wet

Bricks, stones or iron plates are

made red

hot and

sprinkled over with

kdmjika or some
;

decoction,

and are then

applied to the part to be heated filled with hot water or decoction of some opening in the side is
drugs, a tube
is adjusted to

or an earthen pot with a small

the hole

in the pot

and the steam

is

through it. A third method consistapplied to the covered body burning catechu-wood over it. and after in heating the ground by some decoction over the spot and removing the fire sprinkling The patient is to lie on leaves on it. making a bed of castor oil with a blanket. Or the ground may this bed and cover himself
.

of boiled pulse such as md$hakaldy< be covered with a thick layer

and a bed made over


>.

it

for the patient.

^xpn^c?

Upandhuveda.

This means the application of

heat by hot medicinal

substances in the

form

of decoctions, pastes,

or plasters,

by cloth wrung out of hot Hums or of fomentation

20
or heat

SANSOIT -MATERIA MEDICA

may

applied by enolosing hot medicinal substances or be

pastes within a cloth bag and applying the latter to the skin.
4.

?3^f <?

Bravasvedtu

This means the hot hip-bath and hot


Milk, broth,
oil.

bath with
etc.,

warm

water or decoctions.

kdnjifot

may

also be used for baths.

The patient should


so as to

sit in

a tub

with the

fluid

up

to his navel,

and which should also be poured


bathe him wood,
in
silver,

over his body from above the shoulders,


thoroughly.

The tub should be made

of

copper or
in all

iron, of square

form and twenty-six fingers

measurement

directions, that is in height, length

and breadth.

After the appli


eat light food

cation of heat, the patient should take a hot bath,

and keep himself covered in bed.


applied,

If too

much heat has been


in the joints,
thirst,

and the patient

suffers

from pain

langour or giddiness, then he should be treated by cooling applications.

The region

of the

heart,

scrotum and eyes should be

heated with great care and

to a

mild degree only.

^TOT^

Dhumapdna

or inhalations.
fire to,

Tapers or pastilles made

of medicinal

substances are set

and their fumes inhaled

through a tube by the mouth or nose.


thus prepared
:

Pastilles for inhalation are


is

a reed, half a cubit in length,

smeared or
its

laid

over with a paste of the drugs to be used, to two-thirds of

extent

and

is

dried in the shade.


it

When

dry, the reed

is

withdrawn from
is

the paste, leaving

in the

form of a hollow tube. This


lighted.

smeared
is

with

clarified

butter

and

The

lighted

extremity

introduced into one end of the inhaling tube and the fumes drawn
in by the
be,

other end through the

mouth or

nose, as the case

may

and emitted again through the mouth. In affections of the throat and chest, inhalation through the mouth is recommended,
while in diseases of the head, eyes or nose, the fumes are drawn
in through the nose.

The tube

for

inhalation
varies

may

fee

metallic or
to half

made

of

wood or
its

ivory.

Its length

from two cubits


in

a cubit, aud

calibre should be sufficient to allow a large pea to

pass through.

The

shorter tubes are

lised

administering

expectorant and emetic fumes.

Inhalations are useful in cough,


etc.

asthma, catarrh, pain

in the

neck or head,

They may be used


Another form
be used daily

for soothing the air passages, for

promoting discharge from them,

for the relief of cough,


of

or for inducing vomiting.

inhalation,

called

Samana,

is

recommended

to

INTRODUCTION.
after
this

L'l

washing the

face, bathing, breakfast, etc.

The

pastille

for

sort
in

was made of cardamoms and other aromatic of smoking is not seen in the present day.
of tobacco
latter.

substances.

This
it

Probably

was

vogue before the introduction

and has been displaced

by the
yppl

Dhupana or fumigations were employed for ulcers and skin diseases. The pastilles for these were made as for inhalation. They are lighted and placed inside two earthen pots, placed face to face. A hole is made in the upper pot and a tube adjusted to it. The free or open end of the tube is now directed to the affected
part and the fumes allowed to spread over
it.

Incenses and tapers


also burnt in

composed of various medicinal substances are


evil spirits.

rooms

occupied by the sick, for removing unpleasant smells and supposed

^K^^T

Kshdrakarma or caustic

applications.

The ancient
lancet.

physicians of India, like their modern representatives, preferred

opening abscesses by caustics,

to incising

them with the

Hence caustics were described


as, in

as superior to the lancet,

inasmuch

addition to opening abcesses, they purified them by remov-

ing the derangement of the humours.


plants

were used for the preparation of

The ashes of the following caustics, namely

Stereos per mum suaveoleus. Kufaja. Holarrhena antidysenterica. Palasa* Butea frondosa. T^^OF Asrukarna. Shorca robust *nfare Pdribhadra. Erylhrina Tndica*
Mld^T Pdtala.
3T5r
q^fTCl

a.

fwfaf^ Vibhitaha.T< niinalia Better ica.

TPP^
^cft

A'raguadha.

Cassia

fistuld.

TjfH^i

Calolropis gigantea. ^t% Snuhi. Euphorbia **N\mh Apumdrga. Acliyranthes aspera. Karanja. Pongamia glabra. *T93F Vdsaka. Just'cia Adhatoda. Uvm. ^Rf% Kadali. Mnsa fapRi Chitraka. Plumbago Zeylanica* Putika. Ccesalpinia Bonducella. Devaddrii. Gedrus Deodara.
Arka*
neriifolia;

^fa Lodhra.

Symplocos racemosa.

sapi

22

SANSK&IT MATEKtA MEMCA.

^rsfitflT

'ZiT^fo
OTT^rf*?

Vallaris dichotoma. Karavira. Neriwu odorum. Saptaparni. Alstonia scholar


Uphold.

is.

^PMTff Gambhdri.
*p^T Gwrqd.
^ffalcraft

Gmelina arborea.

Abrug preeatorius* Koshdtakz. Luffa pentandrd.


stems and leaves of these plants or of such of them

The

roots,

as are available, are cut into pieces

and burnt

in a pit.

The ashes
water
to

are then
till

collected

and boiled in

six

times their weight of

the

solution becomes transparent, red,


It should

pungent and soapy


fire

the feel.

then be strained and again put on

and the

following substances added, namely, ashes of Euphorbia ueritjolia


(snuhi),

and the burnt powders

of

bivalve and conch shells.


till it is

The

mixture should be constantly stirred and boiled


consistence.

of a thick

The proportion

of

shell lime

added varies from one

fourth to one-eighth or one sixteenth part of the solution. Caustics


of three strengths

are thus obtained.

Sometime^ orpiment and

realgar are added to increase their strength.

The
probe.
lot

part where the caustic

is

to

be applied,

should

first

be

cleaned and rubbed.


It should
is

The

caustic

should then be applied with a


in contact with the

be allowed to remain

kin

such time as

occupied in uttering a hundred words and then


It
ifl

removed.
dressed

The skin becomes black from the application, when


with a paste of
acids, clarified butter

hastening the removal of


of

and honey. 1<V the slough, a paste or poultice composed


lemon juice and hdnjiha should

sesamum

seeds, liquorice root,

be applied.

Caustics are applied to external piles, imtises, fistuhr

in ano, abcesses, warts,

tumours, leprous patches,

etc.

THE

MATERIA MEDICA OF THE HINDUS.

PART

I.

INORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA


GENERAL REMARKS ON MINERAL MEDICINES.
Mineral or inorganic medicines are generally described under five heads, namely, Rasa or mercury which forms a class by itself Upaais't or metallic ores and earths, Dhdtu or metals, Lavana or The metals used in Sanskrit salts, and Batna or precious stones.
;

medicine are mercury, gold,


metal, and brass.
sorts of

silver, copper, tin, zinc, lead, iron, bell-

The Uparasas used are


called

sulphur, talc or mica, two

iron pyrites

Svarnamdkshika and Tdramdkshika,


sulphate
of

leadstone,
iron,

orpiment, realgar,

copper,

sulphate of

cinnabar,

minium or red
(

lead, sulphuret of lead,

calamine
),

(hharpaxr), SiUjatu

a bituminous

substance

containing iron

alum, borax, chalk, obtained cowries and conch shells, Qtiirika a sort of red mountain earth or oohre, Kankushta a sort of mountain
earth, 8aurd$kiri a fragrant earth

from Surat, sand,


are,
;

clay, etc.
;

The precious stones described


loaf,

I
4>

JL'raka,

diamond 2 Gdrut*

emerald,-

3 PnshparAga, topaz
;

Mdnikya, ruby; 5 Indira*


of

7",

sapphire

6 Qomeda,

a yellow

gem

the colour of fat


;

7 Vaidurya, a
tiJca,

gem
9

of a dark blue colour, the lapis lazuli

Maufa

pearls;

Kidruma, corals.

Collectively

they are called

STavatutm or the nine gems.

Bdytuartiu an inferior kind of dia-

mond from

Virat, and Vo?'krri)da, another inferior kind of diamond,

are .sometimes used instead of diamond.

Salts. Of these the following are noticed by most writers, viz., Saiudhava, rock salt: Sdmbara. Sambar lake salt; Sauvarchala, Sdmnrfra, sun-dried sea salt, comsonchal salt Bit, black salt
; ;

monly known as Karl<i<h


lands
i

Awlbhtda. a saline efflorescence on reh


;

Pdnsuja or salt obtained from saline earth


of

Yavafakdra

mpure carbonate

potash

tetfahdra,

impure carbonate

24

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEPKA.

mixed ashes of several plants Narasdra, of soda; Soraka, nitrate of potash, and Tavkana, chloride of ammonium
Sarvaksln'ra,
;

borax.

The term Ushara, is applied Metals and metallic compounds

to saline earth.

are

subjested to a so-called

process of purification in order to get rid of their

impurities or

deleterious qualities. If used in an unpurified state, they are suppo-

sed to induce certain diseases or morbid symptoms.


for the most part, are purified by repeatedly

The

metals,

heating their plates


oil,

and plunging them


conjee,

in the following fluids,

namely,

whey, sour
kulattha
in soak-

cow's urine and the decoction of a pulse called


.

(D oliclios uniflorus) Another method o purification consists

ing the plates of heated metals in the juice of the plantain-tree.

Metals and metallic compounds are reduced to powder by


various processes.

The operation

is

called mdrana,

which

literally

means
into

killing or destruction of metallic character but practically a

reduction to powder, either in the metallic state, or after conversion

an oxide or a sulphide.

Various processes for the calcination

of different metals are described in Sanskrit


I will

works on the subject.


tl

not burden these pages with

a detailed account of

but shall only describe modes of

preparation followed at the

present day.

Although the Hindus had made some successful


nhloride of mercury,

efforts in

preparing a certain number of chemical compounds such as persulphides of copper and silver, oxide of tin,
yet their chemical operations were of a

some

acids, alkalies, etc.,

very rude and primitive character.

The apparatus employed by


glass
bottles

them consisted

of [crucibles of

different sorts,

and

earthen pots arranged for sublimation of volatile compounds, retorts for distillation, sand and vapour baths, etc. The furnace for heat-

nm^Z Gqjaputa. It is made one and a quarter cubits in depth, length and breadth. This is filled with dried balls of dbwdung. The metals or metallic
compounds
be roasted are enclosed in a covered crucible and placed in the centre of the pit within the balls of which
to

ing metals

is

usually a pit in the ground called

cowdung,

are then set


ij*TTO

fire to

and allowed two

to

burn

till

consumed

to ashes. to

MwMytmtra
of rice

or crucibles,
parts,

are

recommended
ant, hills,

be

made

of husks

earth

from

iron rust,

chalk and

human

hair cut into small

bits,

one part each,

These

GENERAL REMARKS ON MIHKRAt MEDICINES,


are rubbed together
into crucibles
into

25

a paste

with goat-milk,

and

made
The
is

which are dried

in the sun.

Practically, howevet*,
used.

goldsmith's crucibles or

comon earthen cups are


in

compounds
^T^^fT^^.
filling

to

be roasted are placed

one crucible, this

covered with a seeoud, and the two are luted together with clay.

The sand-bath

called

Vdlukrf

yantra
it

is

made by
lire.

an earthen pot with sand and heating

over the

Metalic preparations sublimed within glass bottles are heated in


sand-baths.
*{NWtf.

When

medicines,

tied

in

a piece of cloth or other

material, are suspendedand boiled in a pot of water, tho apparatus

The steam-bath called Svedana yantra is got up by covering the month of a pot of boiling water with a piece of cloth, placing the medicines to be heated by steam on this cloth, and then covering them with another pot.
is

called Dold yantra.

For the sublimation

of

metals and metalic preparations, two

sorts of apparatus are used.


f

The

first,

called ^f^qFPra7^ Urdha-

vdtana y antra consists of two earthen pots placed one above the other with their rims luted together witli clay. The lower pot containing the medicine is put on fire while the upper one is kept
cool with

wet

rags.

The sublimate
its

is

deposited in the interior of


is

the upper pot.

Sometimes the lower pot


gets hot.

covered with a concave


it

dish and water poured into


as often as
it

hollow to keep

cool

and changed

The second plan

consists in placing the

medicines to be sublimed in the bottom of a glass bottle which

has been strengthened with layers of clay and cloth wrapped

round

it,

and then exposing


is

it

to

heat in a sand-bath.

The
it

sublimate

deposited in the neck of the bottle, whence

is

extracted by breaking the latter.


fas^cfrqrainFTf,

Tiryah pdtana yantra.


receivers
glass

This apparatus mean


for

the adjustment of retorts and


distillation.

sublimation and
of

At the present day


are used.

retorts

European
are
also

manufacture
available.

Country -made glass

retorts

26

vVNSKRTT MATERIA MEDINA.

SULPHUR.
Sans,
iprer

Qandhaka.

Four

varieties of sulphur are

mentioned by Sanskrit writers,

Of these the red and black are not now available. The yellow variety or vitreous sulphur is called dmld-sdr, because its semi-transparent crystals resemble
namely, red, yellow, white and black.
the translucent ripe fruits of the amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica).
It is

preferred for internal use in combination with mercury.


variety or ordinary roll

The white

sulphur
ifi

is

inferior to the

yellow, and used for external application

skin diseases.

Sulphur
dissolved in

by being washed in milk. It is first an iron ladle smeared with butter and then gradually
is

purified

poured into a basin of milk.


use.

When

cool

and

solidified it is

fit

for

Dose twelve to twenty-four grains with milk or other vehicle.


is

Sulphur

described as of bitter, astringent taste, with a


It increases bile, acts

peculiar strong smell.


alterative,
tion,

as

laxative and

and

is

useful in skin*diseases, rheumatism,


etc.

consumpit is

enlarged spleen
all

In combination with mercury

used in almost

diseases.

The circumstance
metalic

of

its

readily
its

combining with and fixing

mercury,

has led to

extensive use in combination with that metal.

In skin-diseases sulphur
nally.

is

used both internally and exter-

Internally

it

is

given with milk or in the shape of a

sulphurated butter, prepared from milk boiled with the addition


of sulphur.
is

The

butter thus obtained

is

called

Gandha

taila,

and

taken internally, and applied externally, in skin-diseases. 1

Sulphur and yavakshara (an impure carbonate of potash), mixed with mustard oil, is applied in pityriasis psoriasis etc. 2 Sulphur
enters into the composition of a large

number

of applications for

skin diseases, the following

is

an example.

2.

*mrprifa s^rait^ 3fam

farm *n*

mwt tt^m^
^m;
i

MERCUKY.

27
oil

Adityapdka taila}
the three

Take
lad, all

of

sesamum

four seeis, madder,


realgar
to

myrobalans,

turmeric,

orpimeut,

and
sun.

sulphur equal parts, in


This
oil is useful in

one seer.

Mix and expose


etc.

the

eczema, scabies
it is

In rheumatism
tolas,

used in combination with bdellium, as in

the following, called Sinhandda gugyulv?

Take
tolas,

of sulphur eight

bdellium eight
tolas,

tolas,

decootiou of the three myrobalans

seventy-two

castor oil

thirty-two

mix and

boil

together in an iron vessel


confection.

till

reduced to the consistence of a

Dose about one drachm twice daily. It is useful in chronic rheumatism, lameness, cough, asthma, and skin-diseases.

MERCl'RY.
&'(
.

xjfr^

Parada.

jv(

Uasu

Mercury, though not mentioned by Charaku* and Susruta, has in later days come to be regarded as the niost important medicine
k

in the

Hindu Pharmacopoeia. Parada literally means that which protects, and mercury is so called because it protects mankind
1.

>

*TT*Wn 4idq ( H

rf%ST

faff^T

STT^T fTOT ftmT3PT*nff:

^j*ti

^m:

vfi sitaft si

ii

?f% mti

fir*'

%vrf

^q^n^

^m

*3*ft ^fa

There
of mercury.

is

a passage in Charaka. iu the chapter on Kusktha or skin


into

diseases which

some physicians construe


is

re commendation

for

the use

It

this

^r^Tfaf^^TOm

$ft W*i fwffa^.

ma3

be

Keduced mercury which enres all diseases should be taken by those affected with sldn- diseases. The term rasa, however, signifies mercury as well as many other things, such as myrrh, sulphur, gold etc and since Charaka duos not mention parada, the principal name for mercury
translated as follows.
>

it

is

doubtful,

if

he really meant mercury by the term rasa.


its u.se

Supposing

however, ho did mean mercury,


to skin. discuses only.

was, at

al]

Brents, in his time, confined

28

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDR'A.


all sorts of diseases,

from
not

It is said that the physician

who does

know how

to use this merciful gift

of

God

is

an object of

ridicule in society.

Good mercury
nally,

is

said to be bright like the mid-day sun exter-

and

of a bluish tinge internally.

Mercury of a yellowish-

white, purple, or variegated colour should not be used in medicine.

Mercury, as met with in commerce, contains several sorts of impurities,

such as

tin,

lead, dirt, stone, etc.

If

administered in
of

an impure
hence
it

state it is
is

said

to

bring on a

number

diseases

purified before use.


in books.

Various processes for purifying

mercury are described


is

At the present day the following


Mercury
in
is first

generally adopted by Kauirujas.

rubbed with

brick-dust and garlic, then tied in four folds of cloth


in

and boiled
and dried

water over a gentle

fire

for three-hours
it is

an apparatus called

Dold yantra.
in the sun.

When
Some

cool,

washed

in

cold water

practitioners use betle-loaves instead of garlic

for nibbing the

mercury with.
is

hon
use.
1

of

cinnabar

Mercury obtained by sublima considered pute and preferred for internal


rubbed with lemon juice fur ihiee hours,

Cinnabar

is first

and then sublimed in the apparatus called Urddhapdtana yantra. The mercury is deposited within the upper pot of the apparatus,
in

form

of

blackish powder.

This
it

i.s

scraped, rubbed with


for use.
ie

lemon-juice and boiled in water,

when

is fit

peculiar

form

of

mercury called Shqdguna balijdrita ram2


sulphur
is

thai prepared,
it

little

placed

in*

an earthen pot, and over

some

mercury.

The pot

is

heated

in

a sand-lath, and, as the sulphur

begin* to melt, cautiously and gradually more of it is added to or placed over the mercury, altogether to the extent of six times
1.

f^T^r^r;

^^fa^t^^i
5

T%j4

f
n

vm

WwW**^
I

ura: isnf^nft

w.

^^*uftirT^f*Wwt

wrofa

T*F3*TWHf:

jpqcji eft

h<qg^lJ5fi

*ft;

<\m%\\\

v$\

9|%)^SllIM.a^

8^

W$*&

w$*uqn*:

MERCURY.
the weight of the mercury.

29
is

When

the whole

melted like

oil

the pot should be quickly removed from the

and cooled till the mass is consolidated. It should then be broken, and the mercury extracted from within the mass. Mercury thus obtained
tire,

is

said to be superior to all other forms,

but

it is

not

much used

at present.

The
is

purified mttal obtained

by the processes above mentioned


mercurial compounds.

employed

for the preparation of

Four

preparations of mercury are described in books, namely, black,


white, yellow and red, called respectively, krishna, sveta, pita and
rakta bhasmas.
1.

Krishna bhasuia.

sulphide of

over the
2.

fire

The black preparation is the black mercury, made by rubbing together and dissolving three parts of mercury with one of sulphur. 1 The white preparation
as
is

Baaakarpura.

the Basakarpura

or perchloride of mercury.

Several processes are given for


2

preparing

it

one

is

follows.

Take
till

of

mercury and chalk


(salt obtained

equal parts, and rub them together

the globules disappear.

Rub

this

mixture of chalk and mercury with pa-nsu


of

from saline earth) and the juice


repeatedly.

Euphorbia nereifolia
it

(snuhi)

Enclose in a covered crucible and heat


salt.

within a
will

pot full of rock

The perchloride

of

mercury

be

deposited in the shape of a pure white powder under the lid of


the crucible.
its

The Bhdvaprahdsa gives the following process for 3 Take of purified mercury, gatrika (red-ochre), preparation.

1.

3PPT*U

^teqi^SWT 3T3 <^3i

UlWqW[

wtfxm 5%

<rfsH

*raftqf<
2.

?rei3?T
|

ii

ws^TOniT
HHTZIW^ TSTP^T ^HC,
ifis

www
i

fqtf tffsiqz

Iff 3T?pra ^?ta*fi%cf

<tT*Ht ffiftn

*wst

^ww
i

ira

tots*

*fr'

ra^,

w mmn*if%%TO

3.

rc qniwrsi fafa.

?pj

qnesi tffaqainre
i

qsn^

TOigrati HE^n^ w*Nf

*rftqi *nft:

***t
\

^rfeqrt f*[

**fcq>t

*#3f ^TT^^fi

ws^qref^niiw

q&mftffo

^w

qre*T ^rfq

SO

SANSKBIX MATE1UA UEDlCA.


salt,

brick dust, chalk, alum, rock

earth from ant

hill,

kshdri

and bhdndaraujaka, or red eartli lavana (impure sulphate of soda) pots, in equal part?, rub together and strain used in colouring
through
cloth.

Place the mixture

in

an earthen

pot, cover

it

with another
layers
of

pot, face to face,

and

lute

the two together with

The pots so luted are then placed on fire, and heated for four days, after which they are opened, and the white camphor-like deposit in the upper pot is collected
clay and cloth.
lor use.
3.
is

Pita bhasma.
to

The yellow preparation called

l itabhaxiua

directed

be prepared as follows.

Take of mercury and


the

sulphur equal parts, rub them together for seven days with
juice

of

bhumydmalaki

( Phyllanthws

nernri)

and

hastisundl

(HcUotropuim Indicum).

Place the mixture in a covered crucible,


hours.

and heat

it

in a sand-bath for twelve

The
called

result will be

a yellow compound.
4.

Itakta bhasma.

The red preparation


of

llalctabhasw"

or
is

Ram

sindnra 2

is

prepared in a variety of way*.

The following

mercury and sulphur equal parts, rub together with the juice of the red buds of Ficus Beugalensis (void)
for three days successively, introduce the

one of them.

Take

mixture within a bottle

and heat

it

in a sand-bath for twelve hours.

red deposit will

^tft

ft^r rot ^f^g*?w


*?jT<fUm

w&n vrnttf

*^

^tr^
tf<m<i

^^ ^u^

<j<a~

v^*tw**t
11

rM-

Titewtfq*

***** m*iTf

n^,<

v^t

**

**f*

^^^,HI

-*

MERCURT*

'

31
It is

adhere below the neck of the


of dark reel shining scales.

bottle.

taken out in the shape

The four preparations

of

mercury above mentioned, though

described in most works on metalic medicines, are not, practically

used in the treatment of diseases under these names. In the present day the yellow preparation is not in use. The white form
called Rasalcarpura
is

now

prepared, notaccordirg to the processes

described in Sanskrit works, but b} subliming the black sulphide of mercury wi th common or rock salt. In this form it is largely

manufactured and sold in


better

all the bazars.

The red preparation

is

known

as Earn sindura

hi fact, practically,
or Rasa sindura

and the black one as Rasa parpati. prepared mercury means the red preparation
form
in

and

this is the

which

it

is

largely used.

Besides this, the black and red sulphides of mercury are also

used internally.

The black sulphide

is

prepared by rubbing

together equal parts of sulphur and mercury till the globules A The red sulphide or cinnabar It is called Kajjali disappear.
is

called

hingula.

These four preparations, namely, cinnabar,


red preparation
called

the black

sulphide called Kajjali, the

and the Rasakarpura of the bazar, are the four principal forms in which mercury is used in Hindu medicine
Rasasindura,
;

that

is,

they constitute

the basis of

all

the formulae containing

mercury.

Mercury is said to be imbued with the six tastes, and capable It is the first of of removing derangements of all the humours. Combined with other appropriate medicines it alterative tonics. cures all diseases, acts as a powerful tonic and improves the
I

vision

and complexion.
all

In fevers of

descriptions,

mercury

is

extensively used in

combination with aconite, croton seed, datura, and other medicines.

The following are a few


Take

illustrations. aconite,

Hiiigulesrara.

of cinnabar,

and long pepper,


into pills about

equal parts, rub together in a mortar and

make
i

1.

^nsrftnn

mw

*reT t**

*ai

mrfira^r

qj*

* s^f* *nw

.32
four grains
eacli.

SANSKRIT MATERIA MKPICA.

They are given, beaten up with a


1

little

honey,

in ordinary remittent fever.

Taruna jvardri? Take of mercury, sulphur, aconite and croton equal parts, rub together with the juice of Alor Indira and seeds,

make

into four grain

pills.

These

pills

act on the

bowels and

relieve fever*

They

are administered with sugar and water.


is

In diarrhoea and dysentery, mercury


of forms.

used in a great variety

The following

are a few examples.


m

Vajrakapdta rasa?
rasa,

(gum

mercury, sulphur, opium, mocha* of Bamba.r Malabaricum) 9 the three myrobalans,

Take

of

ginger, black pepper, and long pepper, in equal parts,

powder and

mix.
sativa

Soak the powder in the juice of the leaves of Cannabis Vijayd ) and wedelia calendula rea ( Bhringardja ) seven (
pills.

times and make into six grain

This medicine

is

adminis-

tered with honey in obstinate chronic diarrhcra.


four to twenty-four.
Jiasa parpati*

Dose grains

This

is

prepared by melting together a mix-

ture of equal parts of sulphur and mercury in an iron ladle,

smeared with ghee

(clarified butter).
leaf,

The melted

fluid is

poured
It is

on a piece of plantain
1.
e|
|

placed on a ball of cowdung.

fv^Hsr:
II

g^uH

*\$$?{

faroM^N fwi

fi^N

Wi %$
i

<1

5( <fa *J*?f

*hj5?TCen<nfl

ft^T

T% f^t^lii ^nft t$i

w wu<*i<iR: ^m^ <rcts*fa *re$ m m sro


i

3.

wme<q:

tjtts i*rei

wf*3tf

**

*tro*

fa^

fairera*

meijctky.
t

then pressed by another ball of cowdnng, enclosed in plantain


leaf.

When

cool the black sulphide of


is

mercury

is

obtained in the

shape of round disks. It


of other medicines,
in

much used

alone, or with the addition

chronic diarrhoea.

Other varieties of
prepared
this

Par pati. or mercurial preparations


with the addition of
iron,

in shape of disks are

gold,

copper etc

and used in

complaint, as for example,

Svarna parpa/i,

Vanclidmrita parpati

The preparation head gold. The latter


etc.

of
is

the former will be described under the

thus prepared.

Panclidmrita parpati}

Take
tola.

of sulphur eight
tolas,

tolas,

mercury
one
tola,

four tolas,

prepared iron two

prepared

talc

prepared copper half a

Rub

together in an iron mortar,

melt in an iron ladle and prepare disks like those of Rasa parpati,

above described.

Dose four grains with honey and

ghee, to be

gradually increased to sixteen or eighteen grains.


different sorts

Parpatis of

when given

in oases of diarrhoea with anasarca are

conjoined with a milk diet, water and salt being prohibited.


Malidgandliak rasa}
tolas,

Take

of

mercury and sulphur each two


tolas,

and maka a Parpati

as before described.

mace, cloves, and nim leaves, each two

Take of nutmegs, powder them well,


shells.
fire.

mix together, and

inclose

the
of

mixture within bi-valve


clay and roast in

Cover the shells with a layer

When

^arr

^r^snpinRre^T

<tt^

M^j *%

ii

wist

sr sraSfa tr?fiN q^rrenT

*3^9Rre:
5

:U
cool, extract the

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

medicine from the sheila.


i

It is

administered in

doses of about four grains in the acute diarrhoea of children.

Pdndimulana

rasa.

In jaundice, mercury

is

used along with


called

other alteratives and purgatives, as in the following,

Pdndusudana
ghee and
juice
of

rasa.

Take

of

mercury, sulphur, prepared copper,

croton seeds and bdellium,

equal parts,
pills.

rub them together with


are given with the

make into two-grain nim bark and honey

They

in jaundice.

Acids and cold water

for drinking should be avoided.

In affections of the lungs mercury


combinations.

is

used in a variety of

The following are


Take

a few illustrations.

Basendra qudika?

of purified

mercury two
(

tola3.

Add
)

to it one tola of the juice of jayanti

leaves

Sesbania Aculeata

and
soak

of
it

fresh ginger, rub together


in the juice
( vrihati )

till

the mixture thickens, then


(

of

Jussioea

repens
4

Icanchata)

and Solarium

Indicum

respectively for twenty -four hours.

Take

of

purified sulphur eight tolas

calendulacea

bhringardja

).

and soak in the juice of Wedelia When dry, mix the sulphur with

the mercury, and rub together with sixteen tolas of goat's milk till the mass is fit for being made into pills. Dose about four
grains, to be taken with goat's milk
pill is

and juice

of ginger.

This

useful in bronchitis and cough generally.

Rasa sindura three parts, prepared gold and copper one part each, realgar, orpiment and
of
1.
iK*jfi*i<ti

Bdjamrigdrika rasa?

Take

*N
i

wci ?rra

^qw^

*Fr*p*rR
i

^*te*rT5*re?Ffit
rer

<^^f

ISTtt

^tt^^^ttot^

sfor^

*rw

TSRfa RFsni3%
o

*^T?3RP?
/

^W.
3.

xmwrsxx
ii

T&WftTft m*TT

Vm^

^cIcIWST
^T\ft ig&rfr

firannwrra*^

utiwure^

5^?n?T fiw&?r

TO^ft*

MERCTRY.

35

sulphur two parts each and mix.


cavities
of
conries,

lutroduce the mixture into the

close their openings with borax reduced to a

paste with goat's milk, roast the shells in closed crucibles and take

Dose about four grains, with two grains of long and two of black pepper, honey and clarified butter.
It
is

out the medicine when cold.

said to

be useful in phthisis, and chronic bronchitis with

fever.

In diseases of the nervous system, several combinations of

mercury with
muklui rasa,

gold, iron, talc, etc. are used, such as,

the
etc.

Chatvr-

Chintamani chaturninkha, Yogendra rasa

They
in

are all similar in composition, with but slight variation

the

proportions of the active ingredients and their adjuncts.

Chintamani chaturmukha 1
talo

is

thus prepared.

Take

of the red

preparation of mercury called Rasa sindura two tolas, prepared

two

tolas,

prepared iron one


This medicine

tola,

prepared gold half a

tola,

rub them together with the juice


two-grain
diseases,
pills.
is

of Aloe Indira,

and make
in

into

said to be

useful in nervous
noise

in3anity,

cephalalgia,

deafness,
of

the

ears,

paralysis of the tongue, diseases

the female and urinary

organs, phthisis, fever etc.


appetite and strength,

It

improves nutrition, increases the

and brightens the complexion.


the red preparation of mercury, or
is

As an

alterative tonic

Rasasindtira .already

described,

much used
i

in a

variety of
f.s

zv*tm

ii

Ptst

5*f

*?t ^!tt*

*m

f*rep?tfa

iinjz

*N*rc#irc:

36
diseases.

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEfctCA.

Two

other forms of tins medicine in


balijdrita

common
Svarna

use are
sindura

called

Shadgnna

rasa

sindura

and

respectively.

Shadgnna

balijdrita

rasa sindura
parts,

is tlius

prepared.

Take

of

mercury and sulphur equal


second day, mix this
in this way, six times.

and prepare Rasa sindura


in a glass
bottle.

as
tlie

already described by sublimation

On

Rasa sindura with

an equal quantity of

sulphur and again sublime the compound.


This preparation
is

Repeat the process


considered superior

to the ordinary Rasa sindura.

Svarna sindura1
tola, purified

is

thus prepared.
tolas,

Take

of line leaf gold one

mercury eight
dark colour.

mortar, add twelve tolas of


the mass
is

of a

mix together by rubbing in a sulphur and again rub together, till Sublime in a glass bottle on the
of

sand-bath.

The three forms

are said to cure all sorts of

Rasa sindura above mentioned diseases, but are particularly used in

chronic fever, catarrh and cough of children, mental and bodily


debility, anaemia etc.

Mercury i3 used in syphilis both externally and internally, Syphilis and its treatment by mercury are described only in
recent compilations, such as the Bhavaprak'tsa.
are a few illustrations of
its

The following

use in this disease.

Take of mercury and catechu each half a toh'i pellitory root one tola, honey one and a half tote. Ruh together till the globules of mercury disappear, and divide into seven
pills or boluses.

SaptasdU vati?

One

pill is

administered every morning with

ft*T-n

ii

wT^re^jro

crt

**fw<3i

s*nfsfr.

^n<?3!

m*?H

faire*n^

TT

W3H^n>;

ItUCtfRY.

37
salt

water

in

primary

syphilis.

Acids and

should

not be

taken

after the use of this medicine.

Basa harpura

or corrosive sublimate as sold in the bazars,


close

is

recommended
medicine
is

to

be given in a single
in

of

eight grains.

The

enclosed

a ball of wheat-flour and covered with

powdered
the
teeth.

cloves.

It is

swallowed with water so as not to touch


to be taken after the
is

Salts

and acids are forbidden

use of this medicine.

As

the Basa harpura of the bazars


is

not a

pure perchloride of mercury, but


times escapes after this dose.
of

a mixture of calomel and the patient someit

corrosive sublimate in indefinite proportions,

When, however,
of

contains more
salivation,

corrosive

sublimate

than

calomel,

intense

gastritis

and even death may


ocsasionally

result.

"When such doses


it is

of poison-

ous remedies are recommended in standard works


that
tion,

no wonder

we should

come across cases of dreadful salivainduced by native treatment. The circumstance of wheatbeing used as a covering to the poison
In secondary syphilis

flour

may

act as an
is

antidote to some extent.

Bam

harpura

given in small doses in combination with cloves, saffron, sandal

wood, and musk.

For external application, about a drachm of mercury is recommended to be rubbed between the 'palms with the juice of the
leaves of Sida coalifolia
(

bdtydlaha

till

the globules of mercury


to

are no longer visible.


fire till

The palms are then

be warmed- over the

perspiration breaks out from them. 2

^rraitt^: ^faftns^T:

fsfwct

T^uTin^

ftfwem:-i

^t faftRT

HT^ir^iai;

38

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEuiCA.

For f amigation

in

primary

syphilis, about

half a

drachm

of
is

the black sulphide, mixed with one fourth part of wheat-flour,

employed daily for seven days in succession. 1


tion.

In secondary

syphilitic eruptions the following composition is used for fumiga-

powder and mix. About fifteen grains of this is used at a time. Powders for f amigation are heated over a fire of jujube tree wood, and the vapour is applied to the skin under cover in a closed room.
Mercury
for skin diseases, as in the following.
of

Take

of cinnabar one tola, realgar half a tola,

several

applications

Take

of cinnabar, sulphur,
(

red oxide of lead, rock


baberung,
auricula ta

salt,
(

seeds of Cassia tora


),

chakramarda

),

Cleome felina
(

svarnahshiri

and the root

of Aplotaxis

hushta

in equal parts.

a thin paste with the juice of datura,


plication
is

Powder them, and reduce to nim or betle leaves. This ap-

said to cure ringworm, eszema, prurigo, psoriasis etc. 2

For
is

lice in

the hair,

mercury rubbed with datura or betle

leaf

recommended

to be applied to the scalp, 3

ARSENIC.
Three compounds
of

arsenic are used in

Hindu medicine,
Of these

namely, arsenious anhydride or white arsenic, red sulphide of


arsenic ov realgar, and the yellow sulphide or orpiment.
three, orpiment

and realgar have been used in medicine from a very remote period, and are indigenous to India. Native white arsenic is not met with in India. It is brought from Bunnah,
1.

wnnftir:

rtt^:

**htc wm*i^r

?P!?^TTP^

2.

%n*tft f*v*lft

^ to?
lift

*rar

wf^^^T'irf *&
mfa
3-

-JSP*,

^
1

*i*:

3*

ffrf*

^^? i^
mw^T;
1

wxmfin *Tm?3f^fw:

tM* **t^1

y*imr.

m*n?npnfi

*Tf* ftft

3Tft*wr
Tflr:
1

ARSENIC.

39
in

China and the Persian


ancient

galf.

It

is

not mentioned
list

the

more where

Sanskrit

works,
etc.

in

the

of

metallic ores,

orpiment, realgar

are described, nor in any prescription for

the treatment of diseases.


ever,

In compilations of a later date, howit is

sach as the Bhavaprakasa, and the Tantras,


as a powerful medicine for fever,

recom-

mended
as such.

and

is

now much used

In these later works white arsenic


such as ^wf^^T Sankha visha, Phendsma bhasma, and <Hi*J^ x

by several names, ^n^^T^TC Sdmbala Jcshdra, wuum^ Ddrumuch. None of these terms,
is

called

however,

is to

be found in standard lexicons, such as Wilson's


or Sir Raja Radhakanta Deva's
is

Sanskrit-English Dictionary,

Sabdakalpadruma.

Phendsma bhasma

mentioned by Susruta in

his chapter on poisons,

where he

says,
it is

it

and haritdla (orpiment)


if

are the two mineral poisons,* but

very doubtful

Susruta

meant any native white arsenic by it. The derivation of the term implies that it was obtained by roasting some sort of stone or ore. White arsenic was obtained artificially in ancient days by roasting orpiment (see orpiment), and probably this preparation was called Phendsma bhasma. At a later period imported white arsenic had been used in medicine under the designations of sdmbalakshdra ddrumuch, and sankha visha.
9

WHITE ARSENIC.
San$.

JRffw Sankha

visk.

<l**i^f N

Darumuch.

W^TWTT Sambala
White Arsenic
Sankha
vish. Stiffed
is

kshara.

sold in

the bazars under the names of


It is purified

sambul and Darumuch.

by being
It is

soaked in lemon juice or the juice of the plantain


chiefly used in fever, for

tree.

which

it is

now

preferred to the other


in a great

compounds

of

arsenic,

and
Take

is

employed alone as also


white arsenic two

variety of combinations.
1

The following are


of

a few illustrations.
tolas,

Jvara brahmdstra.
in

soak

it

cow's urine
* ^farajwST

for

three

days, and afterwards


I

in the juice of
II.

^fw^rat

^T<jf%$

Susruta. kalpasthana, chapter

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


Celsia Goromandeliana

ko foist ma

),

for one da}r and then


,

wash

in

cold

water.

Take a small quantity, the weight of a mustard,


within a luncp
of

(about one- ninth of a grain), and administer

sugar in intermittent fever before the paroxysm comes on. Thus

taken for three dajs,


remittent fever.
It

it

cures recent and chronic fevers, ague and


called

is

Jvara brdhmdslra or the weapon

which
*

infallibly destroys fever.

Bdntbrahma rasa} Take seeds and long pepper, equal


with lemon juice.
of

of

white arsenic, cinnabar, datura

and make into four-grain pills They are given with the juice of tuhi (leaves
parts,

Ocirnum sanctum) in remittent fever with shivering, incoherent speech or wandering, profuse perspiration or much heat of body,
difficult

breathing,

ebc.

The dose

of arsenic in this medicine

is

very large and

may

induce unpleasant symptoms.

Chandesvara rasa. 2

Take

of

mercury, sulphur, aconite, pre-

pared copper and white arsenic, equal parts, rub together with the juice of fresh ginger for six hours, then soak in ginger- juice

and dry, successively


juice of Vztex negttndo
(

for

seven days.
)

Afterwards soak in the

nirgnndi

for seven days,

make

into

pills

about a grain each, and administer with the juice of fresh ginger. Along with this medicine, inunction with oil, cold bathing and nourishing animal food should be used.

Sfccrr

fttft
i

*#
i

wm g^r ^wzirr
*m
^
*
r.

sfaNt to

^t%

^*& Mra
?ratw:

frfd

Tm:

Jpwygq^ ^fftfarorf

^
H^TTT
i

2.

^J w*:
ii

wwwth wv w.

^t *j fa* vm' sural *rnSft*

%nw *%ifc ra>j-

*3*ifq

%?mej *ra3?r

mm*im
,

^
^^IT^eFkT

II

i*t* spit item irei?%rc3* 5 qtfrarar% ^tf formwrf* ^spj

^
,

f^'^^TTfa w&l T ^5 ^r fawi

^^^

TST.

STS S^fPfi

sfawsp::

ORPIMENT.

4J

ORPIMENT.
Sans. VfWT, Haritdla,

smooth sinning goldcoloured scales called Vansapatri haritdla, and in yellow opaqno
in

Orptmfxt

ooo-nra in

two forms, namely,

masses called

Pinda haritdla.

Vansapatri haritdlQ

is

preferred
haritdla
is

for internal use as


chiefly

an alterative and febrifuge.

Pinda

used as a colouring ingredient in paints, and for sizing country paper. Most of the older Sanskrit MSS. are written on

paper prepared with


of insects,

haritdla, to preserve

them from the ravages

and this

it

does most effectually.*

Babu Rajendralala Mitra gives the following interesting acconnt


in

of

arsenicised paper in his report on Sanskrit manuscripts, published

tho

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, for March 1875.

"The manuscripts examined have mostly been written on country paper sized with yellow arsenic and an emulsion of tamarind seeds, and then
polished by rubbing with a conch-shell.

A few
is

are on white

Kasmiri paper,
I

and some on Palm-leaf.


acacia gum.

White arBenic
it,

rarely used for the size, but

have

seen a few codices sized with

the mucilage employed in such cases being

The surface
is

of ordinary

country paper being rough, a thick


for ordinary

coating of size

necessary for easy writing; and the tamarind-seed emulsion

affords this admirably.


rice gruel;

The paper used

writing

is

sized

with

but such paper attracts

damp and vermin


and
it

of all kinds,

and that
it.

great pest of literature, "the silver fish," thrives luxuriantly on

The
and

object of the arsenic


effectually.

is

to

keep

off this insect,

serves the purpose most

No

insect or

worm

of

any bind

will attack arsenicised paper,


its

so far the

MSS. are
it

perfectly

secure against

ravages.

The superior

appearance and cheapness of European paper has of late induced many


persons to use

instead of the country arsenicised paper in writing puthis


is

but this

is

a great mistake, as the latter

not nearly so durable as the former,


insects.
I
in

and
this

is

liable to be rapidly destroyed

by

cannot better illustrate


the Library of the Asiatic

than by referring to some of the MSS.


to 1830,

Society.

There are among them several volumes written on foolscap paper,

which dates from 1820

and they already look decayed, mouldering,

and touched in several places by silver-fish. Others on John- letter paper which is thicker, larger and stouter, are already so far injured that the ink has quite faded, and become in many places illegible, whereas the MSS. which
were originally copied on arsenicated paper for the College of Fort William in the first decade of this century, are now quite as fresh as they were when
first

written.

have seen many MSS.


quite as
fresh.

in private collections

which are much


the propriety of

older,

and

still

This fact

would

sn orgeat

42
Haritdla
boiled
(

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEMCA.

is

purified for internal


tlie

use by being successively


fruit of

in

kdnjika,

juice

of

the

Benincasa cerifera

Jcushmdnda)

myrobahours in each
fluid.

lans, for three

Some

physicians,

probably

save time, mix all these fluids together, and boil the orpiment The dose of orpiment thus in the mixture for three hours only.
to

purified

is

from two

to four grains.
t

Several methods of roasting orpiment are described. The Bhavaprakasa recommends that orpiment should be powdered and

made

into a ball with the juice of Boerhaavia diffusa

(punarnava)

placed in the centre of a pot full of the ashes of that plant. and

The pot should be now covered with


heated over a
fire for

a dish, luted with clay, and

twenty hours.

When

cool the ball of roasted

orpiment

taken out from the pot and reduced to powder. Another process is as follows. Take of purified orpiment and yavahslwra, equal parts, rub them together with the juice of Vitex
is

Negundo (nirgundi), and roast the mixture in a closed crucible. The resulting compound from both these processes is described
as white

camphor

like substance.

specimen of roasted orpiment supplied to

me by an

up-

country physician was analized and found to contain but a small proportion of white arsenic. Bengali physicians do not prepare
this

drug from a superstitious notion that the man who roasts They purchase it from Fakirs or orpiment dies very soon.
religious mendicants.
It is said that

some specimens of roasted

orpiment are highly poisonous, and contain a large proportion of white arsenic. The quality of the drug would no doubt vary
according to the method in which
it is

prepared.

Orpiment is said to cure fevers and skin diseases, to increase strength and beauty, and to prolong life. In fever it is used in combination with mercury, aconite, etc. The following is an
illustration.

Government records

in

Mof ussil Courts being written on


is

nrsenicised paper

instead of the ordinary English foolscap, which

so rapidly destroyed both


I

by

the climate and also by white-ants.

To guard against mistake


is

should

add here that the ordinary yellow paper sold in the bazars turmeric, and not at all proof against the attack of inserts,"

dyed with

ORPIMENT,
Vetdla ram.
aconite,
1

43

Take

of

purified

mercury, sulphur, orpiment,

and black pepper, equal parts. First rub the mercury and sulphur together, then add the other ingredients in fine powder, and make into two-grain pills. They are given with the juice of
fresh ginger in remittent fever with affection of the brain.

Vidyddhara
iron pyrites,

Take of mercury, sulphur, prepared copper, realgar and orpiment equal parts, tub them together
rasa.

and soak the mixture in a decoction of long pepper and in the milky juice of Euphorbia nereifolia (vajri). Make into pills about six grains each. These pills are given with honey in enlarged spleen and other enlargements of the abdominal viscera. Tdlakesari rasaz Orpiment forms the active ingredient of
v

several pills for skin diseases, of which this


of orpiment,

is

an example.

Take

realgar,
salt,

iron

pyrites

(svamamdhshika), mercury,

borax, and rock

one part each, sulphur and burnt conchshell two parts each, rub them together for a day with lemon

juice,

then add to the mass one- thirtieth part of

its

weight of

aconite,

and mix. Dose, five to ten grains with butter. After it, powdered seeds of Vernonia anthelmintica (v&huchth two drachms should be taken with honey and ghee. This medicine is useful in
chronic skin diseases.

all sorts of

The above formula

is

taken

from the Bhavaprakasa. Sarangadhara gives a similar prescription under the name of Mahdtdlesvara.

Orpiment forms an ingredient


for skin diseases.

of several external

applications

Thus, take of orpiment, wood cf Berberis lycium (ddrnharidrd) , seeds of Iiophanus satlvus (mulaka), wood of Pi 171118
1.

trTT^T*:

vs

*p*'

fa* <tm

ufare

**rtftran

ftramt *rt^ro!

Smm ^Pm^{
fWTWi?
2.

||

W^ fa
i

3*3

*tW3

ffti[

<?T3*f%

%STT*J

*Hftf

*ft
fV<4i*<A<j:
*ptnii

<n^

mm ^ m*r'
^^fttw

*pr:firar
i

^jw
i

^mfs

*$%?[

ms^f^m
m^frarft

ii

ft*rau: *rp?t3w

m^r fw* *^ wt?


<8*Kifl:
i

jftel^lf^fii
3.
i

rrrerarofaMT 3?tc^wt:

f*w?gm:

i*reft f^pr:

^rnx

i^srft

\w.

ii

wtotvtk:

44
'Deodar a
tola,
is

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEMCA.

and betle leaves, each two tolas, burnt eonch-bhell half a beat them together with water into a thin paste. This paste
psoriasis.
1

an useful application in

The use
I

of orpiment as a depilatory

was known

to the

ancient

numerous formulae for 2 Take of the removal of hair. The following are examples. conch-shell-lime, soaked in the juice of plantain tree, and of orpiment, equal parts, make them into a paste with the aid of water, and apply it to the part from which the hair is to be removed. Or take of conch-shell-lime two parts, orpiment one part,
lindus.
It

enters into the composition of

realgar half a part, sarjikakshdra (impure carbonate of soda) one

Take Ashes of the root of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Apamarga) and Orpiment in equal proportion rub with water and apply upon the piles of the
part,

rub together with water, and apply.

male organ.

REALGAR.
Sans.
*FF:fal^JT,

Manohxiln.
of

REALGAR
asthma,

is

purified by being
It is

rubbed with the juice


in fever,

lemons,

or of ginger.
etc.,

used internally

skin diseases, cough,


it
is

and externally in skin diseases. In fever, generally used in combination with mercury, orpiment etc.
following
is

The

an

illustration.

Chandesvara rasa. 4

Take

of

realgar,

mercury, sulphur, ana

aconite, equal parts, soak in the juice of Vitex Negundo (nirgunth)*

^m^:
2.

qr:

11

mm:
ft

w\w wft

wpN *fan*wi

*i*T:faraT

^rriwn*T

^W^t ^*

*raira^

ii

witKiira\

Tt^rerwirc:

ft fc

algal;,

4a

and

of fresh ginger, three times respectively,


pills.

and make

into

two-

grain

This medicine
rasa.
1

is

useful in remittent fever,


of realgar,

Svdsa kuthdra

Take

mercury,

sulphur,

aconite, borax, each one part, black pepper

seven parts, ginger,

and long pepper, three parts each, rub them together with water, and make into four-grain pills. They are said to be useful in

asthma with cough, and in remittent fever with cerebral complications. In coma from remittent fever, these pills are powdered and used as snuff for rousing the patient. They are also used in
this

manner

in cephalalgia, hemicrania, ozaena, etc.

Realgar enters into the composition of numerous applications for skin diseases. Realgar mixed with the ashes of Achyranthes aspera ( apdmdrga ) is applied to patches of leucoderma or white
In leprous ulcers a liniment composed of realgar, orpiment, black pepper, sesamum oil and the juice of Cahlropis
lepra.

gigantea

is

used.

2
p

Ghandraprabhd

varti.

Realgar enters into the composition of


:

several applications for the eye

the

following

is

an example.
of

Take

of realgar,
(

galena,

conch- shell-lime,
),

seeds

Moringa

pterygosperma

sveta

markka

long pepper, liquorice and the

kernel of belleric myrobalan, equal parts, rub them together with goat's milk, dry the mixture and make into small pastils or
pencils.

These are rubbed with a


erf

little

honey and applied

to the

eyes as a collyrium in affections

the internal tunics,

tumors or

other growths, night-blindness

etc.

^TO^rs^Tire;
2.

ii

T3*riK4JTO
%T.
II

*5r:fagw iPnnf5

^
i

Ti^nfimi.-fsmr

ii

vjnfa *mwiTf*i

^atr^w Mir

^Tm^^tt

wm

*rf"

?m

xti)

i <rom

ii

wfrr^ww

aim srmTwmfa

sft^

ii

^r;

16

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


Aii oil for application to fistulous sores
is

prepared as follows.
tolas each,

Take
oil

of sulphur, realgar

and turmeric, eight


leaves
1

mustard-

one

seer, juice of datura

one seer, water four seers

boil together in the usual

way.

IRON.
Sans,
^frf,

Laulia.

Three varieties of iron are used in Hindu Medicine, namely, Kdnta laulia or cast-iron, Mandura or iron rust, and Lauhasara or salts of iron produced by iron being kept in contact with vegetable
acids.

The form
is

of cast iron used in the manufacture of pans for


all

boiling milk

considered superior to

others for medicinal use.

which are scattered around when hot iron is beaten on the anvil, are called mandura. They are allowed to remain in contact with the earth till they become very rusty

The small

particles of iron

and brittle, when they are considered fit for use. The properties of mandura are said to be analogous to those of cast iron. Lauhasara or the granules produced on iron plates, smeared with
vegetable acids, are also used in medicine.
is

This variety of iron

said

to

be especially useful in diarrhoea, chronic bowel-com-

plaints, dyspepsia,

and nervous

diseases.
it

Cash iron

is

purified
fire

by beating

into thin

plates,

heating

the plates in
conjee,
oil,

and sprinkling them with cow's urine, sour


of the

and a decoction

pulse of Dolichos uniflorus

(kulattha)

The

plates are reduced to

powder by pounding them in an iron mortar, rubbing them with cow's urine, and roasting the powder in a covered crucible
repeatedly
till
it

is

reduced to a

fine

impalpable powder, that

and will not irritate the eyes when applied to them. It is usual to rub the iron with cow's urine and roast it about a hundred times in succession. In some cases it is recomwill float on water

mended that
times.

iron should be thus roasted repeatedly for a thousand


like

Mand
^nr *ra*rf*reT *5pftat*r

cast iron.

1.

^mf^

*^*3rcrcrre*i

*hk vmvs

w
IRON.

47

a fine impalpable powder of a reddish grey or On chemical analysis it is found to be a briokdust colour.

Prepared iron

is

mixture of the proto and peroxide of


to twelve.

iron.

Dose, grains six

Iron, it
all sorts of

is said,

increases strength, vigour and longevity, cures

diseases

and

is

the best of tonics.


is

When

gold and
It is

silver are

not available, iron


dyspepsia,

substituted for them.

used

in painful

chronic fever, phthisis, anasarca, piles,


lirer,

enlarged spleen and

anaemia,

jaundice, obesity, urinary

diseases, diseases of the nervous system, skin diseases etc.

When

iron

is

administered the following articles of diet should be

avoided, namely, kushmdnda (fruit of Bemncasa cerzfera),


oil,

sesamum

hulattha (pulse of Dolichos uniflorus), mustard, wines and acids.

In chronic fever with ansemia, debility, emaciation, enlarged


spleen or other complications,
used,
several

preparations of iron are

such as the Vrihat Sarvajvara kara lauha, Chandamdya


<

lauha, etc.

Vrihat sarvajvarahara

hntfai.

Take

of purified

mercury and

sulphur, prepared copper, iron pyrites, talc,

gold

and

orpiineni,

s^i*fo^*

sfa*[

xn^ ?t*N

^5*

t\m

mfa*m*n

f*

^T^TT

irs^m: <<K*iiifa

TFnrak^T

*w

^3fnrfft%^

n?ii

*rfa^rc

q fl*m

*fP*re

vxvfir

Uw%

fMfaswi
i

*ta^
<tct

^rc^

ft*m

*!tai

*#to^ ^t< ^rtsrrCM ^Tl


I

*tot

tflwc
I

^ts

UclR *J3fR

^rant^f

WWd

ir^qtf

*f^r*i

4ft

SANSKETT MATERIA MFPTOA


tolas,

each two

prepared iron eight

tolas,

mix them

together, and
fluids,

soak the mixture for seven days, in each of the following


viz9

fresh

juice of the leaves of Morordica Charantia


(

kdravella),

decoction of dasamula or ten roots

see

decoction of parpata (Hedyotis biflora),


fresh juice of guruchi,
(

Desmodium Oangeticum ), and of the three myrobalans,


),

Tinospora cordifolia
),

of betel
(

leaves,
),

of of

kdkamdchi

Solanum nigrum
diffusa)

of nirgundi,
of ginger.

vitex

Negundo

punarnavd (Boerhaavia
into two- grain pills,

and

Divide the mass


treacle.

and administer with long pepper and

The dose

of the medicine

may be

gradually increased.
in

It is used

in all sorts of intermittent fevers,

emaciation, wasting, hectic

fever, enlarged spleen, anaemia, loss of appetite etc.

A light diet

consisting of fine rice and poultry

meat should be adopted during


all

the use of this medicine, and


avoided,

undigestible food should be

Chandanddya lauha} Take of red sandal wood, Pavonia odorata


(

bald

),

Stephania her nandifolia

pathd

),

Andropogon muricatus

(?isir 9 )

long pepper, chebulic myrobalan, emblic myrobalan, ginger,


(cliai),

Nymphoe<t stellata (nilotpala), Ghavica officinarum


Zeylanica, (clritraka),
iron twelve parts,
to be

Plumbago
prepared

and babertmg

seeds, each one part,

rub them

all together.

taken with the fresh juice of


Jfedyotis
hijlora

Dose about ten grains Tmosphora cordifolia (guruchi)


is

and

(parpati).

This medicine

said to cure all


spleen.

sorts of chronic intermittent fever

and fever with enlarged


is

Visliomajvardntaha lauha?

This

another compound metallic


in

preparation containing iron and

much used
6\ T)

chronic fever.

To

1.

^*vii<^H*T
srafcra:
i

*W

*K*liri3< q

i^TfaRT

TPT<1^^f ^iftftT
11

faw^r

^f

f*r?far

ftfwR

wwr ftq^wTR
^?r

rw?r*:
2.

fa^fcRRnpah^i

fr^rennf

*p^t

w^^Hi
to*

*&&$

IKO>

49

prepare

it,

take of mercury obtained bj sublimation of cinnabar,


tola.

and sulphur, each one


fire

Rub them together and melt over


Then take
of

the

in

an iron ladle as in the preparation called Rasaparpati,


prepared gold, one
talc, tola,

described under mercury.

quarter of a

prepared iron, copper, and

two

tolas

each,

prepared

tin,

red ochre, and corals, half a tola each, roasted

pearls, conch-shell

and bi-valve

shell,

each a quarter of a
T^itli

tola.

Beat
water.

all

these ingredients together into a mass

the aid of

Inclose the mass within bi-valve shells, cover the shells


fire.

with a layer of clay and roast them lightly in cow-dung


medicine
is

This

given in doses of four grains with the addition of long


salt,

pepper, rock

and

assafcetida, each four grains,

and a
is

little

honey.

It

is

taken once daily in the morning and

said to be

useful in chronic fever, spleen and liver diseases etc.

Several preparations of iron are used in

piles,

such

as

the
The*

Mdna suranudya
first
1

luulia,

Arsari lauha, Agnimvlcha lanha


is

etc.

mentioned compound

prepared as follows.

Mdna suraaddya lauka} In&ica ( mdna ) and Aim


the roots of
Ipomcea
),

Take of the root -stocks


phophallus con
(trtvrit)
ulatus
rid

of
(

Oolorasia
),

surana

of

Turpethnm

Baliospen wm

marking nuts, the three myrobalans, black pepper, long pepper, ginger, seeds of Embelza Bzbes ( babernng ), riot of Plumbago Zeylanica (chttraJca) and the tubers of Cyperus

montanum

danti

rotundus

mustaka
This

),

equal parts, .prepared iron in quantity equal

to all the above ingredients. scruple.

Powder and mix.


said
to

Dose about a
in
piles

medicine

is

be

useful

with

constipation.

Lauhdsava?
ginger,

Take

of

powdered

iron, of the three

myrobalans,

long pepper and black pepper, ajwain, baberung seeds,


,

1-

WT<ijWT<H te*l
||

^T^^!??^fflTcTf^^^^^?Tf^cR

fa^nmig<n*i<fl
I

5*lfa*TT*l*n[
2.

q*KITOt

*sftfTg

*N\t f**^i

frosrre srarfsren^

f*?* faro? i$m

50

SAX2KTHT MATTTJA MEPTCA


root,

plumbago
seers,

and tubers of Cyperus rotundm

mustaka

),

each
half-

thirty -two tolas,

and honey eight

seers, treacle twelve seers.

and a

water one hundred and twenty-eight

Powder

the

and steep them in the honey and water in an earthen jar smeared with ghee, for a month, or till complete
solid ingredients

fermentation takes place.


stomachic, and
useful
in

This iron-wine
anremia,

is

said to be tonic and

spleen,

anasarca,

ascites,

enlargements of the abdominal viscera, piles

etc.

AmalaMdya

lauha.

Iron enters into the composition of several

medicines for hemorrhagic diseases, of such as the Khandakadya

Sudhdmdhi rasa, Amdlakndya lauha etc. We will here lauha, transcribe the mode of preparing the last which is the simplest and shortest. Take of emblic myrobalan and long pepper, each one part, sugar two parts, prepared iron four parts, powder and

mix them together. Dose six to twelve grains hematuria etc., with suitable adjuncts.

in

haemoptysis,

Guda mandura? A preparation nearly similar and called Guda mandara is used in dyspepsia.
iron rust three parts.
ghee,

to

the above

It is composed

chebulic myrobalans one part each, and of old treacle, emblic and

These are rubbed together with honey and

and made

into boluses about a

drachm

each.

One

of these

is

taken in divided

doses

before,

along with, and after meals,

in

dyspepsia with pain after digestion.


VidyddJiarubhra?
rotundns

Take

of

babmmg

seeds,

tubers of Qyjpty*
gulanclia,

(must aha}, the three myrobalans,

root of

crater

h f*nrf*r faf^re t^t

t%5?*it^tc

*CTfaW*!jt

wnrirrw:

fq^HTT^f

<reTf*T

^T<finrt H*WT

aft*}!

WT

3TT<TTSJ

^PT^?lTt> fatf

IRON.

51

BaUospermum montanum ( danti ), of Ipomcea Turpethtnn ( trivrit ) of Plumhago Zeylanica (chitraka), ginger, long pepper and black
f

popper, and each two tolas,


iron rust thirty-two tolas,

prepared iron thirty- two


talc

tolas, old

prepared

eight

tolas,

purified
tlio

mercury one
add

tola

and a

half,

sulphur two

tolas.

Rub

together

sulphur and mercury, then mix them with the other ingredients,
sufficient ghee

and honey, and rub them together for twelve


to thirty grains

hours.
ghee.

Preserve the confection in an earthen pot smeared with

Dose from ten


is

with milk or cold water.


digestion

This medicine

used in chronic dyspepsia, especially in that


after
is

form of the disease in which the pain comes on

completed, and in chronic fever, diarrhoea, phthisis

etc.

Nav&yasa lauha.
of forms.
is

In anaemia iron

is

much used

in a variety

The following compound powder called Nav&yasa lauha To prepare it lake of a popular and well known medicine.
(

ginger, long pepper, black pepper, the three myrobalans, dabermf


seeds, tubers of Cyperus rotundtvs

muttaka

and plumbago

root,

one part, prepared iron nine parts, powder the ingiedients and mix. Dose four grains, gradually increased to eighteen grains, to be taken with honey and ghee. This medicine is used in
each

anemia, jaundice,

piles,

heart disease

etc.

It is

given on the
is

first

day

in four-grain dose.
till

Every second day the dose


quantity
is

increased

by two grains

the

maximum

reached.

The above

fesrreT:

?i

nT*r**w

<N fare
i

f*raforr

^rewrfN wre.

qrefa^re ^h;3*t
i

wi

frm?<T% **r *nfh?w

faster

TOsfara^wirerewT fa^fn^T

ym\

M^t
f*refa

*t*ret:
i

m* cran^JpreFn-re^ g

4t%

^*n<r

qftwr*^
i

rrt *re-

^^farf **^ tint ^tnwi

^fttrfT3fs^

*r

*f* * *n^

^n?t sW^re:

wipw:
i

ttost:
1.

^T*re

^w
i

^i*<!!*irei~ug*rf%*Tfai?*T:

tm:
ii

-*nT*ft*tft

swiwif

*rifa"*T

v*^ w%T$to$*w:*wmnn

**;

52

SANSKRIT MATERIA MED1CA.

preparation with the addition of one part of the watery extract of

gulancha

is

called Guduchyddi laiiha}

and
ed

is

given in burning of

air.

Mahdsvdsdri lauha

formp

which iron

is

used in asthma.
is

The former

thus prepai-ed.
tola,

They are similar in composition. Take of prepared iron four tolas,


tolas each,

prepared talc one

honey and sugar four


tdlisapatri
(

the three

myrobalans, liquorice root, raisins, long pepper, kernel of jujube


fruits,

bamboo-manna,
of

leaves of Pznus Wehbiana>

baberung 6eeds, cardamoms, root of Aplotaxis aurtculat

( Jcushtha, )

and flowers

Mesua ferrea (ndgakesara), each one told, powder and rub them together in an iron mortar. Dose about one -cruple, to be taken with honey two or three times a day.
/

In enlarged spleen Roliitaha lauha

is

the favourite form in

which iron
Rohitaka).
is

is

used.

It will be described

under Rohiiaka

Amoor
lattha?
tola;

In enlarged liver the following called Yakridari


of

used.

Take

prepared iron,

ftilc

and copper, each four

root of variety of citrus Acida Roxh.

(h'mpdka) eight tolas, burnt

l.

*j^nf^^
II

*pN*i*ikj4j*' f'7*7ni*re} *&:

^\mis f^'siro
i

*at*TW W(
2.

t^ottow:
i

*rcFjreifNH?T

^f^

"^^

*roW*w$* *

fa?nwfHN

TCTOI?l

tmt *?T*t f%^Tf T^tf ^fT *1*!*rTOPff

*$

'snsTft

wtew

TiTi^re

i*3fim^

JremiKteT -far

*wsrw

*^tfl*w

*n3

^to*

?sK **n^r-

IRON.

53

dear-skin eight tolas, rub them together with water and prepare a pill-mass. Dose grains nine to eighteen in enlarged liver, spleen,

jaundice

etc.
is

given in combination with carbonate of potagh, as in the following called TryxisharAdi lauha} Take of

In anasarca, iron

yawfahdra (impure carbonate


pills

of potash), ginger, long pepper and

black pepper, one part each, iron four parts.

Make

into sis

gram

with water.

In erysipelas, carbuncles

Kdldgnirudra rasa2

is

and boils, the following called recommended. Take of mercury, sulphur,

prepared

talc, iron,

iron rust, and iron pyrites, each one part, rub

them together with water, and roast the mixture within a covered crucible when cool add to it one-tenth part of its weight of aconite, mix intimately, and divide the mass intotwcnty-two grain pills.
;

In urinary diseases the following, called Meha


is
(

ludgara rasa*
Asiatic

Take of ddmharidrd ), root


used.

%sot,

black

salt,

wood
(

of
),

Berheris

of 2Eg\a Marmelus
seed,

bilva

'Fvihidus terrestris

(goJeshura), pjmegran&t

chiretta,

long pepper-root, lovg

pDpper,

black

pepper, gingef, the three myrobalans and root of


( trivrti )
,->
,

TpomCBa Turpetl tm
tola
,

boh one tola, prepared

iron

fifteen

bdollium eight

tolas, ,

mix

t! ~.-s.^

together and beat into a VQ


j

uniform mass with gh


goat's

Doae twenty-two grains with


is

dor or

milk.

This medicine

said

to be useful in gonorrhoea,
etc.

strangury, chronic fever, anaemia, jaundice

<\

<V

x^rpr

*^5*lT*3*rT

%T^ifM^

T^TTJf

mftnw*

wt^* *
1

sreiw

srr

fh&ii BTT^Tff jjw?'


*$-*em*:*ir.

54

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


Vrihat Somandtha rasa.
1

mercury obtained by subliming oinnabar and purified with the juice of Erythrina ludka

Take

of

of
part,

Salvini'i

cucullata

(Leandd) each one


talc,
tin, silver,

prepared

prepared iron four parts, kharpara or calamine, iron pyrites, and


together with, and soak in the
#

gold, each half a part. juice


(

Rub them

of

Aloe Indica

(gliritakum>'ri)
into

and

Hydrocotyle
pills.

Asialica are

mandithapami ) and divide

four-grain

They

administered with hopey in diabetes and other urinary diseases, female complaints etc. A preparation similar to the above in
composition, and called Somesvara rasa

other female complaints.

given in leucorrho?a and Besides the preparations mentioned


is

other combinations of mercury, iron and talc above numerous with the addition of gold, silver, copper etc., in varying proportions and combinations, are described under different names.
fact

In

the three

first

mentioned drugs constitute the basis of the

great majority of the pills used by Karirdjas.

The following is an Take of powdered iron two tolas, mangoe stones five illustration. tolas, chebulic and emblic myrobalans two tolas each, belleric myrobalan one tola, rub them together with water in an iron
Iron forms an ingredient of hair dyes.
vessel
for

and steep for one night. This paste 2 turning them into black.
.

is

applied to grey hairs

^?< tufa*

vcfa

**'

*&

*** *ra

T^if^w

?w4 ^^rans^*^'

a,

e.

SULPHATE OF IRON.

55

SULPHATE OK

IRON.

Sans. ^]$\n kdsisa.

Native sulphate of iron

is

indigenous to India, and has been

used in medicine from a very ancient age.

Two

sorts of sulphate

of iron are mentioned, namely, Dhdtiikdd* or green

variety and
is

Phushpa

kdsis

or yellowish

variety.

The

latter

evidently

sulphate of iron, covered with the basic sulphate of the sesqui-

oxide from absorption of oxygen.

It

would seem that the ancient


compound.
It is

Hindus did not know sulphate


like
I

of iron, as an iron

neither described as a tonic nor used in combinations


iron pyrites and iron rust.
It
is

with iron

seldom used internally.


iron

have met with only one prescription by Chakradatta, who


of sulphate of

recommends a linetus coniposed 1 wood apple, in hiccup.


Externally,
cines.
cJiand
)

and pulp

of

it is

used in skin diseases along with other mediof sulphate of iron, gall-stone of cows ( goro*
to a

Thus take
rusof

and orpiment, equal parts and beat into


It is useful in intertrigo, pruritis etc.
2

pas to

with hdnjika.

Kasisndyataila? Take of
seers, sulphate of iron,

sesamum

oil

four seers, water sixteen

wood

of Withania sommfera (asvagandhd),


(ledlira),

hark of Syraplocos raccmosa


(gajapippnW) each sixteen
a paste and boil
oil is
it

root of Pothos officinalis

tolas.
oil

Beat the solid ingredients into


in the

with the

and water

usual way.

This

recommended to be applied to the genitals and the breasts with the view of strengthening these parts.

2.

^it^Iw
n

fHii<H

* ft m*i

wmi*

*naf<re:

n^s^i inpr^ fc*ra:


i

Vft:
:'..

mjnftnFErai^

*ntfiug**w**i ww^iifvqiftfiiTO*

n^t

?nfa

ifif

HTJF^TTffalPTfa

II

wmii

56

SANSKRIT ItfATERIA MEDICA

IRON PYRITES,
Sana.

^mTfa^
is

Svarnamdjuhika, cTKwftrar Taramdkthika.

Iron pyrites

used in

met with in many parts of India, and has been medicine from a very remote period. It occurs in two

forms, namely, in dark yellow nodules with a golden lustre, and in silvery, radiated crystals. The former is called Srarnamdkshika and the latter TdramaJcshika. The ancients supposed

that they contained gold and silver respectively, in combination with other ingredients, and possessed in part the properties of those precious metals.* Chemically iron pyrites coisists of

bisulphide of iron.

It is purified

with one-third of its pot turns red hot. It


oil or goat's
,

by being boiled in lemon juice weight of rock salt in an iron vessel, tiJl the
is

powder by being rubbed with urine and then roasted h'/n dosed crucible, Iron
to
is coi

reduced

pyrites thus prepared has a sweetish hitter taste. It as tonic, alterative and useful in anemia,

idcred
ascites,

urinary diseases,

anasarca, prurigo, eye diseases etc. As an alterative tonic it is eneralJy used in combination with other medicines of its class, such as iron, talc, mercury etc. The following is an example.

Take of prepared iron, sesamum seeds, long pepper, blank pepper and ginger each one part, iron pyrites five parts. Beat into a mass with honey. Dose about half a drachm 1 in advanced anemia.
In diseases of the pregnant state the following called Oarbhavmoda rasa\ is much used, as an alterative tonic. Take of iron
pyrites and cinnabar, each four tolas, ginger, long pepper and black pepper, each three tolas, cloves and mar e-nch six tolas,
.

*wf ^TOTOnfroftibT

mro

^tartq

^sft ^matf
*TTTiP!?Tir

*nflwn.

^feq^r^^^. ^.

^^^^
*w:
i

OLD.

57

beat thetn together with water and divide into pills about four
grains each,

One

pill to

be taken twice daily.

GOLD.
*

Sans, ^pw, Sit

irno.

Gold enters

into

the

composition

of

large
is

number

of

medicines for various diseases!

Pure leaf-gold

used.

It should

ba free from admixture of copper and silver, of a red colour when

exposed to heat, and of saffron colour when rubbed on touchstone. It is purified by heating its leaves and cooling them alternately

with kdnjika,
horse^gram.

oil,

cow's urine, butter-milk and a decoction of


is

Gold

reduced to powder by being rubbed with


to

mercury and exposed


addition of sulphur.

heat in a covered crucible with the


parts of mercury and one of leaf -gold

Two

are rubbed together into a mass with lemon juice and placed in a crucible with three parts of sulphur. The crucible is then covered

and exposed

to

heat.

This process of mixing the gold with


to heat is repeated
its

mercury and exposing

fourteen times,

when
it

the gold completely loses

metallic

character.

In books

is

stated that the gold should be rubbed with mercury only the first

time, and that in roasting

it

afterwards sulphur alone should be

gold
tells

that he reduces gold to powder by mixing it with mercury me is roasted, and that he repeats the process till the every time it
is

reduced to a dark brown impalpable powder. This powder of gold appears to undergo little change from its metallic state, for on being rubbed on an agate mortar it produces a brilliant like that of massive gold, when it is rubbed on yellow stain
gold

touchstone for ascertaining

its

purity.
is

Gold thus prepared for medicinal use


tonic
to

considered a valuable

and alterative. It is said to increase strength and beauty, the intellect and memory, to clear the voice and to improve
It
is

increase the sexual powers.


insanity,
diseases
etc.

used in fever, consumption,

of the nervous

system and urinary organs,

impotence,

Dose, one to two grains,

58

ANSKRXT MATE It A MEDI


I

Jayamangala
rock-salt,

rasa.

Take

of

mercury obtained by sublimation,

of cinnaMr, sulphur, borax, prepared copper, r'n anr) iron pyrites,

and black pepper, prepared iron and silver, eacb one part, prepared gold two parts, powder them well, mix and soak the mixture three times respectively in the juice of datura leaves,

and leaves

of Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis (sephdlikd) ,

in the decoction

of the ten roots,

called dasamula,

and

of chiretta.

Divide the

mass into four-grain pills. They are taken with cumin-seed powder and honey. This medicine is used in old chronic fevers of all sorts aud is said to be a powerful tonic and alterative, that

may be administered with


Mrig&nka rasa?

suitable adjuncts in

many

diseases.

Take of mercury one part, prepared gold one part, sulphur and pearls each two parts, borax one -fomth This part, rub them together and beat into a ball with kdnjiha. is dried, enclosed in an earthen crucible and exposed tq h^at within a pot of rock-salt in the manner of a hot sand-bath for
twelve hours.

When

cool the ball


It is

is

taken out from the crucible


in doses
of one to

and reduced

to powder.

administered

four grains with about a scruple of black pepper in phthisis.

Two

other preparations ued in this disease,


rasa,

and called

Pottali

hemzgarbha

and Hitnagarbha

pottali

rasa,

respectively, are

similar in composition to the

MrtgdnJca rata.
,

They

contain

mercury, sulphur, gold, pearls, borax etc


1.

in varying proportions.
ctct

5T9*tt^:

frB^rs^ V*

w*re?

wis

ura'

^w nfaww

fifflT

wit
i

^T5WTW

WWtW^

9f\JM 1W5?nR[
wt
i

sftwfsEK
?*wf

*!

SWtT

f%TWT*T-

^ngi^

***irefW

^t

^iwramamvrfw

^twte fwfw^pr tfWi^f

fww^nwTTWj

r*it:

GOLD.

59
tolas,

parpati. 1 Suvarna

Take
fire in

of

mercury eight

gold one

tola,

rub them together, then add sulphur eight


the mixture over the

tola

and mix.

Welt

an iron ladle smeared with

ghee,

and

press the melted fluid between cow- dung balls enclosed in plantain-leaves
in the

manner described under Rasa parpati,


it.

fo as to

make

thin round diskt of

This medicine

is

used like Rasa


diet
is

parpati in chronic diarrhoea, and anasarca.

Milk

enjoined,

and water and

salt are prohibited.

Dose grains two, gradually

increased to grains ten in the course of twenty-one days, to be

again gradually reduced to the original dose of two grains in another three weeks. Another preparation of the sort called
Vijayaparpati contains diamond, pearls, silver, copper, and
in addition to gold,
talc,

sulphur and mercury.

It is

used in the same

cases as the Suvarna parpati above described.

Gold
of

is

much used

as an alterative tonic.

Prepared gold in

two grains daily with the addition of honey, ghee and doses emblic myrobalan, or root of Acorns Calamus ( vacha) is recom

mended
infants

to be taken for a lengthened

period. 2

It is also given to

under an impression that it will impwrt strength and beauty to their frames. The following composition is recommended for them. Tike of powdered gold, root of Acorns
Calamus (vacha) and Aplotaxis auriculata (kushtha), chebulic
myrobalaiis, and leaves of Herpestes Mcmniera (brimhi) equal parts,

powder and mix. Dose two grains with honey and ghee. recommended to be given to feeble infants a few days after
i

It is
birth.

The principal

alterative tonic of the

the preparation popularly called

Hindu Materia Medica is Maharadhvaja. To prepare it,


i

1.

fw^qfl
H

TOf?r*i
*l*f

<rsi

v$ f *nfar*^gi
cl<ft

firarat

n4&{ arm

qT^qrWWicnt

TO q^TOW:^T%

?f

TC34g<iqiftnHt l*t

w^r?* $q*iq

*iw *v

f%*i

w*jm: ^f?nm> itwr:

60

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA


tola,

take of leaf -gold one

mercury eight
tolas,

tolas,

beat into a mass,


till

then add sulphur sixteen

and rub together

the mass

mass repeatedly with the juice of the red cotton flower and of Aloe Indica, and dry. Now take a bottle with a flat bottom, wrap it with layers of cloth and clay to strengthen it, and dry. Place the mixture of gold, mercury and
this

becomes black.

Kub

sulphur at the bottom of the bottle, insert


its

it

in a sand-bath

upto

neck and cover the mouth lightly with a piece of ctalk. Apply heat gently at first. When the process of sublimation

commences the heat should be increased, and the chalk-stopper removed. The sulphur now burns with its characteristic blue flame at the mouth of the bottle and a red sublimate collects below its neck. The narrow neck of the bottle is apt to be closed with sulphureous deposits and when there is this tendency, it should be cleared with an iron rod. The sublimation is over in
the course of about nine hours.

When
its

done the bottle

is

broken,

and the sublimate extracted from


dark red scales.

neck in the shape of shining

In this process the sulphur and mercury are

sublimed in the form of red sulphide, and the gold remains at the bottom of the bottle. The latter may be used again in the
preparation of Makaradhvaja or converted into powdered gold.

Makaradhvaja

of one

grain daily with

honey or other suitable adjuncts in nervous debility, weakness of brain from excessive mental labour, habitual costiveness, general
debility, female complaints after "delivery, spermatorrhoea etc.

Chandrodaya makaradhvaja. 1
tered as an aphrodisiac,
it is

When

Makaradhvaja
it

is

adminis-

usual to mix

with some stimulant

t&i

**rnfl

ftnntroi^ rat

to

smw<*m

M*
ifarfir

*n*mmnt

**ifc%M

ottotoii

^^<r*c?t^

^*ftr

SILVER.

6!

drugs, the resulting prepai-ation being called Ohandrodaya makaradhvaja. Thus take of Makaradhuaja, one part, camphor, nutmegs,

black pepper, and cloves, each four parts, musk one-sixteenth part, mix together and make into pills about ten grains each.

These

pills are

enclosed or wrapped in betle leaves and chewed.

Along with

this medicine a generous diet consisting of meat, ghee, milk, pulses, etc., should be taken. It is used in nervous debility,

impotence, premature old age etc.*

preparation similar in

appearance to MaJcaradhvaja and called AsJitavaJctra rasa, is sublimed from a mixture of mercury, sulphur, gold, silver, lead,
copper, zinc and tin in equal parts.
in general debility.
It is

used as a nervine tonic

SILVER.
Sans,

w,

Bupya.

<rrc,

Tdra.
soft,
fire.

Pure
Impure

silver,

according to Sanskrit writers, should be

white, brilliant
silver,

and

ductile.
is,

It

should not be discoloured by

mixed with other metals, is discoloured by fire, of a reddish or yellowish colour, and not ductile. Silver is purified in the same way as gold. It is converted into a black oxide by thin silver leaves being mixed with twice their
that
silver

weight of cinnabar, and heated in the subliming apparatus, called Tj rddhapdtana y antra. This process is repeated fourteen time?.

The resulting compound is a fine greyish black powder with minute shining white particles intermixed with it. On chemical
analysis
it

is

found

to consist of

the black oxide of silver.

Th

properties of silver thus prepared are said to be allied to those of

gold but somewhat inferior.

It is

generally used in combination

with other metals, such as gold,


Makaradhvaja
is

iron, etc. Dose, grains

one to two.
supposed to

regarded as a preparation of gold, which

is

be the active principle of the medicine.

The gold used in its preparation how. ever remains below, and the mercury and sulphur only are sublimed in the

form of red sulphide, as in the preparation of mercury called Rasasindura.


Properly speaking, therefore, it is but a preparation of mercury, although the gold may possibly exercise some catalytic influence during the process of
sublimation.

Some

physioians use the preparation called Sadgunabalijarita

rasasindura (see page 36) under the

name

of Makaradhvaja,

62

SANSKKIX MAILK1A MEDICA.


is

The following
ing silver.

an example of a complex prescription contain-

Vrihat vdta gajdnkusa}


gold,

Take

of mercury,

prepared

talc, iron,

copper and

silver,

orpiment, sulphur, ginger, coriander,


(katphala)
,

root of Sida cordifolia (bald), bark of Myrica sapida

Rhus snccedanea

(sringi), aconite,

long pepper, black pepper, and

borax, each one part, chebulic myrobalans, two parts, powder, mix

and rub with the juice of Sphcerauthus mollis (mtindi) and

Vtte.

N^gundo
!

(iitrgundi) for

one day.

Divide tha mass into four grainin various nervous


diseases.

pills.

Tbey are
use,

said to be useful

Silver enters into the composition of several other remedies in

common

such as the

Yogardja (see sildjatu), Jayamangala

rasa (see gold) etc.

COPPER.
Sails. HTO,

Tdmra.

Vern.

Tdmd.

Thin

plates of copper such as can

be pierced

by thorns are

used in medicine.

by being boiled in cow's urine for is reduced to powder by smearing its thin leaves with a paste of sulphur and lemon juice, beating them into a mass, and exposing to heat in a covered crucible
purified

They are three hours. Copper

within a sand-bath for twelve hours.


is
,

The powder thus produced


ball,

rubbed with kdnjika and made into a

which

is

introduced

into a tuber of Amorphophallus campanulalus (oZa), as in a crucible

and roasted. This last process is said to render the copper innocuous and prevent it from causing purging and vomiting

when taken

internally.
is

Copper thus prepared


gritty to the feel.

a dark coloured powder,


it is

somewhat

On

chemical analysis

found to consist of

PPS3

63

sulphide of copper.
purgative, and
liver
is

It is described as

an

alterative,

emetic and

used in poisoning, dyspepsia, fever, enlurg

and spleen, anaemia, skin diseases, diarrhoea etc. Dose, as an alterative, grains two to four. In poisoning prepared copper
is

given in doses of about twenty-four grains with sugar or honey


1

to cause vomiting.

Copper enters
ague,

into the

composition of serval medicines for


etc.

remittent fever, enlarged spleen

The following

are a

few

illustrations.

Sitabhanji rasa?
realger, two, one, half

Take

of

orpiment, mercury,

sulphur and

and quarter parts, respectively, rub them together into a thin paste with the juice of Momordtca Charantia (kdravella) Apply this paste on copper plates equal in weight to
.

the other ingredients, enclose the plates

in

a covered crucible,
fire

and roast

in

sand-bath over a strong

for twelve hour?.

When
them.
betel

cool extract the copper plates

from the crucible and powder


It is

Dose, four grains with four black peppers enclosed in a


leaf.

This packet should be chewed.


fits,

given in inter-

mittent fever with shivering


of skin.
is

followed by burning and heat

A preparation very

similar to the above in composition

called Pliha panckdnana ratty and used in enlarged Bpleen.

Svachchhanda bhairava ra

Take

of prepared copper

and

aconite equal parts, rub together with the

uice of datura leaves


juicf

and make into one-grain


sugar and rock

pills.

They are given with ginger

salt in fevers

complicated with cerebral symptoms.

2.

a fi

dU J
'

^
h

sTW^fr *r3ta|jft

m3t i*ro: fnm


\
.

s^nrnirt'

W*3
w*

^rTTt^Tr Jnrf<??n?

*ft*rm wmffr

wwri v^^7[

*nftg# si

Tftr T^i^rTft?5f wr.

ii

tfwW t^ st?r

tH^k^*:
II

64

SANSKRIT vrvinniA MIDICJ

Mahdmrztunjaya lauha. 1 orpiment and realger, each

Take

of

mercury

and soda), borax, Hack

salt,

burnt couries, and conch-shells,


(katnh)
(trivrit)
:

plumbago-root, assafoetida, root of Picrofrhiza Kurroa

Amoora, rohitaka (rohitaka), and Ipomcea Turpethum tamarind pulp, colocynth root, root bark of Anogeissus
(dhava), root
of

latifolvts

Alangium decapetalum

(ankota),

Achyranthes

aspera (apdmdrga), ashes of the spikes of the palm-tree, turmeric

and wood of
parts,
parts.

Herberts Asiatica (daruharidrd), croton seeds, sulphate

of copper rusot and Oxalis comic ?data

(amlalonikd)

all

in

equal

with the exception of rohitaka bark, which should be two

Powder the

ingredients, mix,

soak the mixture in the


it

fresh juice of ginger and gulancha and add to


of honey.
is

thirfcy-two tolas

Make
every

into

six

grain pills with honey.


in

One

pill

given

morning

enlarged

liver,

spleen

disease,

ascites etc.

In enlargements of the abdominal viscera, designated by the term gulma, copper is used in a variety of forms. Thus, prepared copper in doses of two grains rubbed with ginger juice and
enclosed in betel leaf

may be

given, or the following composition

may

be used. 2

^i nmrt

^i*n{

ft wi zw*Ti*'

sirred

ny^

f^j*

s^rzT

nm

fSpre*r^

*ntf

?im

farflftf

wtitt *4iro{

f^reif

pHv *M

f*umn

t3^&k<jt:

COPPER.

65 mercury,
sulphur,
copper,

Gulma kdldnala

rasa.

Take

of

orpiment, borax, and yavakshdra

(impure carbonate of potash),

each two tolas, tubers of Gyperus rotundus (mustaha), black pepper, ginger, long pepper, fruit of Pothos officinalis (gajapippuli),
chebulic
auricidata

myrobalans,
(hushtha),

Acorns

Calamus
tola.

(vacha)

and
all,

Aplofaxis

each one

Powder them
biflora

mix and

soak the mixture in the juice of Jledyotis


lf<liop]iytum

(parparti),
(a pa wargo)

Indicum (hastisnnd/) , Achyranthes aspera


dioica

and Trichomnthes
medicine
is

(patala)

respectively

and dry.

This

given in the form of a powder in doses of eight grains with the decoction of chebulic myrobalans.

Several preparations of copper are recommended for use in asthma and heart disease, as for example, Sury4varta ram
Jlridaydrnava rasa
etc.

Surydvarta rasa. 2
for use in

This preparation of copper

is

recommended

asthma by Sarangadhara and other writers of note. It is thus prepared. One part of mercury and one of sulphur are rubbed together with the juice of Aloe Indica for six hours.

Two

parts

of copper leaves are pasted with the above mixture,


in

and roasted within a closed crucible


hours.

a sand-bath for twelve

When

cool the

copper leaves are taken out from the

crucible and powdered.

Dose four grains with the addition


Adlmtoda Vasira (vdsaka).

of

honey and the juice


I.

of

grorrar'rerw:

w*

*r*raf

*<rm cff^Rt

zwtf

**w

q H<qfiM'

qft ^4w.

II

*3*WW:

TriT^#t

66

SANSKBIT MATERIA MFDTCA.

Hndaydmava

rasa?

Take

of purified

each one part, prepared copper two parts,

mercury and sulphur, rub them together for

twelve hours with the decoction of the three myrobalans, and with
the fresh juice of Solarium nigrum (kdbnndclri).

Make

into pills

about four grains each.

These

pills

are administered with a

decoction of the fruits of Solatium

nigrum and the three myrodrugs and thirty-

balans, prepared with two tolns, in all of the

two
tolas.

tolas

of water,

which

is

boiled

down

to one- eighth, or four

They

are said to be useful in heart disease.

Tdmresvara?
iron, sulphur,

Take

of prepared copper,

mercury, borax, and


of Azadirachta

and long pepper, equal parts, soak in the decoction

of the leaves, bark, fruit, root,

and flowers

Indica

(nimba), of the pulp of Cassia fistula and of the three myrobalans.

Hose four grains,


administration
observed.
of

in skin diseases of

various

sorts.

During the
should
be

this

medicine a cooling regimen

SULPHATE OF COPPER.
I

Sam.

<jf?T,

T'fftha.

Vem. Tutia.

Sulphate of copper was known in India from a very remote


period.
It
is

prepared by roasting copper pyrites, dissolving


sulphate.
it

the roasted mass in water and evaporating the solution to obtain


crystals
of

the

It

was known as a

salt of copper, for

the Bhavaprakasa says

contains

some copper and therefore


cf^t:

1.

t^tw*:
*>*-

^q?

**i jr*"

^c?fw

qm{

*^t<T

f%<*p*rT-

%?ft f* ^T*m

tjN^tto^t?

f^rc^lm flu^rtt

ii

TO^TTOuf

StJLPHAtS OF C01TLK.

67
x

possesses
in this

some

of the properties of that metal.

It is described

work

as astringent,

emetic,

caustic,

and useful

in

eye

diseases,

skin diseases, poisoning

etc.

It is purified for internal

use by being rubbed with honey and ghee and exposed to heat in
a crucibleIt is

then soaked for three days in whey and dried.


is

Sulphate of copper thus prepared

said not to produce vomiting

when taken

internally.

Dose, one to two grains.


is

Sulphate of copper dissolved in hot water


insensibility

administered in
It

from poisoning

to

excite

vomiting.

enters

into

the composition of some medicines for remittent fever, such as the


JvardnJcusa mentioned in Bhavaprakasa, but arsenic
is

the active

ingredient in these preparations.


called Chdturt/takuri,
1

In quartan fever the following,

is

recommended by many

orpiment, realgar, sulphate of copper,


sulphur,
Indica and roast in a covered crucible.

Take of burnt conch-shell and


writers.
cool

equal parts, rub them together with the juice of Aloe

When

extract the

powder and make


Indica.
ghee.

into

four-grain pills with the juice of AI<h

They

are administered with powdered black pepper and


pills

Butter-milk should be taken before these relieve the fever by inducing vomiting.

which

Grahamkapdta
the

rasa.

Sulphate of copper

is

used

in

chronic

along with other medicines, as for example in bowel complaints


following called

Grahamkapdta

rasa.

Take

of sulphate

of

^m
cnr%<r
ii

ftg*rawTfir

faWW **wi
cpj;

garawta

*igf^ f*fa*ira

faf%^mqw^<^^m^*F*ra

ww*to:
1.

*rTg**Tfror:i

vfwm

fmi&s* *rt*hj *wv[

**t*

*R^

W^cWI

68

SANSKRIT MATERIA AIEDICA.

copper, orpimeut, mercury, iron, iron pyrites and borax, each live mdshds. Prepared couries two and a half tolas and sulphur one
tola.

Rub them

lightly.

together with lemon juice and roast the mass This medicine is given in chronic bowel complaints,
all
etc.

consumption

Garbhavildsa

rasa. 1

Sulphate

of

copper

enters

into

the

composition of some medicines for diseases of the pregnant and puerperal state, such as, the SutiMvinoda or <! arbhavildsa rasa. To
take of mercury, sulphur, and sulphate of copper, each one part, rub them together with lemon juice for three days. Then take of cumin seeds, Mldjird, long pepper, black pepper and
it

prepare

ginger each one part, mix and make into eight-grain They pills. are used in bowel complaints and indigestion during the puerperal and pregnant state.
applied to sinuses and fistula-in-ano with the object of stimulating and healing them. It is added to
is

Sulphate of copper

ointments for foul uloers. 2 A solution of sulphate of copper poured into the eyes in opacity of the cornea.-

is

The following

compound powder

is

applied to

chancres.

Take of mercury,

sulphur, sulphate of copper, cinnabar, and sulphate of iron, equal parts, powder and mix. This composition may be used in the

form

of

powder or

paste.

Tin, though indigenous to India, has been ancient period and is mentioned by

"But the Hindoos


various purpose s

*r

^
vnwm
i

T I N.

Sans. *fj Vamja.

Trapu.

Fern.

Sang.

known from a very


Dr. Royle observed

Susruta.

the Egyptians have employed tin for from very ancient times. And though there

like

nftfer:

*tffe s^Ptf, f**w

****
wft
*w:
i

:i

'

Tin.

69

is

no proof of
India yet

its
it

of

being found hi the present day in tho peninsula is abundant on the opposite coast of the Bay of

Bengal, as in Burma, Tenasserim,

Junkseylon

and Malacca.

There must in very ancient times have been a trade between India and these places.'
Tin
is

purified

by melting

it

over the

tire

and pouring the

melted fluid into the milky juice of Calotropis giganlea (arlai). It is prepared for medicinal use by melting it in an iron cup,

adding

weight of yamkshdm (impure carbonate of potash) and powdered tamarind shells, and agitating with an iron rod till the mass is reduced to a fine powder. It is
it

to

one-fourth part of

its

then washed in cold water and dried over a gentle fire. The resulting product is a greyish white powder consisting chemically
of oxide of tin

with some impurities.

It is chiefly used in urinary

disorders in a variety of forms.

given in

Thus the simple powder may be four-grain dose every morning with honey, or one of the

following preparations
Trinetrd rasa. 1

may be

used.

equal parts,

Take of prepared tin, mercury and sulphur rub them together in an iron mortar and soak seven

times respectively in the juice of Cynodondacfyhrn (durvd) and the decoctions of liquorice root, gum of Bumbax Malabar/cum (Mocha*
rasa),

and Tribulus
into

terrestris (gokshura).

Then

roast in a covered

crucible, again soak in the above

mentioned

fluid
is

medicines and

make

four-grain

pills.

This

medicine

given with

decoction in milk of the above


micturition.

named vegetable

drugs, in painful

Vangesvara rasa. 2
Rasastndura,

Take

of the preparation of
tin,

and of prepared

mercury called equal parts and mix. Dose

about four grains with honey in urinary diseases and diabetes.

"JIl'WsTTrJ

1$

aiT^ Wfr[ fl^t

^ *$W

II

^*rg<ra

ii

vt

g*rre*i*

70

SANSKRIT MATERIA MLD1CA


Vrihat

Vanyesvara rasa}
talc,

Take
tola,

of

prepared

tin,

mercury,

silver

and

sulphur and camphor each two

tolas, prepared

gold and pearls, each half a


four grain- pills.
diseases,

mix them

together,

soak the
into

mixture in the juice of Eclipta prostrata (kesardjd), and, make


This medicine
is

said to cure all sorts of urinary


tonic.
It is

and to act as an alterative

given

in diabetes
.

with the juice of the ripe fruit of FictM ylouierata {ujdmnba rci)
Svarnavanga.
2

Take of mercury, sulphur and

tin,

equal parts,

and rub them together, then take sal-ammoniac in quantity equal


to

above ingredients and rub together in a mortar. Introduce the mixture in a glass bottle and expose to heat in a
all

the

sand-bath.

The

resulting

powder

called

Stoma

Variga or golden

preparation of tin has a beautiful golden lustre and flaky texture.


It is

given in urinary complaints in doses of

five

to ten

grains

with honey and the juice of emblic myrobalans.


is

This preparation

the bisulphuret of tin or mosaic gold "used in the arts as a

bronze powder especially for the manufacture of paper hangings.


It is

noticed

by Pereira.
is

The Sanscrit

text

for

its

preparation

quoted below,
innovation

taken from a manuscript compilation in the


recent

possession of Kaviraja
if

Benod Lai Sen. It is evidently a not an imitation of the European preparation.

fairs

3%ft w>%

vti^

W^HKdM^t

^4^1 w3n

T^n?f

?i

wnpng^

*ro^ist ftwftri

vtH

3*nft^

ZINC.

71

ZINC.
Sans. SH?, Yasada.

Vem.

Das/d,

Zino
nor does

ia it

not mentioned by the older writers, such as Susruta,


enter into the composition of
it

many

prescriptions.

The
same

Bhavaprakasa mentions

in the chapter

on metallic preparations,
in eye

and directs

it to

be purified and reduced to powder in the


is

way

as

tin.

It

said to be

useful

diseases, urinary

disorders, anaemia

and asthma.
i

Kharpara.

This mineral

is

mentioned
article
is

in

most works.

It

enters into the composition of a


internal. and external use.

number

of prescriptions both for

The

used under this name by

the physicians of

Upper India

a sort of calamine or zinc ore.


tin's ore,

Moat
as a

of the physicians in

Bengal are not acquainted with


is,

and substitute zinc for kharpara, that

they consider kharpara

mere synonym

of zinc or yasada.

that kharpara should be reduced to

They accordingly direct powder by being melted over


Zinc thus prepared
is

fire

and rubbed with rock

salt.

a fine

yellowish grey powder consisting of carbonate of zinc mixed with In the works of the physicians of Upper chloride of sodium.
India, this preparation is not described.
ore, p

There they use the zinc


It
is

which

does not dissolve on

the application of heat.

simply purified by being boiled in cow's urine or soaked in lemon The Bengali physicians who substitute .juice and then powdered.
evidently wrong, for the description of some zinc for kharpara are this drug, as for example of the collvriuni of the preparations of

not apply to metallic zinc. mentioned below, can

Hindustani medicine vendors, occurs in Kharpara, as sold by porous earthy masses composed of greyish or greyish black chemical analysis it was found to agglutinated granules. On
consist of carbonate

and
etc.

metals as iron, baryta,

of zino with traces of other silicate Kharpara is described as tonio and

fevers etc. It is also much alterative and useful in skin diseases, grains six to twelve. used as a collyrium in eye diseases. Dose,

one part, pearls two Vasanta mdlati rasa. Take of leaf gold pepper four parts, pnnfied parts, cinnabar three parts, black
kharpara eight parts, and rub them together.

Then

a.hl

some

72

SANSKRIT AfATERTA MEDICA.

butter and lemon juice and

rub together

till

intimately mixed

and no separate particles are visible. Dose two to four grains with honey and long pepper. This medicine is much used by Up-country physicians in chronic fever, secondary syphilis,

chronic gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea etc. 1

A collyrium
rejecting

is

prepared as follows.
water,

Rub some

kharpara in a
portion,

stone mortar with

take the dissolved


that

watery

any

solid

particles

may have

subsided to the
it

bottom.

Evaporate this solution, powder the residue and soak

three times in a decoction of the three myrobalans.

When
#

dry

add one tenth part


This collyrium
diseases.
2

of

powdered camphor and mix


to

intimately.

is

said

be useful in

various sorts of eye

LEAD.
Sans.
ft

*=fte<tf,

Sisdka.

Vern. Si$a.

Lead

is

produced abundantly in India in the shape of the

sulphide called galena.

Galena
or

is

sold in the

bazars under the


as a collyrium.

name of surma, and The red oxide of


ancient Hindoos.

is

much used by

the natives

lead,

It is

minium, was manufactured by the known by the name of sindura, and is used

by

all

married Hindu

women

as

paint

for the forehead.

Litharge or massicot, called mttrdasang in Hindustani, has no

^ ^^wn
TO?taf*ffiT*|

to* ***

*f'ri*hffini

vnhri

fw* w*<

^ftT?T HP*

^; q*,ft ^

ALFNA.
/

73 In

proper Sanskrit name and was unknown to the ancients.


recent compilations
of
it is

occasionally introduced

as a component

some compound preparation*. Carbonate of lead, called eaffedd, now common in the bazars and extensively used as a paint, is not mentioned by the ancient writers. The name saffedd is of Persian
origin,

and

the* article itself is

an imported one.
in the .same

Lead is purified and reduced to powder tin. Lead thus prep 'ed is a gritty powder
colour.

way

as

of
t

greyish

red
Its

Chemically

it

is

an

impure

carbonate of lead.
tin.
It is

properties are said to be similar to those of


internally except as a component of
ing a

seldom used

number

of other metals.

compound medicines containprobe made of lead is preferred

for applying collyria to the eyelids.

The red oxide

of

lead,

called

stridura, is

used externally

in

eruptive skin diseases in the form of ointment- or liniment. Thus


rindura and powdered black pepper mixed with butter
fiended to be applied in chronic eczema.
faila
1

is

recom*

An

oil called

Sindurddya

Take of mustard oil one seer, water four Boil seers, minium four tolas and cumin seeds eight tolas. together in the usual way. This oil is used in eczema and other
is

thus prepared.

eruptive skin diseases.

GALENA.
Sans, ffpr, Anjana.

^tlkraT, Sanrirnvjana.
is

Galena or sulphide

oE lead

called anjana or savvimnjana

surma in Vernacular. It is called anjana, in Sanskrit, and krishna collyrium or medicine for the eyes, from which literally means
the circumstance of
its

considered the best application or being


varieties of anjana mentioned are other

cosmetic for them.


rnton/'inn,

The

pmhpdnj&nn and rasdnjana,


is

$lfm**t & urirdnjana

said to be obtained from


it

the

moun-

country along the Indus, whence tains of Sauvira, a

derives H

l.

ft^tro* item

ftn^rt

fq7T

*^ w

**

g " TI

^^
i

17

*w:

10

74

SANSKRTT MATFKTA MEPTCA

name.

The

article supplied

under
is

its

vernacular

name surma

is

the sulphide of lead ore.

Surma

usually translated as sulphide

of antimony, but I hare not been able to obtain a single specimen


of

the

antimonial ore from the shops of Calcutta and of gome

other towns.

The sulphide

of

antimony occurs

in

line

streaky,

fibrous, crystalline

masses of a radiated texture.


arrangement.

the contrary, occurs in

The lead ore on cubic masses destitute of rays and is

tabular in

its crystalline

^t^ts^T Srotonjana
to be

is

described as of white colour, and

is

said

produced in the bed of the Jamun;i and other rivers. It is called sajfed surma in the vernacular, and the article supplied

under

this

name by Hindustani medicine vendors


It
is

is

calcareous or
is

Iceland spar.

used as a colly rium for the eyes, but

considered inferior to the black surma or galena.


3*1 l"*W
I

PusJipnnjana

is

described as an alkaline

substance.

have not met with any vernacular translation

of this word,

nor

with any person


brass, but
"OTTSFT

who

could identify or supply the drug,

Wilson,

in his Sanskrit-English Dictionary, I

translated the term as


1

mix

of

know not on what


is
r

authority.

Basdnjana

the extract of the


It will

wood

of Berberis Asiatica
its

called rasot in the vernacular.

be noticed in

place in

the Vegetable Materia Medica.

Sauvirdnjana or galena
eyes,

is

chiefly used

as

cosmetic for the

supposed to strengthen these organs, improve their appearance and preserve them from disease. It enters into the
is

and

composition of some
over a
fire

collyria for eje diseases.


in a decoction of the three
is

Galena, heated

and cooled

myrobalans for
used

seven times in succession,

rubbed with

human milk and

^ttto:

ELL .METAL AND


in various eye diseases. 1

UK, A-

I.

75

Auother oollyrium prepared with lead is as follows. To one part of purified and melted lead, add an equal portion of mercury and two parts of galena, rub them all together and reduce to powder. Now add camphor, equal in weight to one* tenth part of the mass and mix intimately. This
preparation
is

said

to

be useful in eye diseases. 2

From

the

composition and uses of lead and galena above described it would sesm that by the term surma the Hindus meant sulphide of lead, and not sulphide of antimony as is generally supposed.

BELL METAL AND BRASS.


Bell metal,
copper and
zinc.
tin.
(51TOT,

Kdnsya), as used in medicine,


(

is

an alloy of

Brass,

farf^, Ptttala )

is

an alloy of copper and

They

are sometimes used in combination with other metals,

and are regarded as tonic and alterative. They are purified and reduced to powder in the same way as copper. The following is an example of a preparation containing bell metal.
Nitydnanda
rasa.
9

Take

of mercury,

prepared copper, iron,


sulphate of copper and

bell-metal and tin,

purified

orpiment,

1-

Tfatfrtf

^
?*r

Mfa^r<i

fH"fT*:

VH<Nw*M<*i: *H*t fa*'

**w;

ii

stnnn:
-

*re

tr

nf

q$ ftfafafa

w*raf j^t^r"

s5**^

3.

fronts;

f?

%W^ mi

<9?f

ira?

wt'w ^ew*^ ^W

I
I

to"

*>***

*N

fqt c(

^q<

*qurlr"

**ffaTfiiinr

H*1to wigiw

76

SANSKRIT MATEK1A MEt>ICA.

calcined conch-shell and couries, sulphur, ginger, long pepper and

black pepper, the three myrobalans, baberang seeds, the

five salts,
salts,

namely, rock, sun-dried sea, black, sonchdl and Sambar Lake


y

Chavica officinanim (chavika) long pepper root, havusa (an aromatic


substance), Acorns
\

Calamus (vacha),

Stephania Jieniandifolia (pothd),

Curcuma zedoaria, (8ati) Finns deodara, cardamoms, seeos


$

two tolas, rub together with the juice or decoction of chebulic myrobalans and make into
of Argyreia spec-torn (vridhya daraka) each

ten-grain

pills.

the scrotum.

They are given in hydrocele and elephantiasis The remark that, when a disease lias a long list
it,

oi
of

drugs for curing

one

may

take

it

for

an incurable one,

is

well

fexemplified in this medicine for elephantiasis of the scrotum.

MICA OK TALC
Sans. %p3y Abhra.

Four

varieties of talc are

described

by Sanskrit

writers,

namely, white, red, yellow and black. Of these the white variety is nsed as a substitute for glass in making lanterns etc., and the
black variety called vajrdbhra
is

used in medicine.

It is of a

black colour, hard and heavy, and generally


of krishndbhra or shedbhra.

known by the name


heated

Talc

is

purified in the
in milk.

following manner.
plates, are then

It

is

first

and washed
in

The

separated and soaked


{tandulv

the juice of Amaranthus polygamus

for eight days.

Talc thus purified

is

reduced to

and kdvjika powder by being


)

rubbed with paddy within a thick piece of cloth, when the powdered talc passes through the pores of tho cloth in fine particles and is collected for use. Talc, thus reduced to powder,
is called

dkdnydbhraka. It

is

prepared for medicinal use by being

A*

ff?q%

fw^ <!
%

tt*t

qtftw: ft?% *\%

*%WWTC|?

IKA OR TALC.
to a

77

mixed with cow's urine and exposed


times the process
is

high degree of heat

within a closed crucible, repeatedly for a hundred times.


said to be repeated a thousand times.

Some-

When
and
be

this is the case, the preparation is called sahasra putita ahhra

sold at high price (eight rupees per tola).


of

It is considered to

superior efficacy.

Prepared

talc

is

a powder of brick-dust
it

colour

and a

saline,

earthy taste.

Chemically
it
is

consists of

silicate of

magnesia with iron in excess,


is

considered tonic

and aphrodisiac and

used in combination with iron in anaemia,

jaundice, chronic diarrhoea

and dysentery, chronic

fever, enlarged

spleen, urinary diseases, impotence etc.

Its efficacy is said to

be

increased by combination with iron.

Dose, grains six to twelve. rock


salt,

Jvarasani >asa}

Take

of mercury, sulphur,

aconite

and copper, one part each, prepared iron and talc, five parts each, rub together with the juice of Vitex Negundo leaves, then add one part of black pepper and make into two-grain pills. They are
administered with the juice of betle leaves in chronic fever and
enlarged spleen.

Agnikamdra
aconite,

rasa.'

Take

of

mercury, sulphur, borax, iron,

long pepper, black pepper, ajowan and opium each one part, prepared talc ten party, rub together for three hours with the decoction of Plum hago ro* (rakta ckitraka)\and
ginger,

make

into pills of the size of black

peppers.

This preparation

is

used in chronic diarrhoea and indigestion.

1.

<*Kmfa tx:
cram ttih^^tr;

v* *w'
i

**re

fra

m*

s*ra
*r

^
i

\^w
w.

^H

*ftt

<jfte^*i*T

fn?5*#i*r*3*r

*&$x 3^r

Scrjparw

*roraw

*ocp*T^r;

*** *n? *rc ?>r f^nrtww

^^^?t"#N top? fwm^r n

2.

78

SANSKRIT

MATEKU MED1CA
of prepared talc

Sidachanamritdbhra}
it

Take

eight

tolas,

rub

with eight

tolas

each of the fresh juice or decoction of the


(kola),

following drugs, namely, pulp of Zizijphus Jujuba


ojficinarum

Chavica
(ttsira),

(chuvikd),
fruit,

root

of

Andropogon

muricatus

pomegranate

lemon

juice,

emblie* myrobalan

and

Oxlais

coniiculata (avilalonika) 9

and make

into pills about six grains each.


food,

This medicine
dyspepsia,

is

used in loss of appetite, disinclination for


anasarca

vomiting, urinary diseases,

and

debility.

It is tonic, alterative

and aphrodisiac.
is

The preparation

called

Kandarpa Jcumdrabhra
is

very similar to the above in composition.

In disorders of the urine the following called Harisanhara rasa2


used.

Soak some prepared

talc in the juice of

emblic myrointo

balans seven times in the course of a week and


rrain pills.

make

two-

Arjunnbhra?
complaint.

In heart disease talc


is

is

used with the juice

of

the arjuna hark which last

considered a specific for this

Arjundbhru

is

prepared by soaking some prepared

talc in the juice of the

bark of Terminalia Ariuna, seven times,

I.

!<3t^mcn^
frW*

s*fNf i\w*3

%sfa?ft

Vm irilwfw

*0

fq^l

twfw
2.

ii

^%^rw*r:
TftsflTC KW.
I

*?<nw*T<?rcii^ *?<tt*rwjp*tt:
ii

^i ?
5

*n^?r rw.

*foi*vHF:

m$ ^w.
::
-

*%ifoi?iFi

Tt^^roaw

^/m*Tj *%*&%:
i

ft* .^j^^sp,.

jntfof^ ^ftf
'Nfa

fasftfaera

^uruj^r *\
*frarf

wroMtwii

n^ft

Vwmm *
^ *W9T3i
|l

^^
m
-

w^
,

s*k^w

[i

*ta-.f<i tl

vmwito (|hm mat

xmn

^ ^^

MTCA

Oft

TALC.

79
pills.

and dividing the mass into two-grain

In phthisis and
1

chronic bronchitis the following called Sringdrdblira

is

used.

Take

of

prepared

talc

sixteen

tolas,

camphor,

cardamoms,
Pathos
root,

nutmegs, mace, cloves,


officinalis

root of Pavonia
leaves
called

odorata (bald),

{y<yapipp&U)$

tejpatra,

jataman&i

leaves of Pinus Webbianp. {tdlisapatra) % einna*iioii, flowers of Mesnu

farrea (nagakesara) , root of Aplotaxjs auriculata


of Woodfordia Floribnuda (dhdtdkt)
tola,

(kitsjtiha),

flowers

mercury half a
four- grain

tola.

and purified sulphur, each one Powder the ingredients, mix and make
pill

into

pills

with water., One

at a

time

is

to he

chewed with betle leaves and ginger, and a little water is to he taken afterwards. The pills may be taken three or four times The diet should consist of ghee, milk and broth. daily.
Mohalakshmi Vildsarasa.
alterative tonic
2

This preparation

is

used

as

an

and aphrodisiac

in general debility, impotence etc.


tolas,

To prepare

it,

take of talc eight

mercury four

tolas,

sulphur

four tolas, tin two tolas, silver one tola, orpiment one tola, copper

g^m

traTwnftoPsrT^'

fwfSnrafiifaTT

titotsjt*1wi

*ft*nf <tt*.^

f%R%?TR f^^TTPT
ssfft ?rcttqft:wi

*) ^TftrWTfll'T 5WJ^lt \}SW^


I

W^

^19 VTZ

3?3*tfnrTO[

STHlffojfh

T5TT

Tt^n^r?:!

80

SANSKRIT MATERIA MFJUCA.

half a tola, gold half a tola,

camphor, nutmegs and mace, each

four tolas, seeds hi Argyreia vpeciom (bridhuidraka) and of datura,

two tolas each. Mix together, rub with the juice of betle leaves and make into pills of about six grains each. Another preparation of composition similar to the above is called Manmathdbhra rasa,
It
is,

as its

name

implies, intended for the votaries of Cupid.

Take of mercury, sulphur, prepared copper and iron, bdellium, plumbago root, 8tldjatu nux vomica, and the three myrobalans, each one part, prepared talc and the seeds of Pongamia glabra (Jwranja), four parts each, rub together
Galitakushthdri ras<*}
%

with honey and ghee, and preserve in an earthen pot smeared with
ghee.

Dose about a drachm.

It

is

given in leprosy with ulcera-

tion of the toes

and fingers. The diet should consist of fine rice, milk, sugar and honey. The patient must live apart from
his wife.

ALUM.
Sane* sfffE^nft Sphatikan.

An
Tt is

is

prepared from alum shale in Hie Punjab and Behar.

not mentioned by Susruta, in his list of metallic?, but later writers give its synonyms and uses. It is described as an
astringent, and as

useful in leucorrhcea, strangury, vomiting, ulcers, white leprosy, eye diseases etc. It enters into the

composition of several applications to the eye in combination

with

rusot,

opium

etc.,

for

which

see Herberts

Asiatiea.

It is

seldom used internally.

1.

^faw^reift
ippjt

t*:

nftafcurnsr*^:

^sfafasn^Tf *nfiref5p^*

mm ^m'

*^?Nf
o*

w* wro*f*?r*i
^,

*w&

*r^f

ipnn w^t T??m vfc

?\*

?im*i%

it

WJtwtjt;
t

EOTUX.

SI

BORAX.
Sans.

zw* Tankana.
f

Vern. Sohdgd.

was known to the ancient Hindus from a very remote period, and is mentioned by Susruta. If is brought from Thibet serosa the Himalaya, and from Nepal, and is use! in medicine
BoitkX
as well as in the arts.
It is purified for medicinal use

by being

steeped for a night in Mnjiha, and dried in the sun. Borax is said to be useful in loss of appetite, painful dyspepsia, cough, asthma, skin diseases and diarrhoea. It is alio used for procuring
abortion and promoting uterine contractions.
"Borax enters into

the composition of numerous formula* for dyspepsia, such as the

Amritakalpa

rasa,

Tankan&di vati

btc*

Amritalcabpa

ram}

Take

of mercury, sulphur

and aconite, one

part eaeh, borax three parts, soak them for three days in the juice of Wedelia calendulacea (bhringardja) and make into two-grain
pills.

This medicine

ia

said

to

be

useful in loss of appetite,

indigestion and dyspepsia.

Tankanddi vati contains the above

ingredients with the addition of ginger and black pepper, all in

equal parts.

Chandra mrit a rasa!2


long pepper and

Take of the three myrobalans, ginger,


Chavica officinarnm (chaviha),

black pepper,

1.

fnnmn:

m*

*ra*ra*

wvft wm^iwft

*rafat*

for

*re'

ifror

wt*r^

ir^irimwrtT *fz*t

*jtM f*m*

<r**t *fe*t *nf

"Tiff *reref

^nfV*i
11

wrui srt

afro in?r?

*m*tsi

"."

tS^ot*

$~

3ANSKEIT MATERIA MEDICA,

coriander,

cumin seeds and rock

salt,

each one

toL'i,

and rub them


iron,
all

together with goat's milk.

Then add mercury, sulphur and


pills

each two
in fine

tolas,

borax eight tolls and black pepper four

tolas,

powder, mix and make into

or boluses about eighteen

grains each.

They are administered with goat's milk in chronic bronchitis and various sorts of cough with copious expectoration. Along with these pills a decoction made of gnlancJirt,.AdJintoda(brahwayt/shfi)
)

should be

administered.

Borax enters into the composition of several prescription? for diarrhoea, along with opium, such as the Qrahanikafdta rasa and
Xrrpavallara rasa, for which see Opium.

mixture of equal parts of borax, long pepper and babervng seeds is given for five days, at the menstrual periods for tie
purpose of preventing conception. 1
abortion and inducing labour pains.
Tt
is

also used for procuring

Borax rubbed
(bhadnivalh')

into a paste
is

with the root of Vallaris dirhotoma


diseased nails.

applied

to

LIME.
Sans. n~W>fW SanTcJia bhatma.

Chnrna.

Sf.vrral sorts of lime are user! in


ii

ive lira*

from limestone called

Hindu medicine. Thus we chnrna. Then we have lime from


bivalve-shells,
bhiauma,

calcined cowries, conch-shells,


called

respectively,

Kapardaka

and snail-shells, Sankha bhasma,

bhasma and Sambula hhasma. These shells ore purified by being soaked in lemon juice, and are prepared for use by being calcined
witbin covered crucibles. Lime is used Internally in dyspepsia, enlarged spleen and other enlargements in the abdomen, and externally as a caustic. Lime enters into the composition of * great many prescriptions for different The s>rts of dyspepsia, folio wings are few examples
:

fiM* fkfW **N ***

ft**

,,,,

^*?3

^^

ft

w
I

,*

HHRfT^:

Mill

Burnt eonch-shell lime is a good medicine for Dyspeptic oolio. Make of Burnt uonoh-bholl (without flesh) lime one or two niashas
with luke

warm

water.

Before taking this tho mouth should bo

anointed with Ghee. 1

Burnt conch-shell 1 tolah, gingiber officinale (suuthi) long pepper and Mask pepper eaeh one-third tolah, five salts one tolah in equal parts and rub these with the juice of Iponoca septanus and make pills of one masha each. One
gudika.
pill to

Shoiabukadi

be taken with luke

warm
Tin's

water either in the morning or a


prevents Dyspeptic
oolic.

little
-

before or after meal.

Take of calcined cowries five parts, aconite two parts, black pepper nine parts, and make into two-grain pills. They are used in loss of appetite and indigestion.

Amriia vatis

Agnikumdra rasa*
one
ft

Take of borax, mercury and sulphur, eaeh


and couch-shells, each
tl ire*
1

tola, aconite,

calcined cowries

black pepper eight tolas, rub them together fur twelve bonis with lime juiue and make into twelve-grain pill* This modieiai
is

tolas,

said

to

increase the appetite and cure indigestion.

Calcined
be

conch-shell in half a

drachm

closes is
.

recommended

to

taken

With lime juice in enlarged

spleen.**

i"t?rf^T

$*m

|IS<H#3 cTW3 sttWTft

^iftUT *jf?*T

^TWT

H^^F*^

fa^faii,*f,w tfiftTOra

^^p[ fa*

^npnftji^

9-

*tf*r

^-*n*qi*m synftrra

tftrTn^in

i,

*wwn*d

am^i^

84;

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

Lime
diseases.

is

used in various combinations as a caustic for

different

Thus a mixture of couch-shell lime, impure carbonate naiivus (mtdalca), ti of soda (iarjika) and the ashes of Baphanus 1 applied to tumours and enlarged glands. A mixture of lime,
carbonate of soda, sulphate of copper and borax
caustic
to
is

applied as

&

tumours and warts.

Lime enters
of

into the composition

of depilatories.

Thus take

conch-shell

lime

three
tola

tolas,

orpiment and the ashes of Butea frondosa (palasa), one

each,
ot

and rub them together with the


Cahfropis gigantea
(arJca).

juice of plantain stalks or


is

This paste
is

applied seven times


2

to

the part from which the hair

to be

removed.

CHLORIDE OF SODIUM.
Sans, ^raw,

Lavana.
varieties
of

StfSBUTA
1 S'tindhava,

describes

the

following
\'id,

salts,

viz.,

2 Sdmtulra,

3 Vit or

4 Sauvarchala, 5 BomamH

C Audbhid". 7 Gutikd, 8 Pdnsuja, also called


five in

Uthamta.

The The

first

the above
five

list

generally pass by the

name

of pancha lavana
other

or the

salts,

and are often used in combination.

varieties are rarely used in medicine.

Saindkava literally means produced hi Sindh, or the country along the Indus. The term is applied to rock salt which ia regarded as the best of salts. salt are Three varieties of rock
ii*R

pure white and crystalline. The crystalline salt is preferred for medicinal use. For alimentary purposes also, rock salt is considered superior to the other
recognized,
viz.,

white, red

varieties.

It is
is

regarded as digestive,

agreeable, and
diseases.

much

sweet and appetizing, used in dyspepsia and other abdominal

*TJ3 Sdmtidra literally

means produced from the

sea.

The

term

is

applied to sun-dried sea-salt, manufactured in the Madras

Urn*

^flK*r.

CHLORIDE OF BODimL
Presidency.
natives,
It
is

b5

called

Jcarhach

in the vernacular.

Orthodox

who
its

consider

common

salt ay

impure from thU circumsthe latter

tance of

having undergone the process of bulling, and who


if

take only lock salt, substitute karkack for rock salt,


is

not available.

Sun-dried sea-salt

is

described as

somewhat

bitter

and

laxative.

In other respects
salt.

its

properties are said to

resemble those of rock

fite^Ml Vit lavarta occurs in dark red shining granules some-

what resembling coarsely powdered


mild,
saline

lac in appearance.

It

has a

and somewhat nauseous taste. Dr. Fleming saj's "that the following process for making this salt was communicated by a native druggist to Mr. Turnbull at Mirzapore and was
actually performed in his presence.
salt

Fifty six pounds of sambar


of dried aonlas (emhlic mgro*
is

are

mixed with twenty ounces

balans).

One fourth
The

of

these materials

put
is

into a round

earthen pot with a narrow mouth, which

pat in a fire-place

made
hour,

of clay.

fire-place has a hole at the

bottom for

intro-

ducing the firewood.

After the
in the pot,

fire

has been lighted about an


to be heated,

and the materials,

appear

the rest

of the materials is
to a strong
to

added by degrees.
six to cool

red heat for about

The whole {s then exposed hours. The fire is then allowed


;

die

away, and the pot


to

which upon being broken


pounds
of

is

found

contain

about

forty-eight

calanemuc or

Vitlaban."*
Vit lauana, be^iduij poasebsing the properties of Lalts
ral,

in

gene-

and stomachic, and to be useful in enlarged spleen, dyspepsia, indigestion, bowel complaints, etc.
is

said

to be carminative

^W$
is

Sauvarchala called souchal or kdldnimak in

Hindustani

said to be

aromatic, agreeable and digestive, and useful in

same sort of cases as vitlavana. It is described in the Report on Punjab Products as "a dark colored salt said to be made by
the
dissolving

common
it
;

salt in

a solution of "sajimati"

(crude soda)

and evaporating
of

this salt contains chloride of sodium, sulphate


little
is

soda,

caustic soda and a

sulphate of sodium, but no


not
available
in

carbonate of soda." shops of Calcutta


*

Btmehal salt

the drug

Bengali physicians give this name to a Some

Aaiatu, Kesuaichai Vol.

XL

^age IU.

86
crystalline

SANSKRIT MATERIA UBDli

A.

form

of rock salt,

but up- country physicians always

translate tauvarchain as sonchal or Jcdldnhnak.


tation appears also to obtain in

The latter interprethe Punjab whore a specimen ot


a noted druggist,
salt
is

sunchal

salt

from

Ham

Sing,

said in the
as

iieport on Punjab Products, "to be a

of

the

same kind

kdldnimak"
(

ffa* Ixomaka,

also

called

un^i^^t

Sdkambun,
Ivum.'i.

is

the

salt

produced from the Sambar Lake near Ajmere.


is

The name r&maka


It
is

said to be derived

from a river called


taste,

obtained by

the

evaporation of salt water in the shape of clear rhomboidal


It has a

crystals. diuretic,

pungent
to

and

is

considered laxative and


salts.

in addition

possessing the other properties of


of evaporated salts.
itself

It is said to be the best


^ftflf?

and purest
is,

Audbhid, that

produced of

from the

earth,

18

name applied to a salt produced as an lands. The salt is called reha or hilar in
the
consists principally of sulphate of soda with a

efllorescence on reh

the vernacular.
little

chloride of

sodium,

and
to

is

described
is

as

alkaline,

bitter,
in

pungent

and
the

nauseating.

It

said

to

be
soil

so

abundant

some parts of

Punjab as

render the

quite

barren.

Some

physicians
salt

or rather writers substitute this article for sambar

in

the

composition of pancht lavana or the


*jfe^T Uutiha.

live salts.

This

salt,

mentioned by Susruta and some


In the treatise his commentator Siva Pass

later

writers,
I),

cannot be identified at present.


I

called

by Chakra )atta, says that the name gidihd is derived from the circumstance of the salt assuming a hard, granular or nodular shape from boilingSo that it is a sort of boiled salt. Susruta describes it as
stomachic, digestive and laxative.
ttf

vya f/una

tni

rdnsuja or Uahaii

a literally

moans,

salt

manufactured

from saline earth. Pongd or common salt, manufactured from earth impregnated with salt water, would come under thi head. Rock .salt with warm water i used a an emetic, 1 The
9

different

varieties

of

salt

enter

into the composition of a great

many

nr
3q*f
tf~lf?

for dyspepsia, indigesi on,


|

enlarged spleen Mid


-*

i|*r

||]

t|j

CHI

FUi'l'

DIFM.

87
following
are

other tumours in
illustrations.
Xr/riliPlalisIi'ira}

the

abdomen

The

few

Take a cocoa-nut

fruit full
salt,

of

water,
is,

make

a hole in

it

and
its

fill

the cocoa-mit" with rock

that

dissolve

the salt in

water.

Then
it

close the opening, cover the nut with


fire.

a layer of clay
is

and roast

in a pit of

The

salt

thus roasted

esteemed as a valuable medicine in the form of dyspepsia which is attended with pain, two or three hours after meals.
It
is

given with the addition of long pepper.

Dose about

quarter tola.

Bhaskara Xanana*
salt

Take
salt,

of karkach salt sixteen


salt,

tolas,

sonchal

ten

toh'is,

black
leaves

rock

coriander, long pepper, long

pepper

root,

called

tejpatra,

seeds

of

Xigella
patra),

tativa.

(krishnajiraha) , leaves of
of

Pi mist Wehbjana
fruits

(talisa

flowers

Meetta ferrea

{n&g akesara) ,

of

Calamus

fatciculai

black pepper, cumin seeds and ginger, (anilaveasa) , four tolas each, seeds eight tolas, cinnamon and two tol;'i3 each, pomegranate

cardamoms one tola each, powder, mi


lemon
juice.

\-

:md soak seven times


with
in

in
in

Dose about a drachm


tumours
etc.

whey or
salt
is

wine,

enlarged spleen and other


loss

the abdomen, dyspepsia,


applied
to

of

appetite,
of

constipation

Rock
of

opacities

the cornea,

either singly or in combination with

other dru^s, as in the following.


Lebb
/.

Take

the

seeds

of

Acacia

(sirim), long pepper,

black pepper and rock salt in equal

partR,

with water, and make into pellets or rub them together

pencils.

These are rubbed


inftH-9TT:i

on. opacities of the cornea.

1.

*nft**

irataw

*$* s?f**l

ffcrarofiroT

**r*

f**|j<nwHr**-

fanrftft^ifH

gr^tawwu

*tt*3tt

aT^mm-

will

j*Swri 3*:
*

fftmmq

wft m*$$*SM

<n^f

vw

'W'StaftTiTniq

i*sW^

**'

'

S3

SANSKRIT MATERTA MEDfCA.

CARBONATE OF POTASH.
Sans, ^nrvTTf Yavakslidra.

Tnr3

article, as well as the

next one called


in

sarjikdtokdra,

is

mentioned by Susruta, and has been used


very remote period.
the green spikes of

medicine from

Yurakslwm is prepared by reducing to ashes the barley (Hordeum hexasHchnm) dissolving


,

the ashes in water, straining the

solution through thick cloth,


is

and evaporating it over the fire. The resulting fnli amorphous powder with a saline and partly acid taste.
nally it is carbonate of potash with
is

a clear
Cherai-

some impurities.
It

YavahMra
is

described as stomachic, laxative and diuretic.


dyspepsia,
of

used

in

urinary diseases,

ments

the

abdominal

enlarged spleen and other enlargeviscera. A decoction of ohelmhc


is

myrobalan and rohitaka bark

given with

addition of the
liver,

carbonate of potash and long pepper in enlarged spleen and

and

in

tumours in the abdomen called gulma}


It

strangury or In
is

painful micturition, carbonate of potash with sugar

considered
or

a very efficacious remedy. 2

enters

into the composition,

numerous

saline medicines.

CARBONATE OF SODA.
Sons. ^fsi^T^TT Sarjihdkshdra.
Sdjji or barilla is produced

Torn. Sdjji.

from several species of salt-worts

growing

in brackish soil in the

Punjab and North- West Provinces.


full

The process

of manufacturing sdjji is described in

detail in

the "Report on Punjab Products." The plants are out down during the cold months, dried and burnt in a pit of a hemispherical shape, about six feet in circumference and three feet
deep.

At the bottom

of this pit, one or

more

ghards or inverted

earthen vessels having small holes pierced in their upper portion

to" w:
2.

totot

vfrg ^r

faw st

re^*?f

to

imfftrtfrav:

to**to

CXABONATE OP SODA.
are buried.

89

The

holes are kept closed at the


is

commencement

of

the operation. plants

Into the pit

thrown a small quantity

of the

and burnt, fresh plants being gradually added to keep up a constant fire, and this is continued till the pit fills up. During this process a liquid matter exudes from the plants. As soon as
this
is

observed

the orifices

in

the ghards are opened and the

liquid

runs down into them below the fire. After all the liquid has run down, the ashes are stirred up with a stick and covered

over with earth.


or pot.

The

alkali found in the earthen


it is

vessels
in

is sdjji

of the first quality, called sdjji lota because

found

the

lota

The residuary mass


sdjji,

in the pit is

crude dirty potash.


in

Sarjikdkshdra or

as used in medicine, occurs

porous

granular masses of
alkaline taste of soda.

white colour, and with a strong Chemically, it corsists of carbonate of


greyish
properties of
sarjih'i

soda with certain impurities, such as organic matter, sulphate of


soda, potash etc.

The

are said to be like but


It
is

somewhat
acidity,

inferior to those of yavakshara.


its

chiefly

used

in

combination with other medicines of

class in the treatment of

dyspepsia and enlargements of the abdominal viscera. Externally it is used as a caustic.


CI '

bqjtfif

or

barilla,

should
is

not be confounded with sdjimdti or


earth impregnated with soda and not

fuller's earth.

The

latter

a barilla.

Sdjim&ti occurs in great abundance on the surface of

the soil in
cloth.

many

parts of India, and


is

is

chiefly

used

in

washing

The following

an example of a saline medicine contain-

ing sarjihd.

Sarjikddya churna}
rock, sonchal,
vit,

Take

of sarjikdJcskdra

and yarahshdra,
powder,

sdmbar and Jcarkarh


juice

salts in equal parts,

soak

in

lemon

or the juice of pomegranate fruits and dry


grains.

*u the sun.

Dose about twenty

Thia medicine

is

said to

mfa
12

00

SANSKRIT MATERIA MRDICA.

swellings or tumours in the promote the appetite, to remove local

abdomen and

to cure dyspepsia

with severe pain after meals.


s

A
with
Hi em.

paste

made
is

of equal parts of yavnkshdra


to

and Mfjimkmara

water

applied

abscesses, for the purpose of opening

NITRATE OF POTASH.
unknown recognized name for it in
vernacular equivalent.
lexicons,
is

-Nitre was

to the ancient Hindus.

There

is

no

Sanskrit.

Suvarchzkd as a variety of sarjikd

The Bhavapraknsa mentions barilla, and gives som as its or


according to standard
article.

But suvarrhikd,
for

a synonym of sarjiha and not a separate

Some

recent Sanskrit formulae

the preparation of mineral acids

containing nitre, mention this salt under the

name

of

Soraka.

This word however

is

not met with

in

any Sanskrit dictionary


vernacular
nitre
sord, a

and

is

evidently Sanekrifci zed from the

term

of

foreign origin.

The manufacture

of

therefore most was

probably introduced into India after the adoption of gunpowder as an implement of warfare. It is necessary to observe here that

many
term

writers have erronously translated nitre into the Sanskrit yamkshdra. This last however is not a nitrate but an
of potash obtained

impure carbonate

by reducing

to

ashes the

spikes of the barley.

Chloride of
older writers.

ammonium

is

Susruta and the not mentioned by


it

In recent Sanskrit works

narasdra, a is called

term apparently derived from the vernacular nausadar of Persian origin. Another salt mentioned in recent Sanskrit compilations
is

the impure sulphate of soda called Kharinoon in the vernacular. It is called K$bdri lavanti in Sanskrit, and is used in combination

with other saline medicines.

ALKALINE ASHES.
S*m.
^tt, Kshwra.

The ashes

of a

number

of plants containing

more or less potash

are employed both externally plants used in the preparation

and internally.

list of these

of ormstic pastes,

has been already

ALKALI NK ASHJES.

Ot

given

in

the

Intioduction

(see

page 21).

It

remains now to
internal
use.

notice the preparations

of alkaline ashes

for

solution

of the

ashes of these plants or of such of them as are

available, is prepared

by mixing them

witli six parts of

water and
that
is,

straining the fluid through cloth for twenty-one the

times,

strained

fluid

is

poured over the ashes twenty -one times


to

in

succession,
fluid is

and made

percolate

through them.

Lastly the

allowed to stand and the clear solution drained off. Tin* alkaline solution is given in doses of one to three drachms in
dyspepsia,
ascites,

enlargements
It is

of

the

abdominal

viscera,

calculous affections, etc.


antacid.

regarded as laxative, diuretic and

VdisvdnaraJcshdra.

Take

of the

^
(chi/raka),

mixed ashes of Euphorbia (arka), Plumbago Zeylanica

communis (eranda), Oratceva Roxburgh H Sew mum Indian* (ruruna), Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnavd),
Ricinus
tila ),

Achyranthes aspera (apdmdrga),

Mum

sapientum
i.

kddali

).

/
in all,

two seers

boil in sixteen seers of water


to stand,

till

reduced to one-fourth
liquid.
till

Allow the solution


clear solution
is

and drain the clear

To the
fluid

add

seers of rock salt, boil again two

the

To this powder add the following carminatives, namely, ajowan, cumin seeds, hdldjird, ginger, long
evaporated, dry and powder.
pepper, black pepper and assafcetida, each four tolas, and mix. This combination is given in doses of one to two scruples, with
cold water in dyspepsia, anasarca etc.

I.

Hii^grc
firf*rfl

**rafTO*w*ro
*zffcaT

*jnwn

ftrawnTwtfl
i

tot*

?rm

roRt$fll

W wfa*
w*w

*t*j TOTtffaDT

W**
*<nir
i

ftf^Tar

WW
'

tot

wwtt trow* to" fwwf*r


*fiTO*
n
*
i

WR^finf
fro* m?riT

yr:i

^wtTOnBrttarft^f*:

**$
-

*tw u%n tf %'sTOfta? * v*m *M ***: i^^tWq*: ^TfTrfwi <to<N^ s*tt*t*wra ^irrots * Urn'n ita% fvnr ^T**rot fa*tfs
to:

i
i

vtotWt

*to*t

miJr*w

gg

SANSKRIt tfATEBfA

ItBpttfk)

preparation similar to VaUohiaraAbhnja.lavana} This is a much used in enlarged spleen of kshdra above described. It is
long standing, and often with success.

To prepare

this

two seers

boiled in sixty-four seers of water of mixed alkaline ashes are


till it

is reduced to one-fourth.

One

seer of chebulic myrobalans,

and sixteen seers of cow's urine are then two seers added, and the mixture boiled till it is reduced to a thick syrupy Lastly are added cumin seeds, ginger, black pepper, consistence.
of

rock

salt,

long pepper, assafcetida, ajoican,


(kushtha), and

root of

Aplotaxis auriculafa,

Curcuma Zedoaria

(sati),

each four tolas, and the


is

whole intimately mixed.


to

This medicine

given

in

doses of half

one tola once daily in enlarged spleen, liver disease, ascites


If the

etc

bowels are not sufficiently

moved

it

is

given in

larger doses.

DIAMOND.
Bans. **t, Hiraka*

Of

the precious stones enumerated in page 14,

diamond, peails

md

coral only are

used or

much used in medicine. The rest are rarely not used at all. Diamond is purified by being enolosed
the leaves of A>ja\i
(caka).
It
is

within a lemon and boiled in the juice of


gramliflora

reduced to powder in the following

manner.

piece of the root of a cotton plant is beaten to a paste

with the juice of some betel leaves. Both these vegetables should not be less than three jears old. The diamond is enclosed within

s^^rwiRro

*vmpr fn* few,,

^m

^g^^^^,,^^

'

this paste

and roasted

in a pit of
is

fire.

The process

is

repeated

seven times,

when

the stone

easily reduced to a fine powder.


in

Another process consists in roasting the diamord enclosed


paste

made of horn-shavings, for three times in succession. Diamond thus prepared is said to he a powerful alterative tonic
that

improves

nutrition,

increases

the strength and firmness of

the

body and removes

all sorts of diseases.

Dose about one grain.

Diamond
rasa,

composition of several alterative and enters into the


Ratnagiriin

tonic medicines, such as the Trailahja chintdmani rasa,

Sarvdnga sundara

rasa, etc.

These medicines are similar

composition.

They
in

all

contain diamond, pearls, gold, iron,

talc,

mercury,
cases.

etc.,

proportions and are used in similar varying

thus prepared. Take of diamond, TraiMkya chintdmam rasa talc and liusa nndtfa or red gold and pearls, each one part, iron, each, rub together with the preparation of mercury, four parts
1

is

two-grain pills. This medicine juice of Aloe Indira and make into suitable adjuncts in various is used as an alterative tonic with
diseases.

Sans.

AND CORAL. PEARLS Pearl*, mm Pravala, g*>T


M'lh-td,

Coral.

medicine from a very ancient Thesi,; gems have been used in Pearls are purified by period and are mentioned by Susruta. leaves of Setbania andcata being of the
boiled
in

the juice

(jayanti), or of the flowers of Agati

grandiflora

(vaka).

Coral

is

purified

by

being boiled in a decoction of

the three myrobalans.

being calcined in covered Both are prepared for medicinal use by The properties of bot! powder. cruo are generally used in these articles are said to be alike and they
1.

*itafwrfTO:

fir

fl*tf

^*ra m*

<wt

a^*T**U

imwint?

^t\

nm*n

vmfif*

straw* raw** g&i^l

3ANSKRI1 MATfcRIA

tlfitHCA.

combination
consumption
energy of

They
etc.,

are said to
to

be useful in urinary diseases,


the strength, nutrition, and
of pres-

and

increase

weak

persons.

The following are examples


and
of
coral.

criptions containing pearls


Pi/fr/utaka rasa}

Take

nutmegs, mace, jatdmdmi root, root

of Aflota
]

,/<

auricuUtA (kushtha), leaves of Finns Wchhiana (tdlisa

fra), aconite, iron pyrites, iron, talo

and realgar, one part each,


all

prepared pearls equal

in

quantity to

the above ingredients.

Beat them together into a paste with the aid of water and make
into four-grain
pills.

This medicine

is

said to
v

be useful in

diseases supposed to be caused by deranged bile, such as dyspepsia,

jaundice, biliousness, vomiting of bile, etc.

Yasanta

Kutumdhara,
parts,
talc,

rasa.

Take
prepared

of
tin,

prepared

gold

and

camphor, each two


parts each, prepared

of

lead and iron, three

pearls and coral, four parts each.

Rub

these ingredients together in a mortar and soak the

powder seven

times successively in each of the following fluids, namely, milk,

sugar-cane juice, juice of Adhatoda Vasica


lac

(vusaka), decoction of

and of Pavonid ndoratn (bdld), juice of the flowers and rootplantain


tree,

stock of the

of the

root-stock

of

Krfnmbium
*fa

fTfTTff^TO:

^T?frflt*TOPJf qjtft

^*

rTTtftau^*

*ufe!*r*?rT
I

I*'

f^Sf*

SsfjNT^

^rfTTT

fi

^wt^:i

wm

[it

m*

^5 m\ WTfonnroi[1

^tPc-

*twh irf^ ftufafr y**$mm ^


*rcrfa
V

fm

,-

^f

,^ ^votot*

SHfRTf

wrawrst

-JLAJATT.

95

speciosam

(padma
.

and

of the flowers oE

Ayanosma caryophyllata

Lastly soak in an infusion of musk prepared by macerating one part of musk in eight parts of warm water for
twelve hours.

[malatipuspa)

Divide this mass into four-grain

pills.

They are

given with sugar, honey and ghee in urinary diseases, impotence,


gleet, diabetes,
is

consumption and general

debility.

This medicine

regarded as a valuable alterative tonic in chronic gonorrhoea and spermatorrhoea and is much prescribed in these complaints
in

combination

with

an

extract called Kusdvalehd

(see

Sugar

cane).

SILAJATU.
Stldjatu literally
to certain

means stone and

lac.

The term

is

applied

bituminous substances said to exude from rooks during the hot weather. Tt is said to be produced in the Vindhya and
other mountains where iron abounds.
Tt is a

dark sticky unctuous


It

substance resembling bdellium in appearance.


taste

has a bitter
urine.

and a strong smell resembling


foil it

stale

cow's

Over

platinum

burns with a
in a

little

inflammable smoke and leaves


magnesia,

a large quantity of ashes consisting chiefly of lime,


silica,

and iron
is

mixed

state of proto

and peroxide.*

prepared for medicinal use by being washed with cold water and then rubbed into an emulsion with its bulk of hot
Stldjatu

water or milk in an iron pot. This emulsion is exposed to the sun, when a black cream-like substance collects on its surface and this is removed. The process is continued as long as any cream rises.
;

added from time to time as required, but too much water should not be added at once,
Tf the
is

mixture becomes too thick, hot water


to

for

then the cream will not rise


is

the surface.

The

stldjatu

thus
at

collected

dried in the sun and preserved for use.

The dregs

the bottom are thrown away.


is

The extract

of stldjatu thus obtained


of the following plants,
laiifolia (ptdla) f Ter-

purified

by being soaked
robusta,

in a decoction

namely, Shoren
*

(*dla).

Buchananta
is

The

"eilajit"

or

alum earth of Nepal


Materia Medic*,

a different article from the


is

"siLijatu"

of the

Sanskrit

The former

an article of

Yunaiii not

Hindu Medicine-

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA,

minn.Ua tomentosa (asana) and Acacia catechu


is

(khadzra).
is

Sildjatu

regarded as a powerful alterative tonic and


useful
in

considered

specially

urinary diseases, diabetes, gravel, anemia,

consumption, cough, and skin diseases.


given
in

The extract

of silajatu

is

doses of six to twelve grains.


it

In strangury or painful

micturition

is

given with

honey or with the decoction of


In urinary complaints
tin.
it is

Trihulus terrestris (gokshnra.) 1


in

given

combination with preparations of lead or


it is

As an

alterative

tonic,

used

in

combination with iron, as in the following

called Yogaraja,

Yogardja*
silver,

Take
five

of sildjatu,

prepared iron, iron

pyrites and

each

parts,

of the

three myrobalans, ginger, black

pepper and long pepper, plumbago root and hnbernug seeds, each one part, sugar eight parts. Powder, mix and make into a infection with honey. Dose about half a tola. This medicine is
considered a valuable alterative tonic, jaundice, consumption, chronic
diseases, piles, etc.

and

is

used in anemia,
diseases,

fever,

skin

urinary

Sons.

^
mn

RED OCHRE.
Ghnrih*. Vern. r,rum<Ui.

Two
vmter,,

sorts

of gaifikd or ochre

are mentioned by

Sanskrit

namely, red and yellow. Ratoapd.h&na is used in medicine.


l-

The red
It
i

variety, called also

a silicate of alumina

*r'

n^^^m
i

i^w.

^rar:

fa

*re*reT

v\
,
rt

"^ " T**! *"' 9%f


*^
'

" *

mi

WrtW

M
.

'*
^1lTTT ifa

*
wn
rt

W**to

mm**
***** TO

f**

'

**

ffftfw

tt

^iwr

RKI> 0( HRE.

97

coloured with oxide of iron.

It is

purified

by being soaked

in

milk seven times,

and

is

described as sweetish, astringent, cooling,


etc,

and useful in ulcers, burns, boils


except

it is rarely

used internally

as an

ingredient of some of the complex prescriptions

containing a large
tion called

number

of mineral drugs,

such as the preparaall

Jivarahtnjara pdrindra rasa, which contains nearly the mineral medicines.

Besides gairika several other varieties of earth are described and occassionally used in medicine. sweet scented earth brought from Surat and called Satm'tstra mrittiM is regarded as

astringent

and useful

in hemorrhages.

It

enters into the compo-

sition of several

medicines for relieving bleeding from internal

organs.

13

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA


PART
II

VEGETABLE MATERIA MEDICA


NAT.

ORDER RANUNCULACE/E.

ACONITUM FEROX.
8am.
fa*,

Visha. *^ijTt?,

Vatsambha.

Vern. Mithdbish, Sringtlrish, Bagrd.

The poisonous
/

root called bish or sringibixh

is

derived chiefly

which are indigenous


Other equally poison(page 7)
virulent poisons

to the

temperate and sub-alpine Himalaya.

ous species of aconite are met with in these regions, and their
roots collected for use.
stated
it

has been

that of the

nine

mentioned by Sanskrit

writers, the majority probably consist of species of aoonite. The characters of these poisons are described in the Bhabaprakasa, as follows.

This root resembles in appearance the navel of ch.ldren, henoe it is called Vatmndbha. Its leaves are like those of Vitex Negimdo. It is said that no plant can grow near it.

Vahandbha.

Ifondm.
it is

This root resembles turmeric in appearance, hence

so called.

Saktu.

This poisonous tuber,

when broken,

is

a white starch-like subst ance.

found to contain

Pmdipana.
internally.

This variety

is

said to be red

and shining

in

appearance, and to cause a severe burning sensation

when taken
the

the variety of poisonous root produced country called Surat.


is

8aurd,htnka

in

ACOMTCM FEKOX.
Sringi
cow,
is
is

99
if

a variety of aconite which

tied to the

horn of a

said to tinge her milk red.

KdlaJcuta.

This psison

is

said
is

to

be

the

gum

of a

plant

resembling the Ficus religiosa

appearance.

It is a

native of

Malwa and the Concans.


Haldkala.
of grapes.

The bunches

of fruits of this

plant resemble those


tree.

Its leaves are like those of the


to the

palm

It is

found

m the
in the

Himalaya, in the sea coast

south,

the Concan and

mountain called Kishkindhya


This poison
is

to the north of Mysore.

Brahmaputra.
purging.
It

of a

tawny colour and causes


is,

grows on the Malayachala, that

the Western

Ghats on the Malabar Coast.

From

the above description

it

would seem that

of

these nine

poisoas, the first six are probably species of aconite.

Of these the

variety called Vatsandbha has been used in medicine from a very

remote period.

Aconite
iu

is

purified

by being cut in small

slices

and steeped
is

cow's urine for three days, before being used.

It

regarded

as

heating and stimulant, and useful in diseases supposed to be caused by deranged phlegm and air. It is used in a great variety

of affections,

affections

recommended in fever, cephalalgia, but is specially dyspepsia and rheumatism. In recent or of the throat,
is

acute fevers the following

a favourite medicine.
of purified aconite,
*

Mrityunjaya rasa}

Take

sulphur, black

Pepper, long pepper and borax, each one part, cinnabar two parts; powder and beat them into a mass with water and make into two-

are given with suitable adjuncts in fever These pills supposed to be caused by deranged air, as also in those caused by the derangement of all the humours, that is, in ordinary remittent

grain

pills.

fever
to

and in that of typhoid


is

type.

composition very similar


the

the above

recommended by Sarangadhara under

name

100
of

SA3S

Cfeli

MATERIA MED1CA,
If there
is

Ananda bhairava

rasa.

much

constipation along

with the fever, croton seeds are added to the above ingredients,
aa in the preparation called Jvara murdri rasa}

in

In fever complicated with cerebral symptoms aconite is used combination with mercury and datura, as in the following
rasa. 2

called Panchavaktra
aconite, black pepper

Take

of

purified

mercury, sulphur,

and borax, rub them together with the juice

of datura leaves for twelve hours,

and make into four-grain

pills.

Along with these

pills

a decoction of the root of Calotropis gigantea

(arte) with the addition of long pepper, black pepper


is

and ginger

recommended

to be taken.

In chronic fever with strong shivering tits, copious perspiration, or much heat of body, aconite is used in combination

with salts

and aromatics, as in the following called Saubhdgya vatikd? Take of aconite, borax, cumin seeds, the five salts, viz. rock, sea, somhal tit and sambar salts, the three myrobalans, ginger, long pepper and blask pepper, prepared talc, mercury and sulphur, in equal parts. First rub the mercury and sulphur together, then mix them with the other ingredients, soak the mixture seven times
successively , the juice of the following leaves,

namely, of Vitex
-

fa ST

*STT?ni*n*rrT

^Sf^rcifa for

ii

wrssrorTitf)

tWHWr.1

*iwfirf

W tf* w^t

nisfotfjsfiffrihi

Wxt:

***,

wrt,,

ftrf^

wn, w nm

^m
I

n,

l^f ifan? JS(

^Wronfi

T^Tf?i

to^ *
Sawwwfr

ACOMTI

vl

FEKOX.

101
(sephdlikd),

Negimdo (nirguudi) Nyctanthes Arbor-trisUs


prostrata

Eclipta

(kesardja),

Adhatoda,

Vasica

(vdsaha)

and Achyranthes

aspera (apdmdrga),

and make

into four-grain pills.

Aconite

is

much used
Take

in

dyspepsia with loss of appetite, in


called

a variety of combinations.
is

The following

Udmavdna

rasa 1

an illustration.

of mercury, asonite, cloves,

and sulphur,

each one part, black pepper, two parts, nutmeg, half a part, rub

them together with tamarind juice and make into two-grain pills. These pills are given with the addition of powdered black pepper. Another preparation called Hutdsana rasa is similar in composition
to

the above, and


In diseases

is

recommended by
to be

several writers.

supposed

caused by deranged phlegm, such

as

catarrh, sore
etc.,

throat, cough, asthma, discharges from the ears


is

and nose

aconite

used in combination with other heating


called
2

Kapha ketu rasa is a well known medicine for these diseases. Take of aconite, borax, long pepper, and conch-shell lime, equal parts powder, mix and soak the
medicines.

The following

mixture three times successively in fresh ginger juice. Dose, two grains, to be given with ginger juice. A preparation similar
to

the above and

called Bhairava rasa,

is

used

in

hoarseness and

loss of voice.

In cephalalgia and
in

hemicrania

it is

recommended
mdsha),

to be given

the following form.

Take

of

aconite one part, liquorice root


(

iid

the pulse of Phaseolus BoxbUrghii


pills.

each

two parte;

powder and make into one- grain

In boils and other skin diseases aconite


f

is

used in the form

liniment and ointment

The following

is

an

illustration.
ift-

thpiupw:

^T^T^cr srwratf wrogw *ft^r

ftrfrra^

Tt^sfwjjfw:

^fri
vfam:
i

vircW

^srffrr

s^rtfa^

siwri

W[

*>nf5rf 5arra

wn%^i

vl^rc*nr:

102
Visha taila}

SANSKRIT MATLK1A

MiiI>IC'A

Take of sesamum

oil

four seers, aconite root


turmeric,

eight tolas, seeds of Pongamia glabra (karanja),

wood

of

Berberis Asiatics (ddruharidrd), root of Calotropis gigantea


of

(arka),

Nerium odorum

(karavira), flowers of

Tabernaemontana coronana
(*

o
Vallaris dichotoma (dsphotd), red sandal

wood, flowers of Aganosma


tolas,

caryophyllata

(mdlati),

bark of Aldonia Scholar is, (saptaparna),

madder and leaves

of Vitex

Negundo (nirgundi), each four

cow's urine sixteen seers.


into a paste with water,

The
is

solid ingredients

should be beaten
oil

and then boiled with the


evaporated.

and cow's
be

urine

till

the watery portion

This

oil is said to

useful in boils, prurigo,


diseases.

psoriasis,

leucoderma and other skin

ACONITUM IIETEUOPHYLLUM.
Sans. S\%1, Ataicha,
*if?[fa*,

Ativisha.

Vern. Atis.

The tuberous
of

roots of this plant are

considered tonic, astrin-

gent and stomachic, and are used in fever, diarrhoea, irritability

stomach and cough,

Atis is also

regarded as an antidote

to

poisons.

In fever with diarrhoea the following

compound

2 is decoction

much used
of

in practice.

Take

of dtis, ginger, kurchi

bark,

tubers

Cyperus rotundus (mus/k><), and root of Tinospora cordifoUa (gulancha), equal parts, in all two tolas, water thirty-two tolas.
till

Boil

the water

is

reduced to one-fourth or eight tolas.

This

&

ariWT

f*jfrw(
I

2.

wni
n

$*aft

3*m*nif<rfw

nm

sfa:

fu^?r

*ri aroiton-

itjw^

*ut

w*;

NTGELIA SATTVA.

10.1

quantity

is

given in two or three divided doses during the course

Chakradatta recomends the following called Hriveradi1 in similar cases. Take of dHs dried bela, root of Pavonia (mustaka), ginger and odorata (bald) and Cyperus rotundus
of the day.
w

coriander, equal parts, in all

two

tolas

and

prepare a decoction in

the usual way.

In the fever, diarrhoea, cough, and


infants atis is used alone or in the
of dtis,

irritability of

stomach of

following combination.

Take

tubers of Cyperus rotundus

(mnstaka)

excrescence of Wins surcedanea

(lcarkatasri?igi),
is

and the horny equal parte, powder


is

and mix.

This compound powder

given in suitable doses with

the addition of honey.

Sometimes long pepper


is

added to the

above ingredients, when the powder


from
its

called Bdla-ehcUiirbhadralca?

being composed of four ingredients.

NIGELLA SATIVA.
t

Sans, a**

ift<;*,

Knlojirn, Bang. Mnyrela, Hind. Knshnajiraka. Tern.

are regarded as aromatic, carmiThe seeds of Xigella sativa digestive, and are used in indigestion, loss native, stomachic and puerperal diseases etc. They are also of appetite, fever, diarrhoea,
milk, and are therefore given to said to increase the secretion of combination with a few other recently delivered females in scattered between layers of woolen medicines. Nigella seeds are
to preserve them from insects. clothes, shawls etc., the seeds appears to be common all over India.

This use of

In intermittent

fever nigella seeds

roas

commended

to be given in

two drachm doses with the addition of


3

an equal quantity of
1.

treacle.

*^ifif:i
i

^t^ftfang*
*t*i"

f^^w:
nv fa^H
*i*5W
i

fttfrofrotf

i?si*tamqT**m

vamtert imi

:i

2.

rarag<i4ftT
i

vtwrnvimfto*

*3"t

*****'
i

*t*u" wra*OTft*T*i
3.

^*s*r:

TOTHTtii 3 *1?T

fmwrfipft

wwrcn"

104

SAtfSKltfT

MATERIA MEDICA.

In loss of appetite

and distaste for food a confection made of


*

Nigella seeds,

cumin
1

seeds, black pepper, raisins,


scutch al salt,

tamarind pulp.
is said

pomegranate juice and


to

with treacle and honey

be very useful.

Chakradatta recommends the administration of nigella seeds with the addition of long pepper, sonchal salt and wine in the
after pains of puerperal
fever, loss of appetite

women.

In puerperal diseases, such as

and disordered secretions, after delivery, the following called Panehajirakapdlca* is used. Take of nigella seeds,

cumin seeds, aniseeds, ajotvan, seeds of Carum. sativum (ajamodd), Aneth'm 8cm (sulpha) and Trigonella Fcemim groecum (methi),
coriander, ginger, long pepper, long pepper root, plumbago root, (an aromatic substance) dried pulp of the fruit Ziziphns Jujba (radariplmla), root of Aplntaxi* aurirvlata

UbmU
me

(kvshtha)
tolas,

and

Vnmala powder, each one


seer,

tola,

treacle one

hundred

milk

clarified

butter four tolas.

Boil them

together and

prepnre a confection.

Dose about n drachm every morning

NAT. ORDER. MENISPERMACE^E.

-TEPHANTA HERXANDTFOTJA.
Syn.

Cimmph$

hesrandra.

J? a r.

Sa*. **ror, Amhashthd. oraT tarim. Miai, Path/,


In
;

r vern,

Akanadt, Tscwnl-a.

41

.,.

t,

th
i;

P^rmaoopcBia

of India

it

******

**

wn**W
topr

M^

"-M

stated that the Cismmpetos

^^
far*

with

Pareira Brava,

and

is

^Ww
^a??^:
i

f^wfVuf^r
9

Jfc.

^Hl^xi, ^rtt:

4 i

**ft

Wt

wr^

Twfq

**tW!

*tf

^
WT*W*T*

STEPHANTA BfEBNANDIFOLIA;
-

105
say, that the

common throughout
Pareira

India.

Other authorities
in

true

Brava

is

derived from Chondodendron tomentosum.

The
is

plant used
identical

by Kavirajas

Bengal under the name of pdthd

with that figured by Roxburgh as Cissampelos hemndra. The root of this plant is regarded as light, bitter, astringent and

useful in fever, diarrhoea, urinary diseases, dyspepsia etc.

In fever with diarrhoea, the following compound decoction 1

is

recommended by Chakradatta.
seeds,
biflora

Take of pathd
>

root,

indrajam

chiretta,

tubers of
guluncha,

Cypei

rotundus

(mustaka) , Hedyotis
parts,
in all

(parpati),

and ginger, equal


;

two

tol&s,

water thirty-two tolas

and

boil

till

reduced to one-fourth.

In diarrhoea caused
sli

my

by indigestion and attended with pain and or bilious stools, the following decoction is used. Take of
i

pathd root, indrajava seeds, chebulic myrobalan and ginger, eacl


half a tola,

water thirty-two

tolas.

Boil

down

to one- fourth.

In

intei^nal or

deep seated inflammation, Chakradatta recomof this plant to be taken with honey and water

mends the root


in

which rice has been macerated. 2


Tn

urine depositing

ssblts

or a
is

white floccnlent substance,


used.
to

decoction of pdthri and aloes

wood

painful
useful.

decoction

is

considered

Take

of pdthd root, Hedysarum lagopodioides (primiparm),


(vrihatt), liquoriVe

root of Solatium Indian


seeds, equal parts, in all

root and

indrajava

two tolas/ Boil down

to one-fourth.

i.

qr^qq^fa^

*prw*iTf*TT:

5raw*m?fteTV ^sqf ^rttaqT:

w^:
'-

^Wqfa mUfji ^J5g<T fJ^TOST


II

iftfW

*r*\ci fts^JJStJJTPf

"^r

^rq^rf off f% qw

<J

sRrSTT fjff?T

'q^^rf:

*nfw:

j
-

wT^qiq^qT^ra^lfl^f^^ *!:
5

qn^!4t vwnfe:

ar^q^m:
^sK$W,
|

106

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDKA,

TINOSPORA COHDIFOLIA,
Sans.

T^t, Gnduehi.

*re?TT,

Amritd.

Vern. Gulancha, Beng. ('"rack,

Hind.

Thi.
all

stem, leaves, roots and watery extract of this plant are

used in Hindu Medicine.

The
is

entire plant

is

regarded as a

valuable alterative and tonic. It

used in general debility, fever,


irritability

jaundice, skin diseases, rheumatism, urinary diseases,


of stomach, etc.

The
tonic.

fresh juice of the plant is taken with

milk as a general

In fevers

it

is

used in a great variety of forms.


is

Thus a

cold infusion of gulancha

given with honey in bilious fever.


or
its

A decoction

of gulancha

fresh juice

is

given with the

addition of long pepper and honey in chronic fever with cough.

compound decoction
hiftnn,

is

thus prepared.
ratnndus

Take

of gulancha, Hedyotis

(parparta),
e.icli

Oypenu

(masfaJca),

chiretta

and

ginger,
fourth.

It is

one drachm, water, half a seer. Boil down to onesaid to be useful in fevers en n -u-d by deranged an'
it

and

bile.

Practically

is

found very useful

in

ehronie Eeyei

which have resisted other antiperiodics, and which are apt to recurafter apparent recovery. In chronic fever with loss of appetite,
the following confection
is

recommended by many
of chebulic

writers.

Bhtorimoiak*?

Take

and

emblic myrobalans,

ginger and long pepper, one part each, watery extract of guh ha, four parts, water sixteen parts. Boil fourth,
till

reduced to one-

and prepare a confection with eight parts of sugar.

When

of

WWII*

ipjfl

ipfe

^
*nft

f,^ ft,;^

twh
2.

^^^

~
(

wNfe*
** "*

^f

*****

^ "W * ^ R

^ ^ ^^^

^m^T*:

j^^ TO

W
i

^f*-

timsPQUA COKVUtQhlA.

10'

proper consistence divide the mass into boluses of about a drachm


each.

One

of these

is

taken every morning, in chronic fever with


etc.

enlarged spleen, cough, loss of appetite,

Gulancha enters into the composition of a large number of


prescriptions for chronic skin diseases.
its

The

juice of the plant or

decoction

is

given alone, or with the addition of guggulu or


decoctions with the addition of
etc.
2

bdellium. 1

Numerous compound

various other drugs such as

M, turmeric, catechu,

are used in
oils,

these diseases, as well as in gout and rheumatism.


for external application are prepared

Several

with gulancha and are much

used in skin diseases, rheumatic affections and nervous complaints.

Guduchyddi taila?
sixty-four seers, boil
the strained decoction,
<j(tl<titch<L

Take
till

of fre&h gulancha,

eight

seers,,

water,

reduced to one-fourth and


oil,

strain.

To
till

add prepared seasamum


This
oil
is

four seers and

beaten
is

to

a paste with water, one seer, boil together a favourite application

the

water

evaporated.

in

eruptive skin diseases from impure blood.


taila is

The

Vrihat guduehyddi

prepared by the addition of a number of other medicines in the form of paste, to the decoction of gulancha and the oil. Auother compound oil called Vdta guiwhfdM tail" is thus
prepared.
sixty-four
fresh

Take
seers.

of gulancha,

twelve seers

and a

half,

water

Boil

till

reduced to one fourth.

Take of the
aromatics

juice

of

Adhatnda

Vasica

(vd$aka) 3 and OT dulura leaves,


oil,

each
in

four seers,

prepared mustard

four

seers,

the form

of paste one seer.

Boil together the decoetiun of


oil

gukmcfta with the vegetable juices,


maiimir.

and

paste,

in

the

usual

by Charaka in eruptive skin This oil is recommended diseases with troublesome itching, as also in diseases of nervous
origin.
-.

mi

*m

2.

jpssjrr;

^to

**F*

^'

3T fT|1*t* *T

H^fffil^WT^Sj g^f*

*m

^f^qm

II

*fi^:

VtWt

10S

SANSKRIT MATERIA

MEN

NAT. ORDER. BERBERIDE/C.


,

BERBERIS ASIATICA AND OTHER SPECIES.


Sans, ^mfctCT, B<rnih,ari<Irn.
Yern.
Ddrtilialdi.
I

^l^f,

DdrvL

The wood, root-bark and

extract of Indian Barberry have been

used in Hindu Medicine from a very remote period. Its properties


are said to be analogous to those of turmeric.

The

extract, called

Itasdnjana* in Sanskrit and rasot in the vernacular, is directed to

be prepared by boiling together equal parts of a decoction of Indian barberry and milk,
extract.t
till

reduced to the consistence of an


is

The extract thus prepared,

said to be particularly
its

useful in affections of the eyes.

Indian barberry and

extract

rami are regarded as alterative and deobstruent, and are used in


skin diseases, menorrhagia,
affections of the eyes.

diarrhoea, jaundice

and above

all, i

Easdnjanddi ckurna?
ranot, dtis,

or

compound powder

of rasot.

Take

of

the bark and seeds of Holarrhena antirfyscnterica, flower


(dhdtahi)

of

Woodfordia floribunda
Dose,

and ginger,
a

in

equal parts.
rice

Powder and mix.


i

about

drachm,
is

with
to

water
id

mduUmbu) and honey.

This powder

said

be

useful

bilious diarrhoea.

* Galena or the sulphide of lead ore Sanskrit and some physicians in Bengal

is

sometimes called "raSMnjana"

in

nse the lead ore or "rasanjana,"

whenever

this

term occurs
is

in a prescription.

In the Upper Provinces how-

ever, "rasanjana"

doubt,

is

the

invariably translated rasot in the vernacular. This, no correct practice. The mistake on the part of the Bengali

physicians, probably occurred from their not being acquainted with rasot, which is the produce of plants indigenous to the Himalayan range.

trc*

fr<m

ii

1.

wwt?* *4n ism

jgm

s^n

vi

BERBERIS ASIATICA.

10!'

Ddrvydai kvdthaj or compound decoction of Indian barberry. Take of the root bark of Indian barberry, rasot, cliiretta, Adhatoda

(Vdsaka), Cyprus rottmdus (wiiistaka), bela fruit and marking nuts, equal parts, and prepare a decoction in the usual
way. This
is

Vasica

administered with honey in menorrhagia and copious

discharges from the


useful in
of

womb.
is

Another combination said

to be

very

menorrhagia

as follows.

Take

of rasot

and the root

Amaranthus spinoius (tanduliya) equal parts, beat into a paste with water, and administer with honey and water in which rice
has been steeped.

Sarangadhara
barberry
to

recommends a simple

decoction

of

Indian

be given with the addition of honey in jaundice.

fn painful micturition

from bilious or acrid urine, a decoction of


is

Indian barberry 2 and emblic myrobalan


decoction 3 of the root bark
is

given with honey.

used as a wash for unhealthy ulcers,

and

is

said to improve their appearance and promote cicatrization.


is

recommended to be applied externally and administered internally. 4 Rasot mixed with honey,
is

In the intertrigo of infants, rasot

said to be

an useful application
of rasot

to

aphthous
is

sores.

The principal use


it

however

in eye- diseases, in

which

is

employed

in a great variety of forms.


rasot,

few illustrations. Take of


red ochre, equal parts, rub

The following are a chebulio myrobalan, rock salt and


into

them together

paste with

water,

**% fa*

**w.

'

*HR

ft*ij*

qw^qtfin* W*'k
r

5? * tVH^l* ***$*

II

*iwni

10

ANSKMT MATLK1A

JlfiMCA.
1

and apply round


Itpsot

the orbit in inflammatory

affections uE the eyes.

mixed with honey may emulsion of rasof made with milk


and lachrymation.
2

also be used in the


ia

same way.
lo

An

recommended

be poured

eollyrium for relieving pain, burning into the eyes, or used as a

NAT. ORDER. NYMPH/EACE4:.

NELUMBIL'M SPECIOSUM.

NYMPH J] A LOTUS
Tn BSJB

ETC.
attention of
_

bcautifal aquatic plants had attracted the

the ancient Hindus from a very remote period,


place in their religious ceremonies

and obtained a
;

and mythological fables

hence

they are described in great detail by Sanskrit writers.


of

The

flowers
to

Nehmbium &pecwmm
this

called

Padma

or

Kamala, are sacred

Lakflhmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity.


of

The white

variety

plant

is

called

Pvndarika, the red,

Kohanada and the

blue,
is

ImUvara.

called

The entire plant including root, stem and flower Padmim. The torus or receptacle for the seed is, called
*

and the honey formed in the flowers, Maharanda. The filaments round the base of the receptacle, pass by the name of
iikdra,

Ka

Kinjalbf and the leaf stalk by that of Urindla.

The

species of

Xymphma

described, are as follows

Kympfam
h'ympfum

Lqtm.
stellata.

Kwnuda, Sans. Bdluka. Beng.


Nilotpala,

Koi. Hind.

Sam. miiaphld, Seng.


8am.
llakiab.nnbul, Beng.

S'jmplicea rubra.

Baktotpala,

The root-stocks of these water plants contain a sort of starch, and are eaten by the poorer classes. During the famine of 186*
in

Orissa,

they were

much sought

after

by the starving people.

WW:
***r:

II

*,nr *re:

i!

tow

"

bluvbium spEif*rv.

111

The seeds
seeds of

of

Neliimbiurn speciosnm

are eaten, raw.

The small
and

Symphcea Lotus, called

bheta, are fried in heated sand

used as a light easily digestible food.


called

The seeds
the

of Euryale

few

makhinna

in Sanskrit, are also used in

same manner,

and are regarded as light, invigorating food suited for sick people.

The filaments
are

of

these plants are used medicinally.

They

considered astringent c ^*~ cooling, and useful in burning of vut and ^ 6

and menorrhagia. In bleeding piles the filaments of the lotus are given with honey and fresh butter or with sugar. 1 In menorrhagia the filaments of Kymphcea stellafa
the body, bleeding piles

are given with the addition of sonchal salt, nigella seeds, liquorioe 2 compound decoction is thus powder, curdled milk and honey.

prepared.

VtpaUdl sritam} Take strtlata and Ht. rubra, of the white variety of NelwnUum speciomm and liquorice root, equal parts, in all, two boUs, and prepare a
lecootion in the usn.nl way.
thirst,

the filaments of Symphcea Lotus, \. of

This decoction

is

said to be useful in
,

burning of tbo body, fainting,

vomitii

hemorrhage

fr

>m

the internal organs, and bleeding from the

womb
is

during gestation.

A
Take

cooling application^ for external use


of the filaments and
stellata,

prepared as follows.

leaf -stalks of

tfeh
of

ibmm

speciosnm,

Nymphs*

and Xymphcw hotw and

red sandal wood,

together into a thin paste with cold equal parts, and rub them paste forehead in cephalalgia. water. This is applied to the

1.

q*W tt
ii

i*?W

**

font

ftw^Fre'STB'

*Mmfc

*{#**>

vrrcircni:

& sw
<ftf?m
ii

*fhw*riift

w ^r^i
I

fi*1 Jterf

"fra

?T*n^-

'.

tf^'wr wm vt' ***** 3*3'*:

fW*w

* V******

Wfa

||

wri*to:
4.

v^fointrimflfln***:

1***fc fWJftww?rw*w:
*<fi?^:
i

112

3Ay<*l\RTT

MATERIA MEPICA.
is

made

of emblic myrobalans and the filaments of the lotus

also

used for the same purpose. Similar compositions are


for external inflammations, erysipelas etc.

recommended

The

large leaves of Neliimbium speciosum are used as cool bed-

sheets. in

high fever with

much

heat and burning of the skin. 1

NAT. ORDER. PAPAVERACE^.

PAPAVEB SOMNIFERUM.
Sans, ^fff^ir, Ahiphena.

Vem. A'phim.

Opium appears
mans, as
its

have been brought into India by the MussulSanskrit name is evidently derived from the Arabic
to
it is

Afyun, and as

not mentioned by the older Sanskrit writers.

poppy are called KMUas and the seeds, Khnmt;ia, in Sanskrit. The seeds yield a bland oil, which is used for culinary purposes and in lamps. The seeds themselves are innocuous and used as food. They are boiled, mixed with a little oil and salt, and taken as curry with rice, or they are made into balls and formed with tamarind, into an acid curry.
i the

The capsules

Poppy

seeds

are sprinkled over

some

sorts of native sweetmeats.

Sanskrit
nutritive,

writers describe poppy

seeds

as

demulcent

and

and useful in cough and asthma. poppy are regarded as light, astringent,

The capsules of the and narcotic. They

promote talkativeness and destroy or diminish the sexual power.

The properties
capsules.

of
is

opium are said

to

be analogous to those of the

used as an astringent and narcotic in complaints, cough, external inflammations, urinary


fractures, skin diseases etc.

Opium

bowel

'diseases,

In diarrhoea and cholera the following, called JE*M4k*J* wused. Take of opium, nutmeg, cloves, cinnabar and camphor,
'

1.

*Wj ^n^mrn^mRv.y

wi^i^^f
'

^^:

^
\

'

VAVAYm soMhifehum.
equal parts.

113

Beat tliem into a mass with water, and make into


1

four grain pills.

In chronic diarrhoea and dysentery,

the
of

following called

Grahani kapdta rasa,


prepared
talc

is

recommended.

Take

nutmeg, borax,

and datura seeds, each one part, opium two parts, and make into two-grain pills with the juice of Pcederia fcetida (prasdrani). In diarrhoea with anasarca the following, called Dugdhavati, is much used by the Kavirajas.
Dugdhavati?

Take of opium and

aconite,

twenty-four grams

each, prepared iron ten grains, prepared talc twelve grains.

Beat

mass with milk and make into four grain pills. One pill is to be given every morning with milk. The diet is restricted In fever with to milk alone, water and salt being prohibited. diarrhoea, opium is used in combination with arsenic, as for

them

into a

example

in the following preparation.

Samblmnntlia rasa?
white arsenic,

Take of orpiment, realgar, cinnabar, borax, aconite and alum each, one part, mercury,

ttsto:
2.

^*ra?ft

*c*m w^T^' ^n^

*rfo$w <rt*

q^*:f?R*r

<rtf

Htsjij

^^j fw
T$wmt

ii

*fti

irnfttf

*fa

wff ft wror

T^Tf? qTJJft^

^sftfT

^m^

Trft

*nftflr:$wnfa

3*RJTeTT^
3.

y*a jtoto:

md
ii

zmtf

*M

qrfs^Tft

<fl^:fa<?rT

*ft?^

^^fifw^

H^g^i^ unfa**

**$*& **

***

*m* iiftw*vi

wwr-

sw^ $wft faro


iftmresi

*#t tfare*

%%F[ nr^TTW^:

^^

*ifimn-

sn^^r
15

^T*ft*rr*prtTO

**t ft^ro^r

^^ *ra* *ti to^

114

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

sulphur and opium, each seven parts.


in

Soak them for seven days


and nim.

each of the following

fluids,

namely, juice of the leaves of

Cannabis sativa, Vitex Negundo, datura

Make

into

two-grain

pills.

These are given with ginger juice in diarrhoea

with high fever.

Akarddi churna. 1
(kakhola),
saffron,

Take

of pellitory root, ginger,

seeds called

long pepper, nutmeg, cloves and red sandal

wood, each two


quantity to

tolas,

opium eight

tolas.

Rub them
Dose grains

together and equal in

pass the powder through a cloth.


all

Then add

sugar,

the above ingredients.


is

six to twelve,

with honey.

This medicine

used as an aphrodisiac.
of

Opium

enters into the composition

some external appli-

form of paste, along with other medicines. A poultice made of poppy seeds with milk is prescribed by Sarangadhara in porrigo of the scalp. 2

cations in the

opium and

The Amritasagar recommends the following preparation of opium in diabetes. Take of camphor and musk, each one part,
pills.

mace, each four parts. Make into two-grain They are administered with the juice of betel leaves.

tfwwHi
wTfar:
ii

*WW ^fcr !iw i^fl

f fr

^ ^^
|

M<*m^:

T^^'^
2.

^ ^
Tf

1*^N

*ffinroi

*fe*t

5TTT

W.

WTiftf ftsf

Vmmirf sfa

II

WTlTWf:
I

SlNAiUS.

115

NAT. ORDER. CRUCIFER/E.


SINAPIS.
Sans.
ftRJT^,

Siddhdrtha

^Tf*T3iT,

lidjikd.

Vern. Sarishd

Bdi Sarishd, Bcng.


Sanskrit writers,

T
Brassica campestris, L.)

namely, siddhdrtha or white mustard, (Sinapis glaaca of Roxburgh,

and

rdjihd or

dark brown variety, {Sinapis


fil 9

ramosa of Roxburgh, Brass ica juncea, Hooker,

et

Thovison).

The
as

more pungent and preferred for external application a rubefacient. Mustard oil is largely used by the natives for
latter
is

culinary purposes as well as for anointing the body before bathing.

Mustard
lice

oil

anointmert

is

said

to

keep the body

cool,

and the

skin soft, to promote the growth of hair and to remove prurigo,

and

scurf.

The

leaves

of

the mustard plant are used as a

pot-herb,

and considered pungent and stomachic.


into
is

Mustard enters which the following


I'oak salt,

the composition of emetic mixtures, of

an example. Take of mustard seeds, Acorus


(lodhra),

Calamus root (yacha), bark of Symplocos racemosa


equal parts.

and

Powder and mix.

Mustard forms an ingredient


of appetite,

of several of

prescriptions

for

loss

indigestion,

etc.

Thus take
and rock

mustard

seeds,

cumin

seeds, fried assafcetida, ginger

salt,

equal parts.

Powder

and mix.

Dose, grains twenty-two with butter-milk.


is

Mustard

used externally, alone, or in combination with


inflammatory swellings, urti2

other medicines in a great variety of diseases, and notably in


parotitis, sciatica, paraplegia, gout,

caria etc.

Sarangadhara recommends the following application

urticaria.

Take

of

mustard
of

seed,

turmeric,

pdtchuh root,
,

sesamum and the seeds

Cassia

Tora (chahramardaka) equal

1<

faim*

gfa i**W

wfo*!*

wra tin^nv faw *fa?>


;
i

IW(

||

ftnmwrt3*u3aTzfti^: *?

ijptfft

sfiras^' frowi
j?nr

it

n:

110
parte,

SANSKRIT MATERIA MED1CA.

and rub tliem together ipto a paste with mustard oil. In 1 In inflamgout, sciatica, etc, simple mustard plasters are used.
matory
affections,

the following poultice

is

prescribed by Saran-

gadhara.

Take

of the

root of Boerhaavia diffusa


(

(puna rnavd),
of

wood

of

Berberis

Asiatlca

ddruharuird

root

Moringa

pterygosperma (sobhdnjana), ginger and mustard seeds, equal parts,

and rub them into a paste with fermented rice water.

LEPIDIUM SATIVUM. The


called Ghandra sura in Sanskrit,
as tonic

seeds

of

Lepidium, Stilivum,

and Hdlim in Hindi, are described


be a very efficacious

and

alterative,

and useful in hiccup, diarrhoea, and skin


It is said to

diseases from disordered blood.

remedy

in hiccup, for

formula.
of

which the Bhavaprakasa gives the following Hdlim seeds are macerated in eight times their weight
in the

water

when the seeds are softened they are rubbed


through
cloth.
to be

water, and the emulsion strained


id

This emulsion

recommended

given frequently in doses of about an ounce

for the relief of obbtinate hiccup. 3

NAT. ORDER. CAPPAR1DACE4:.

CRAT.EVA RKLIGIOSA.
8yn. Cappari* trifoliate. Box.
Sans,

^w,

Varuna.

wft^,

Asmariy/tna.

Vern. Barun, Beny. Mini.

Thl bark

of the

stem and root of this plant constitutes the

principal medicine of the


affections. It is said to

Hindu Pharmacopoeia,

for calculous

of the bile,

promote the appetite, increase the secretion act as a laxative and remove disorders of the urinary

I.

*ftw4q*-*i! R^tf

m mW.

II

3*wj

?r*

inflf

fain* ftr*

a, ^

fq ?T

wwinc ^r*ii%t *r: n*kwv


i

*oir^:

*refa

mm*

11

rfstfci^f^w^

r^wm^

fq

fq %rj

gTOfa
I

w*ir*T*:

CIUTiEVA UELIGlObA.

117

organs.
forms.
the

In calculous affections

it is

used in a great vaiiety of

Thus a simple decoction of the hark may he given with 1 A compound decoction is prepared along addition of treacle.
terrestrit

with equal parts, of Tribuius

(gokshnm) and ginger and


2

is administered with the addition of yavakshdra and honey. Varunddya chwrna* is prepared as follows. compound powder called

solution of the ashes of

varum

is

made

as

directed under the


is

head of alkaline water (Knhdiodaka).

This solution

boiled with

bark in powder and yavakshdra (impure the addition of varuna water is entirely evaporated. The carbonate of potash), till the calculus, enlargements of the resulting powder is given in ascites,

abdominal visoera, and

affections of the bladder and uterus.


is

confection called Varunddya yuda


fluid

prepared by adding to the

and a number of diuretic and extract of the bark, treacle


of

aromatic substances.

Varunddya ghrita* Take

coarsely

powdered varuna bark

sixty-four seers, boil together till twelve seers and a half, water To the strained decoction, add reduced to one- fourth and strain.

four s^ers of clarified

butter, and two

tolas each of the following

substances

in

the form

paste, namely, varuna bark, unripe of a

"VG^r:
2.

**to N

3*t

^Hfrffiw^l

swt*
*****

*?*n

w*fo&\

fqtfi

^a^:

3.

w**roqft3refcra *%*

*mwi

imwwnr**-

$^

* srt

<ftarra

ii

wra*i*:
in "fan?

*flW*J

TO

"

***!** ^B^ fWt1 to**"*

ii

118

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

caJled trinaja jjancha mulaht plantains beta fruit, the five roots of Coleus aromatkm ( asma(see Sugar cane), gulancha, leaves
hlteda),

cucumber
of

seeds, Aconcs cakmtts root,

bamboo-manna, tbe
Boil them

ashes of Scsamumlndicnm (tila),

and

of

Butea frondosa (paldm)


).

and tbe root

Jasminum

atiriculatum (juthihd

the usual way. It may be given together and prepare a ghrita in the constitution of the in doses of one to two tolas, according to
patient.

After this medicine is digested, butter-milk

and treacle

should be taken.

Varunddya
for

tenia.

This

is

an

oil

prepared with varuna bark,


ot

injection

into

the

bladder.

Take of varuna bark and

the entire plant of Tribulw tevrestris {gokshura),

two seers each,

water sixty-four ssers, boil together

reduced to one-fourth and strain. Boil this strained decoction with four seers of prepared sesamum oil and half a seer each, of the above mentioned drugs in
till

the form of paste. This oil

is

recommended

to be injected into the

bladder, for the relief of painful micturition, calculus

and giavel.
lower

In scrofulous enlargement of tbe glands under the


jaw, a decoction 2 of varuna bark
It is said to cure
is

prescribed by several writers.

even old standing cases. In internal or deep seated suppurative inflammation, a decoction of varuna and
Bocikaavia diffusa {pmaniava)
is

given internally. 3

NAT. ORDER. MGRINGACE/E.

MOBINGA PTERYGOSPERMA.
Sans. sftwusT, Sobhdnjana.
frp^, Sigru.

Tins plant
its

is

cultivated all over the country

for the

sake of

leaves, flowers,

and seed vessels which are used by the natives

*lvn*w*mi
2.

^WW"
srr:

tfWffinK^,
n

'

m^:

w:
1

9*ftrir*

**l

n^,gf

m
HIT

m.tt*
W.

MORINGA PTEKYGOSPERMA.
in their curries.

119

The

root

is

described as acrid, pungent, stimulant


it

and diuretic.

Applied externally

acts as a rubefacient.

The
white

seeds are described as acrid


as

and pungent and are used externally


is

a stimulant.

They

are called Sveta maricha that

The Bhavaprakasa describes two varieties of namely, white and red. The root of the white variety
pepper.

sobhunjana,
is

said to

be a stronger rubefacient, while that of the red, is preferred for internal use, for promoting the appetite and acting on the
excretions.

In ascites and enlarged spleen, a decoction 1 of the root-bark

Moringa pterygosperma and the leaves of Sumex vesicarins (amlaloniM) is given with the addition of long pepper, black pepper and rock salt in powder. In enlarged spleen and liver, a
of

decoction

of

the root-bark
root,

is

recommended
or of

to

be given with the

addition of

plumbago

rock salt and long pepper, or of the


(palrisa),
yarakriifira

ashes of Butca frondosa

(impure

carbonate of potash). 2

In internal and deep seated inflammation and abscess (ridradhz)


a decoction of the root-bark

addition of assafcetida

recommended to be given with the 3 The expressed juice of the and rock salt.
is

root-bark

is

also given in these cases,

with the addition of honey

or rock salt. 4
plaster,

The root-bark

is

used externally in the shape of

and the inflamed part

is

fomented with

its

decoction/'

* 4ta:

jftTt^c

^TfHm^*f^Tf*m:

^?re^:

Twijsw: *ra*w:

^f?^:

Jtann* fMtf f*s;i^w:

^f^ fw?W

Tfa um:sfaMfa*:
:

11

4<

**%>& r%

tfcf

i?*fas*

wra?^

a?* *\wn $ln T^ft'sfa


=3ra^^:
i

^:h
5
-

^s1<rttt:

*nan

fa^ffam:

^^^'
11

120

SAN3KTJT MATETUA MEDTCA.


calculous affections the decoction of the In

root-bnrk
r

is

given

internally.

Moringa pterygosperma enter into the composition The seeds of some stimulant applications. The following is an illustration. of of the seeds of Moringa pterygosperma, rock salt, mustard Take
seeds aniputchuk
root, equal parts,

and reduce them to a paste


fresh juice of the root bark
is

with goat's urine.

When

dried this is used as a snuff for rousing


2

comatose or drowsy persons.

The

recommended

to

be poured into the ears, for the relief of otalgia.

The gum

of the tree

mixed with sesamum

oil,

is

also used for the

purpose. 3 same

NAT. ORDER. GUTTIFER/E,

MESUA FERREA.
Sans. 5n*l3rtR, Nrigakesara.

Vern> Nugkesar.

Benrf. ITtnd.

The dried

flowers of

Mesua ferrea are much used as a fragrant


oils.

adjunct to decoctions and

They are regarded


of the flowers

as astringent

and stomachic and useful


excessive perspiration etc.
of butter and sugar is

in

thirst, irritability of -the

stomach,

A paste

with the addition

recommended by most of the later writers, to be taken in bleeding piles. 4 The powdered flowers mixed with old clarified butter, that has been washed a hundred times in water,
are said to be an effectual application in

burning of the

feet.

1.

3>m
fai

fa^jgta; ^r^ftsu^TcTiT;

^f^rf:
-qfov

>

wW *w:

sre?re

^^*t

cTCTm^rftww
*n*H*TO

11

3.

^*ni^ft^fa<^fre

^^cT:

*nfifar; yj\vs:

*r

^^qsTT^
^3^:
i

^fmfa^:

^tNft ifai

^T**it

wtt;

^ifaf^T^fisr^nfa
snv*3T:
I

?W*SF^t

W ^^^ *fq?T

fq*T

flUTO*

^ *^N
:

VJ^t:
i

IDA COrcDTFOUA.

121

NAT. ORDER. DIPTEROCARPE/E.

SHOREA ROBUSTA.
*

Sans.

ht*T,

Sdla

vj%

Afivakama.

The
or
rril,

resin of Shorea robusta, called Bala in Sanskrit and


is

Bhund
The

in the vernacular,

regarded as astringent and detergent


for fumigations, plasters, etc.

and

is

used in dysentery, and

resin

thrown over the


is

smoke, and
sick.

It is

much also a common

out thick volumes of fragrant fumigating rooms occupied by the used for
fire

gives

practice with

natives to burn some rfd

in their

evening, about the time that clrirags or lamps rooms every

are lighted, as also during the worship of idols.

In the dysentery of children rdl


in

ig

recommended

to

be given

dose3 of about twenty grains,

with an equal quantity of sugar

or treacle. 1

Rdl enters into the composition of some plasters and ointments. The following is an illustration. Take of rdl, rock salt, treacle, wax, honey, bdellium, red ochre and clarified butter, in equal
parts, boil

them together and prepare an ointment.

NAT. ORDER. MALVACE/E.

SIDA CORDIFOLIA.
Sans.
w*rr,

Bald. *P5rra*F,

<'<

tydlaka

Vern. Bercla, Beng. Khareti, Hind.

Four

varieties

of bald

are mentioned by Sanskrit writers,


ifolio),

Mahdbala. (Sida

ifolia)

these species, are regarded as cooling, astringent, tonic and useful

1-

eft

*t

3f? *t tm: wim*!U&'.

if*fai*ifr f^iT rafa


rreqiT*!:
i

11

2.

f%^*W**r?^ff**TtJRrfof 9*W

ftnfi*Hft*PT <ra*

m^ZfTC'?
I

f%m
Thia
ia

vmw.
only a variety of Sida rhombifolia, L.

16

122
in

8ASSKKIT MATERIA MEDTCA.

nervous diseases, urinary diseases and


bile.
1

disorders

of

the blood

and

In intermittent fever, a decoction of the root of Sida


is

cordifolia and ginger

given.

It is said to

be useful

in

fevers

with cold shivering

fits,

followed by strong heat of body.


2

The

powder

of the root-bark

is

given with milk and sugar, for the

relief of frequent micturition

and leuoorrhcea.

In diseases of the nervous system, such as insanity, paralysis,


facial

palsy,

etc.,

the root of Sida

cordifolia is

used alone or in

combination with other medicines, as in the following, called

Mdsha

balddi levdtha*

Take

of the pulse of

Phaseohis Roxburghu

(mdsha), root-bark of Sida


prurzens
(
(

cordifolia ( bald ), root of castor oil

(rdsnd), and
1

all
is

two

Withania somnifera tolas, and prepare a


neck, facial

decoction in the usual way.

It

administered with the addition


hemiplegia,
stiff

of assafcetida
paralysis,

and rook

salt,

in

and noise

in the ears

with headache.

An oil for

external

application in these diseases, called Baldtaila* is thus

prepared.

Take
seers

of the root of Sida cordifolia, four seers, water, thirty -two

and

boil

down

to eight seers.

To

this decoction,
oil,

add eight

seers of milk, four seers of prepared

sesamum

and one seer

dip

an

oil in

the usual way.

towt^ji *itowHt
ii

ssret

faTOTfaR*** f%

rfW

wv qfOTi

qw'

fawRfy ftfafonriljn^

2.

n^i jfa ^jTix

^ ^ ^ ^.^

wtsr^fto:
ii

^ra*i:i

4.

toN*{
ii

****i:

faf WPWTHtf

q**

q^sfaiR

^WlftW^
TOTt:
\

siTteqifa^

BOMBAX MALABARICUM.

'

123

BOMBAX MALABARICUM.
Sans.
sn^rsft,
*

SCdmali,

iffaT,

Mocha.

Vern. Simul, Uakta Simul. Beng.

"This

is

one of the largest of our Indian trees, often about

one hundred feet high and the trunk thick and ramous in proportion.

Flowering time the end of winter, when the tree

is

totally

destitute of leaves.

The great numbers


it is

of very large
it

bright red

flowers with

which

then covered make

remarkably cons-

The thick stems are used for making large boats called kondas, from their being made by hollowing out the trunks. Some of these boats are large enough to carry a freight of a thousand maunds. The smaller floats are /
picuous at a very great distance."

m
to

very

common

use in Eastern Bengal, for crossing over rice

fields

during the rainy season.


constitute the only
in

In fact during the rains these

little floats,

village

low alluvial

mode of conveyance from village tracts. The thick beds and pillows of
stuffed

the natives are stuffed with the Cotton attached to the interior of
the seed vessels of this plant, while the thin quilts and

clothing for winter, are

made with kdrpdsa

(cotton of Gossypium

herbaceum.)

The gum
It
is

of this

trfce,

called rnochara&a

is

used in medicine.*
is

considered astringent, tonic and alterative, and

used in

diarrhoea, dysentery

equal parts,

is

and menorrhagia. Mocharasa with sugar in given in doses of twenty to forty grains, in the
In the dysentery of children, the following
ef

diarrhoea of children.
is

used.

Take

of

mocharasa, flowers

Woodfordia floribunda

* In the Pharmacopoeia of India


,

it

is

stated.

"To

this tree

(Bomban

Malabaricum J which is common in some parts of India, two drugs which hold a prominent place in the Native Materia Medica, have been usually but erroneously referred. 1. An astringent gummy exudation, Mucherus (Hind).
Its botanical source is

unknown.

2.

Dried roots well known

as Safed Musli (Hind)."

The Mucker ua is a corruption, means the juice or exudation of the Mocha tree, and Mocha ia one of the Sanskrit names of Bombay Malabaricum. Hence there <&n be no error in attributing the origin of Mucherus to Bomba Malabaricum.
Safed U*Mli
[b .the

Sanskrit term Mocharasa of which the Hindi

Talamuli

of

Sanskrit

Materia

Medica,

the

Hypoxia

otchioidco of Botanists.

124
(dhdlaki)) root of
lotus,

SANSKRIT MATERIA *lDICA.

Mimosa pudica
all

(lajjdlu),

and the filaments


rice

of tlie

equal parts, in

one

tola,

powdered

one

tola,

water

eleven tolas,
(yavdgu).
1

and

boil

together to the consistence of a gruel

In the dysentery of adults a decoction of bela fruit in


is

goat's milk,

given with the addition of powdered mocharasa and

indrajava seeds. 2

HIBISCUS MOSCH1TUS.
Vern. Latahasturi Beng*

Sans. *HT**ft*T

Lai^asturikd,

The scented seeds of this plant are much used in perfuming medicinal oils. They also enter into the composition of some compound prescriptions, being regarded as
cooling, tonic

and carminative.
Sans,

PAVONIA ODORATA.
Vern.

Bald,

$ftt

Hrivera.

The fragrant roots of this plant are considered aromatic, cooling and stomachic and are much used
Idld,

Sugandha

Hind.

in

combination with other medicines of the sort in fever, inflam-

hemorrhage from internal organs etc. Bald enters into the composition of a well known fever drink called shadung"
pdnii/u, (see

mation,

Andropoqou muricaturri\

NAT. ORDER. STERCULIACE^E.


i

PwBOSPiwnrii scijerifolium.

Sans,

g^p?, Muchukunda.

The

flower of this tree, rubbed into a paste with Unjiha is and well known application for hemicrania. It is

an ancient mentioned

writers and is used

even at the present day, as a

domestic remedy. 3

1-

rro. **t *

TfTcrft

q*!^ f^^k m:
,

^sutflwwfirit
*TFT1fTO:
I

2.

fW ww; ft*
II

far

*t

WT f^

^^ -^- ^^
WW.
I

TJ

*F3Hfl

3.

fai*tsfa

mn\ %m^< m

s^**

hth<:

OXALIS' CORNICULATA.

125

NAT. ORDER, GERANIACE/E.

OXALIS CORNICULATA.
Sans. *[^^ftftniT, Amlalonikd. ^vwtt, Chdngeri.
Vern. Amrttlsdk, Beng.

The

leaves of Oxalis corniculata are used as a pot-herb.


cooling,

They

are considered

refrigerant,

appetizing

and stomachic.

The fresh juice of the leaves is given to relieve intoxication from datura, and is said to be useful in dysentery and prolapsus of the rectum, for which it is recommended by most writers. Chakradatta gives the following formula for preparing a ghrita with this

medicine.

Chdngeri ghrita.
fresh juice of

Take of

clarified

butter,

four seers, the

Oxalis corniculata, four seers, curdled milk called

dadfu, sixteen seers


to

and the leaves


Boil

of

Oxalis corniculata reduced


in the usual

a paste, one

seer.

them together
is

way and
difficult

prepare a ghrita. This preparation

said to be useful in diarrhoea,

dysentery, prolapsus of the rectum,


micturition.

tympanites, piles and

preparing a

The compound
and

Bhiivaprakatsa gives the following process for

ghrita?

Take

of the fresh juice

of

Oxalis

corniculata, decoction of jujube fruits (see Alkalies),

and ginger, alkaline water


It is recom-

milk, each four seers, clarified butter curdled

four seers,

and prepare a ghrita in the usual way. mended for use in prolapse of the rectum.

AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA.
Vern.

Sans.

3PJTCT,

Karmaranga.

Kdmrdngd, Beng.

and Hind.

The

five-angled fruits of

and are eaten raw as well this plant contain an as in curries. into the composition of some cooling They enter
acid watery pulp,

medicines for fever and other diseases.


.=>-

wffcraTqtafit

*
II

vrm:
fti*

ww**r*:

126

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

NAT. ORDER. ZYGOPHYLLACE/E.

TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS.
Sans. ^ft^Ct, Gokb'huri.

YfraT* Ikshugu adhd.

Vera. Gohshitra, Beng. Hind.

This plant

is

also

called
its

Sthala sringdtaka
fruits to

and Trikantaka,

from the resemblance of

those of Trapa bisplnosa

and from their being armed with three spines. The entire plant but more particularly the fruits are used in medicine. They are
t

regarded as cooling, diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac and are used


in painful micturition, calculous affections,
impotence.

urinary disorders and

The

fruits constitute

an ingredient of Dasamula (see

Desnwdium gangeticum.)

decoction of the fruits

is

given with the addition of yava-

hhdra (impure carbonate of potash), in painful micturition. 1


decoction of the entire plant
is

A
of

given with siVijatu (a bituminous

substance) and honey, in the


fjokhuru
is

same

affection.

Equal parts

and sesamum

seeds, taken

with goat's milk and honey,

said to cure impotence arising

from bad practices. 2


is

Gohshnmdyavaleha? or electuary of gokshuri


follows.

prepared as
twelve

Take

of the entire

plant of

Tribulus

terrestris,

1.

*ro
ii

tfntfra

*wrcgtf

fa3rn

qwgns

nmw^i tf*

fomSto

^awr:
2.

riMta??* rftft?* sift*

*m

3*' wxinfn qiw'i **&(*

finftiNr

WJ1PITC
3

i>3w^t:i jft*^
qT*%^T
fa*TC tfsnft

*3*3<roi

jztTIsjt,

*$f*t

mux
I

afa* 3

^T USURPS faq^W IP*W

nftPl

W*

TOfTO

II

*rnmT*:
/

CITRUS.

127

seers

and a

half, water, sixty -four seefcs

and

boil

till

reduced to

one-fourth.
of

To the

strained decoction, add six seers and a quarter


till

sugar anl again boil


;

reduced to the proper consistence for


fine

an electuary

then add the following substances in

powder,

namely, ginger, long pepper, black pepper, cinnamon, cardamoms,


flowers
of

Mesua

ferrea

ndgakesara

),

leaves called

tejapatra,

nutmeg, bark of TerminaUa Arjuna, and cucumber seeds, each sixteen tolas, bamboo-manna half a seer, and prepare an electuary.
It is

given in doses of two

tolas, in painful

micturition,

suppres-

sion of urine, bloody urine, calculous affections etc.

NAT. ORDER. RUTACE,


CITRUS.
The
different species of Citrus described

by Sanskrit -writers

are as follows.
5T*fta,

Jambira. Vem. Gordnebu, Beng.

Citrus acuta. Tioxb. Var, 3


do.
do.
do.

f%*ir^,
f*p;*r,

Limpdka. Vem. Pdttnebu, Beng.

Nimbuka. Vem. Kagujinebu$ Beng.

do. do.

^5TTJ5, Vijapnra.

Vem. Tabdnrbn, Beng.


Vem.

do.

*TW3Tfe*FT, Madhrtkarkatikd,
*nrpgs% Matulunga.

Millidnebu, Beng.

do.

Vem. Chlwlonga

nebu, Beng. Citrus medica.


of.

W*m, Karund,

Sans, and Beng.

GitruB medica, variety

TFJTW, Nagaranga. Vern. Kamldnebu, Beng. C. Aurantium.

The variety
juice

acida* called Jambira, yields the lemon of Citrus

used in medicine.

Limpdka or pa ti nebn

is

much

used as a

hy the natives. pieces, and the fresh


sauce
acid taste
juice,

The
juice,

fruits

are cut vertically into two

squeezed out with the fiDgers, is sprinkled on soup, ddl, curry etc. to which it imparts a pleasant

and agreeable
salt is

flavour.

pickle of pdti nebu, in

its

own

and

a popular and

effectual medicine for

indigestion

the Citrut medica of Linnaeus to which Citrus acida is itself a variety of


species C.

Limonum,

Limetta and C. Lnmia are also reduced. C.

128

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA,


in eating

brought on by excess

or by undigestible articles of diet.

The
a

fruits are first

rubbed over a stone, or their rind scraped


it.

They are then steeped in juice obtained from other fruits of the sort, and exposed to the sun for a few days with the addition of common salt. When crisp and of a brown colour, they are preserved in porcelain vessels or glass jars.
little

so as to thin

This preparation

is

called Jdrak

nebu

(that

is

digestive

lemon)

in the vernacular.

The
fruits
latter,

variety of Citrus acida called


is

kdguji

nebu has larger

than that of pdti nebu, and

also

used as sauce like the


of the essential oil in its

hut

its flavour

and the fragrance

rind

is

not so delicious.

Citrus Aurantium,Qr the sweet orange,


of the

comes from the valleys


It
is

Khasia Hills and of the eastern Himalaya.

called

kamld nebu in Bengali.


acid taste and
is

The variety grown

in the

plains has an

called narengd in the vernacular.


is

The Sanskrit term karund nimbu


different authorities.

variously translated by
it

Wilson

in

his

Sanskrit dictionary calls

In the Hortus Bengalensis it is translated into Citrus mpdica, while Drury and other Madras authorities make the variety Citrus Limonum. The Sabdakalpadruma does not
give any
to say,

Citrus decumana.

synonym or vernacular term for it, so that it is difficult what form it really meant. In the vernacular the term
is

karund

applied to a variety of Citrus medica.

Citrus

decumana has
it is

believe no Sanskrit name.

In the

vernacular

called Bdtdvi nebu,

from

its

having been originally

brought from Batavia. It is now much cultivated in gardens and is one of the common edible fruits
of the country.

Some

varieties

of the fruit have a pleasant taste acidity.

and aroma, with

little

or no

MadJi ikarkatikd.

This variety of Citrus medica

is

probably

x uu uescribed by Roxburgh as Mith' nelu, that is sweet lemon. The variety of Citrus which has very large oblong fruits, almost equal size to the shaddock, and the thi,k spongy rind of which constitutes the largest portion of the fruit, was shewn to me by a

gardener

Malda, under the name of madhtkarkati.

The pulp

CITRUS.

129

of this variety
taste

is

very limited in quantity, of a bland sweetish


acidity.
i

and without any aroma or


juice
is

Lemon

considered

cooling,

refrigerant,

stomaohic

and useful in indigestion, dyspepsia, vomiting of meals, thirst, burning of the body, intoxication from apiritious drinks or
narcotics etc.

Fresh lemon juice

is

recommended

to be taken in

the evening, for the relief of dyspepsia with vomiting of meals.


It

enters

into the

composition of several carminative medicines


the

for dyspepsia,

such as
etc.

Hingvdshfaka

see

Assafcetida

),

Kravyddi chuma

In rheumatic affections such as pleurodynia,


pain in the hip joints
tration of
etc.,

sciatica,

lumbago,

Sarangadhara recommends the adminisof yavdkslidra

lemon juice with the addition

(impure

carbonate of potash) and honey. 2

Basdyandmrita Icmha?
ginger, the
seeds, qjmoan

Take
of

of

long pepper, black pepper,

three myrobalans, bdberung seeds, cumin and nigella

and the seeds


each two
tolas,

Cnidium diffnsum (vanajarndni),


(da?iti) f

chtretta, trivrit, root of

Bolzospermum mantannm

mm bark,
sugar

and rock

salt,

prepared iron sixteen

tolas,

two

seers,

decoction of the three myrobalans four seers, and

lemon juice two seers. Boil all these ingredients together till the watery portion is evaporated, lastly add olarified butter, half a

1.

snftrew

ifar.

^ ^i^fm*^
I

2.

<ta^W.

qprTWsTi*g<ft5l3T

W? flf^Wft ^!s*Tfg ttW[


siTihw:
t

II

$**N*T*ft

17

130
seer

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

and

prepare a confection.

Dose one

to

two

tolas, in enlarge-

ments

of the abdominal viscera,

anemia, jaundice, anasarca and

chronic fever.

complicated with pain in the head, throat and chest, In fever

the following mixture

used as a snuff for discharge of phlegm. Take of lemon juice, ginger promoting rook salt, blaok Ealt, and sonchal salt, equal parts, and mix. juice,
is

directed to be

The mixture should be warmed a


The

little

before use.
called

root of the variety of Citrus acida,

UmpdTca con-

stitutes one of the principal ingredients in the

composition of a

medicine called Yahridari lauha, desoribed under Iron.

JEGLE MARMELOS.
San$4 ft^
vilva.

Vern. Bela> Beng. Hind.

The JEgle Marmelos


It
is

is

held in great veneration

by the Hindus.

sacred to Siva whose worship


its

without

leaves.

cannot be accomplished Hence this tree is always met with near


It
is

temples dedicated to Siva.


out

incumbent on
bela

all

Hindus

to

cultivate and cherish this tree, and


it

it is

sacrilegious to

up -root or
expects

down.

The Hindu who expires under a


sins..

tree,

to obtain immediate salvation, notwithstanding that

he

may have

committed innumerable

The JEgle Marmelos is used in medicine in a variety of ways. The unripe or half ripe fruit is regarded as astringent, digestive and stomachic and as useful in restraining discharges from the
alimentary canal.

The

ripe fruit is described as sweet, aromatic,

eooling and laxative.


to cause flatulence.

It is not easily digested

and has a tendency


called

The dried pulp


is

of the fruit,

Vilva

peshikd in

Sanskrit,

regarded as astringent, and specific for

dysentery.

supposed to

The root-bark is considered useful in diseases be caused by deranged air. It constitutes an ingre-

dient of dasamul or the ten roots, (see Desmodhim gangeticum). The fresh juice of the leaves is given with honey as a domestic
laxative and febrifuge.

iGLE

JiiAKMLOS.

131

The dried pulp

of the fruit

ia

given with treacle, in recent

dysentery with griping, pain in the loins and oostiveness.1 compound powder 2 is prepared with equal parts of dried bela f
tubers of
(mustaka), flowers of Woodfordiafl

bunda (dhdtaki), root of Stephania hernandifolia (pdthd) and mocharasa. It is given in doses of twenty-two to forty-four grains with butter-milk and treacle. In the dysentery of children
a decoction and an electuary of the following drugs
is

used,

namely dried bela, fruits of Pothos officinalis (gajapippuli), root of Pavonia odorata (bald), flowers of Woodfordia floribunda (dhdtaki) and bark of Symplocos racemosa (lodhra), in equal parts. 3
,

A
sugar

decoction of the root of JEgle Marmelos,*

is

given with
grastric

and fried

rice,

for

checking

diarrhoea

and

irritability in infants.

The fresh

juice of the leaves

is

given,

with the addition of

black pepper, in anasarca with costiveness and jaundice. 5 In external inflammations, the juice of the leaves is given internally,
to

remove the supposed derangement

of the

humours.

Si*

TiTT^ff^' *mTfaSTCTTSI*T(

^HTC^ftTOTr*

ffafft ffWH^ U
tzkw.
i

2.

ft<srr*?

tmraft *reT

^t

*Nw:

**tt:

ftm w*m$\wt

?r??rm

S^^n
<nren
3.
i

fospf

s*nfa^ ^m^lft
11

sra ssto'

Tsifq^rwH

3iTnw*t

wrc

ftTwft

*% $terprr<reTf^5
fcsnjgw^r

^jpt*i:

4-

srisulfa

*sr?*t:

^rmto

unftsref

w^ifarc-

ttipr^h

w<* M
5
Tfall
-

fosrrcTO

^ *^ ^^

fast

feqf $4

^ntfa

ft<n2Tt?[

mwst

4*W.

132
Vilva taila
seers
to
is

SANSiiltlT

MATERIA 5IEDICA.

thus prepared. 1 Take of dried bela fruits, twelve


boil in sixty-four seers of water, till

and a half and

reduced

To the strained decoction, add four seers of prepared sesamum oil and six tolas each of the following substances, in the form of paste, namely, Vanda Roxburglrii (rdsnd), Boerhaana diffusa (punarnavd), Aplotaxis auriculata (kushta),
one-fourth.
ginger, dried bela, flowers
of

Woodfordia floribunda (.dhdtaki),

wood

of Plnus deodara (devaddru),

bark of Symploros racemosa

(lodhra),

tubers

of

Cyperus rotundus (viustaka), Acorus Calamus


of

(vachd),

and
oil

gum

Bombax Malabaricum (sdlmaUveshta)


This
oil is

and

prepare an

in the usual way.

used externally in

chronic bowel complaints.

FERONIA ELEPHANTUM.
Sans,
^firer,

Kapittha.

Vern. Kiithbel, Bewj. Kaith, JHnd.

The wood apple

tree is

met with throughout India and

is

cultivated for the sake of the fruits, the pulp of which is edible. cMtni, made of the ripe pulp with the addition of oil, ealt,

tamarind and

esteemed by many. The unripe fruit is described as astringent and is used in combination with bela and

spices, is

other medicines in diarrhoea and dysentery. said to be useful in hiccup and


leaves are aromatic and carminative.

The

ripe fruit

is

affections of the throat.

The

f^^Ff

ftqi^rf

^ qT^TltSw

w wm ^,
'V

, TI ,,t

m^Wzm^w^

fam

r*rwJtani1nrn

UALSAMODENDRON MUKUL.
KapitthashtaJca churna. 1

133

Take

of the

pulp of unripe wood

apples eight parts, sugar six parts, pomegranate juice,

tamarind

pulp, beta fruit, flowers of Woodfordla floribunda (dhdtaki), ajmad,

and long pepper, each three


salt, djoivan,

parts,

black pepper, cumin seeds,


flowers of Mesua
orfe part,

coriander, long pepper root, root of Pavonia odorata (bald), sonchal

cardamoms, cinnamon,
finely

tejapatra,

ferrea

(ndgakesara), ginger and

plumbago

root, each

powder the ingredients


This preparation
loss of appetite
is

and mix.

Dose, about one drachm.

used in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery with


in affections of the throat*

and

XANTHOXYLUM
Vern.
fruits of this plant,

HOSTILE.

Sans.

g^?j,

Ttimburu.

Nepali dhanid, Tumri, Hind.

The aromatic and pungent

resemble coriander in appearance and are

used as aromatic adjuncts, in compound prescriptions and in

perfuming medicinal

oils.

NAT. ORDER. BURSERACE/E.

BALSAMODENDRON MUKUL.
Syn.
Sails. 3*5*5,

Balsamodendron AgallocJta.
Vern. Giigyulu. Beng. Hind.
is

Gugguln.

Guggnlu or Indian bdellium


in the tree,

obtained by making incisions


resin exudes.
is

through which the

gum

According to
moist, viscid,

Sanskrit writers,
fragrant

new

or recently exuded guggnlu

golden colour. It burns in the fire, melts in a Old the sun and forms a milky emulsion with hot water. it should not be gttggulu is dry and without flavour or colour

and

of

used in medicine.

ftfMtera

*fte*}
*rf*ref

\m$t

**n?tercr

faw:

iw*f gfwnfawT:

*rfaf

***

*n*f

tori*ht

*ta*f

wrote

^ig^iht

fa*w[

'nww

*w w^ **$&&
w

loi

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA,

Guggulu

ia

said to be demulcent, aperient, alterative


It is used in

and a
In

purifier of the blood.

rheumatism, nervous diseases,

scrofulous affections, urinary disorders,

and skin

diseases.

rheumatism

it is

used in a great variety of forms.

The following

called Yogaruja guggulu is a favourite preparation.

Yogardja guggulu. 1

Take

of

plumbago

root,

long pepper root,


seeds of

d[jo iran, seeds of Nigclla sativa (kdldjird), bdberang seeds,

Garum Boxburghianum (ajamodd), cumin


(d'vaddru),

seeds,

Pinus Deodar a
salt,

Chavica officinarum (chavya), cardamoms, rock

root of Aplotaxis auriculata (leushtha), root of


(rdsn,'<),

Vanda Eoxburghn
coriander, the

fruits

of

Tribulus terrestris (gokshura),

three myrobalans, tubers of

Gyperus rotundus

(mustaka), long

pepper, black
mnricatus
of Pinus

pepper,

ginger,

cinnamon,

root of Andropogon

(tisira),

yavakshdra (impure carbonate of potash), leaves


(tdlisapatra)

Webbiana

and the leaves called

tejapatra, one

part each, in fine powder, bdellium in quantity, equal to all the

above ingredients.

Eub them

together with clarified butter and

preserve the preparation in an earthen pot smeared with clarified butter. Dose from a half to one tola. It is given in rheumatic affections and other diseases supposed to be caused by deranged
air,

in unhealthy ulcerations, affections of the joints etc. Another preparation called Trayodasdnga guggulu is similar in composition to the above. It is made with thirteen aromatic adjuncts, hence
its

name, and

is

recommended

for use in

rheumatism

affecting the

1.

%*iw

NP5:

fro;

fqurcftjjs

^pTf mtil*m

ftw**

****

^trcwfa

ii

^^rir

TfH

met

ffitsro*flw

www

*i*<ti;

BALSAMODENDBOX MUKUL,
loins

135
joints
is

and the sacrum.

In rheumatism affecting the

and
used.
tolas,

bones the following preparation called Adityapdka guggulu1

Take of the three myrobalans and long pepper each eight

cinnamon and cardamoms four


finely

tolas each

powder the ingredients

called
tolas

and soak for seven days in a decoction of the ten drugs, dasamula (see Desmodzum gangeticum). Then add forty
of

guggulu and beat together into a uniform mass.


2

Dose,

half to one tola.

Vatdri rasa.

This preparation
it,

is

used

in

paralysis

and

nervous diseases. To prepare

take of mercury one part, sulphur


all,

two parts, the three myrobalans, three parts in


four parts and pure guggulu five parts.
castor oil for twelve

plumbago

root

Rub them

together with

hours, then add to the mass the

compound

powder, called Hingvastaka (see Assafcetida), in weight equal to all the above ingredients, and again rub together for twelve
hours.

Dose, about half a drachm.

Kaisora guggulu}

Take

of pure

bdellium, gulancJia and the


seers.

three myrobalans, each two seers, water ninety-six

First

1.

^nftarqra
*TT3f

wnm *z*\
cSfit^ris?

mr
^

tratw f%^*n

fxr^raTl^fir

^ftfcru

^J^T^T

^nj^fcitaicT

*i*rersre*i gri^f sfT^s^fsretf*

wis *mf%$ war'

*m
*ttW.
I
i

2.

rnmftw
=V rs

*fi *rat

to

*fa

vm-

wwPhn

f^

ft*^T

**t ftira^fiRr:

mfc*

*rc*t <t*n*r *t*[ tfcrafefa:

11

WTOR*

136
boil tlie gulancha
is

'

SANSKRIT MATERIA IMEDICA


till

and the myrobalans in the water

the latter
r

reduced

to one-half,

and strain the decoction


boil in
treacle.

to the strained
till

flaid

add the bdellium and

an iron vessel

the whole

is

reduced to the consistence of

Now add

to it the following

substances in fine powder, namely, the three myrobalans, each


sixteen tolas, gulanclia eight toHs, ginger, long pepper

and black
(trivrit),

pepper,

each six

tolas,

bdberang seeds four tolas, root of Balio~

spermum wiontanum
each two
tolas,

(danti)

and. Ipomcea

Turpethum

and beat them together into a uniform mass. Dose


to

from a quarter

one

tola, to

be taken with a decoction of madder,


is

tepid milk or water.

This medicine

said to be useful in various


It is said to act as

skin diseases from deranged or vitiated blood.

an alterative tonic and to improve the nutrition of the body.


Sadanga guggulu}
In affections of
the

eyes

with

pain,
is

swelling and inflammation, (rheumatic ophthalmia P) bdellium

recommended

to

be given with a decoction of the three myrobalans,


(patala),

root of Momordica dioica

Adhafoda vasica (vdsaka).


following,

nim bark, and the leaves of similar preparation is recommended


is

for secondary syphilitic ulcerations. In unhealthy ulcerations, the


called

Amrita gugguli?

recommended*

Take

of

gulancha, root of Memordica dioica (patala), the three myrobalans,

long pepper, black pepper, ginger, and bdberung seeds in equal


parts, guggulu, in quantity equal to all the

above ingredients and

beat

them together

into

a mass.

Dose about a drachm every

morning.

1.

*wpggf:i

ft^rvfwT^i^TCNTfi^^iTO:

imft

3*1^

ftatata *Rt?fH

*rarw
2.

TOrnppr^:

tor

iretacj

ftmj fi^g

^fa^m

swrnprt

AZADTRACHTA TNPTCA.

137
tree of

OLTBANUM
thurifera) f is called

India (Baswellia

Kunduru in Sanskrit.
1

It is

used as an incense

and as a local application to buboes.

MYRRH is called
article

Vola

in Sanskrit

is

described aa an
it

to

be had in the benialis shop, thereby implying


It is said to
is

to

be

an imported drug.

be useful in fever,
in practice.

epilepsy and

uterine affections, but

not

much used

NAT. ORDER. MELIACE/E.

AZADIRACHTA INDICA.
Sans.
fifJf,

Nimba.

Vern. Nim,.Beng. Hind.


is

This useful tree

is

indigenous to India and

cultivated all

for the sake of its bark, leaves and fruits. These over the country Hindu medicine from a very remote period. have been used in

The bark

is

regarded as

bitter, tonic, astringent

and useful

in

vomiting and skin diseases. The bitter leaves fever, thirst, nausea, being made into soup or curry with other are used as a pot-herb
aromatic and bitter taste which they The slightly vegetables. prepared, is much relished by some. impart to the ourries thus

an old and popular remedy for skin The leaves are moreover are desoribed as purgative and emollient diseases. The fruits urinary diseases, piles etc. The and useful in intestinal worms,
oil

obtained from the seeds

is

used in skin diseases, and ulcers.

The bark
tion called

for this diseases

in combination with other medicines is used in fever example, in the following compound decocas for

AmritdsUaka?
Holarrhcna

Take

of

nam bark, gulancha, root of


( intlrayava ) ,

tubers of Cypenis rotundus (mustaka), Picrorrhiza Kurroa (katuki),


seeds
of
aniidysent erica

leaves

of

1.

*4WTC* Jftw^s*

frswa

*t

*$** S<fN ^rowrcr:


****[:
i

a*i faroni

ii

irffTC

18

138
}fnmordica dinica

SASTSKRTT MATERIA M131HPA,

(pat aid)

ginger and red sandal wood, each


seer, boil till

quarter of a

tola,

water half a
is

reduced to one-fourth.

Thia decoction

given with the addition of honey and long

pepper in fever supposed to be caused by deranged phlegm and


bile

and attended with vomiting, nausea, thirst and lassitude.


fresh juice of the leaves
is

The
of

given with

salt

in

intestinal

worms, and with honey

in jaundice

and skin

diseases.

The

juice

nim leaves and

of

emblic myrobalans, quarter of a tola each,

are recommended to be given with the addition of clarified butter


in prurigo, boils

and

urticaria. 1

Nim

enters into the composition


diseases, such as the
Jcas7idya 9 etc.

of several

compound preparations used in skin

Pancha

tilia ghrifa,

Pancha nimba gudikd, Pancha

Pancha
dioica

tiki a ghrita. 2

Take

of

nim bark, leaves


(Jcantakuri) 9
tolas,

of

Momordica
and

(patala) 9

Solatium Jacquinil

gulanclia,

bark of Adhatoda vasica (vcUdka), each eighty


in sixty-four seers of water
till it is

reduced to

them one-fourth. To the


and
boil

strained decoction, add four seers of clarified butter

and a seer

of

the three myrobalans in the form of a paste and prepare a ghrita


in the usual way. to six

This preparation

is

given in doses of three

drachms

in chronic skin diseases.

As an external application ment and


liniment. 3

to

ulcers and skin diseases,

nim

leaves are used in a variety of forms such as pouUioe, wash, oint-

poultice

made

of equal parts of

nim leaves

1.

vftQfwn'

^w^tt* mm\ ^ m^nn


U^fam* ?a
H

\\

IffiW.
2.
i

finq n\i[ <ov$\m w*<#f

*w^r Sfffrnt

*$< faqW

m*Hin?re3lfaii*r

?iw* *%*&

fwwwg^

TOfmfifli toiH<
^tfi?^:
i

f^n

muzw,

VlTIS V1N1KEKA.

139
for unhealthy

and eesamum seeds


ulcerations.
x

is

recommended by Chakradatta

The following preparation


writers for application to

of

nim

oil is

prescribed by several

suppurating scrofulous glands with


;

numerous openings. Take of the oil of nim seeds, four seers orpiment, realgar, marking nut, cardamoms, aloes wood, sandal wood, leaves of Ja^minum grandiflomm (jatipatra), and of

Limnanthemim crlstatum (tagarapndiikd), each eight tolas, in the form of a paste, and water sixteen seers. Boil them together
and prepare an
oil in

the usual way.

NAT. ORDER AMPELIDE/E.


.

VITIS VINIFERA,

Linn.
MrutoUcd.

Sans. 5j^T, Drokshd.

?fe*ffT,

Vem. Angurphal, Kismis, ManaJchJ, Beng. Hind.


Grapes have been known
called raisins, are used
in India

from a very remote period

and are mentioned by Susruta and Charaka.


in medicine.

The

dried fruits

They

are desoribed as demulin thirst, heat

cent, laxative, sweet, cooling, agreeable

and useful

of body, cough, hoarseness

and consumption.
composition of numerous demulcent

Raisins enter

into the

and expectorant medicines.

The following

is

an

illustration.

myrobalans, dates, long pepper and blackTake of raisins, emblic them together with honey and clarified pepper, equal parts, rub
butter and administer as a linctus.
is
3

a medicinal wine prepared as follows. Brdtohd aruhta. This a quarter, water one hundred and Take of raisins six seers and

1.

fnnqw Tm: wx\

i*n *mit^r:

*mw.

$*T

*mw;

140

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


till

twenty-eight seers, boil them together

reduced to one-fourth,
twenty-five seers of

and

strain.

To

the

strained

decoction add

treacle

and eight

tolas each of

the following substances in fine

cinnamon, cardamoms, tejpatra flowers of Mesua powder, namely, (ndgakesara), fruit of Aglaia Eoxburghiana (priya7igu), ferrea
long pepper and bdberang seeds, and set aside for black pepper, fermentation. This liquor is considered invigorating and nourish-

ing and

is
1

used in consumption, cough,

difficult

breathing and

hoarseness.

NAT. ORDER SAPINDACE^E.

CARDIOSPERMUM H ALIO AC AHUM,


Sans.
arftfepR^',

Linn.

Jyotishmati.

Vern. Latdphatkiri, NayaphatJci, Beng.

The

root of this climbing plant


is

is

described as emetic, laxative,

stomachic and rubefacient, and

used in combination with other

nervous diseases, piles etc.


leaves of

The

fried

Cardiospermum HaUcacabum are said to bring on the


2

secretion of the menses.


is

Another prescription for amenorrhoea


(

as follows.
ih)

Acorns Calamus root (vach

Terminalia tomenfosa (asana) in equal parts and reduce to a paste

with milk.

This medicine, should be taken in

doses of about a

drachm
1.

for three days. 3

*T*rfw:

mi g*fll fofiw *m*i

fw^wfi:

mtfn **rt *

faTr" ^fa

Ht^

ii

w^itfMUi^ n^
n

fwre?i

s**rat ^ift^T

fait TO3rimtfire;

innn:

WW[

vu:
qta
sjfttTlTrcffre"

3.

r^il^m

*ii*

?ftr

fre $ 9* re*n

pi$?

vj^

IHTOH

TANGIFEKA INDICA.

141

NAT. ORDER ANACARD1ACE/E,

RHUS SUCCEDANEA,

Linn.
.

Sans. **f33?^ Karkatasringi.

Vern. Kdkrdsringi, Beng. Kakarsing, Hind.

The
of

horn-like excrescences caused by insects on the branches


called karkatasringi.
cylindrical,

Rhus Succedanea are

They "are

large,

hollow, thin-walled, generally

tapering to either

extremity."

They

are considered tonic, expectorant and useful in

cough, phthisis, asthma, fever, want of appetite and irritability of

stomach.

Dose, about twenty grains.

This medicine

is

much

used in cough, in combination with other drugs for the disease.

The following
Clerodendron

is

an example.

Take

of

karkatasringi,

root of

S iphonantlius

(brahmayashti), raisins,
(sotf),

ginger,

long

pepper and Curcuma Zedoaria


catarrhal fever

equal parts, powder and mix.

Duse, about thirty grains with treacle or honey, in dry cough. In

with

difficult

breathing a powder composed of

equal parts of karkatasringi, bark of Myrica sapida {katphala), and

long pepper

recommended to be given in doses of about a drachm, with honey. 2 The following called Sringyddi churna is much esteemed as a cough linctus for children. Take of karkatasringi, tit%s and long pepper, equal parts powder and make
is
t
;

into a linctus with honey. 3

MANGIFERA INDICA,
Sans.
<qra,

Linn.

Amra.

Vern.

Am. Beng. Hind.


the most delicious of Indian
laxative and useful to persons

The Mango is well known as fruits. The ripe fruit is somewhat

*lfafTO

II

2.

ntpn swi
it

i&w ** zwf\vi

vmzw.
i

^renro **13

tflsi
i

*ata;

wfn

*TT*mrra:

142
of constipated

SANSfcfcH

MATEiUA MEl>lCA.

habits.

astringent and useful

The bark and kernel are regarded aa in hemorrhages, diarrhoea and other dis-

charges.

In diarrhcea, a decoction of the kernel


in

is

given alone or
the

combination with
is

bela.

In

bleeding
to be

from

noBe the

juice of the kernel

recommended

snuffed.

In bleed2

ing from internal organs, a cold infusion of the barks of Mangifera


Indica, Eugenia Jambolana,

and Terminalia Arjuna


diarrhcea.

is

prescribed.

This infusion

is

also

used in

The Bhavaprakasa

recommends a confection made of the juice of the ripe mango, sugar and aromatios, for use as a restorative tonic.

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM,
Sans.
MSTcHff,

Linn.

Bhalldtaka.
I

^f^,

Arushkara.

Verth Bheld. Beng. Hind.

The
bruises.

acrid juice of marking nuts

is

a powerful vesicant and

is

often employed by the natives for producing fictitious

marks

of

These can be distinguished from actual bruises caused by blows with a stick or other weapon, by their deep bluish-black colour and from their presenting small vesicles or minute blisters on their surface.

The
of

practice of causing blisters by the application of the juice

marking nuts among the Hindus appears to have been at one time very common, for in our ancient medical works a section or
paragraph
produced.
is

generally devoted to the treatment of ulcerations thus

The

ripe

f raits

are regarded as acrid,


escharotic,

heating,

stimulant,

digestive, nervine

and

and are used

in dyspepsia, piles,

2.

*TO*H^ * *$
11

*nfa,

9,3 fat},,

fft

fo^; 3*y

wfmifa?l

*m w

SEAfECARpTTS

ANACAKPTFM.

143

skin diseases, nervous debility, etc.

They

are prepared for internal

use

by being boiled with cow-dung and afterwards washed with

Equal parts of marking nuts, chebulic myrobalans and sesamum seeds, are made into a confection with treacle and
cold water.

administered in doses of forty to sixty grains.

Amrita BhalMfaki?
halves, eight seers, boil
latter
is

Take

of ripe

marking nuts divided


seers of water
till

into

them

in thirty-two
strain.

the

reduced to one-fourth and

Again

boil the nuts

in sixteen seers of

butter,
seers

till

milk with the addition of four seers of clarified reduced to a thick consistence. Then add sugar two

and

set aside for seven days,


It
is

when

the preparation will be

ready for use.

described as a powerful restorative tonic,

which

increases the appetite,


life

prolongs

and

so forth.

promotes nutrition and strength, It is used in hemorrhoids and other

Dose, about one to two scruples. Another diseases of the rectum. made with the addition of a number confection of marking nuts,
of aromatic

substances,

is

recommended

for use in skin diseases

and leprosy.

Marking nuts enter

into

the composition

of

some caustic
of a
for

applications for warts and piles.

They form an ingredient

liniment for rheumatic affections

called Saindhavadyataila,

which see Ginger.

1.

fiiwinwl

vw wfo

tFwtn

#Jfmi8

flinrwt-

Wll
W5W.
2.
I

wmnq^j
i

wHirawft **^
nift
i

fwffctfroswforaifri

faqpg

mi *zi*n *gW ar^


fortwfarf*:

sw:

q^^w'Siwat^**
im* f^
rt
Tfir

*w

w m*

ftftw

**

"

m:

*fcm\^ TOfe' ^finwre

ii

m i wire m&

*n$ro imn-

144

SANSKRIT MATERIA' MEPICA.

NAT. ORDER, LEGUMINOS>E.

SARACA INDICA,

Linn.

Syn. Jonesia Asoea, Tloxb.


Sans, ^tfai, Asoha.
Vern, Asoh$ Hind. Beng.

Dr. Roxburgh says, "when this tree

is

in

full

blossom

do

not think, the whole vegetable kingdom affords a more beautiful


object." of in

Hindu mythology from the circumstance Sita the wife of Rumchandra, having been confined by Havana a grove of asoha trees. The bark is much used by native
It is

famed

in

physicians in uterine affections and especially in monorrhagia. 1 decoction of the bark in milk, is prepared by boiling eight tolas of

the bark in eight tolas of milk and thirty-two tolas of water till the latter is evaporated. This quantity is given in two or three
divided doses during the course of the day, in menorrhagia. ghrita called Asoha ghrita is prepared with a decoction of the bark

and

olarified

butter with the addition of a

number

of aromatic

substances in the form of a paste.

GLYCYRRH1XA GLABRA,
Sans,

Linn.

nf&fj YeukH madhu,

q>& Madhuka.
f

Yem. Jashti madhu, Beng. Mulhatti. Hind.


Liquorice root, though not indigenous to India, has been used in Hindu Medicine from a very remote period, and is mentioned

bv

Snsrnfa.

Tf

in <3a~~:i_ji

ful ,n inflammatory affections, cough, hoarseness, It is thirst etc. rnuch used for flavouring medicinal demotions, oils and ghritas. It enters into the composition of numerous external cooling applications along w,th red

sandal wood, madder, Andropogon vmricafus

1.

^rata^src^

& ^^ ww
,

fqtroitfiireTOiwi

^wi:

TRfGONELLA F^NTHtf-Ofl/TCnr.
etc.

145

I have not

met with any

notice in Sanskrit

works, of the

watery extract of liquorice, gold in the bazars in the shape of


black pencils, and called Hulas

sm

in Hindustani,

TPJGONELLA FCENUM-GRJ&GUlf,
Sam*
%fa, Methl.

Linn,

Vern* Methi, Hind. Berig.


in
its

Tuf Trigonella Fmnum* gro&cum is extensively cultivated many parts of India. Its seeds are used as a condiment and
aromatic leaves, as a pot-herb.
carminative, tonic and aphrodisiac. Several confections
this article are described

Fenugreek seeds are considered

made with

under the names of Methi modaka, SvaJpa


puerperal

methi modaka

etc.,

and are recommended for use in dyspepsia with

loss of appetite, in the diarrhoea of

women and
number
in

in rheu-

matism.

All these preparations consist of a

of aromatic

substances, one part each, and fenugreek seed equal


to all the other ingredients.

quantity

The following

is

an

illustration.

Meiht modaka}
nigella
la), salt,

Take

of the three

myrobalans, ginger, long


%

pepper and black pepper, tubers of Cyperus rotundus (mnsiaka)

and cumin
salt,

seeds, coriander, bark of

Myrica sapida (katphaajowan, rock

pdtchak root,

Rhus

succ< <!<inra {karkat asringi) ,

blaok

leaves of Pinus Webbiana (fulisa), flowers of Mes7ia

ferrea (ndgakesara) , tcjpatra,


cloves, sandal

cinnamon, cardamom, nutmegs, mace,


;

wood and camphor one part each fenugreek seeds, in quantity equal to all the above ingredients powder them all and prepare a confection with old treacle. Dose, one to two drachms to bo taken in the mohfing with clarified butter and
;

honey.

%.

nitmn

rn^r^
19

146

SANSKRIT MATERIA

MFMCA
Tournef.
Vern. Yavdsa Hind.

ALIfAGI
This plant

MAURGRUM,
q?m, Yavdsa.

Sans. ?^|9W, Dnvalabhd,


is

described as laxative, diuretic and expectorant.

The thorny

flower-stalks or branches are supplied

by druggists

as

the parts used in medicine.

An

extract

obtained by evaporating

a decoction of the plant


from yavdsa.
Sanskrit of
this plant.
It

is called

ytisasarkard or the sugar obtained


is

has a sweetish bitter taste, and


of

used as a

demulcent in the cough

no mention in any saccharine exudation or manna obtained from


children.

There

is

The fresh juice of the plant is used as a diuretic in suppression The following compound decoction1 is recommended by of urine. Sarangadhara in constipation with suppression of urine. Take of
Alhagi Maurorwn 9 chebulic myrobalans, pulp of Cassia Fistula
,

(dragbadha)) fruits of

Tribulus

terrestris

(gokshura),

and root

of

Coleas arovmticus (pdshanbhid), prepare a decoction

in the usual
is

way, and administer in with honey.

The following electuary

recommended by several writers


of the

for the

extract of yavdsa, raisins,

cough of children. Take chebulic myrobalans and long


clarified

pepper in equal parts, powder and mix with honey and


butter.
2

DESMODIUM GANGETTOUM, DC.


Syn. Hedysa
Bans, msiq'^f,

im Oangeticum.
V<
a.

(Roxh.)
9

B&apmni.
is

Sdlpdni, Bong, Say Iran

Hind,

This
It forms
kvatJia,

little

shrub

regarded as febrifuge and anti catarrhal.

an ingredient of the ^compound decoction called dasamula

a combination

much used

in

a great variety of diseases.


')

lagopodioiihs (primipami),

Solanum Jacquinii
terrestris

(leant nhirf)..

Tndicum (vrihati), Tribulus


1.

(gokshura),

JEgh
*rot

Tfifl**
I

*3*S

stow irpto* w^t: fwjpari ^ s*Tt s*i* fira: B

qnaww*?*:

*$**

2.

-STxJT

WWW

1ttt

WT
I

w*

WW

^2
%%%W.
I

wral

bmuamuu
(rilva) Calosanthes Indica (

gangeticum.

147
fo

Btereorpermm* suaveolens (pdtula) and Vrenma spinosa (gamkdrtkd).

The

first live in

the above

list,

are collectively called hrasvapavcha


last
five

mula or the
pa?icha

five

minor plants, and the

are called vrihat

mula or the five majar plants. A decoction of the hrasva panchamula is used in catarrhal fever, cough and other diseases
supposed to be caused by deranged phlegm. The vrihat panchamula ia used in fever and other diseases supposed to be caused by

deranged
fever,

air.

The ten drugs together


brain and

are used

in

remittent

puerperal fever, inflammatory affections within the chest,


of the

affections

many

other diseases supposed to

be caused by derangement of all the humours. 1 Another combination called Ashtddasdnga

pdchana consists
tubers of
(Jcatukt) 9

of the ten

drugs above

mentioned, with
'hiretd,

the addition o the eight following, namely,


%

devaddru

ginger,

Cypfws rotundas

(vinstaka),

root of Ptcrvrrhiza

Karma

indrajava seeds, corriander,

and fruits of Pathos officinalis. A decoction of these eighteen drugs is used in fevers of a severe type with drowsiness, delirium,
picking of bed clothes, insensibility, and difficult breathing. A preparation of aconite and arsenic is generally given along

with

it.-

Dasamida

taila.

This

is

an

oil

prepared with a decoction of


is

the ten drugs above


application in headache

mentioned, and

and other

much used as diseases. To prepare


To

a cooling
it

take of

the ten drugs, in

all

twelve seers and a half, water sixty four


the strained

seew.

Boil

down

to sixteen seers and etrain.

decootion add four seers of lemon juice, four seers of prepared sesamum oil and a seer of the usual aromatics and colouring

agents in the form of a paste and boil them together.


I.

*iflin

f^r ^>rr *n^T0


ii

xnz^rr

*rfwfw:
*frfWl

<fta*f

vs*

*m'

tra^jsfre *rs?r

htcpfoT sfm st^tor

wfa^ s<

tfl*tf**Tirw.

ipftiWH

\fm

WTOfa *T*W wnftS^ftN *rsw

WTW
\

148

SAJtSfcRlt

telTERU ttEbtCA.
Be.

URAIUA
lagopodioides

LAGUPODIOIDUS,
Boxb.

Edgew.

Stfn.

Doodia

8am.

ifaq^ff
is

Vrisniparni.

tern.

Ghdkulid,

Beng. Pitwn, Bind.

This plant
is

an ingredient of the dasamufo


in native medicine.
is

above dosciibed, and

thus

much used

It is

considered alterative, tonic


alone.

and anti -catarrhal, but

seldom used

CLITOKEA TERNATEA,
Sans.
*rq*Tfar?TT,

Linn.

Apardjitd,

f^^Rsi^T,

Vishnuhrdntd.

Vern. Apardjild, Beng* Aprdjit, Mind.

The
diuretic,

root of

Clitorea

ternatea

is

regarded

as

laxative

and
of

and

is

generally used in combination with other medicines

of the sort in ascites, fever, etc.

a prescription
aparajitd,

The following is an example containing apardjitd root. Take of the roots


(nilini), in

of

Pladera decimal a {sankh'ni),

Baliospermuitb montanu

(danti)

and Indigofera Unctoria


This preparation
1

equal parts, rub

them
of

together into an emulsion with water aud administer with cow's


urine.
is

given in ascites and enlargements

the abdominal viscera,

MUCUNA PRURIENS, DC.


Sans,

mmim,

&tmagttj>td.

wfal^r Kaplkachchhu,
K%wach
%

*T*nft,

Vdnari.

Vern. Alkim, Beng.

Kind.

The English names Co wage or Co witch are derived from the Hindi Kicach. The plant is indigenous to India and has been Used in Hindu medicine from a very ancient period. Sasrnta describes the seeds as a powerful aphrodisiac, and gives the following

formula for their

use.

Take

of the seeds of

Mucuna pruriens and


tnilk."

the fruits Tribulus terrestris (gofaihura) equal parts and administer


in

doses of about a drachm

with sugar and tepid

The
*\*l

l.

wrft
ii

*fipft

vft

*ftfa^*iwijwp

*nfafw*ni
vw:
I

irgwtS^
2.

*4?3^*4Wf**HJ engirt

ltf&%n

'jsx:

flsn

tow 1 *w

*^n

*3*

BUTEA FttONDOSA.

149

Bhuvaprak.isa recommends the following preparation called Vdnar vatu Take of the seeds of Mncuna prurient thirty-two tolas, boil
them in four seers of cow's milk
till

the latter becomes thick.

The seeds should now be decorticated and pounded, then fried in clarified butter and made into a confection with double their weight of sugar. The mass should then be divided into balls which should be steeped in honey. Dose, about a tola. This
preparation
is

said to be the best of aphrodisiacs. 1


is

The
etc.
its

root of Muctina pruriens

considered tonic and useful in

diseases of the nervous system, such as facial paralysis, hemiplegia


It is
class,

generally used in combination with other medicines of


as for example
in

the

compound decoction

called

Mdshbalddi, for which see Assafcetida.

BUTEA FRONDOSA,
Sam. TOW, Paldsa. ftfW, Kinsuka.
Dr. Hooker states "that when in
a gorgeous eight
;

Roxb.
I)hdk. Hind.

Vem.

full flower

the

Dhdk

tree

is

the masses of flowers resembling sheets of flame,

their bright orange red petals contrasting brilliantly against the


jet

These beautiful flowers were used as ear-ornaments by the ancient Hindu women and much admired by
black velvety calyx."
the poets.

The

seeds of Butea J'rondosa are

said

to

be laxative

and anthelmintic and are used, both alone and in combination with
other medicines,
for expelling intestinal worms.

Thus

the fresh

juice of the seeds, or the seeds beaten to a

paste are given

with

honey. 2

Sarangadhara gives the following recipe for worms.

tilm^ wn\ ii< m 3<i tttt

rofwt"i

^ urn

"w!fhnfr

fafen

WT3S1T*.

150

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


oE the seeds of Butea froudosa,

Take

root of Ipomoea Turpethuni

(trtvrit)y

seeds of Hyoscyamus niger ( p&ra&ika

yamdni

),

kamula

powder, baberang seeds and treacle, equal parts, beat them together'
into a paste with water

and administer with batter-milk.

The gnm

of

Butea frondosa,

now used

as a substitute for

kino,

was employed by the ancient Hindus, externally only, as for example in the following. Take of red sandal wood one part, rock
salt

two

parts, chebulic

myrobalans three parts, and the

gum

of

froudosa four

recommended
cornea,
2

to

powder and mix. This powder is be applied to pterygium and opacities on the
parts,

The
class,

alkaline ashes of this plant are used in the preparation of

caustio pastes,

and diuretic medicines, along with others of their

PHASBOLUS ROXBURGH!!, W. &


The following
varieties of

A.

ETC.

leguminous pulses are mentioned

by Sanskrit writers,
5?, Ui
*re
$^<flT,
nja.

Phas<:ui

Mungot Linn.

Fern.
9r

Mug

B?

Mwlgapami.

P.

trilobns, Ail. Vern. Muijdni,

B.

*T^, Mahishtha.
$m<3, Kulatiha.

P. aconitifolius, J acq. Vern. Mot,

If. II. B.

Dolichos uniflorus, Lamarh. Vern. Kullhi,


Vifjna Sinensis, Linn. Vern. Barbati,

*T**T*, Ivymndsha.
#'

B.

fatfiq,

01

u.

A common

name

for several species of Dolichos.


II.

^W%, Chanaka.
VIJ, U<mira.
*rfa^T,

Cicer arietiuum, Linn. Vern. But, Bcny. Cliend,

Satild.

View Lens, Benth. Vern. Masur, H. B. Pisum sativum, Linn. Vern. Malar, H.
Cajanus Indie
.

*m?3?t, Adhaki.

Svn-naeL Arar.

II

mA^\
2.

ii

m* *m *m ^\n. V im wi tot TOTmw#|f*?rn


f*fflflnq
.

WJ
mi^fa^

iX

'

<** vfiiirif*-

fi%*m

ii

vwzw.

'

PHASEOLFS EOXBUBOHH.
Lathyrus miivm, Linn. Kkesdri, H. B. Hmrpff Mdsliapami. Glycine labialis, Linn. Yem. Mdshdni,

151

f^H^

Trt'pu/i.

IT.

B.

Some

of

these pulses have several varieties.

For example

seven sorts of mudga are mentioned, namely, krishna or black, malid or large, gaura or pale red, harita or green, pita or yellow,
sveta or

white and rahta or red.


Jed ddl.

Mudga, ordinarily known as moong


green variety,
persons.
is

and especially

its

considered most wholesome and suited to siok soup made of this pulse is often the first article of

diet prescribed after recovery

from acute

illness.

varieties are also considered

wholesome and suited

The following for use by con-

valescent persons, namely, masura, chanaJca, hulatiha and rnaJcmhfha. Vicia Lens or lentils, which take rant first among the pulses as

containing the. largest proportion of flesh-forming matter, are

regarded by the Hindus as highly nutritive, and useful in bowel


complaints.'

poultice

made

of this pulse

is

an effectual domestio
perhaps the most

medicine for checking secretion of milk and reducing distension


of the

mammary

glands.

Gicer arieiinum
is

is

favourite pulse with the natives, and


in

used as an article of diet


its

a great variety

of ways.
state.
is

It is
is

taken raw, or cooked in


into ddl, is roasted

green as well as ripe

Gram

made

and

ground into meal and

prepared in

many

other ways.

The

acid liquid exuded from the hairs of the stem


It

and loaves
is

of Gicer wriettnum is railed chanahdmla in Sanskrit.

collected

by spreading a
the
fluid

cloth over the plants during the night


it.

and rinsing

absorbed by
saltish,

Chanahdmla
in

is

described as acid,

refrigerent,
oostivenesa.

and useful

dyspepsia, indigestion, and

It enters into the composition of

some medicines

for

dyspepsia along with other vegetable acids.


Dolichos uniforms
is

used medicinally chiefly as an external


pastes.
Its

application in the shape of poultices and


t<\

soup

is

said

be useful in gravel and urinary disorders.

The Phaseolus Rozhurghif or mdsha


tions of the nervous system.

is

much used
into

in

medicine

both internally and externally in paralysis, rheumatism and affecIt enters

the composition of
is

several decoqtions used in these diseases.

The following

an

152
illustration.

SANSKRIT MATERIA MBDICA

Take

of the

pulse of Phaseolus Rovburghii, root of


cordzfolia

oastor oil plant, of

Mucuna pruriens (dtmagnpfu') and Sida

(bald), half a tola each,

and prepare a decoction in the usual way.


for external application in the above

This decoction
foetida.
1

is

given with the addition of rook salt and assaoils

Several

men-

tioned diseases have the pulse of Phaseolus Boxburghii


basis or principal ingredient, as for

for their

example the following.

Svalpa masha

faila

Take

of the pulse of Phaseolus

Rnxbnrghu

eight seers, water sixty- four Beers, boil

down

to

sixteen seers,
four seers of
is

and
This
stiff

strain.
oil,

Boil the strained

decoction with
till

sesamum

and one

of

rock salt

the water

evaporated.

oil is said to

be useful in rheumatism, contracted knee joint,


etc.

shoulder joint,

ABRUS PRECATORIUS,
f

Linn.

Sans,

jjst,

Crunja.

Vern. Kuch, Beng.

Chirm it,', Blind.


its

"This plant

is

remarkable for

small egg shaped seeds,

which are

a brilliant scarlet colour with a black sear indicating the place where they were attached to the pods." Sanskrit writers
of

namely, white and red seeded. The properties of both are said to be identical. The seeds are described as poisonous, and are used internally in affections of the nervous system and externally in skiu diseases, ulcers, affections of the hair, etc. The root of the plant is described as emetic and useful
in poisoning.

mention two

varieties,

The seeds constitute the


Ninety-six

ratti

weight used by Hindu

jewellers and druggists.

ratth

make one

tola

or

rupee.

1.

mTOTWiw wg* *(

f~$s

^ wot f^^
vu?*t:
i

ABBITS PttECATOKTrS.

15fT

#&*y<l blialra
six parts,

ram. 1

Take
parts,

of the

.seeds

of

Abrus preeatortus

mercury three

sulphur twelve parts,

mm

seeds.

Cannabis saiiva leaves and croton seeds, each

one part.

Rub

them together and soak for one day in each of the following fluids, namely, lemon juice, juice of the leaves of Cannabis wtiva, of
datura leaves and of the leaves of Solannm nigrum (kdkajnaehi) This medicine is given in doses of about eight grains, with rock
salt

and assafotida,
stiffness

reduced to
sciatica,

The a paste are recommended


in paraplegia.

seeds of Abrus precatoriiut


to be

applied locally

in

of

the shoulder

joint,

paralysis

and other

nervous diseases. 2
In white leprosy, a paste composed of gunjd seed and plumbago root is applied as a stimulant dressing. In alopecia a paste of
gunjd seed
is

recommended

to

be rubbed on the bare

scalp.

Guiijddya tailam. 4
juice

Take of prepared sesamum

oil

four seers,

of

the leaves of Wedelia ralendulacea {bhringardja) sixteen

seers, seeds of

Abrus precatorius reduced to a paste, one


in the usual way.
"of

seer,

and

boil

them together

This

oil is

used as a local

application in scurf

the scalp, prurigo and other skin diseases.

MN^rc^v.
4
'

^\^

ft**

tosst:

WTO
ii

'

t*rrw*Tf *Tf 4>st faqpft zw*ft hit

*wfq
;{
-

tierm

xftsT

h*h

Hifa fira:

WirV:
^qrarrfir^r*^ #fqcr ^Tcfw?pT .
fa*}^ ^injfif mt\ci:
II
ii

*rihn:
^rrqr^f%<:
i

Yfo3*i*f s^f *p4*

*Tmq

ii

^*FR%T *TT3^ T^f qifam^fa

^wt?tt:
'

m\fe

m*
ii

i^t^:

rot

N w*j*nffrr ^ iwwnm
i

^tf^anftRrsm^

*rnffr*:

154

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA,

PONGAMIA GLABRA,
Sam.

Vent.

*i%

Karanja

*nfWTr,

Nactamdla.

Vern. Darkarauja,

Bang Kimmdl, Hind.


in,

This tree appears to be common


India.

and well known

all

over
in

The

seeds are

much used
oil of

as

an external application
is

skin diseases.

The expressed

the seeds

used in these
is

diseases as well as in rheumatism.

poultioe of the leaves


of

applied to ulcers infested with worms.


glabra,

Cassia Tora

(chakramarda)

The seeds and the root

Pongamia

of Aphfa.vis

auriculata

(knshtha), are

rubbed into a paste with cow's nrine,

and applied

to eruptive skin diseases. 1

PritKisdra taila?

Take

of the expressed

oil

of

the seeds of

Ponrjamm glabra one


Zeylanira
(rhitraka),

seer, kdnjika eight tolas, roots of

Plumbago
(nndika),

Neriuvi odorum (karavira),


of Gorrharus

fitex Negundo

(uirgnndi), aconite,

and the seeds

nlitortus

eight tolas each, in the form of a paste made with kdnjika. Mix them together and warm in the sun. This oil is said to be useful 'in various sorts of skin diseases, ulcers etc.

Tikt&dya ghrita*
glabra,

Take

of the leaves

and

fruits

of Pongamia

root of PicrorrJnza

Kurroa,

(katuU),
dioica

wax,

turmeric,

liquorice root, leaves of Trichosanthea


caryophjllata (mdlali)

(pntala), Aganosma

and

AmMmckta

Indira

(mm), equal

parts,

Beat them into a paste and boil with four seers of clariBed butter and sixteen seers of water in the usual manner. This preparation is used as an ointment in unhealthy
ulcerations and wounds.

in all one seer.

GUILANDINA BONDUCELLA,
Bondnc nuts
1.

Linn,

called

^to,

Putikaravja in

The properties of Sanskrit, and Ndtdka*m*w,


i

^^ft^JTsr. s^wl

jfrjjft

N <p5WTwfm
3.
^
*

?tR*ti:
i

fanrt ?w

fcfm

ft**

fw

^ nmwwuv.

qfta
i

*n*#

f*Wq
i

vgrfi:

PIEKOtAKPU
raujn in

SANTAUNtrS.

155

Bengali, are
glabfa.

said

to

resemble those of the seeds of

Pong amia

Their antiperiodic virtuoB were not known to

Sanskrit writers.

PTEROCARPUS SANTAL1XUS,
a Sans. ^fft^^, Uaklachaudana.

Linn.

Vcrn. liaktar/caudan, Beng, Ldlthandan, Hind,

rHB Pterocarpus Sautalivns is indigenous to the Indian Peninsula and is chiefly of importance from its yielding the red dyewood known as red saunders, largd quantities of which are
annually exported from India.
varieties

Sanskrit writers describe several

Of these srikhanda or white, pituchandana or yellow, and rdktachandana or red, sandal wood are best known. The first two varieties are founded on the difference in the shades of the colour of the wood of Santalum album. It has been a question however how the wood of Flerocarpns santaUnus, which is nearly inodorous, came to be called by the name of raktachandana in Sanskrit and the vernaculars of India. I am inclined to think that the name is owing to the similarity in the uses to which the Hindus put both these articles. Both sandal wood and red sandal wood are rubbed on a piece of stone
of sandal or chandana.

with water, and the emulsions are used for painting the body after bathing and in religious services.

Red sandal wood

is

described as an astringent tonic.

It enters

into the composition of

numerous prescriptions of an astringent


It is

character and of cooling external applications for inflammation,

headache,

etc.,

but

is

seldom used alone.

also

much used

as a coloring agent in the preparation of medicated oils.

The Pterocarpus marsupium or Indian kino tree is translated into "p t sal" Beng. by Roxburgh. The Sanskrit term Pilasdla is however a synonym of Amu a I have ( Termiaalia tumeniosa ).
not found any
It

notice of the Indian kino tree in Sanskrit workh.


to the ancients.

was probably unknown


1.

fiwrr:

<m:

ft in

^5

us* ^t*ti

#** *nvc* *nr


'Wir:
1

un'

fasnq^

156

SANSKRIT MATERIA MKjDK'A.

CASSIA FISTULA,

Linn.

Sans, *ttw$j Aragbadha. 3W4T, Sutarnaka.


Vent. AmulttUi Hind. Sondhdli, Beng.

Cassia fistula
of the

is

indigenous to India and


tree
is

is

an old medicine
beautiful

Hindu Materia Medica. "The


in flower, few surpassing
it

uncommonly

when

in the elegance of its

numerous

long pendulous racemes of large bright yellow flowers, intermixed

with the young lively green


Sanskrit
the fruit
laxative,

foliage/

Hence
ia

believe

its

name
is

of R&jataru or

the

king of trees.

'Die pulp of

used as a mild cathartic. The root


fever, heart diseases,

also described as

and useful in
1

retained excretions,

biliousness, etc.

Aragbadhddi.

name

is

The compound decoction which passes by this a very commonly used purgative in native practice. To
it,

prepare

ta,ke of

the pulp of

Oassia fistula,

Picrorrhiza

Kurroa

(kafuki), chebulic myrobalans,

long pepper root and the tubers

of

Gypcms

rotundas (mustaka), about sixty -four grains each, water


boil

thirty-two tolas, and


quantity,

down

to

eight

tolas.

Half of
it, is

this

or in

strong constitutions the whole of

given for
of

a dose.

The root of Cassia fistula euters into the composition numerous compound prescriptions.

CASSIA SOPHOKA,
CASSIA TORA,

Linn,

Sans.

<*\<mi y

KammarJa.

Tern.

K'Hkusiindd, Beng. Kdsundd, Bind.

Linn.

Sans,

^mi
jigp,

Chakramarda.
Dadrughna.

Vern.

Ghdkuwlia, Beng. Chakaxud, Hind.

CASSIA ALATA,

Li

Sam.

V&rn.

Uddmardan, Beng. and Hind. The leaves and seeds of these three plants are used in skin diseases, and enter into the composition of numerous prescriptions for them. Kdsamarda signiBes destroyer of eMgh. It is described
as expectorant and useful in cough and hoarseness, not appear to be much used in these diseases.

but

it

does

*K

WIVING

||

Wff'W.

AUH1NJA VAlllEGAtA.

157

Baphan satlvus (mulaka) and sulphur, in equal parts, are rubbed into a paste with water and applied to patches of pityriasis and psoriasis. 1 The seeds of Cassia Tom are steeped in the milky juice of Euphorbia neriifolia, and afterwards rubbed into a paste with cow's urine for applica <s

The seeds

of Cassia Sophora;

tion to keloid tumours. 2

Equal parts

of the seeds of

Cassia

Tore

and Potigamia glabra (karanja) with a fourth part of the root of Tinospora oordifolia (>julaucha) are rubbed together into a paste and applied in ringworm. 3 Dadrwjhia or Dddamardana signifies curer of ringworm. Its leaves are used in this disease.

BAUHINIA VARIEGATA,
Sans.
qFT^*?TT,

Linn.

Kdnchandra.

3ftfr3TT,

Kovidara*

Vern. Kachndr, Hind, llakta

Kandian Bong.

Two

species of Bauhinia, namely

purple and white flowered

(Bauhinia variegata and acuminata), are noticed in the Bhava-

prakasa under the names of Kovidara and Kdncl nam and the
properties
of

both

are

said

to

be identical.
t

The bark

of

Bauhinia

iriegata is described as alterative

tonic } astringent

and

useful in scrofula, skin diseases and ulcers.

Chakradatta recommends the bark of the red variety to be rubbed into an emulsion with rice water and administered, with
the addition of ginger, in scrofulous the neck.'

enlargement of the glands of

Sarangadhara gives the following preparation for the

same
1-

affection.

*is*?i'*$tiTfa
ii

qjB<*wf

rar*

^qrerqiwfa fiwrf
*<sw.
I

nftwi
2.

^itr ^^I^Hmftti
II

aerogun

*f*'

fV f^fej
^rm?T?:

mm\n

f<ffSinq % *T
3.

Tjiit^Vjtaft

*ra^ 9<itw(

q*W

wtawi

ifiprfinnwi

im*w.
iqi:
ii

fqfi

%j^i^i

qu:

itsrhpi*: shi.

f^wsgwT

n^nrewfi:
I

***n:

158

SANBKIUT MATERIA ME1HCA.

Kdnchandra guggulu. 1

Take

of the

hark of Bauhinia

variegata,

eighty tolas, the three myrobalans sixty tolas, ginger, black pepper,

long pepper and the bark o Cra/oeva religiosa {varuna)> eight


tohis eaoh,
kolas,

cardamoms, cinnamon, and tejpatra leaves, each two powder them all and rub together with guggulu, equal in
all

weight to

the other ingredients.

Dose, half a tola to be taken


8phcerft.nl It ns mollis

every morning with a decoction of


or of catechu.

(mundi)

This medicine

is

said to

be useful in scrofulous
etc.

enlargements of glands, tumours, ulcers, skin diseasevS,

TAMARINDUS INDICA,
8am.
ftfsrrfr,

Linn.

Tintidi, ^rfefT,

Amlikd.

Vern. Tentul, Bewj. Ivili,

Haul

The tamarind tree is met with throughout India, and has been known from a very remote period. "From the Hindus it would seem that the fruit became known to the Arabians who called it
Ta mare- Hindi
:"

form which

last

the word tamarind

is

derived.

Tamarinds form an important ingredient in native cookery. The unripe fruit is very acid and possesses a peculiar aroma for which
it is

much

relished

when cooked with

curry.

The

ripe fruit

is

regarded as refrigerant, digestive, carminative and laxative, and useful in diseases supposed to be caused by deranged bile, such as burning of the body, costiveness, intoxication spirituous

from

liquors or datum, etc.

The

shells of the ripe fruit arc burnt,

and

their ashes used in medicine as an alkaline substance, along with other medicines of the sort, as for example in the preparation called Abhayalavunu, (se e Alkaline ashes). The pulp of the ripe

wwran
wMtvt
fiw*

<ritat

m*:

rs

?irT4r

tost

wun

mttti V**t:

*Tfw*r:

mm nimmr wflNwii

*rcw

ACACIA CATECHU.
fruit, a3

159
is

well as a poultice of the leaves,

recommended

to

be

applied to inflamatory swellings.

Amlikd pcinam} Macerate some tamarind pulp in water; strain, and add black pepper, sugar, cloves, camphor and cardamoms to
taste.

This preparation

is

prescribed as an agreeable cooling

draught in

loss of appetite

and disinclination for food.


the following mixture
of dates, raisins,

In intoxiis

cation from

spirituous liquors

recom-

mended by Chakradatta,
pomegranate

Take

tamarind pulp,

seeds, fruits of (frewia Asiatics


tola,

(parushaka) and ripe

emblic myrobalans, each one


ounces. 2

pound them together, and make


Dose, about two

an emulsion with thirty-two tolas of waber.

ACACIA CATECHU,
Sans.
i^rf^T,

Linn.

Khadira,
is

Ymi. Kat, Hind. Khaer, Bong.

Khadira or catechu

obtained by boiling the wood of Acacia

catechu in water and inspissating the decoction.


I

The Bhavaprakasa
This last
is

mentions two varieties of catechu, namely,

khailira or the ordinary

dark brown catechu and kmlam or pale catechu.

known

as pdpri

hhaer,

or catechu having a laminated structure.

Fluokiger and Hanbury thus describe the preparation of pale


catechu in Northern India.
to

"Instead of evaporating the decoction


is

the condition of an extract, the inspissafcion


point and

stopped at a

certain

the liquor allowed to cool, "coagulate," and

crystallize over twigs

and leaves thrown into the pots for the


is

purpose." 3

Pale catechu

a porous, opaque,

earthy looking

substance with a laminated texture, light and easily broken.

The

chief use of catechu in India,

is

as an

ingredient of the
this purpose
it is

packet of betle leaf chewed by the natives.

For

sometimes aromatized

in

various

ways.

The packets

of betle

-,**
ii

^
mw*nr:
*
*
i

fafal *^' ^fir<Ct<uw


2.

nap.

?s^reftT

iW5ri*stai5Tf$ft:

wto: WW****

w~

3.

Pkarmacograplu'a, page 250.

160
leaf sold in all the

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEPICA.

Indian bazars under the name of golabi

khili,

are prepared with catechu dissolved in rose water. Again, catechu


is

softened with the addition of water, and mixed

with powdered
the mixture
is

spices,

such as cardamoms, nutmeg, cloves,

etc.,

enclosed within the fragrant floral leaves of Pandanus odoratissimm


(ketaki),

and

dried.

The

leaves adhere to the catechu,

which

is

cut

into small pieces suitable for use with the betle leaf.

Catechu

is

described as astringent, cooling,

digestive,

and

useful in hoarseness, diseases of the

mouth and gums, cough and

skin diseases.

In diarrhoea

it is

sometimes used in combination


as for^

with other, medicines of

example in a prescription in the Bhaisajya Ratnavali, called Graham kapdta rasa, which
its class,

contains catechu along with a large


is

number

oE other drugs, but

it

not regarded as an important medicine for this diseases*

In hoarseness, catechu rubbed with oil, is recommended to be kept in the mouth. 1 In diseases of the mouth and gums the
following called Svalpalchadira vatihd
is

a favourite medicine.

To

prepare

it,

take of catechu twelve seers and a half,

water sixty-

four seers, boil


betel nuts

down

to eight seers,

then add nutmeg, camphor,

and

kahJcnla,
fit

each half a seer in fine powder, and pre-

pare a mass

for being

made

into balls or boluses.

They

are

directed to be kept in the mouth, in affections of the teeth, gums, palate and tongue. 2

In skin diseases, catechu is much used in a variety of forms both externally and internally. A decoction of catechu is used
as a
is

wash

for inflamed parts


is

and
to

ulcers. 3

Water

in

which catechu

dissolved

recommended

be used as a drink,
is

wash and

bath.

The following deoction

called khadirdthtaka

prescribed by

several writers for internal use in boils, prurigo, measles

and other

*P*re

*i*r yrtf nwfiMt

ii

^*snf\%

f<uron-*nt^

it

snjfTn-:

*<3fr^
^ff?Tf:
i

TERMINALLY CHEf-ULA.skin diseases.


leaves
of
1

161

Take

of catechu, the three myrobalans,


(patala),

nim bark,

Trlchosanthes clioica
(ydsaJca), equal parts,

gulancha

and Jasticia

Adhatoda

and prepare a decoction in the


It is

usual way.

Sarangadhara describes a fermented liquor called


prepared with catechu

hhadirdrishta for use in skin diseases.

and the wood

of

Finns Deodar (f, and some other ingredients in


2

smaller proportions.

ACACIA. ARABICA,
Babul, Beng. Hind.

WiOd.

San*,

rar,

Vabbula.

tern.

The tender

leave3

beaten into a pulp, are

given in diarrhoea as an astringent.

A decoction
I

of the bark

is

used as an astringent gargle and wash.


notice
of-

have not met with any

gum

acacia in Sanskrit works.

NAT. ORDER COMBRETACE^.

TERMINALIA CHEBULA,
Sans.
vttiriFI',

Betz.
qsiT,

Haritaki.

*W,

Abhayd.

Pathyd.

Vem. Har. Hivd.

Haritaki, Beng.

myrobalan was highly extolled by the ancient The ehebulio alterative and tonio. It has received the Hindus as a powerful life-giver, Sudhd or nectar, BMshakpriya or names of Prdnddd, or

and so forth. So highly esteemed was this physician's favourite Hindus, that a mythological origin has been plant by the ancient said that when Indra was drinking nectar attributed to it. It is fluid fell on the earth and produced the in heaven, a drop of the
haritaki plant.

Seven

varieties of haritaki are described

by Sans-

being founded upon the shape, colour krit writers, the distinctions covering of the fruits. At the present and marks on the outer are recognised, namely, the large rlay, however, two varieties only
the unripe dried fruit called jangi ripe fruit called haritahi, and

1.

*ftqfanr

r*

tt*t

ifi^T^fin

tffaif

<iW

^
-n^t^n:
I

TrU'r^j
2.

<3fc<T**:

*sf^

f*Pi*rf<s

qstaPM ww*:

WTitsvtTTt rcfa

21

162

SANSKRIT MATERIA

1VIEDICA.

haritaki in the vernacular.

A good

haritaki

fit

for medicinal

use

should be fresh, smooth, dense, heavy and rounded in shape.

Thrown
they

into water

it

should sink in

it.

Haritaki fruits weighing


fit

four tolas and upwards, are also considered

for use, although

may

not possess some of the above-mentioned properties.


in

The

seeds are rejected and their coats only are used


fruits

medicine.

Those

which have small seeds and abundatt cortex are

preferred.

Chebulic myrobalans are described as


tonic

laxative,

stomachic,

and

alterative.

They are used

in fevers, cough, asthma,

urinary diseases,

piles, intestinal

worms, chronic diarrhoea, costiveenlarged spleen

ness, flatulence, vomiting, hiccup, heart diseases,

and

liver, ascites,

skin diseases,

etc.

In combination with emblio

and

belleric myrobalans,

and under the name of triphald or the

three myrobalans, they are extensively used as adjuncts to other medicines in almost all diseases.

Two

or three ohebulie myrobalans, rubbed into a paste and


little

taken with a

rock

salt,

aet as a mild laxative.

The following

compound decoction oalled Pathyddi hvdtha is also muoh used as ftpnrgatiTe. Take of chehuh'c myrobalans, pulp of Cassia fistnla
(dragbadha), root of PncrorrMza Knrroa (Jcatuki), root of

Ip&maa
in
all

Tnrpethvm

(trivrif)

and emblio my-obalaus equal parts,


in the

two tolas and prepare a decoction


to four ounces.

usual way.

Dose, two

Bengali practitioners

now a days

often add senna

and rhubarb

known
works

the above preparation, but these last were not to the ancient writers, and are not mentioned in their
to

As an
effects of

alterative tonic for

promoting strength, preventing the


life,

age and prolonging

chebulic myrobalan

is

used in a

taken every morning with salt in the rainy season, with sugar in autumn, with ganger in the first half
of the

peculiar way.

One

fruit is

cold season, with Ion? pepper in the second half, with honey in spring, and with treacle in the two hot months. These adjuncts are supposed to agree best with the that are

humour

tERMINALIA BELLERICA.
liable to be

163

deranged in the different seasons. This old device for prolonging life is still believed in, and acted upon, by some
superstitions elderly native gentlemen.
1

Numerous preparations

of

haritaki

for

special

diseases

are

described in books, ^uoh as the

AmrHa

haritaki for dyspepsia,

Danti haritaki for enlargements in the abdomen called gulma, Bhrigu haritaki in cough, Agasti haritaki in consumption, Dasa

muli haritaki in anasarca,

etc.

Amrita haritaki

is

thus prepared.

Oce hundred

large sized

ohebulic myrobalans are boiled in butter-milk, and their seeds are taken out. Four tolas each of long pepper, black pepper, ginger,

cinnamon, plumbago
five salts, djowan,

root,

root of Piper
of Seseli

Chaba (chavikd), the


(vanayamdni),

and the seeds

Indicum,

yavakshdra, sarjikdkshdra, borax, assafcetida and cloves, are reduced to powder, and soaked for three days respectively in a decoction
of

tamarind and in lemon

juice.

This mixture

is

introduced

within the seedless myrobalans, which are then exposed to the Bun and dried. 0ne of these prepared myrobalans is directed to morning for the relief of various sorts of dyspepsia be taken every

and indigestion. mnm montanum.


are not

Danti haritaki will be described under BaliosperThe other preparations of ohebulic myrobalans

much

in vogue at present.

TERMINALLY BELLERICA,

Roxb.

Sans. fa*ft*N% Vibhitaki. Vern. Bahera, Hind. Beng.

myrobalans are described as astringent and laxative Bellertc

and

useful in cough, hoarseness, eye diseases, etc.

As

a constituent
*
t

1.

i$t *wt wit

bpw

*r3t

*3 wi^t

to"

*!ftw?f

2.

irero'taft

*ft*n: mr

vrot:

m:

fisra'

*3*1

v^rc q^qz

164

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

of iriphald or the three myrobalacs, they are

used in almost

all

diseases.

The kernel o the


is

fruits is said to

be narcotic and astrin-

gent,

and

used a3 an external application to inflamed parts. 1

In hoarseness, belleric my'robalans, rock salt and long pepper, rubbed into a paste with butter-milk, are recommended to be used 2 as a liactus. Another prescription for sore throat and hoarseness
is

as follows.

Belleric myrobalans are fried in clarified

butter

they are then covered with a paste of wheat-flour and slightly roasted on a fire. fruits
is

recommended

to be

kept in the mouth for the relief of sore

throat,

cough and catarrh. 3

TERMINALIA ARJUNA,
Sans,
cfirsrir,

Bedd.

Arjuna.

$$*, Kukubha.

Vern, Arjuna, Beng.

Kahu, Hind.
considered tonic, astringent

The bark
and
cooling,
ulcers, etc.

of this timber tree

is

and

is

used in heart diseases, contusions, fractures,


it is

In diseases of the heart

used in a variety of ways.

Thus a decoction of the bark with milk is given as nourishment. a The powdered bark is given with milk, treacle or water. 4 A
ghrila is prepared with the decoction

and paste of the bark

for

internal use. 5

smssra^

1^^

3itt **:
4.

**

<*ix

fa*

^f $&

T nt

f^,T q^^, T4T iwn ^%n

waw.

CAETOPHYLLUS AR03IATICUS.

16
ecchymosis,

In

fractures

and contusions
is

with

extensive
to be

powdered arjuna bark


with milk. 1

recommended
is

taken internally
l

decoction of the bark

used as a wash in ulcers

and chancres.

NAT. ORDER. MYRTACE.

EUGENIA JAMBOLANA,
Saiis. m*%>

Lam.

Syn. Syzygium Jambolanum, W.

fy

A.

Jambu.

Vern. Kdlajdm, Beng.

Jdmun, Hind.
of

This
fruits

which yields an abundant crop during the months of July and August,
tree,

sub-acid edible

is c

ram

the country. In some places the fruits attain the size of a pigeon's egg and are of superior quality. A vinegar prepared from the
juice of the ripe fruit, is
It is also

an agreable stomachic and carminative.

used as a diuretic in scanty or suppressed urine.

A sort
fruits.

of spirituous liquor called

Jumbava
is

is

described in recent Sanskrit

works as prepared by

distillation

from the juice of the ripe

The bark

is

astringent,
its

and

used, alone or in combination with


in

other medicines of

class,

the preparation of astringent


fresh juice of the bark
of
is

decoctions, gargles and washes.

The

given with goat's milk in the


expressed juice of the leaves
is

diarrhoea

children. 2

The

used alone or in combination with


bloody discharge, as for

other astringents in dysentery with

example in the following prescription.


of the

Take

of the

fresh juice

leaves

of jambu,

mango and emblic myrobalan about a

drachm

each, and administer with coat's milk and honev. 3

CARYOPHYLLUS AROMATICUS,
vanga.

Linn.

Sans. *mr, Lain

CJoves, as might be expected, are

much used

Hindu

3.

wmr*j^itaT*j

tmrwr

^toj

raw

^w

StaTW^t^

166

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

Medicine, as an aromatic adjunct.


cooling, stomachic, digestive
lence, colic, etc.

They are regarded as


thirst,

light,
flatu-

and useful in
is

vomiting,

An

infusion of cloves

given to appease thirst- 1

The following
indigestion.
parts,

pill,

called

Ghatuhsama

vati, is

Take

of cloves,

ginger, djoivan

commonly used in and rock &alt, equal

and make into

eight- grain pills.

NAT. OROER. LYTHRACE/E.

WOODFORDIA FLORIBUNDA,
Sans. 3T?T#, Dhdtaki. *fin*T* Vern. Dlidiphul, Beng.

Salisb.

Syn, Grislea tomentosa, Boxb.

Agnijvala.

LMi, Hind.
flowering Bhrub well

The Sanskrit synonyms


describe some of
its

of this beautiful

prominent characters. It is oalled Tdmraputhpi or red flowered, on account of its bright red permanent calyx, and Guchchhapushpi or having clusters of blossoms, on
account of
its

numerous small

flowerp,

which give
of
its

it

a gaudy
in

appearance.

From

the

circumstance

being

common
born

The dried

flowers of

Woodfordia

fl

stimulant and astringent and are

much

used, in combination with

semorr

Two drachms

of the dried flowers are given

with curdled milk in


In the dysentery of
to

dysentery, and with honey in menorrhagia. 5 children


in the

be

criven

form

of

powder or decoction with the addition of honey.


Ifordia floribunda

Symplocos racetnosa
officinalis

onia odarata (b
(gajapipul)
in the usual
ii

in all,

and prepare a decoction


fwsramg<rifi jr
isnT^srra
*T

way. 3

to
<HW*?WSrc
ufn:

2.

TOmWOTri
ii

^TWMTOlWli

ft*WW

nftm
3.

'sfi^T

^TiratfosratriTf*
1

*m*

*r*fqi*ft

** yi

m few
w
1

jte^l

wto*

*r mitaiuira*r

ti

unr

PI7NICA

GRANATUM.

167
for diminishing

The powdered flower is sprinkled over ulcers their discharge and promoting granulation. 1

NAT. ORDER
Vern.
*

HAMAMELIDE
Miller. Sans.

LIQUIDAMBAR ORIENTALE,
Hind
as a product of Turkey,

It is considered useful

in

affections
is

of

the throat, copious perspiration and skin diseases, but

chiefly

used in perfuming medicinal

oils.

NAT.

ORDER ORANATE/E. PUNICA GRANATUM, Linn.


Vern.

Sans. ^Tf?v, Dddima.

Mndr Hind.
%

The pomegranate is indigenous to North Western India. The best fruits, having sweet juice and very small seeds come from Cabul. The fresh juice of the fruits is much used as an
ingredient of cooling and refrigerent

mixtures

and
is

medicines for dyppepsia.


astringent in diarrhoea.
the use
of

The rind

of the fruit

some used as an
of

In the Pharmacographia

it is

stated that

the root-bark as

an anthelmintic by the Hindus


at Calcutta about the year 1805.
efficacy of the root-bark

attraeted the notioe of

Buchanan

This physician pointed out the


further
find

which was

shown by Fleming and

others.

I have not been able to

any notice of pomegranate root-bark in Sanskrit works.

BddimdshtaTca}

manna two
Mesua
ferret*

tolas,

Take of pomegranate rind one seer, bamboocardamom, cinnamon, fejapdtra, and flowers of
each four
tolas,

(ndgakesara),

ajowan, coriander,

long pepper root, long pepper, black pepper and ginger, each eight tolas, sugar one seer. Powder the ingredients

cumin

seeds,

and mix.
1.
2.

Dose, about one drachm in chronic bowel complaints.


*wt Ktefa

m*i*^fof *t
^rffniwr:
i

wwt:

*mw
^rg^rH
fe^nfaV*
i

*qffWruT

gnnftft

wft
i

^Tfl:

16S

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

NAT ORDER CUCURBITACE^E.


BENINCASA CERIFERA,
Savi.

Syn. Cucurbit a Pepo, Roxb.


Sans. ^rerw?,

Kushmdnda.

Vern.

Kumrd, Beng. Prthd, Hind


is

The

large fruit or gourd of Benincasa cerifera


is

eaten by the

natives in their curries, and

extensively cultivated all over

India. It is considered tonic, nutritive and diuretic,


for haemoptysis

and a

specific

and other haemorrhages from internal organs.

It

would appear that the older Sanskrit writers were not acquainted with its peculiar action on the circulatory system by which it
rapidly puts a check to haemorrhage from the lungs.

The Raja

Nirghantu, the oldest work on therapeutics, gives a long account


of
its

virtues,

hemoptysis.

but does not allude to its use in phthisis or Neither does Susruta mention it in his chapters on

the treatment of haemorrhage and phthisis, though the plant is alluded to by him elsewhere. The more recent compilations, such
as

Chakradatta Sangraha,

Sarangadhara
uses

etc.

give numerous

Khanda hushmdndaha} or confection


thia medicine, old ripe gourds are

of

squash.

In preparing
least a

selected.

Those not at

year

They are longitudinally divided into two halves and the pulp scraped out in thin flakes by an iron comb or scratcher. The watery juioe that oozes out abundantly during
approved.
this process is preserved, the seeds

old, are not

being rejeoted.

The pulp

is

fqift

*****

ii

*tto <w **f*3*wfrftfe*:

n(

3Ttart

***

BENINCASA CERIPERA.
boiled in the above mentioned juice,
till

IP>9

softened.

It is

then tied

up tightly
through
it.

in

a cloth, and the fluid portion allowed to strain


is

The softened and drained pulp


in

dried in the sun


Fifty tolas of
butter,

and the watery portion preserved


the prepared pulp are fried

for future use.

sixteen tolas

of clarified

and again boiled

in

the juice of the

fruit, till

reduced to the
the mass
is

consistence of honey.
sugar, and the whole

To
is

this

are added fifty tolas of refined


fire, till

heated over a gentle


to

assumes such a consistence as

adhere to the

ladle.

The pot

now removed from

the

fire,

and the following substances, namely,


tolas,

long pepper and ginger, each two

cumin
to the

seeds,

cardamoms,

cinnamon, leaves called


each half a tola in
fine

tejapatra,

black pepper and coriander,

powder, are added


the mass
is cool.

syrup and stirred


a new
tolas,

briskly with a ladle,


are

till

Eight tolas of honey

now added to the confection which is preserved in earthen pot. The dose of this medicine is from one to two

according to the age and strength of the patient. It is useful in haemoptysis, phthisis, marasmus, cough, asthma, ulceration of the
lungs, hoarseness, etc.

V&sd kushtndnda khanda.

Take

of the root of Juslicia


;

Adhatoda

(vdsaka), one seer, water eight seers

boil

together

till

reduced to

one-fourth and strain. Then take of the pulp of Benincam cerifera,

prepared as above described,


of
clarified
is

fifty tolas

fry

it

in

thirty-two tolas
till

butter; and boil

in the decoction of vdsaka

the

whole

reduced to the consistence of honey.


tolas,

Add

to it

sugar,

one hundred

and apply heat

till

the mass thickens to the


fire,

proper consistence.

Remove from

the

add the following


root of Clero-

substances in fine powder, namely, tubers of Cyperns rotundas,


(mustaka), dried emblic myrobalan,

bamboo manna,

dendron Siphonanthus (bralimayasti), a fragrant substance called


tlabdluha, cinnamon,

cardamom,

tejapatra, each quarter of

tola,

1.

4mw^*mi<gh
<*reTsraT^

w*w w fcnr ^Hww nwi**ici:


,

*rsr
I

v*w
w*frit

Srtr

*pm

ii

wm qfw

q^rffart:

*m wit *un wnf fafpifrre ft^* *wi *wrT Jreroto


tfr*W9 rctsf?T
II

^rfw:
i

3ra

^ ^m

wi

iHiftN T^fftr^r

if?fa^lw3

tiki:
22

170
ginger,

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


coriander,

and black pepper each one


till

tola,

long pepper,

four tolas, stir well


tolas

the confection cools


is

and

lastly

add eight

of

honey.

This preparation

used in cough, asthma,

phthisis, haemoptysis, heart disease,

and catarrh.

In insanity, epilepsy and other nervous diseases, the fresh juice of the squash is given either with sugar or as an adjunct
to other medicines for these diseases.

A ghrita

for use

in

these

diseases is also prepared as follows.

Kushm&ndaka ghrita}

Take

of the juice of Benincasa

cerifera

eighteen seers, clarified butter, one seer, liquorice root beaten into

a paste with water, quarter of a


prepare a ghrita in the usual way.

seer.

Boil

them together and

Dose, one to two tolas.

TRICHOSANTHES DIOICA,
Sans. iret% Patola.

Roxb.

Vem. Palwal, Hind.

The

Trichosanthes dioica

is

extensively cultivated as an article


fruits are

of food in Bengal.

The unripe

much used by

the natives

as a culinary vegetable and are considered


especially

very wholesome and

suited for the convalescent.

In fact, they constitute

one of the most palatable vegetables grown in this country. The tender tops are also used as a potherb and are regarded as tonic and vermifuge.

The

leaves, fresh juice of the fruits

and the root are

all

used

medicinally.

The

leaves are described as a good, light

and
*

agreeable bitter tonic.


often

The

fresh juice of

the unripe fruit

is

used as a oooling and laxative adjunct to some alterative medicines such as the preparation oalled Rasa sindura, etc. The
is

bulbous root

called

Ramyaka

in

Sanskrit

and

is

classified

amongst purgatives by Susruta.


in

In bilious fever, a decoction of patola leaves and coriander, equal parts, is given as a febrifuge and laxative. 2 The leaves

w^i:

tRICHOSANTHES DIQICA.

171

enter into the composition of several compound decoctions for


fever.

The following

called Palolddi 'kvdlka

is

an

illustration.

Take

of patola leaves, red sandal wood, root of Sanscvicra Zeylanica


1

(murvd), Picrorrhiza Kurroa (kainki),


1

Stephania

hcmandifolia
seor,

(pdthd) and gulancha, each one drachm, water half a


together
till

boil

reduced to one- fourth.

Patola enters into the composition of several compound decoctions for boils and other skin diseases for

which
is

it

is

con-

sidered a very efficacious remedy.

The following
mustaka,

an

illustration.

Take

of patola leaves,

gulancha,

chiretd,

nim bark,

catechu, root-bark of Justicia Adhatoda (vdsaka), and Oldenlandxt


herbacea

(parpata)

equal parts, in

all

two

tolas,
is

and prepare a
regarded as a

decoction in the usual way.

This decoction
2

valuable alterative, tonic and febrifuge.


I '

used in combination with Iponwa Turpethum and The root other adjunots as a drastic purgative in jaundice, anasarca and
is

ascites.

The following

called

PatoUdya churna
dioica

is

an

illustration.

Take of the root of TrichosatUhes


bdberang seods, Jcamald powder,

(patola), turmeric,

and the three myrobalans, two

and the root of the indigo plant, three tolas tolas each, cinnamon, Turpethum (trivrit) four tolas; powder the each, Ipomcea and mix. Dose, about one drachm with cow's ingredients finely
urine.

After the use of this medicine, light food only


3

(such as

gruel) should be taken.

1.

t?t#

=^?f

jjoetf

four

toi^im:

ftr*r# *TCfcn$fs

sstws^w?:
:i

2.

tt2far??rjfiT*i

jmr^rf^p*rt:

^ro^t:

arrm

f^terfwrc?:

^w^:

wmm m*^w*

'rog^rqWfa

topt

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

The

fresh juice of the leaves of Trichosanthes dioica


writers,
to

is

retsom*

mended by several
alopecia.
1

be applied to the bald patches of

CUCUMtS
'

^lELO, Linn.

$yn.

Cucurnis utilissimus, Roxb.


Vern. Kdnkur, Bcwj. Kdkri, Hind.

Sams. *b|, Karhati.

The

seeds of this useful species of Cucurnis are described as

cooling, edible, nutritive

and

diuretic,

and are used

in

painful

micturition and suppression of urine.

Two drachms

of the seeds

rubbed into a pulp with water, are given alone or in combination with salt and kdnjiha*

The
y

seeds

of

Cucurnis sativus, (Bams,

cjg^

Trapusha.

Vern.

Khird Hind.) and of Benincasa cerifera (Sans. Kushmdnda.) are also used as diuretics like those of Cucurnis utilissimus}

COCCINIA INDICA,
Boxb.
Sans,
fan,

W.

Sf

A.

Syn. Momordlca vwnodelpha,

Vimba,

Vern. TeUikuchd, Beng.

The expressed
metallic

juice of the thick tap-root of this

plant

is

used by the leading

native Kavinljes

of

Calcutta,

as

an

adjunot to the

preparations prescribed by them in diabetes. I hive not found this use of the plant noticed in any written work, but I know several patients who have taken the juice of the root along with Vangesvara or Soman&tha Rasa and who were benefitted by the

use of these remedies.

am

inclined to think

that the juice of

the root of this plant probably acts beneficially It in some way. is very desirable that its therapeutic action should be tested.

The expressed
along with a

juice is directed to be taken in

doses of one

tola

pill,

every morning.

1.

**f* wrHr-i q*TWt

ffimm

^HTTTfT #tf W&\

3*?fc:

II

Hrasr^m:
2.

g^W^kft^RW^H

*lN<m

TOmapf q^f ij^Trnf^^^


^r^<

fmsw 3
faro

ifonfa

fbnRr

^m ^

wwi*

*xmw

STR^fTO

feS

OLOCTNTHiS.

CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS r
Syn.

Sc/trad,.

Cucumis

Colocynthis, Linn.

Sans. ?>UVQ% indravdrmri.

Vera. Indrdyan. Hind.


of the

Indian colocynth

is

common on the lower slopes

Western
It

Himalaya and
is

also

on the plains pf the drier parts of

Indirf.

procurable in the bazars of the

North -West Provinces under

the

name

of indrdyan.

The pulp

of the fruit is described as bitter,

acrid, cathartic,

and useful in biliousness, constipation, fever and


is

worms.

The

root of the plant


ascites,

oonsidered cathartic and useful


the

in jaundice,

enlargements of
etc.

abdominal

viscera,

urinary diseases, rheumatism,


Jvaraghni gutikd. 1
oolooynth pulp,

sulphur, Take of mercury one part cardamoms, long pepper, ohebulic myrobalan, and
;

pellitory root, each four parts.


juice
of indravdruni

Rub

these
into

ingredients with the


pills

root and

make

weighing about

twenty grains each.


juice

These

pills are

administered with the fresh

of gidancha

in recent

fever.

They move the bowels and


is

reduce the fever.

An

oil

prepared from the seeds of Indian colooynth,

used
to

for blackening groy hairs.

A poultice
2

of the root

is

said

be

useful iu inflammation of the breasts.

NAT. ORDER UMBELLIFER^E.


The following aromatic are noticed by Sanskrit
condiments by the natives.
*mT*r

fruits belonging to this natural

order,

writers and are used in medicine or as

W.
1.

4
I

^^^fcfrTI

WW. W5*n ^Wi: fq*F#t fiRT


i

^T*K"*Uft *w:

kI:

ii

qwlfawi

in

ssrr ^rn=f

wrai fwt% fenwrrr^ *w$t qfevr *m


*nnrc
i

2.

^T^iwTft3m%rrnRreit?T

w
V

kwifar*wT 5r^*n *rcm

ii

smhrci
*

Now

inoladed in the genua

Carum by Hooker and Benth&m.

17

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

^OTiteT,

Ajamodd. Carum Roxburghiamvm, Benth. Vern. Ajmad,


'

Hind. Rdndhuni, Beng.


*ffa3i,

Jiraka.

Cuminum Cyminum,

Linn.

Vera. Jird, Beng.

i$F^\,

Sushavi. Carurn Carui, Linn.

Vern. Skid jird, Hind.

Tgft^iT,

Madhurikd. Foeuiculwm vulgare, Gcertn.

Mauri, Beng.

Sonj\ Hind.

fa%T, Misreyd. Anethum Sotva*

Rt>xb. Vern.

Sulpha, B. Sowd, H.
Vern. Dhanid H.
Ptychotis

t^TM, Dhanydka. Conundrum sativum, Linn.

PTYCHOTIS AJOWAN. The


have an aromatic smell and
for culinary purposes, as spices

seeds

of

Ajotvan

warm pungent

taste.

They

are used

along with betel nuts and pan

leaves,

and as a carminative medicine.


a
little

teaspoonful of djowan
for

with

rock

salt,

is

oommon domestic remedy

indigestion from irregular diet.

The following compound powder is used in cases of colic or pain in the bowels. Take of djowan, rook salt, sonchal salt, yavakshdra, assafoedita, and ohebulio myrobalan, equal parts powder the ingredients and mix. Dose,
;

grains ten to twenty, to be taken with wine. 1 with treacle, is said to cure urticaria
as aromatic adjuncts in

tfowan, taken daily


Ajotvan,

within a week. 2

amant

compound

prescriptions.

CARUM ROXBURGHIANUM.
bwrghiantm
cookery.
(

The seeds

of

Carum Box-

trwr are an essential ingredient of native They are said to be useful in hiccup, vomiting and
)

ajamodd

pain in the region of the bladder.


tion of several carminative

They enter

into the

composi-

and stimulant preparations, such as

the Ajamodddi ehurna (see Argyreia speciosa), etc.

CUMINUM CYMINUM.
of

(sftrr)

Cumin seeds form an

ingredient

some curry powders and pickles used by the natives.

They

are regarded as stomaohio, carminative, astringent and useful


1.

*WMt f <f fewer

*rrc

^^

yw^ ^^ JWH rm<n


iw.
i

2.

9ij* #*pii

^ ^ usn^iTv

?w mft\

ARTir^i: saitm:i

Aruthum

is

reduced by Dra. Uouksr and Bentham to Psucafenum.

CARUM CARUI.
in dyspepsia,
diarrhooa,
:

175
seeds
\

eto.

eonfeotion of cumin

is

prepared as follows

Jirakddi modaka.
talc,

Take

of

the three myrobalans,

tubers of

Gyperus rotundus (mustaka), watery extract of gulancha, prepared


flowers of Mesuaferrea (ndgakesara), leaves called tejapatra,
cloves,

oinamom, cardamoms,
Oldenlandia
(usira),

coriander,

ginger,

long pepper,

herbacea

(parpati),

root of Andropogon muricatum

Pavonia odorata (bald), and Plumbago Zeylanica (chitraka), each one part, cumin seed, nineteen parts or equal in weight to
all

the other ingredients

parts of sugar to one of

powder them all and mix. Add two the powder and make into a confection
;

with honey and


medicine
is

clarified

butter.

Dose,

one

drachm.

This

prescribed in chronic diarrhoea and dyspepsia with

loss of appetite.

JiraTcddya taila.

Take of powdered cumin

seeds,
oil

eight tolas,
three seers,

minium or red

lead, four tolas,

prepared mustard

water twelve seers, boil them together in the usual way for the preparation of medicinal oils. This oil is used in eczema.

A
salt
bites. 2

poultice

made

and

clarified

cumin seeds, with the addition of honey, butter, is recommended to be applied to scorpion
of

FCENICOLUM VULGARE.
as a condiment.

Fennel seeds are largely used In medicine they are chiefly used as an aromatic
Distilled

adjunct to other articles.

fennel

water

is

prepared
is

and sold in India, under the name of Arak bddtnn, and


as a domestic carminative.

used

CARUM

CARUf. The

fruits called shid\jird in the vernacular,

do not appear to differ from

European caraway.

The plant

grows wild largely in the "high alpine region of Lahul in the Western Himalaya," but is rare in the plains. The fruits contain
a volatile
i

oil

and are used as a carminative

like

cumin

seeds.

1-

*fk*i4j t*ra

^t* w%

fire

ftr^Tw*'

^n

w^m q%wt
wftrerrsr:
i

r?r
2.

*TT*f

II

i?t<**j

skt:

^twt wtrcfowpT:

wt*fi

WT

*nft

sfwRj far
i

tf^ii

ww^nn;

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDIC A.

CORIANDBUM SATIVUM.
the natives as a condiment
leaves.

Coriander

is

largely used by

and along with betel nuts and pan


coriander
1

It is described as carminative, refrigerent, diuretic, tonio

and

aphrodisiac.

cold infusion of

is

given with
decoction of
indigestion.

sugar for the relief of internal heat and thirst.


coriander and ginger
is

A
and

given

in

dyspepsia

Coriander enters into the composition of numerous cooling and


carminative medicines.

The fresh leaves

of the plant are

pungent
in

and aromatic.
the same

They are used

for preparing

a sauce or chatnt,
2

way

as the leaves of spearmint (pudina).

FERULA ASSAFCETIDA,
Sans, f^jf, Hingu.

Linn.

Vern. Hing, Beng. Hind.

Sanskrit writers describe assafcetida as an exudation from


the root of the aBsafcetida plant which
is

indigenous to Persia,

Khorasan and Multan.*


and carminative and
is

Assafcetida

is

regarded as a stimulant
flatulence,
colic,

much used

in dyspepsia,

and diseases of the nervous system.


internally.

It is fried before being used


is

Raw

or unfried assafcetida

said to cause vomiting. long

Hingvashtaka Ohurna*

Take

of fried assafcetida, ginger,

pepper, black pepper, djowan, cumin seeds,


salt,

nigella seeds*and root

equal parts

reduce them to powder and mix.

Dose, ten to
rice
it is

twenty grains, to be taken with the first morsel of clarified butter taken at breakfast. Thus administered,
to

and
said

increase the appetite

and digestive

powers
'

and

to

cure
to

flatulence.

Some

writers

recommend the above powder

be

made

into oills with

lamnn uiim
trercwre:

ire: q*nfc; frft foft

*ragfe'

cnqi^t ^frflflft i fo H :n
*i[c(n<*7ir:
i

2.

TfR ^tut

ftnr^i <rW

^Hh?HwP*H'

^txpr "4frw)*H*i
:
i

3.

fip^TOri

$&&-*

ft^R;i
* Not

wr w^'
now found

m*fa W-^MH *r*m^ ? vfifvn vfommfa ^?^ftf tow^^.fmi


I

at Multan G. K.

OLDENLANDIA HERBACEA,

177

In the flatnlenae of infants a powder composed of assafcetida,


rook
salt,

cardamoms, ginger, and the root of Clerodendron Siphois

nanthus (bhdrgi), in equal parts,

prescribed by several writers. 1

In flatulent colic with


assafcetida, rook
salt

costiveness,

a
2

suppository

made

of

and honej, and smeared over with

clarified

butter,

is

introduced into the rectum.


stiff-neck,

In hemiplegia,

facial

palsy,

sciatica
is
f

and other
given along

diseases of the nervous system, fried

assafcetida

with a compound deoootion called Ma$habalddi


l(0,vburghii)
.

(see Phaseolus

A
is

bit of

warm

assafcetida,
3

placed in the cavity of a

carious tooth,

said to relieve pain.

HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA,
dukaparni.
properties
Vern.
of

Ltnn.

Sans.

*W?rtf4

Man-

Thalhiri, Beng.

this

plant are said

Brdhmamanduki, Hind. The to resemble those of Brdhmi

both being regarded as alterative, tonic, and useful in diseases of the skin, nervous system and blood.
(Herpestes Monmera),

The fresh juice of the leaves is given with milk and powder as an alterative tonic. 4

liquorice

NAT. ORDER RUBIACE/E.

OLDENLANDIA HERBACEA,
Syn.
Oldenlandia
bifiora,

DO.

BoxK

Sans, tnz, Purpata.

Vern.

Klietpdprd. Beng.

The Oldenlandia
plant,

herbaeea

is

a "small, weak, straggling delicate


fields

appearing in the rainy season" in


?*ffi

and low ground

1.
fire:
ii

f%^

faw f%^VFT^V5Tt ftrtNt


ftwir:

^TPfTf

'

3Tf*TCi

'

^T^iTtSfa ^T

2.

few mf^w
ii

if?i

qfafaciTO

wi*i*l

?t ^i^w^i

f^rrfsr^far

vmw.

4.

*T<grcRtnnrr:

*p*r:

rater:

^N

^ir^npf to^i

**\ 'i^is

PP

*wft

ii

^f^:
23

178

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

on the banks of water courses.


cine,

The

entire plant is used in medi-

and

is

regarded as a valuable bitter

tonic

and febrifuge.

It

enters into the composition of


diarrhoea, skin diseases, etc.

numerous prescriptions for

fever,
is
1

simple decoction of the plant

used in bilious

fev<gr,

with irritability of the stomach or delirium.

Parpata enters into the composition of numerous febrifuge and


tonic decoctions.

The following
Take

is

an example.
of

Panchabhadra*

of parpata, tubers

Cyperus rotundus
all

(mustaka), gulancha,
tolas,
is

chireta

and ginger, equal parts, in


in the

two

and prepare a decoction


in

usual way. This preparation


to

much used
bile, that is,

and

be caused by deranged air remittent fever with gastrio irritability, nervousfever supposed

ness, etc.

RANDIA DUMETORUM,
Sans. fR^r, Madana.
,

Linn.
ft

Vern. Mayvi,

Hind.

The Randia dumetorum is a small thorny tree common in waste places. The fruit when ripe, looks like a small apple, and
has a peculiar sweetish, sickly smell.
writers, as
It is described

by Sanskrit

the best or safest of emetics.


chiefly

In

fact the ancient

Hindus depended
ripe fruit
is

upon

this

drug for causing emesiB.

One

generally administered for this purpose.

It is also

used in combination with other medicines, as for ax ample in the following prescription.

Pancha hashdya. 3

Take

of Justicia

Adhatoda (vdmtka), Acorys


half

Calamus (vachd),

nim, bark, leaves of Trichosanthes dioica (patola),

and bark of Aglaia Rcceburghiana (priyangu), equal


I.

parts,

to w*r:

%w: ftti^Hfaiisw:

fti

qstffc

ym*
^w:
**< w **
i

2.

tmei^iiqiPiirWfl:

stM wf^

trewsfip? int

<n

fa -n

w^c:
*mn
8

*ro?*ro
\

wtfkm rims*

<^*Trafrre'g

wf^i

^w&n:

P^DERU
a seer in
all,

FCETIDA.

179
till

water eight seers This decoction


is

boil

them together

reduced to

one-fourth.
of

given with the addition of the pulp

Randia dumetorum for causing emesis.

RUBIA CORDIFOLIA,
Syn. Bubia Manjista
Sans.
*rf%^T,
%

Linn.

Boxb.

Manjishthd, Vern. Manjit, Beng. Hind.

Indian madder, well

known

as a red dye, is u^ed

in
first

medicine
prepared

chiefly as a colouring agent.

All medicated oils are


It is

for use

by being

boiled with madder.

regarded as astringent

and useful in external inflammations, ulcers and skin diseases. Madder and liquorice root, rubbed into a paste with Kdnjika, is applied over fractures, to reduce imflammation and swelling.

Madder rubbed with honey, is recommended by several writers 1 to be applied to brown spots on the face (pityriasis versicolor).
Manjishthddya ghrita*
is

prepared with

clarified butter

and a

paste composed of equal parts of madder, red sandal wood, and the root of Sanseviera Zeylanica (murvd), and applied to ulcers

from burns.

PJEDERIA FCETIDA,

Linn.

Sans. TOTCJft, Prasdrani. Vern. Gandhabhdduli, Beng. Gandhdli,


lederia foetida is

Hind
up and

a loDg climbing plant, twini


off

over trees.

All parts of the plant give

a most offensive odour

when

bruised.

The

leaves, boiled

and made into soup, are con-

and suitable for the sick and convalescent. The entire plant including stem, leaves and root, is much used both internally and externally in rheumatic affections for which
sidered wholesome
it is

regarded as a

specific.

Prasdrani
leaves,

leha, or

electuary of Pcederia fcetida.

Take

of

the

root and stem of Pcederia foetida,

water thirty two seers,

^ilq^fasra

Mnrrn:
II

ISO

SANSKRIT MATERIA
seers, boil till

SLfiDICA.

two

reduced to one-fourth.

To the strained
till

decoc-

tion add,

two

seera of treaole,

and again boil

reduced to the

consistence of a thick syrup.

Lastly add powdered ginger, long


Dose, about one tola
in

pepper, plumbago root and the root oE Piper Ghaba pepper, black
(chavikd), equal parts, in all half a seer.

acute rheumatism.

Several oils or liniments for external application are prepared

with this plant.


largely

The

following, called Kubja

Prasdram

taila?

is

used by native physicians.


tolas,

Take
boil

of the entire plant of

P&deria fatida eight hundred


water
till

in sixty-four seers of

reduced to sixteen seers, and strain.

To the

strained
seers,

decoction,

add sesamum

oil,

sixteen seers, milk, thirtj-two

whey and fermented paddy water


plumbago
Calamus
root and
root,

(kdnjika)^ each sixteen seers,


of Pcederia f&tida*

and the following substances, namely, root


long pepper root,
dill
y

liquorice,

rock

salt,

Acorns

root,

seeds,

bark of Cedrus Deodara, root of Vanda


officinalis

Roxburghii

(ramd) Scindapsus
oil

(gajapippali),jatdmdmi
in the

marking nuts, each two

tolas

form of a

paste.

First boil the

with the decoction of Pwderta foetida

till

the

water

is

nearly evaporated, then boil the oil successively with the

addition of milk,

whey and

hdnjika, adding the aromatic paste

during the

used externally in rheumatism with contraction and stiffness of the joints. After the application of the oil, the affected parts should be fomented
last process of

boiling.

This

oil

is

with dry heat.

TOF'fttT.

mn<<WK*

ww wt

*\

h4\

*m:

w. reft*^
ww&to:
i

*w 1TT^T*W?T

II

*f4

tt*tf

**m

ii

wtyw

^GW twrt

iTTwfq'pfr^

nhhihi

f?nfT

*rr^

WMql#T

II

^9

ftrfifRW^^

TOflft^R^?^

^wf^NW
v*:
i

SAUSSUREA AURICULA TA.

"

Jgl

NAT. ORDER VALERIANACE/E,

NARDOSTACHYS JATAMANSI, D
Syn.
Valeriana Jatamansi, Jones.

G.

Sans. *rsmf%, Jatdmdnsi. Vern. Jatdmdnsi, Beng. Bdluchar, Hind.

The

Xardostachys Jatamansi

is

a native of the mountains of

Northern India and has been used in Hindu medicine from a


very ancient period.
tonic,

The fragrant root


ghritas. It does not

is

considered a nervine

and

is

much used
and

as an aromatic adjunct in the preparation

of medicinal oils

appear however

to

have

been used internally except as an ingredient of complex prescriptions. In the Pharmacopoeia of India it is stated that Jatdmdnsi
enters into the composition of a nostrum

highly recommended in

the treatment of epilepsy by Susruta

do not find in Susruta's


except

work any prescription


active ingredient.
(

for epilepsy, containing jatdmdnsi,


it

the following, in which however

can hardly be eaid

to

be an

Take of the pulse of Phaseolus Boxburghii

Jmlattha

)f

barley, jujube fruit, seeds of Crotolaria juncea (sana),

bdellium, jaldmdnsi root, the ten drugs collectively oalled dasamula


(see Desmodiiirn gangeticum),

and chebulic myrobalan, equal parts


the usual

and prepare a decootion

in

way.

This decoction

is

recommended

to be administered

with the addition of

clarified

butter and goat's urine. 1

NAT. ORDER COMPOSIT/E.

SAUSSUREA AURICCLATA,
Sans, ^y, Knshtha.
Vern.
is

Bth.

et

Hf.

Syn. Aplotaxis auriculata, DC.

Kar

Pdcliak. Hind. Beng.

The
age.

Aplotaxis anricnlata

a native of the mountains around

Cashmere, and has been used in Hindu medicine from an early


Its root is described a9 aromatic, stimulant

and useful

in

cough, asthma, fever, dyspepsia and skin diseases.


into the composition of

It enters also

some

pastiles for fumigation.

182

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

Agnimukha churna. 1
Calamus
(

Take

of

assafcetida,

one part Acorns

vachd

two parts, long pepper, three parts, ginger, four


myrobalan, six parts, plumbago

parts, ajowan five parts, obebulie


root, seven parts,

and the root

of Aplotaxis auriculata, eight parts.

Powder the
cloth.

ingredients,

Dose, twenty to

mix and pass the powder through a forty grains with whey or wine in

dyspepsia with I06S of appetite.

A liniment composed
and castor
oil is

of the root of Aplotaxis auriculata, kdnjika

the forehead in
oil,

recommended by several writers to be applied to cephalalgia. 2 The fried root, mixed with mustard
to

is

applied

the

scalp in

porrigo.

powdered root and of rock salt-, fermented paddy water {kdnjika), are rubbed on joints affected
with chronic disease. 3

Equal parts of the mixed with mustard oil and

WEDELIA CALENDULACEA,
Syn.
Sans,

Less.

Verbesina calendulacea, Boxb.

wsm,

Bhringardja.

%nxm, Kesardja.

Vern. Kesardja,

Beng BMnrd, Hind.

There

is Borne

confusion between the Sanskrit and vernacular

Wedel
plants are called kcsardj or kesrid in Bengali,

Both these

and the two Sanskrit names of bhringardja and kesardja are used as synonyms. The Hindustani term blidngrd, derived from the Sanskrit hhrin-

Wed
this is the plant used in medicine at present. have a slight oamphoraceous taste, are

The

leaves,

which

considered tonic, alterative,

^ rtt ^#pt
TT%
2.

?mTf^fT tnnpjrr *Tipm

^ ^raft

fw*

wifira

*tm^:

^wtbj^t w?r WT%^fw*ri


f *?tewfT; *^wra*rcfa?r

frftrfrf

imri t*th

"t

giff^w
3.

**

f ufrft **% #^:

73^
'I$H*ias

WEDELIA CALENDULACEA.
\

1S3

and useful

in cough, cephalalgia, skin diseases


is

and

alopecia.

The
1

juice of the leaves

much used

as a snuff in cephalalgia, and in


pills.

soaking various sorts of powders for the preparation of


tattooing

"In

the natives after puncturing the skin, rub the juicy green leaves of Eclipta prostrata over the part which gives the
;

desired indelible colour, namely a deep bluish black." The leaves of both these plants are used in various ways for the purpose of dyeing grey hair and for promoting the growth of hair.

JdUphalddya churna? Take of nutmeg, baberang seeds, plumbago root, flowers of Taberncemontana coronaria (tagara), sesamum
seeds, leaves of Finns Webbiana (tdlisa),

red sandal wood, ginger,

cloves,

camphor, ohebulic and emblio myrobalans, black pepper, long pepper, bamboo manna, cinnamon, cardamom,
seeds,
tejapatra,
tolas,

cumin

and the flowers of Mesua ferrea ( ndgakesara ), each two powdered leaves of Wedelia calendulacea, fifty-six tol&s,
the above ingredients.

sugar, in quantity equal to all

Powder
said to be

and mix.

Dose, about a drachm.

This preparation

is

useful in phthisis, cough and catarrh.

Shadbindu taila? Take of sesamum oil, four seers, goat's milk four seers, juice of bhringarnja leaves, sixteen eeers and prepare an oil with a paste composed of the following substances,
root
coronaria

1-

^nrcrarar:

^pf^nf^^cTTfqcr;

wMi f^npamn *m*fa usfi^NT?

ii

THuwm:
3.

N^-^dnr

<?wj5r

rmt

*rar&T

afhfai

tw\

*r?

INto

nr

^rf?r

ii

^f^i

184
(

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDIC A.


) f dill

tagara

seeds, Coelogyne oralis (jivanti


salt,

),

Vanda Uoxburghu
Six drops of this

(rdsnd), rook
oil,

Wedelia calendulacea (bhringardja), baberang

seeds liquorice root,

and ginger, in
of the head,

all

one seer.

drawn

in through the nostrils, are said to relieve headache

and other affections

Bhringardja taila}

Take

of

sesaraum

oil

four seers, juioe of

bhringardja leaves, sixteen seers, iron rust, the three myrobalans


frutescpus
(

to
oil

paste, in all one aeer,


oil is said to

and prepare an

in the usual way.

This

remove scurf from the head, turn grey hairs blaok,

and cure

alopecia.

freah juice of the leaves of Eclipta prostrata, is rubbed on the shaven aoalp for the purpose of promoting the growth of hair.

The

VERN0N IA ANTHELMINTICA, WWd.


T

Syn.

Serratula anthehnintka, Boxb.

Sans.

*frr*T5ft,

Somardji.

^^nr

Avalguja.

<n^,

Vdkuchi.

Vem. Hdkuch, Somrdj, Beng. Bdkdri, Hind.


are

Sanakr

derma) and other skin


tbehnintio,

^awrid, meaica as a medicine for white leprosy (leuoodiseases.


It
is

mentioned also as an an-

but

is

not

much

with a number of other medicines.

used as such, except in combination

In chronic.skin diseases the seeds are taken alone or in combination with other medicines. In the severer forms of skin diseases, such as psoriasis and lepra, the medicine is recommended ly for one year when a W is
o

I TTf
';

Tair Ta *

P arts and" Dose, about a drachm to and mix. B be taken in the morning, with
' '
=

"^ ^i T ^
*

~P**
is

yiuaviuu -^nation

^^

usea in these cases. used id tnese cases

qeSamnm

^ aI

P^-

WTOm

W.

"f^J^f^

fflfnrr

q^afiOTP*
i

*w*n*mt immfttf frz?^

^^

"

snrV;

VERNONIA ANTHELMINTIC!.
tepid water.

185
after perspiration

The medicine should be taken

has been induced by exercise or exposure to the sun. should consist of milk and rice. In leucoderma a

The

diet

deooction of

emblio myrobalan and catechu powdered vdkuchi seeds. 1


Externally
it

is

given with the addition of

is

used

in

suoh as paste,

oil, etc.

The

skin diseases in a variety of forms following combination is said ti be

very useful in eruptions attended with itching.


seeds,

seeds of Cassia
,

Sophora

kdsamarda

Take of vdkuchi and Cassia Tora


;

(chakramarda)

turmeric and

the en together into a paste


(kdnjika),

common sea salt, equal parts rub with whey and fermented paddy water

and apply over the eruptions. 2 Vdkuchi Beeds four parts and orpiment one part are rubbed into an emulsion with cow's urine, and applied to the patches of white leprosy or leucoderma. 3
/

Somardji
the
seeds

taila.

Take

of vdkuchi seeds, twelve seers


seers.

and a

half.

four
of

Take of

Cassia Tora (chakramarda) twelve

water sixty-four seers, and boil down to sixteen seers. Boil these two deoootions with sixteen seers of oow's urine, sixteen seers of mustard oil and the following substanoes in the form of a paste,

namely root
(*

of

Plumbago

rosea (raktachitrdka) 9 of Gloriosa superba

(Idnguli), ginger, turmeric, pdtchak root, seeds of


(

apardjitd

),

of

Pongamia glabra Nerium odorum

bark
(saptaparni) ,

wood
),

of Acacia catechu

Racemasa

ladhra

black pepper, nim leaves,

leaves of Cassia

^TCNjsiislafqit [tftal

tftqjj*!

^TfWT

*ft5R

qfqm

<*t*

*p%^-

f?ftaf

*fr*ro^f ^ttfaii?r

Nrfhft

*$%* *nfw

w^t fk*m

*nm:\

*rc;

f%%

ii
I

24

186

SA.N&KRIT MATERIA MElilCA.

Sophora

kdsamarda

),

juioe of
oil is

cow-dung, orpiment and realgar,


1

each eight tolas.

This

said to cure all sorts of skin diseases


etc,

from vitiated blood, ricgworm, prurigo,

ANAOYCLUS PYRETSRUM,
unknown
gadharft
to the ancient Hindus..

D.

0.

Pellifcory

root

was

In later compilations as Saranoccasionally mentioned under

and the Bhavaprakasa


of Akardkarava,
as

it is

the

name

and
for

is

used as an ingredient of comin

pound

prescriptions,

example

the Akarddi churna

described under opium.

ENHYDRA HELONCHA,
Hind.

D. 0.

Syn.

Hingtsha

repent

Boxb. Sans, fespftfw, HilamochiM. Vern. Hinchd, Beng, Uarhuch,

The

leaves of this water plant are

eaten

by the natives

as a vegetable.

Being somewhat bitter they are regarded as

wholesome and invigorating. Medicinally they are described as laxative and useful in diseases of the skin and nervous system.

The fresh

juice

of the

leaves,

in doses

of about a tola

is

prescribed by some Kavirajas in Calcutta, as an adjunct to tonic metallic medicines given in neuralgia and other nervous diseases.

NAT. ORDER PLUMBAGINACE^E.

PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA,
Sans,

Linn.

fsm,

Chitraka,

Vern. Chita, Beng. Bind,


is

The

root of Plumbago Zeylanica

s*id to increase

the

diges-

tive power, to promote the appetite and to be useful in dyspepsia, piles, anasarca, diarrhcea, skin diseases, etc. It is much used as

a stimulant adjunct to other preparations,

in

the

form

of a

TOfrro*

tram

^m%^TiiTO

^w

n5*

fotfajftr

Tswn'W
wfwra
*m:fireni

^TURtm

^<%*r

wwU

<ftraii

qfat

ftww

PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA.

187
root,

6ombination called trimada consisting of plumbago


seeds and the tubers of Gyperus rotundus (mustaka.)
It

bdberang

enters into the

dyspepsia.

composition of numerous medicines for The following is an illustration. Take of plumbago


;

myrobalan and long pepper, equal parts powder and mix. Dose, about forty grains. 1 A favourite medicine
for flatulence
yoga.
It
is is

root, rock salt, chebulio

an old prescription of Susruta called Shaddharana a powder composed of equal parts of the following
root,

substances,

namely, plumbago
),

indrayava

seeds,
(

root of
katula),

Sfephanza hemandifolia (pdthd


dtzs,

of Picrorrhiza Kurroa

and chebulio myrobalan.

Dose, about a drachm. 2


is

The
effect

root of Plumbago Zeylanica


piles,

Said to exercise a beneficial

on

in

which disease
in
)

it is

given in various combinaas follows.

tions.

Oue mode

of administering

it, is

An

earthen
root,

jar or pot is

lined

its interior
is

with a paste of the

and

curdled milk

dadhi

or kdnjika

prepared in this pot, and

taken by persons affected with hemorrhoids and prurigo.

Plumbago

root reduced to a paste

is

applied

to abscesses

with

the object of opening them.


of several preparations used
illustration.

It enters also into the

composition
is

as

caustics.
root,

The following

an

Take

of

plumbago

root of Baliospermum

montanum (danti), the milky juice of Euphorbia neriifolia (snuhi), and of Calotropis procera or Kamiltonii (arka), marking nut,
sulphate of iron, treacle and rock
together and
salt,

equal parts

mix them

make

into a paste.

PLUMBAGO ROSEA,
Vern. Ldl chitd, Beng.

Linn.

Sans, \1fa4* , Baldachitraha.

The

properties of the root of Plumbago rosea


It

are said to be like those of P. Zeylanica.

has bosides a

specific

1-

ftprarc^jrcte^f^r^w^ <N <K

f*prf%

w.

w&fw:

<rcnfaw

^t:ii
3.

^r^t:
?*ft

f^HNjsf^

^^

qjjjft

jpj

HfTWffl *Tlfor

IN* ZW*
I

%W.

3TTTVT;

18S
action
oil

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

ite uterus.*

The

root of Plumbago rosea taken internally


alive.
1

will expel the foetus

from the womb, whether dead or


pastes

This

root

is

a more

powerful vesicant than that of P. Zrlavica, and

enters into the composition of caustic

and stimulant and

rubefacient applications.

NAT. ORDER MYRSINACE/E.

EMBELIA RIBES,
Sans, fws^-, Vidanga.

Burnt.

Vern. Bdberang, Hind.

Scsruta describes the seeds of Embelia Bibe$ as anthelmintic, alterative and tonic and recommends their nse along with liquorioe root for the purpose of strengthening the body and preventing the effeots of age. Later writers regard bdberang as
carminative stomachic, anthelmintic and worms, dyspepsia, and skin diseases.
useful
in
intestinal

For expelling
seeds.

intestinal

worms, the powder of the seeds

is

given in draohm doses with honey, or with an infusion of the

A
ia

compund powder and a

glirita

are also prepared by the

addition of various other drugs. 2


* It
generally

introduced into the

sometimes put to another nse, a knowledge of whioh is likely to be of importance in a medioo-legal point of view. Many years ago I had nnder my treatment a married female, who had accidental abortion and
i

The

known that the scraped root of Plumbago rosea is month of the womb, for the purpose of procuring abortion.

root

copious hemorrhage after

it.

On the

third day after the accident, she was

brought to hospital, suffering from severe pain in the pelvic region, purulent discharge and high fever. On examination I found a 'piece of the ItcM** .root, with a little rag wrapped round it, projecting into the vagina from the
cervix uteri.
I

was

told that a

midwife had introduced

it

into the

the object of checking hemorrhage after the abortion. If this been a w,dow and had died from the effects of the abortion, and if on examination of the dead body, the root of the l-lchih" had been found in the portion mentioned above, the inevitable conclusion would have been, that it was introduced for the purpose of procurin g abortion.

womb with woman bad

TfrKiwnfl ftr^fa

^ ^m

fc^
:
i

%Wfa?T*!r

*T

*TW

*?f*iniT*

MIMUSOPS ELENGI.

180

Bdberang enters into the composition of several applications The following is an for ringworm and other skin diseases. example. Take of bdberang, rock salt, ohebulio myrobalan, bakuchi,
mustard, turmeric and the seeds of Pongamia glabra
equal parts and
{^karanja)
%

make them

into a thin paste with cow's urine.

NAT. ORDER
Madhuka.

SAP0TACE
Roxb.
Be:

BASSIA LATIFOLIA,
*j>T%
s of

Vem. Maud,

H.

Bassia latifolia yield a distille

described by Susrufca as heating, astringent, tonic and appetizing.

regarded as cooling, tonic and nutritive. They The flowers are composition of several mixtures of a cooling and enter into the

demulcent character.
of

The following

is

an example.

Take

of the

bark of Omelina arborea ( gambhdri ), flowers of Andropogon muricatum (ushira), coriander red sandal wood, root equal parts, and prepare an infusion in the usual way. and raisins,
Bassia
latifolia,

This infusion
thirst,

is

with the addition of sugar for the relief of given


2

burning of the body and giddiness.


seeds
oil

The
concrete

of

Bassia latifolia
is

yield

by expression a thick
sdra in

whioh
to

used in lamps, and by the poorer classes, for


oil called

culinary purposes.

This

madhuka

Sanskrit,
3

is

recommended

be applied

to the

head in cephalalgia.

MIMUSOPS ELENGI,
SRf^T,

Linn.

Maulsai

tree is generally reared in gardens for the This ornamental sake of its fragrant flowers from whioh a distilled water is pre-

pared.

The
trex-

ripe fruits are sweetish and edible.

The unripe
irsrfft

|*re

ftrn srfafasrr

*q ^irw *5Rtfk

rt^rfq^ %r:

"^sfi^ff

2.
tpt:

w*n

['WJTrct

^K-ftaiHyM
3f?

II

^nJTfq-^rfT: iftaft

^T wni

st^r

mn

xf>m:

ifta

*i*vii

www

3.

i-n^r

fa*,

fwrara f*$*&n

190
fruits are astringent

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

and are recommended to be ohewed for the


is

purpose of fixing loose teeth. 1 The bark

described as astringent.

decoction

of
2

the bark
v

is

used as a gargle in diseases of the

gums and

teeth.

NAT. ORDER STYRACE^.

SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA,
Sans.
t$ft y

Ro.rb.

Lodhra fm^, Tillaka.


of this tree, used in

Vem. Lodh,
is

Benrj.

Hind.

The bark
iog,
ulcers, eta.

dyeing red,

considered cool-

astringent and useful in bowel

complaints, eye diseases,


of

It enters into the composition

numerous prescrip-

tions for bowel complaints, along

with

bela>

and kurchi bark.

decoction of the

wood

is

used as a gargle for giving firmness to

spongy and bleeding gums. 3 composed of lodhra bark,


(

In bleeding from the gums, a paste


rasot,

tubers of

Gyperus

rotundu

and honey, is applied to the gums. 4 The Amritasagara recommends the following application for ophthalmia. Take of
)

mustaka

lodhra bark, liquorice root, burnt

alum and
is

rasot,

equal parts, and

rub into a paste with water.

This

applied round the eyes.

ORDER JASMINACE^E. NYCTANTHES ARBOR TRISTIS, Linn.


NAT.
Sans, ftqnf^n, SepMlikd.

i^^nm

Bajanthcwl
Hind.

Vem.
This plant
is

Siuli, Beng. Harsingdr,

cultivated in gardens for the sake of its flowers.

These open at sunset, and before morning strew the ground


1

^^til^jvut ^rSf 4$<?M !<!


<*trqi3 g

||

^f^Tf:
||

2. 3.

Wq\

*$<!M**cft

f%cf;

^R^F;

fwtr?^r^ra^ cra^TfpTw

it

twm3?t

to

vft

*jn Mtea*
II

wt

^tt%WT tl^ai^y

qTW W%m ^

^ifq^3RlT^ ftTR

WQU? faTF^

6-.

Tim.

*rat^:

JASMINUM URA^UIFLQRUM
thickly
collect

191

with their fallen

corollas.

Native

women and

children

them and separating the orange coloured tubes from the white petals, dry them in the sun and preserve them for dyeing
The
They are regarded

their clothes a beautiful buff or orange colour.

leaves ard used in medicine.

as useful
is

in fever "and rheumatism.

The
1

fresh juice of the leaves

given
is

with honey in chronic fever.


generally given along with
it.

Some preparation

of iron

also

decoction of the leaves prepared


as a specific

over a gentle

fire is

recommended by several writers


2

for obstinate sciatica.

JASMINUM GRANDiFLORUM,
Sans.
5TF?t,

Linn.

Jdti.

Vern. Chdmeli, Hind.

The fragrant

flowers
oil,

of

Jasminum grandiflorum are used


is

for

preparing a scented

which

considered cooling, and

is

much

used by the richer natives for anointing their bodies before bathing. The leaves of this plant are used medicinally in skin
diseases,

ulcers

in the

mouth, otorrhoea,

etc.

and enter into the

composition of numerous prescriptions for these diseases.

The fresh
the toes.
3

juice of the leaves

is

applied to sbfc corns between

In ulcerations or eruptions in the mucous membrane to be chewed. 4 An of the mouth, the leaves are recommended oil prepared with the juice of the leaves is poured into the ear in
-

otorrhcea/'

JASMINUM SAMBAC,
Bel, Beng.

Willd.

Sans.

^^\

Vdnhiki.

Vern.

Hind. The properties of this plant are said to resemble


grandiflorum.

those of

Jasminum

\
I

w^:

"j

WT^
&

whprtw:
II

"

^urclMgK^ fo' f^R*

^T^f^fn

II

^WZW.

192

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

NAT. ORDER APOCYNE/E.

NERIUM ODORUM,
Sans. ch<4H, Karavira.

Solander.

W$*R*M, Asvamdraka.

Vern. Karabi, Beng. Kaner, Hind.

Two

varieties of Karavira are described in

the Bhavaprakasa,
are

namely white and red


identical,

flowered.
re'gttr

The

properties of both
as

their roots

being

poisonous

when taken
affections.

internally and useful in skin diseases

and inflammatory

The Nerium odorum has several synonyms in Sanskrit signifying horse-killer. It would seem from this, that the poisonous roots
were used
for destroying horses.
tad^t
1

Karavirddya
o the root of

Take

or sesnrauru oil four seers, decoction

Nerium odorum, eight seers, cow's urine, eight seers, Plumbago rosea root and bdberang seeds, each half a seer, in the
paste

an
oil is

oil

in

the

usual way.
diseases.

This

used in eczema, impetigo and other skin


'

The root of Nerium odorum beaten into a paste with water is recommended to be applied to chancres and ulcers on the penis. 2 The fresh juice of the young leaves is poured into eyes iu
the

ophthalmia with copious lachrymation. 3

ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS,
*m*!, Saptaparna.
f^i
i

R.

^ch
Hind

The bark

of

Alstonia scholaris is

very thiok

and spongy

henoe the tree has received the names of Visdlatvak, Vrihattvak, etc
1.

f^'^j
W^riH
n

I""

^^fkr^t^TH^
frfTOT

f^rw

;$Sg

Wfa:
: i

*****
2.

JHif qfrfa*T

WSMPT
3.

srrs*pr:

^fton^fiWPTO^^WTf iTOfflW^^
ii

i^li

wtfr *?' *<el*

Hff^^n^ frf^cw

^w**:

HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA.
It is described as tonic, alterative

193

and useful in ferer and skin diseases. Susmta gives the following formula for use in catarrhal

Take of the bark of Alstonia scholaris, gulancha, nim bark and the bark of Betula Bhojpattra, equal parte, in all two tolas
fever.

and prepare a decoction in the usual way. 1

It

enters into the

composition of several formulae for skin diseases.


is

The

following

an

illustration.

Amritdshtdka pdchana.
dioica (patola

Take

of the
(

bark of Alstonia
vdsaka
( )

scholaris,

gulancha, leaves of Justicia Adhatoda


),

tubers of Cyperns rotundas

and Trzchosanthes must aha ), Calumus

Botang

( vetra ),

catechu and nim leaves, and prepare a decoction

in the usual

way.

HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA,
Sans. ^5T, Kutaja, *in?RP, Kdlinga.
Vern. Kurclii, Beng. Kureyd, Kaureyd, Hind.
I

R. Br.

The bark

of Holarrhena antidysenterica constitutes the principal

medicine for dysentery in the Hindu Pharmacopoeia.


chronic oases which did not get

Before the

discovery of the efficacy of ipecacuana in this disease,

many

well under European medical

treatment, used to be cured by the Kavirajes, by their preparations


of this

bark.

The seeds

called Indrayava in Sanskrit

and

Indrajav in the vernacular, are also used in medicine, they being

regarded as astringent, febrifuge and useful in fever, dysentery,


diarrhoea,

and intestinal worms.


of

The bark
2 honey.

Holarrhena antzdysenterica

is

administered in a
is

variety of ways.

The expressed

juice of the
is

bark

given with

A fluid

extract of the bark

given with the addition of


called

ginger and dtis*


1-

compound decoction
ft*r

KutajdshtaJca

is

*sn^ ^fNr \

**srerffa^i
\

chmftMi ftt?r wui *rahr ^nsif

^t

ii

2.

^<Mr<!i4iM<Hti: qHrarotefa \

^ifcWKR

^i^^wtsw
sotipjt:
i

W>

^K5H^||
25

^jftjt;

194
thus prepared.
n

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


t

Take of httaja bark,

citis,

root of

Stephania her-

(pdthd), flowers of Woodfordia floribunda (dhdtaki), nandifolia (lodhra), root of Pavonia ndorata bark of Symplocos racemosa
(bald), rind of pomegranate fruit, and tbe tubers of Cyperus
.

rotundus

( viustaka

),

quarter tola eaoh, water thirty-two


1

to!:'ts,

boil together till

reduced to one-fourth.

Kutajaleha? or confection of kutaja bark.

Take

of kutaja

bark

twelve seers and a half, water sixty-four seers; boil down to sixteen seera and strain. Boil the strained decoction till reduced
to a thick consistence,

then add sacked

salt,

yavakshdra, vit

salt,

rock

salt,

long pepper, flowers of Woodfordia floribunda (dhcihih),


seeds,

indrayava seeds and cumin

each sixteen tola?, in

fine

powder, and prepare a confection.

Dose, about a drachm with

honey

in chronic. and acute dysentery'.

Pathddya clinrna} Take of the root of Stephania hernandifolia, fruit of 2Eqle Marmelos ( vilva), plumbago root, long pepper, black pepper, ginger, bark of Eugenia Jambolana, rind of pomegranate
fruit,

flowers

of

Woodfordia
(katuki),'

floribunda
Jtis,

(dhdtaki),

root

of

Picrorrhiza Kurroa

tabers of

Cyperus rotundus
cJiiretd,

(mustaka), wood
Holarrhena

of Berberis

Asiaika (ddrvi),
9

seeds of

antidysenterica

(indrayava)

one part each, kutaja


;

bark, equal in weight to all the above ingredients


finely

powder them

and mix.

Dose, about one to two scruples to be taken with

^wrftrfw
ii

xjT3T

^Tcr^t

<fta

gw.
i

ffa- ^tfsqgfc *: fW,


i

wfw.

fcft

iffar%^

^^ww:

^fdt

HH

^w? ^rq^w^rat
wHv.
I

ii

3.

<n?T?r

W*r

tot fw^PH
||

3^ 3r*r ^nr ^rst


cjfegr

^r^Tfaf^T
I

g*T *T*fl

qfro

*W.

*^*n *R ^W

iT^IHyTT
ii

^3*

^nwwn.

a?N9T^re^tisnft^irirereRftPi

w<?^:i

HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA.
rice-water and honey.

195

Another compound powder called Gangdwith a few

dhara churna,

is

of similar composition to the above,

additional substances.

Kutajdrishta} or fermented liquor of kutaja. Take of kutaja root-bark, twelve seers and a half, raisins, six seers and a quarter, flowers of Bassia latifolia ( madhuka ), and bark of Gmelina arborea

(gambhdri), eighty tolas each;

boil

them

together

in

two

hundred and fifty- six seers of water, till reduced to sixty-four seers, and strain. Then add flowers of Woodfordia floribunda
(

a half,
let
it

and

the mixture ferment for a month, after which ready for use. Dose, one to three ounces.

will be

An

oil for

external application called


oil,

Grahanimihira

taila

is

prepared with sesamum


of astringent

decoction of kutaja bark and a


in small quantities.

number
and a

and aromatic substances

Pradardri lanha. 2

Take of kutaja bark, twelve


in

seers

half and prepare a fluid extract as


kutajaleha, above described.

the preparation called

m fine
fruit,

Then add the following substances powder, namely, gum of Bombax Malabaricum (mocharasa),
of

Indian madder, root


floribunda (dhdtaki)

Stepliania

hemandifolia, (pdthd
talc

),

bela

tubers of Gyperns rotundiis (mustaka), flowers of Woodfordia


i

rffr>,

prepared

and

iron,

each eight

tolas,

mix them intimately and prepare a


drachm.
This preparation
is

confection.

Dose, about a

given in monorrhagia and other

discharges from the uterus.

S^W SRjfa

cfhsf

w^

II

mj-^K:

^f
tfo

ii

im km mn *fM

*fftr

vr^mx*

f f%^ wi\^ %%$^


WTsgWPat

196

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

The seeds
piles, intestinal

of

Holarrhena ant idys enter tea

enter into the com-

position of a good

many

prescriptions for fever, bowel complaints,


etc.

worms,

The following are a few


of

illustrations.

Take
boil

of indrayava

seeds and the tubers

Cyperus rotundus

(mustaka), each four tolas, rub


in one seer of water,
is
till

them

into a paste
is

with water and


one

the latter

reduced to one- fourth.


to

This boiled emulsion

given in doses

of about a half
in It

ounce with honey. 1


proportions
is

decoction of Indrayava seeds

usual

used for checking bleeding from Piles.

is

given

with the addition of ginger. 2

Laghu gangddhara
of

clxarna?

Take

of indrayava
fruit,

seeds,

tubers

Cyperus rotundus,

(mustaka),

bela

bark of Symplocos

racemosa

Bombax Malabaricum (mocliarasa), and flowers of Woodfordia florihunda (dhdtaM) equal parts; powder and mix. Dose, about a drachm with buttermilk and
of

(hdhra),

gum

treacle, in various sorts of

bowel complaints.
Sans.
*nf^T,

ICHNOCARPUS
Vern. Shydmalatd.

FRUTESCENS.

Sdrivd.

The properties

of the roots of this

plant are

said to be identical with those of

Hemidesmus

Indicus.

These two

drugs are often used in combination under the designation of Sdrivddvaya, ( see next article ).
/

NAT. ORDER ASCLEP1ADE/E.

HEMIDESMUS INDICUS
Sans,

B. Br.

^rc^,

Anantamula n%T, Sdrivd,

Vern. Anantamul, Beng. Hind.

In Sanskrit Medicine, Hemidesmus Indicus and Ichnocarpiis


fi

S**^:

firo iitot

fivjfam

^ m^m
i

^pfteR^te'ft

ii

smrTC
2.

mm: sfrft
ii

*t

fifor

favm*.

ft

m vm%nm
,

mtttf***

*g**m:
3.

s^iiiFm^i 3*rfro* fo-

fit* <farctf Ira

ww&T***'

*imiTOi

^tw:i"

CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA AND PROCERA.


of sdrivddvaya or the

197

two

sdrivds.

When however
The

sdrivd

is

They are often used together. used in the singular number it is the
as sydmalatd (Ichnocarpus frutescens).

usual practice to interpret

it

roots of these plants

are

said to

be

sweet,

demulcent,

alterative ajid

useful in loss of appetite, disinclination for food,

fever, skin diseases, sjphilis

and leucorrhoea. They are generally

used in combination with a number of other medicines.


following are a few illustrations.

The

Take

of anantamula, root of

Pavonia odqrata

(bald), tubers of Cyperus rotundus (mustaka),


(

ginger, and the root of Picrorrhiza kurroa


in

katuki

),

equal parts,

all

two

tolas,

and reduce them

to a paste in

with water.
is

This
to

dose administered with


clear the bowels

warm

water

the morning,

said

and

relieve fever. 1

A decoclion of
Hedyotis biflora

the roofs of colocyntb, anaufarnirfa, sdrivd and

(parparta),

prepared

in

the

usual

way,

is

administered with the addition of powdered long pepper and

bdellium in chronic skin diseases, syphilis, elephantiasis,


sensation and hemiplegia. 2

Joss of

CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA AND PROCERA,


Syn. Asclepias gigantea, Roxb.
Sans,
^ptf,

. Br.

Arka,

^r*pR,

Alarka.

Vern. Akanda, Beng.


Calotropis procera

Mdddr Hind.
%

and C-

gzgantea,

both pass by the native


prefers

name

of

mddar.

G. proeera

the smaller of the two,

the drier climate of the Deccan, the

Upper Provinces
ra

of

Bengal,

the Punjab and Scinde

G gigam

lower Bengal, the Madras

^tm
sfarera
ii

WTW
i

cpsi:

^*

3fn*T

^m

^cM^wg*?

ft^FT
W|-*HfiiM<^
I

^tqtfa

ftto^

ii

nnfw:;i

198

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICJA.

and Malayan Peninsulas, and Ceylon."


white,
called
alarka,

Sanskrit writers mention

two varieties founded upon the colour of the flowers, namely,

The milky juice, flowers, root-bark and leaves are all used in medicine. The rootbark is said to promote the secretions and to be useful in skin
red,

and

called

arka.

diseases, enlargements of the

abdominal \iscera, intestinal worms,

cough, ascites, arasarca,

etc.

The milky
is

juice

is

regarded as a such in

drastic purgative and caustic

and

generally used as

combination with the milky juice of Euphorbia


flowers are considered digestive, stomachic,

neriifolia.

The
in

tonic

and useful

cough, asthma, catarrh and loss of appetite.

mixed with rook salt are roasted within closed vessel?, so that the fumes may not escape. The ashes thus produced are given with whey in ascites and enlargements of the
leaves

The

abdominal viscera. 1

The following inhalation


powdered root-bark
of aria

is

prescribed for cough.

Soak the

in its

own milky

juice

and

dry.'

Bougies are prepared with tbis powder 2 and their fumes inhaled. The root-bark, leduoed to a paste with sour congee, is applied to
elephantiasis of the legs
Calotropis gigantea

and

sorofcara. 3

and Euphorbia

neriifolia

The milky juices of are made into tents

with the powdered wood of Berberis Asiaiica, for introduction into sinuses and fistula in ano.* The milky juice is applied to carious
teeth for relief of pain."'

1.

**ni

mro^t tfro

*^ ^ ft^ ^,tfitaim
ws'n:
I i

2.

^tot:
3.

*r

^ ^ flf^TT^^^!^^^, ^ m ^ ^ ^^ ^
nfo iiMifkjtfr sromr wftui trot
qTfirf
*z

ftfw

fanr:

ii

^w^t:

4pi

4M9 %m f^^r; ^^ft ?WT n^i


,

iRiwr.

^sh^Ti:
5.

WTOT ?W*t ** fcfo^

^^

STRYCHNOS NUX VOMICA.

199
oil,

Arka
seer

taila}

Take

of prepared

sesamum

four seers, juice


to a paste,

of arka leaves, sixteen seers,


;

and turmeric reduced


This

one
be

boil

them together
is

in the usual way.

oil is said to

useful

in

eczema, and other eruptive skin diseases.

Sometimes

orpiment

substituted for turmeric in this preparation.

NAT. ORDER L0GAN1ACE/E.

STRYCHNOS NUX VOMICA,


Sans, ^nfrg, Ktipilu,
fj^rar,

Linn.

Eulaka,

T<W*$t f

Vtshamush

'.

Vern. Kuchild, Beng. Hind.

Nux Vomica has been


recent period.
for
it.

introduced

into

Hindu Medicine
it

at

There

is

no generally recognized Sanskrit name


is
ia

In some recent Sanskrit compilations,


its

mentioned
not to be

under

vernacular name kuchild, a term which

found in standard Sanskrit dictionaries.


writers
give

Sarangadhara and other


a drug

some

prescriptions
is

containing
to

named
in

vishamushti,
places,

which

generally interpreted
;

mean

these

dux vomica

seeds

but vishamushti

according to the

Bhavapiakasa ha3 an edible fruit and is callsd Karerud in Hindi, In this work the Sanskrit term ktipilu with its synonjms, kulaka,
vishatinduka,

markatatinduka,

etc.,

is

said to

be the

Sanskrit

synonyms for kuchild and this translation 'is followed in some Hindi medical books, as for example in the treatise on the
properties
of

drugs,

compiled by

Pundit

Keshava

Prasada
is

Dviredi of the Agra College.

This interpretation however

not

accepted in Bengal, for neither Wilson nor Sir Raja Radhakanta

Deva has given


this

kuchild as the Vernacular for kupilu, njr does


of its

term

"or

any

synonyms above mentioned, occur


In our account
of
of

in

any

Sanskrit medical prescription.


will

this

drug we Bengal

according to the

practice

our

Kavirdjas in

interpret Vishamushti as kuchild.

The Strychnos nux vomica


I

is

indigenous to most patts of India

found
1.

ifc

to be

common

in the jungles

about Manbhoom.
*w:farar3<r ^rfa

The

^^r^w

wm w <*cW

m^cnr

mmi

^r;

200

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

ripe fruits of the size of apples,

have a beautiful orange colour


flat

and

contain a bitter gelatinous pulp, within which the

and

curiously umbilicated seeds are found imbedded.

Nux vomica

seeds produce a sort of intoxication, for which

they are habitually taken by some

natives as an aphrodisiac.
to this
is

Those who do so gradually become so far accustomed poison that they often come to take one seed daily, which
into

cut
leaf.

small pieces and

chewed

with a packet

of betel

Medicinally the seeds are used in dyspepsia and diseases of the nervous system.

Samzragaja

ketari.

pepper equal parts, given with the juice


system.

Take of dux vomica, opium and black and make into two-grain pills. These aie
in

of betel leaves

diseases

of the nervous

Sullamnayoga}
salt,

Take

of

chebulic myrobalan, iong pepper,

black pepper, ginger,

equal parts

nux vomica, assafoetida, sulphur and rook and make into four-grain pills. These are given
in

with

warm water

dyspepsia with pain after meals, and in

Sarangadhara gives the following prescription in which the term vishamwhti is usually understood to mean nux vomica. Take of mercury, sulphur, aconite, ajowan, the three myrobalans, sarjikdkshara (impure carbonate of soda), yavalcshlra (impure carbonate of potash), rock salt, plumbago root, cumin
seeds, sachal salt,
seasalt,

diarrhoea.

bdberang,

and ginger, equal part's, vuhamushti (nux vomica seeds) equal m weight to all the ahove ingredients and make info pills of the size of black pepper corns with lemon juice. These pills are given to promote the appetite and increase the digestive
power.*
1. ^

black pepper, long pepper

******

,*** ft^j

5^

H%

^^
ksto.
smnrc.

2.

*3*

Tft^THt wit

w&fam*nm

^ *m

foi^fe

rig*

OPHELIA CHIRATA,

201

STRYCHNOS POTATORUM,
Sam.

Linn fiL
Vem. Ntrmali, B.

mt%

KataJea,

wgmt,

Ambuprasdda.

of these seeds for the purpose of clearing muddy water is as old as Susruta, who mentions it in his chapter on

The use

water.

Medicinally

it

is

ohiefly used

as a local application in
little

eye-diseases.

The

seeds

are rubbed with honey and a

oamphor, and the mixture applied to the eyes in laohrymation or oopious watery disoharge from them. Rubbed with water and rook salt they are applied to ohemosis in the oonjunotiva. They
enter also into the composition of several complex preparations for ulcer of the cornea, etc. 1

NAT, ORDER GENTIANACE/E.

OPHELIA CHIRATA,
%
i

Grisebach.

Syn. Gentiana Chirayita, Boxb.


Sans. faiMfaw, Kircitatikta, ^nsf, Bhunimba.

Vem.

Chiret&f Beng. Hind.


In*

The Ophelia
of
district

Chirata

is

indigenous to the "mountainous regions

Northern India from Simla through Kumaon to the Morung


in

South Eastern Nepal."

Its Sanskrit

name

hiratatiJcta,

means "the bitter plant

of the Kiratas,

an outcast race of moun-

taineers in the north of India."

It is also called Andryatikta or

Bhavaprak
ipdla,

that

in Nepal,

and describes
is

it

as a febrifuge.

Chiretd

regarded as tonic, febrifuge and

worms
etc.

It

is

much used

in fevers of all sorts in a variety of forms

and in combination with other medicines of its class. The follow* mg are a few illustrations. Take of chiretd, gulancha, raisins,
emblio mjrobalan and zedoary root, equal parts and prepare a

*nr:

^Hhr ^hpw:

mm\

tta^r wr

fafl4i<M$i1 *r

whm*ij1

11

*wt:i
26

202

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA,


1

decoction in the usual way.


churna,
is

A compound powder called

Sudarsana

prepared by taking equal parts of fifty-four different

Bubstanoea and of chireta, equal to one-half the weight of all the other ingredients, and mixing

them together.
Take

It is

largely

prescribed by native physicians in chronic febrile diseases.

Kirdtadi

taila,

or oil

of

chiretd*

of chiretd one seer,

water sixteen
Bfcrain.

seers, boil together till

reduced to four seers and

Bail this decoction of chiretd.


oil,

with four Beers each

of

prepared mustard

kdnjtka and whey,


in the

and two

tolas each of the


of

following substances
Sansevtera Zeylamca
Asiatica

form of a paste, namely, root


lac,

(murvd)

turmeric,

wood

of

Herberts

(ddruharidrd), madder, root of Cttrullus Colocynthis (indravdruni), pdchah root, root of Pavonia odorata (bdld) of
f

Vanda Roxbnrghii (rdsnn), Scindapsus

officinalis

(gajapippali),

long pepper, blaok pepper, ginger, root of Stephania hernandifolia, (pdihd ), indrajava seeds, social, vit, and rook salts, root of Justicia
Adlidtoda
frutescens
(

(vdsaka),

Cahtropis

gigantea

(arka),

Ichnocarpus

shydmalatd), Cedrus Leodara (devaddru) and the fruit

ot Trichosanlhes

pahiata (mahdkdla).

The

oil

thus prepared

is

rubbed on the body in chronio fever with emaciation and ansemia.

CANSCORA DECUSSATA,
Sans.
STij-ytfy

R.

et.

Sch.

Syn. Pladera decussata, Roxb.


SanJchapushpi.

Vern. Ddnkuni, Beng.

Sankhdhuli, Hind.

This
i

is

regarded as laxative, alterative and tonia muoh praised as a nervine. It is used in insanity, epilepsy
is

little

plant

1
ii

fwrf?rawi?tf sret

vmwit nfy

f^^

^^
i

*rofinwt

2.

fwnfcWu
*nt
II

vfy<*N^

urn 1f& * qfem **reft

^ B^

tw*raw4

*fir*i4iuii5?r

faf^ ^ nr^

u*t

*mw ****

CALOSANTHES INDICA,

203

and nervous

debility.
is

The

fresh juice of the plant, in doses of

about an ounce,

given, with the addition of honey and pdchak

root, in all sorts of insanity. 1

A paste made

of the

entire plant,

including roots and flowers,

recommended to be taken with milk as a nervine and alterative tonic. 2 The following compound powder is used in similar cases. Take of gidanclia, Achyranthes aspera (apdmdrga), bdberang, pdchak root, root of Asparagus
is

racemosus (satamuli), Acorus Calamus


balan,

(vachd
parts
;

),

chebulic myro*

and Oanscwa

decussata, in equal

powder and mix.

It is said that the use of this

powder

for

three days will enable a

student to learn by rote a thousand couplets of poetry. 3

NAT. ORDER BIGNONiACE/E.


'

CALOSANTHES INDICA,

Bl.

Syn. Bignonia Indica, Linn.


Sans, a^ !<*, Syondka.
*rcf,

Aralu.

Vem. Ndsond, Beng. Arlu, Hind.


small
root-bark
is

The
It is considered astringent,
tonic,

used in medicine.

and useful in diarrhoea and dysentery. It is also an ingredient of dasamtda ( see Dcsmodium gangeticum ), and is thus largely used
in a great variety of disease.

The tender

fruits

are described as

grateful, carminative

and stomachic.

tirc^f:
2.

11

=*nKm;

*tfr

q^^ma

*i!fs*m:

***:

irator.

w%

*?g*nT:

^irtot-

nzyft

11

^Fm:

204

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

within some leaves and a layer of The root-bark is enclosed expressed from this roasted bark olay and roasted. The juice
given in diarrhoea and dysentery with the addition of mocharasa

(gum

of

Bombax Malabarium)

In otorrhcea, Sarangadhara recommends the use of an oil prepared by boiling, over a gentle fire, sesamum oil with a paste

made

of the root-bark of Calosanthes Indica?

STEREOSPERMUM SUAVEOLENS,
Syn. Bignonia suaveolens,
Sans.

D.

C.

Eoxb.

?W$\ PdtaU.
f

Vern. Pdrul, Beng. Pad, Hind.


tree,

This

is

a middle sized flowering

native of Bengal.

The

flowers are large,

of a dark crimson

oolonr

and

exquisitely

fragrant.

Steeped in water they impart their fragrance to it. Rubbed up with honey they are given to oheok hiccup. The
root-bark

and

is

an ingredient of dasamula (see Desmodiuvi gangeticum), thus largely used in native medioine. It is regarded as
is

cooling, diuretic

and

tonic,

and

is

generally used in combination

with other medioines.

The ashes

are used in the of this plant

preparation of alkaline water and oaustio pastes.

NAT. ORDER CONVOLVULACE/E.

IPOMCEA TURPETHUM,
/

JR.

Br.

Syn. Convolvulus, Turpethum, Roxb.


faf*[,

Trivrit

f^rcT

Hin

Two

varieties of trivrit are described

by most

writers,

namely

krishna
1
-

-*v

nrrrci
2.

fa jgftro^

*n*nft

qfonfwui

*Sm

WWW *^
unnrci

*ypmj

IfrOIKEA

TURFETHUM

205.

medicinal use as a moderate or mild cathartic. The black variety is said to be a powerful drastic and to oause vomiting,
for

faintness

and giddiness. from time immemorial and


tioners,

Trivrit has
is still

been used as a purgative


In fact this

used as such by native practi-

alone,
is

as well as in various combinations.

medicine
jalap is

the ordinary cathartic in use amongst natives, just as

among Europeans. About two folfc

The usual mode

of administering

it

scruples of the root are rubbed into a


salt

pulp with water and taken with the addition of rook ginger or sugar and blaok pepper.

and

A compound powder called


;

Ndrdcha chuma}

is

thus prepared.

Take of Trivrit root eight tolas, long pepper two tolas, sugar eight tolas powder and mix. About a scruple of the powder is recommended to be taken before meals in constipation with hard feces.
Tumburbddya chuma. 2 Take of the fruits of Xanthoxylum hostile ( tumburu ), rock, vit and sochal salts, ajowan pdchdk root,
%

yavakshdra

chebulio myrobalan, aseafoetida and baberang seeds,


trivrit

one part each,


mix.

three parts

powder the ingredients and

Dose, about a drachm with

warm

water,

in painful

dyspepsia with oostiveness and flatulence.

In anasarca supposed
decoction of
trivrit,

to

be

caused by

deranged
is

bile,

gulancha,

and the three myrobalans

recom-

mended

to be taken.

Milk diet should be prescribed along with

this medicine. 3

1.

* **

fa* win**'

f%%H ws:

<w*r*sfl9
II

ft^

faWito*i
I

S^T^q^teT ^fff
2.

*u<w4ft TTOT

HMiW:

g^rsf
I

^ni
^
II

g^^fa fawm
fkWr[ fwrffaiT

*m$(

ipitnra*[i

iwkwh
I

faff Of wf*T

%m

l&T^ftfo ^fTWt

ftw^T

*rnr*rc:

^ft^Hpf: faflfifol

<ft faflj^ft fflW!||*qi*IH

*f*w

206

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

BATATAS PANICULATUS,

Choisy.

Syn. Convolvulus paniculatus, Eoxb.


Sans. fa<iCt, Yiddvi % ^[^^"fllW, Bhumikttshmdnda.

Vern.

Bhui kumrd, Beng. Bilai kand9 Hind.

The
tonic,

large tuberous root of this


aphrodisiac,
is

handsome climber
for the

is

considered

alterative,

demulcent and laotagogue.

The
of

powdered root-stock

given with wine,

purpose

increasing the secretion of milk. 1

In the emaciation of children

with debility and want of digestive power, the following diet ia reoommended. Take of viddri, wheat- flour and barley equal parts and make into a confection with milk, clarified butter, sugar and

honey.

Susruta gives several prescriptions for

its

use as an

aphrodisiac.
of

the root

The simplest is as follows. Macerate the powder in its own juice and administer with honey and
Viddrz enters into the

clarified butter. 3

composition of several
is

diuretic

and demulcent mixtures. The following

an

illustration.

MutrakrichcUhdntaka rasa*

Take of

viddri,

fruits

of

Tribulus

(gokshura), liquorice root, and flowers of Mesua ferrea

(ndgakesara)

equal parts
is

and

prepare a decoction with water.


secretion.

This decoction

given with the preparation of mercury called

rasasindura, in scanty or acrid urine, to

promote this

PHARBITIS NIL,
dddnd in the

The seeds of this veraaonlar and now commonly used as a


Choisy.

plant, called

purgative

2.

mg
ii

^^
I

^^fa ^

ifatftj

fatfta*?

^^
S3*'
*****

w^ttt:
4.

rfr*T*TW.

f^Tff

^f

3l!TO

**t

*&V

ARGTREIA SPECI0SA.
all

20?

over India, were


for

unknown

to the ancient Hindus.

There

is

no

name

them

in Sanskrit,

ARGYREIA SPECIOSA,
Sans.

Sweet.

Syn. Lettsomia nervosa, Roxb.

m<K^f, Vriddhddaraka.
is

Vern. Bijtarahi, Beng.

The
As an

root of this plant

regarded as alterative, tonic and


prescribed in the following

useful in rheumatic affections, and diseases of the nervous system.


alterative

and nervine tonic

it is

manner.

The powdered

root is soaked,

seven times during seven


(

days, in the juice of the tubers of Asparagus racemosus

satamuli

and dried.
improve the
of age. 1

The

resulting powder

is

given in doses of a quarter to


It is said to

half a tola, with clarified butter,


intellect,

for about a month.

strengthen the body and prevent the effects


is

In synovitis the powdered root

given with milk.

Ajamodddi churna?
pepper and
tolas,

Take

of ajowdn, bdberang % rook salt, plum-

bago root, Cedrns deodara, long pepper root, long pepper, black
dill

seeds

each two

tolas,

chebulio myrobalan ten


tolas
;

root of Argyreia speciosa twenty tolas, ginger twenty

powder and mix.


preparation
hemiplegia.
is

Dose, about two drachms with treacle.

This

said to be useful in

rheumatic affections and

:*

W<K**J<flr ^*hHlllft *H3<t

WI Wl

wN 'H<Mlfa

TT*3?T

II

*m^rra:

208

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

NAT.

ORDER SOLANACE^.
Rumph. and
Dhustura,

DATURA ALBA,
Sans.

FASTUOSA,
Unmatta.

Linn.

^j,

^jpff,

Vern. Dhuturd, Hind, and Beng.

Sanskrit writers do not make any distinction in the properties of the two varieties of Datura, and in practioe both are indiscriminately used.
as for example

Sometimes the white flowered variety


in

is specified,

a prescription for insanity,

quoted below.

Dhaturd leaves are used in smoking by debauohed devotees and others aooastomed to the use of gdnja. The seeds are added to the
preparations of bhang (leaves of Cannabis sativa) used by natives, for increasing their intoxicating powers. The use of the powdered seeds in Bweet-meats, ourry powder, etc., for the purpose stupifying travellers and then robbing them, is well known.

The

seeds,

leaves

and roots are


in insanity,

all

used in medicine.

They

are considered useful

fever

with catarrhal and

cerebral complications, diarrhoea, skin diseases, lice, etc.


Svalpajvardnl-usa. 1

Take of mercury, sulphur,

aconite, ginger,

long pepper and black pepper, each one part, dhaturd seeds two parts rub them together with lemon juice and make into fourgrain pills. These pills are used in fever attended with catarrh or cough. Several other preparations of composition similar to
;

^
JvardnJcusa, etc

Nava
svetonmatta )

ivardnkusa. Kt

The

root of Datura alba

is

boiled in milk and

this milk is administered with the addition of clarified butter and treacle in insanity,' metallic preparation called Unmddankura rasa and composed of the sulphides of mercury and copper

together with a

number

of other substarfoes

and dhaturd

seeds,

is

<\
I

'

s,

*MVmf *"tow *<& WRnmT

Wv^ fttro to$to* frr


<nroi

2.

4frritafeti<nre

ymtrft

*fl*

ifl*Kta

^wr:

OLANUM XANTHOCARPUMo
also used in this disease.

209
or

The
a

fresh juice of the leavea alone,

mixed with opium,


flamed parts.

is

common domestic

application in in-

In inflammation of the breasts, a paste composed of turmeric and dhaturd fruits is recommended to be applied. 1 An oil prepared in the usual manner with the paste and juice of dhaturd leaves, is .applied to the head for destroying lice. 2 An oil prepared by boilwith an alkaline water made from the ashes of Colocasia Indica (mdnaka), is used in psoriasis. 3 In the Bengal Dispensatory page 469 ) it is stated that "we
oil,

ing dhaturd seeds, and sesamum

are indebted to the native practitioners of India for a method of

using stramonium in spasmodic asthma, which is certainly found of great benefit in numerous cases. We allude to the practice of smoking the leaves or dried stems." The smoking of dhaturd
leaves
is

prescribed at present both by English

and native

practitioners in spasmodic asthma, but I have not

met with any

written prescription for it in Sanskrit or vernacular medical works, nor does the Taleef Shereef allude to the practice as

known

to the

Mussulman hakims.
drug
is

It

would seem therefore that

this use of the

of recent origin.

SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM, VAR.


JACQUINII.
Sans,
qfngrsnft,

Schrad.
NidigdhiJcd.

Syn. Solanum Jacquinii, Linn.

Kantak&ri,

firfeft^iT,

Vern. Kantakdri, Be?ig. Kateti, Kataz, Hind.

The

root of Solanum Jacquinii


is

is

much esteemed

as an expec-

torant and

used in cough, asthma, catarrhal fever and pain in


is

the chest.

It
),

an ingredient of dasamula (see Desmodium


is

gangeticum
diseases.

and

tljus

largely used in a great variety of

The

fruits

are said to possess properties similar to

those of the roots and are eaten as a vegetable.


1.

iirarrarw^qf^j^j

^ai<$*i:

vav-M*^*

rrst^r

mfam

^r*w*m *j*f inwfa


fvmri
sfta*

^rt?t
t

tt

MHi!H:

^irtcto ftifa

^*^K4iPwi 4$w

iwifirar-

f^rrnn 27

<^;t

210
Dr.

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

W.

C. Mookerjee, says "Kantakari

is

an invaluable medi-

Dropsy aa a sequela of the advanced stage of Fever when all other modes of treatment fail. It is said by him to be a powerful diuretic and useful in chronic, violent and low fever,
cine for

dropsy or general anasarca, low vitality of the general system, enlargement of liver and spleen. It is combined with knrcbi in anasarca with Dysentery." Report of Dispensing, 1878.
Kantahdri
is

used in medicine in various forms, such as

decoction, electuary, ghrita, etc.

decoction of the root

is

given

with the addition of long pepper and honey, in cough and catarrh, and with rook salt and assafcetida in spasmodic cough. 1 Several

compound decoctions made along with other expectorant and demulcent drugs are in use. The following is an example. Take
of kantakari, root of Justicia

Adhatoda

vdsaka), pulse of Dolichos


all

two tolas prepare a decoction in the usual way and administer, with the addition of pdchak root, in cough with difficult breathing. 2
EantaMryavaleha* or electuary of Solanum Jacquinii. Take of kantakdri root twelve seers and a half, water sixty-four seers, boil till reduced to one fourth and strain. Boil the strained decoction till reduced to the consistence of a fluid to it the
extract,

nmflorus (kulattha)

and ginger, equal parts, in

and add

following substances in fine powder, namely, gulanclia, Piper Chaba

(chavya), plumbago root, tubers of Cyperus rotundus (mustaka), Wins svrcedanea, (karkata sringi), long pepper, black pepper,

Maurorum (ydsa), CUrodendron Siphonantlms (vdrgi) r Va-ada EoxbumUr (^ A\ rgi)rVanaaitoxburgMi, {rdmd) and zedoary root, each eight tolas, sugar two seers and a half, sesamum oil and clarified butter
t

ginger, Alhagi

each one
1

seer,

and

boil

together
\

till

reduced to

the proper
^jh'tfTT:
|

-WquClshcr:

2.

*?t

^w

mw. M<k*m^ ^n%sik^ * *n%t:


urer:
||

ww.

qW^<fe ttoWt
v 9!Tlf 4T;

era

^ftr ^q^,,

M^im^ft

^f^ft, tf

wstc

WITIIANIA S05INIFEEA.

211

Lastly add honey one seer, bamboo-manna and long pepper in fiae powder, eaoh half a seer. This electuary is given in various sorts of cough.

consistence.

Kantakdri ghrita. 1 This is prepared in the usual proportions with the fresh juice of kantakdri, clarified butter and
the following

substances in the form of a paste, namely, Vanda Boxburghii (rdsnd), Sida cordifolid, (bald) ginger, long pepper, black pepper and the fruits of Tribulus tcrrestris (gokshura). It is

used in the same cases as the electuary.

SOLANUM NIGRUM,
Vern.

Linn.

Sans.

wrHt,

Kdkamdchi,
plant

Kdkmdchi, Bcng. MaJcoy. Hind.

The

berries of this

are considered tonic, diuretic and useful in anasarca and heart disease. For the mode of administering them in heart disease,
see

Hridaydrnava

rasa, (

page 66

).

SOLANUM
Vcr?i.

INDICIUM, Linn.
vngT^ft,

Sans. ?wt, Vrihati.

Bhantdki.

Byakura, Bcng. BarJianld, Hind.

The root of Solanum Indicum is an ingredient of dasamula see Desmodium gangcticum) and is thus used in a great variety
It is regarded as expectorant
affections.

or diseases.

and useful
is

in

cough

and catarrhal
Indicum
rd ifolid
parts
is

The following
this

compound decoction containing


(

drag.
(

an example of a Take of Solanum


kantakdri
),

vrihati

),

Solanum

Jacquinii

Sida
equal

and
in the usual

raisins*

and prepare a decoction

way.

This deooction

given in bronchitis with fever. 2

WITHANIA SOMNIFERA,
Syn. Phy salts jlexuosa, Roxb.

Don.

Sans, ^r^-rr, Asvagandhd. Vera. Asvagandhd, Bcng. Asgand, Hind.

The

root of this

plant

is

long,

smooth, rounded, whitish


It is said

brown externally and

of a fine

white colour internally.

iwt:i
2
-

mi

ft? f?ft

tot

stwttIt:

wfatf

sm^

ft?re>reTT?

^ v4*i w$^*<-fl:
i

STfaRnrjj

212

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDIC A.

that the root smells like a horse

asvangandhd.
scarcely

whence the Sanskrit name The specimen in my possession however has


taste.

any odour or
is

It is

regarded as tonic, alterative


emaciation
of

and aphrodisiac and


children, debility

used in

consumption,
etc.

from old age, rheumatism,

In consumption a decoction of asvagandhd pepper


is

root and long

given with the addition of clarified butter and honey.


of

For improving the nutrition


to

weakly children, the root reduced


to

a paste,

is

recommended
2

be takfo with milk and

clarified

butter for a fortnight.

Asvagandhd ghrita?

Take

of the decoction of

asvagandhd root
;

one part, milk ten parts, clarified butter one part


together and prepare a ghrita.
It is said to

boil

them

promote the

nutrition

and strength

of children.

In rheumatism, a ghrita prepared with a decoction and paste


of the root,
is

used internally

and an

oil

prepared with,

decoction of the root and a

number
i

of aromatic

substances in the

form of a

paste, is used externally.


of

About half a drachm


old men,

asvagandhd root, taken with milk

or

clarified butter is said to act as

an aphrodisiac and

restorative to
several

Asvagandhd, enters into the

composition of

medicines intended for use a3 aphrodisiacs. 4

HYOSCYAMUS
nig&r are used

tftGER, Linn.

The

seeds

of

Hyoscyamns
of khorasani
narcotic,

in

Hindu medicine under the name

yamdm.

They are considered stimulant or heating,

astringent and digestive, and are' used in combination with other

WKMifiwiflte: ^?rs t

^l^nsr

*r9stfra^t TOPwra^nfirafc*

II

*fenwnqiraitn* tin

*iw mm *reJT*5 sfe;

*m

f^Tiyn

xm

ffi

^^
^ur?^

^tT^
4.

TORnf^nii

%nw qw^

jmrft

w^rw.i

^W^

*i*uvnta%nfcr

WTTfC

PICRORRHIZA KURROA.

213

medioiaes of their class. The seeds of Hyoscyamus Niger are used


as anthelmintics. i

NTCOTIANA TABACUM,
the end
of

Linn.

According to Royle, the


(

tobacco plant was introduced into India

A. D.

1605) towards

the reign of Jelaludeen Akbar.

It is not described

even in the latest Sanskrit medical works such as the Bhavaprakasa or Raja Vallava. The Sabdakalpadruma mentions it

under the name of cTR^Z, TdmraJcuta, and quotes as authority for the use of the word, a passage from the Kuhirnava Tantra where
it is

stated to be one of eight intoxicating agents.

CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS,
have no Sanskrit name.

Linn, and

MINIMUM,
all

Roxb.
all

Although they are now cultivated

over India and form an essential ingredient of

curry powders,

they are not mentioned in any Sanskrit medical work and are
evidently of recent introduction into this country.

NAT.
Sans.
WZfiiJ,

ORDER SCROPHULARIACE^E.
-Royle.

PICRORRHIZA KURROA,
Katukd, ^ZTtf^ft, Katurohini.
is

Vera. Eatki,

H. B.

The
fever

root of Picrorrhiza Kurroa

described as hitter, acrid and


It is used in

stomachic and in larger doses a moderate cathartic.

and dyspepsia and as an ingredient of medicines. The katki has been found in Madras

various purgative
a useful medicine

About two and proposed for use in Fever and Dyspepsia. drachms of the powdered root given with sugar and warm water,
is

said to act as a mild purgative.


is

In bilious fever the following

decoction
raisins,

highly recommended.
3

Take oi-katuki

root, liquorice,
;

and nim bark, half a


reduced to one-fourth.
mx?i\m vmtft

told each,

water thirty-two tolas


is

boil till
1.

The following

an example

of

<ftaT tnzjfm

arfw

mw.

^^^t fafasiTfi ^"lunt

?ti:

3.

^^\ if^R fqaC T$tt

*tfW

^TOirofisre

*n^W^
^m^:\

fvn-

^rcm^it

214

SANSRElf MATERIA MEDICA.


Jcatulci

a powder containing
JcatuJci,

root,

used in dyspepsia.
chebulic

Take

of

Acorus
root,

Calamus

(vachd),
;

myrobalans

and

plumbago

equal parts

powder and mix.

Dose, about a

draolim with cow's urine in dyspepsia with severe pain.

HERPESTIS MONNIERIA, H.
Syn. (Jratiola Monnieria, Roxb.
Sans.

B.

K.

3#, Brahmi,

qwzfit,

Manduki, Vern Brahmi, Bcng. Hind.

The herb used by the native physicians of Calcutta under the name of brahmi is the Herpestis Monnieria. Roxburgh however
gives brahmi and one of
its

synonyms somalatd as the Sanskrit

for

Bula

graveolens.

This de3orepanoy induced

me

to

get specimens
I got the
is

of the

plant from different parties,

but everywhere
of

Herpestis

Monnieria under the

name
in

brahmi.
insanity,

This plant
epilepsy

considered a nervine tonic, useful


hoarseness.

and

Half a

told of the fresh juice of

the leaves, with two


to be given

scruples of pdchah root


in insanity.

and honey,

is

recommended

The

leaves fried in

clarified

butter are taken to

relieve hoarseness. 1

A powder
(

composed

of equal parta of

brahmi, Acorus Calamus

ohebulic myrobalan, root of Justicia Adhatoda ( v&sdka ) and long pepper, is given with honey in the hoarseness of
),

vachd

phthisis.

Several ghritas are prepared av ith the juice of brahmi leaves and various other substances in the form of paste. They
are used in insanity, epilepsy and hoarseness.

The

following

is

an example.

Brahmi gkrita?

Take

of old clarified butter four seers,


(

fresh

all thirty-two tolas, in the


till

form of a paste and boil them together


~

the watery portion


1.

is

evaporated.

Bee note

page 203.

wtit
*fta%
3.

'rwt
i

^wr'ppjwft *nj ijytn

w
^
i

vftym

mrnfa&

ww^n
jjsffoS

3wl<ii

whm

^r f*

*wgiftM*i

frm

*re Jfin^tf-

^nff^f

JUSTICIA ADHATODA.

215

NAT. ORDER ACANTHACE^E


JUSTICIA ADHATODA,
Boxb.

Syn. Adhatoda Vasira, Nees.


Sans.
s[TO3T,

Vdsaka, *i4W, Atarusha. Vem. Bdkas, B. Arushd, H,

This
in

is

a bushy slirub
fences.

common

in

most parts of India and used

making

The
in

leavea and roots of this plant are con-

sidered expectorant and antispasmodic and are variety of forms

muoh used

in a

cough,

consumption, catarrhal fever and


in phthisis

asthma.
that
it

This medicine was considered so serviceable


this disease

was said no man suffering from

need despair

as long as the vdsaka plant exists.

The
is

fresh juice or decoction of the leaves in doses of one tola,

given with the addition of honey and long pepper in cough.


is

decoction of vdsaka root, ohebulic myrobalan and raisins


in the

used

Another compound decoction much used in fever with cough, is as follows. Take of vdsaka root, gnlancha, and the root of Solatium, Jacquinii (kantakdri) in equal parts, two tolas

same

cases.

in all

and prepare

a decostion in the usual


1

way.

This

is

given

with the addition of honey.

A ghrzta

is

prepared with

clarified

butter, a decoction of the plant and a paste of the

root taken in

the usual proportions and

is

used in phthisis.

Vdsdvaleho? or electuary of vdsaka.

Take

of

the juice of

vdsaka leaves four seers, white sugar one seer, long pepper sixteen tolas, clarified butter sixteen tolas, boil them together till reduced
to the consistence of

an extract.

When

cool

add honey one

seer,

1.

tftrat

TORfairo:

<?to:

^?w ^twi
<fcr:

^w^ot:
i

ftft

*nj**T

^rf^ftra;

ii

^t^t strewn

wro:

wifa&z

faffa

mfanifri

wihK.
2.

qranrre:

* ^nr#

mfw fmmv

ftwmi fvrt

^m

^f^-5*ttW

srorarc

216

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA,


stir

and

with a ladle

till

intimately mixed.
sides,

Dose, one to two

tolas

in phthisis,

cough with pain in the

hromoptysis and asthma.


seers and

Vdsdchandanddi taila}

Take of vdsaha plant, twelve


;

a half, water sixty-four seers

boil

till

reduced to one-fourth.
;

Take

of

lac

eight seers,

water sixty-four seers


sandal

boil

down
root

to of

sixteen seers.

Take

of red
(

wood,
),

gulancha,

Cleroclendron Siphbnanthus

bralimayashti

the ten drugs balled

dasamtda and Solatium Jacquinii (nidzgdhikd), eaoh two seers

and a

half,

water sixty^four seers


decoctions,

boil

down
%

to sixteen seers.
oil

To those
paste,

add

of

whey and prepared sesamuin


mbstanoes in the form
liquorice,

sixteen seers eaoh and the following

of a

namely, red sandal

wood,

wood

of

Berberis

Asiatica,

long pepper, black pepper, ginger, turmeric, pdchah root, emblic myrobalans, iejapatra leaves, wood of Gedrus Deodara, cinnamon, and cardamom, seeds called renuka, pouch of civet oat,
root
of

Withanza

somnifera

(ast

gandhcl),

Pcederza

foetida

{prasdrani),

Vanda

Boxburghii

(rdsnci),

saileya

(a

sort of

lichen), zedoary root,

and the frait of Aglaia


;

Roxburghiana
in the usual

(priangu

),

eaoh eight tolas


oil
is

and

boil

them together

way.

'

This

rubbed" on the body in affections of the ohest

and especially

in phthisis.

HTGROPHILA SPINOSA,
lo

T.

Anders.

Syn.

Asteracantha
Kokildteha,

fifolia,

Nees. Buellia longifoUa, Boxb. Sans,

^tar*,

T^PWT.

m
met with
in

This
1.

littla annual is

low places

all

over the country


vmvtit

**l

<*t*nsiifc frr^

twr sfinkroa* t

faF^"

* ft^cRf^n

tptaf

qf%^t:

tp^T^

f^,^,

^<^

qm^

"\

SESAMUM INDICUM.

.217

The

leaves are described as cooling and useful in jaundice and anasarca. They are * used as a pot herb. The root is considered
cooling, bitter, tonic

and

diuretic,

and

is

u?ed in rheumatism,
of the plant are also

urinary affections and anasarca.

The ashes

used as a diuretic in dropsy. 1

ANDROGR APHIS PANICULATA,


is

Nees. This bitter shrub


of Jcdlmeg

well-kftaown in

Bengal under the name

and

is

the

principal ingredient of a domestic medicine for infants oalled Mui.

There

is

some doubt regarding


this

its

Sanskrit name.

plant oalled

yavatiktd

with synonyms of mohdtzktd,

sanlthini, etc., is said

by

some to mean
Stv.

shrub bub the term mohdtiktd when ocouring in


is

Sanskrit prescriptions
m

usually interpreted as Melia sempervtrrvs,


in

and yavatikta has not been noted by me as having occurred

any prescription, so that I


paniculata
referred to

am

inclined to think Andrographis

was not used in Sanskrit medicine.


is

The

dlui above

made

of the expressed juice of the leaves

with the
etc.,

addition of powdered cardamoms, cloves, cinnamon

and

is

given to infants for the relief of griping,


loss of appetite.

irregular stools and

nat. order: sesames.

SESAMITM INDICUM,
Sans. f^T, Tila, #^qf5f, SncJiaphah.
'

Linn.
Til,

Vem.

Beng. and Hind.

Tnis plant

is

extensively cultivated in India for the


oil,

sake of

the seeds and their expressed

both of which articles are in

great

demand for various economic, religious and medicinal purposes. The word taila, the eanskrit for oil, is derived from tila ; it would therefore seem, that sesamum oil, was one of the
I

first,

if

nob the

first

oil

manufactured from

oil-

seeds

by the
of
is

ancient Hindus.

The Bhavaprakasa

describes three

varieties

HI seeds, namely, black, white and red.

Of these the black


It yields

regarded as the best suited for medicinal use.

also

1.

jftag?r ^tfareirerer

wr vfin ^wtt

siwt:
1

23

218

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDIC A.

the largest quantity of


Til

oil.

White
is

til is

of intermediate quality.

of red

or other colours

said to be inferior and unfit for

medicinal use.

Sesamum

seeds are used as an article of diet, being made

into

confectionary with sugar, or ground into meal.


essential article
of certain

They form

an

religious oeremonies of the Hindus,


of

and have therefore received the names


sacrificial grain, pitritarpana or the

homadhdnya
is

or the
aB an
basis

grain that

offered

oblation to deceased ancestors, etc.


of

Sesamum

oil

forms the

the natives for most of the fragrant or scented oils used by inunction before bathing and of medicated oils prepared with various vegetable drugs. It is preferred for these purposes from the circumstance of
its being little liable to turn rancid or possessing no strong taste or odour of its own.

'

thick,

and from

its

Sesamum
diuretic,

seeds are

considered emollient,

nourishing,

tonic,

in

and lactagogue. They are said to be especially serviceable piles, by regulating the bowels and removing constipation.
given with seeds ground to a paste with water are 1 seeds (Ttl bleeding piles. Sweetmeats made of the
this
2

Sesamum
butter in

seeds 4 tolas and sugar 1 tola) are also beneficial in

disease.

poultice

made

of

the seeds

is

applied to ulcers.

Both

the

seeds and the oil are used as demulcents in dysentery and urinary
diseases in combination with otlfer medicines of their class.

NAT. ORDER. VERBENACE/E.

TITEX NEGUNDO,
Sans,
finjrcft,

Linn.

Nirgundi, f%^rrr;, Sindhuvdra.

Vern. Nisinda, Beng. Nisindd, Sdmbhalu, Hind.

Sanskrit writers mention two varieties of nirgundi. That with pale blue flowers is called sindhuvdra (Vitex Irifolia) and that with
blue flowers
is

called nirgundi.
is

be identical, but the latter


root

properties of both generally used in medicine.

The

said to are

The

of

Vitex

Negundo

is

oonsidered tonic,

and febrifuge

GMELIKA AKBOliEA,
expectorant

21

powders, before making the latter into

pills.

A decoction of nirgundi
ness of hearing.
1

leaves

is

given with the addition o

long pepper in catarrhal fever with heaviness of head and dull*

A pillow
remove
2

stuffed with the leaves

of nirgundi is of

placed under the head for relief of headache.


leaves is said to
foetid

The juice discharges and worms from


is

the

ulcers.

An

oil

prepared with the juice of the leaves


sores.

applied to sinuses

and scrofulous

GMELIXA ARBOREA,
Sans.
Jipinft,

Linn.

Gambhdri, ftq^f, Sripami, ^vm^, Kdsmdri.


f

Vem. Gdmdriy Beng> Gdmhhdf

liiml.
6
laehiflr,

The

root of this plant

is

desoribed as bitter, tonic,

laxative,

and

useful in fever, indigestion, anasarca etc.

It

is

an

ingredient of dasamida (see Desmodium gavgrticim), and is thus much used in a variety of diseases. Bangasena says that gambhdri
root taken with liquorice,
o!

milk.
;

The

fruits

of

honey and sugar increases the secretion Gmelxna aritorea are sweetish bitter and

they enter into the composition of several cooling or refrigerant decoctions for fever and burning of the body. The
cooling

following

is

an example.

Take
)
,

of the fruits of

Cmelina arborea

Grewia Asiatica

( parushaka

liquorice root,

red sandal wood,

*nd the root of Andropogun muricatum (uxhira), equal parts, in all two tolas, water thirty-two tolas, and boil till reduced to ono
half.

This decoction
fe^rc^raTsf

is

used as a drink in bilious fever.


nq^

cfi^rsf

^t

ftftf

WW
2.

fspj^yfct^

sjj^qm Or^tff

^fasn

MN 3

*Wfl

tn

9%rclg
3.

x( n

^^ti:

'

220

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

CLERODENDROX

SIPHONANTHUS,
Bhdrangi,

Br.

Syn.
^

Siphonanthus Indica, Lam. Sans. wURffe^ft, BrahmayashtiTcdf wif,


Bhdrgi. Vern. Bdrnanhdlf, Beng.

Hind.

The
is

root

of

Clerodcndron Siphonanthus

is

considered useful in asthma, cough


root beaten to a pulp
1

and scrofulous
ginger and
of

affections.

The

given with

warm water

in asthma.

It enters into tho composition

several

compound decoctions for diseases


is

of

the lungs,

confection called Bhdrgiguda


root

prepared with a decoction

of this

and the ten drugs called dasamula, chebulic myrobalan, treacle and the usual aromatic substances. It is used in asthma.

An

oil,

prepared with a decoction and paste of the root


Siphonanthus in the

of

Clerodendron

usual proportions,

is

recom-

mended

for external application in the

marasmus

of children.

PREMNA SERRATIFOLIA,
nrftrr

Linn.

Syn. Premna

spinosa,

Hind
as bitter,

The

stomachic* and useful in fever, anasarca, urtioaria, etc leaves are bitter and carminative. made of the soup

leaves is occasionally used as a stomachic root forms an ingredient of

and carminative.
B<

The

dasamula

(s

modium

gangclicum),

and

is

thus largely used in a variety of affections.


root rubbed into a paste with

The

water

is

recommended

to be

urticaria

NAT, ORDER

LABIATE
Linn.

OOIMUM SANCTUM,
<F?r*ft,

Tulasi, xpm

Sanskrit writers make two ( founded varieties of this plant 1*" upon some difference in the colour namely, w of their leaves)
i.

facH

Riff

ta*

**fa?W
2.

^fontf

& fttf^l iffa

"^ lrfW1^lHPl WW*


^p^;
'

OCIMUM HASILICCM

221

aad black.

The Ocimum sanctum


and
is

is

held saored to Vishnu of the

Hindu hou3e where it is daily watered and worshipped by all the members of the family. The beads or rosaries used by orthodox natives for counting the number of reoitations of their deity's name, are made of the
stems of this plant.
/

Hindu

trinity,

reared in every

The
leaves
fever. 1

leaves arc regarded as an ti* catarrhal or expectorant and

are used in catarrh, cough


is

and pain

in the sides.

The

juice of the

given with the addition of black pepper in catarrhal It is often used as an adjunct to metallic preparations,

which are rubbed with it into a thin paste and then licked up. The leaves enter into the composition of some compound decoctions for cough and affections o the chest. The following is an example. Take of the loaves of Ocimum sanctum, gulancha,
ginger, root oE Glerodendron Siphonanthus,
(

bhdrgi) and Solatium

Jacguinii

kantakiri), ejual parts and prepare a decoction in the

usual way. 2

The

dried leaves are used as snuff in

oz.Tna.

They

some compound medicines used in this disease, as for example of an oil which is prepared with a
also enter into the composition of
.

paste of the leave3 of Ocinvim sanctum, roots of Solannm Jacqninii


( ), Baliospermum mon anum (danti), Acorns Calamus (vachdy, Morznga ptcvygospcrma (sigru), long pepper, black

kantakdri

pepper, and ginger. 3

OCIMUM BASILICUM,
Sans. irx. 9 Varvara.
plant,

Linn. Syn.

Vern.
in

Bdbui tulsL
the

Ocimum pihsum, Willd. Beng. The seeds of thia


are

called

rchdn

vernacular,

demulcent and

nourishing.
jelly

Steeped in water they swell into a mucilaginous


is

which

taken with the addition of sugar in dysentery,

gonorrhoea and cough.

<\

mHn:
^fni
3.

ii

^w^:
i

*m^i?fta^fiiw335tal*ra

qtfatf

mrt fa

^'nw? aiH^
\

ii

222

SANSKEIl MATERIA MEDICA.

NAT. ORDER AMARANTACE/E. AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS. Linn. Sans, w^^r,


Vern. Kantdnatia, Bcny.

Tanduliya.
is

Choldi,

Hind.

This thorny weed

considered light, cooling and a promoter of the alvine and urinary


discharges.
Its

root

is

said

to
it is

be an efficacious medicine

for
1

menorrhagia, in which disease


It

given with rasot and honey.

enters also

into the

composition of other medicines for this


ghrita.

disease, as for

example in the preparation called Asolca

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA,
Sans. ^r<TWT^,

Linn*

Apdmdrga. ^<i$C Kharamanjaru Vern, Apdng, Beng. Latjird, chirchird, Hind. This troublesome weed is chiefly valued on account of ita ashes which contain a large quantity of potash. These are used in the
preparation of alkaline medicines and caustic pastes, (see Alkaline ashes). The ashes mixed with orpiment are applied as a caustic to warts on the penis and other parts of the body.

Apdmdrga

tadla.1

Take

of

sesamum

oil

four seors, tho alkaliuo

water prepared from the ashes of Achyranthes aspera sixteen seers, the ashes of the plant one jeer, and boil them together in the usual way. This oil is poured into the meatus in oases of noise
in the ears and deafness.

The wood
medicines of

itself is

described as heating like*


;

fire,

laxative and a

promoter of seoretions
its

it

is

used in combination with other

class in asoifces

and anasarca,

(see Cedrus Beodara).

NAT.
Sans.

ORDER NYCTAGINACE/E. BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA, Linn.


g^T, Punarnavd, ^n^,
varieties
is

Sothaglmi.

Vern. Svctapunamabd, Beng. Stint, Hind.

Both the red and white

of this plant are noticed


is

by Sanskrit writers but th e white


1.

preferred for use. Its root


,

irt w*mw

ij*

^grf^ ^^xfare
is

The

*^< qdm* fi^fa WW

m this.

olobely allied epeoiea A. bidentata, Bl.

probably need as frequently

G. K.

CINHAMOMUM CAMPHORA.
regarded as laxative, diuretic and
tions.

223
;

stomachic

it

is

need in

jaundice, ascites, anasarca, scanty urine and

internal

inflamma-

One

of its

Sanskrit synonyms, namely, sofhagni means


root
is

oure for dropsy.


to

A decoction of punarnavd

be given with the addition of powdered chiretd

recommended and ginger in


disease
is

anasarca. 1

A compound decoction much used


-

in

this

prepared as follows.

Punarnavd shtaJca.*
of
(

Take

of

Punarnavd
t

root,

nim

bark, leaves

Trichosanthes dioica

(patola)

ginger,

Picrorrhiza Kurroa

katulci), chebulio

myrobalan, gulancha, and the wood of Berberis

Asiatica (ddruharidra), quarter of a tola each,


tolas
;

water thirty-two
This decoction
is

boil together

till

reduced to one-fourth.

given in general anasarca with ascites, oongb, jaundice,


breathing, etc.

difficult

An oil,

prepared with a decoction of the root and


is

number

of the usual aromatics in the form of a paste,

rubbed
Ii is

on the body in general anasarca complicated with jaundice.


called

Punarnavd taila?
gives an electuary
is

The Bhavapraknsa
Punamavavaleha.
It

under the name of

prepared with a decoction of the root of

w
strangury

NAT. ORDER LAURACE^.

CINNAMOM; \\I C AMPHORA,


^qr.

Kees

Fbrrmaier.

H,

Two

varieties of

camphor are mentioned by Sanskrit


is

writers,

namely, paTcva and apakva, that

prepared with the aid of heat

forcer

ii

fkw$ ^r^t mft

*r*rrtf

wzw$ mi\

wit ?rc far?;*

224,

SANSKRIT MATERIA 1118104,


it.

and without

The latter is considered superior to the former. It would seem from the above description that by the term apahva karpura, was probably meant tl^e camphor obtained in
Borneo from the trunk of
Camphorifera, Boxb
)

Dryobalanops

aromatica,

( Shore*

and hy the term

'paJcva Jcarpura,

the China

camphor obtained by sublimation from the wood

of

Cinnamomwm

Camphora.
The Rdjanirghantu desoribea an oil of camphor under the Dame of harpura taila. It is said to be useful in rheumatism and
in giving firmness to loose teeth.

This

oil is

not recognized or

used by the native practitioners of the present day, but it most probably meant the camphor oil or liquid camphor obtained my

making

incisions
is
it

on the Borneo camphor tree.


regarded
is

Camphor
aphrodisiac;
eye-diseases,

ae

carminative,

stimulant

and

used in fever, diarrhoea, impotence, cough,


It
is

etc.

also

much used

in the preparation of

medicinal oils for imparting fragrance to them, singly as well as in combination with other aromatic substances. Camphor enters into the composition of numerous medicines for the diseases mentioned above. The following i s an illustration.

Karpura Rasa*

Take

of cinnabar,

opium, camphor, tubers

of

Oyperus rotunda* (raus/aka), iptdrajava seeds and nutmegs, equal parts powder the ingredients, and make into four-grain piUi with water. ThesA m'lia ~ ^,i arrh
;

.-i

Camphor, rubbed with the milky juice of Flcus Bengala it, is recommended to be applied to It enters opacities on the oornea.
also into composition

of several

collyria.

small tent made

tnftfiRraf?r
l.

*t *sfa
i

rips:

f^r^f^ro g*^*r

cpst

wfim*

***

^
I

ftfw
ftp^fi
2.

^Z^VH

ijpj'

^T9T^t
<*q\ji

fwmitft

<$fo

wife wta^
inm:

SANTALtHF ALBUM.

225

with oamphor

introduced into the urethra for the relief of irritability of the bladder and frequent micturition. 1
is

CINNAMOMUM ZEYLAXICUM,
Gudatvalc.

Breyn.

Sans.

^*w,

Cinnamon

is

largely used as an aromatic adjunct in

compound

prescriptions.

A combination

of oinnamon,
trijdtaJca,

cardamoms
these three

and tejapatra leaves, passes by the name of aromatics being often used together.

CINNAMOMUM
They are an

T AM ALA,

Nees.

and other

species, furnish

the leaves called tejapatra in Sanskrit, and tejpdt in the vernacular.


essential ingredient of Indian cookery.

For remarks

on their uses in medicine see

Uinnamomum Zeylanicum.

NAT. ORDER MYRISTICE/E.

MYRISTICA OFFICINALIS,
entef into the
adjuncts, but .there
is

Linn. Both nutmegs and mace

composition of numerous medicines as aromatic

no peculiarity in their use that need special


infusion of nutmegs
is

consideration here.
several
patients. 2

An

recommended by

writers as a serviceable drink in the thirst of cholera

NAT. ORDER SANTALE/E.

SANTALUM ALBUM,

Linn.

Sans. ^RfT, Chan dana, *ftigw, Stihlianda.


Vern. Chandan, Beng. Saplied chandan, Hind.

Sanskrit writers describe several varieties of chandana and

some include the woods of Pterocarpus Santalinus (ralctachandana) and Coesalpinia Sappan (pattanga ) under this common denomina-

two varieties of sandal wood are generally recognised, namely, sriklianda or white sandal wood
tion.

Excluding these

last,

$fwr*

*ftita?

^jsr^iwr^ vr:

*prerc*Frf *fft

nKH**fw%
^TFTtRiTSr:
|

faqraram^ai a

srcir

m* x^

srrata^

it *fct

*3 *3&m *wj:i

29

226

Sanskrit materia medica.

and pitachandana or the yellow variety. These varieties are founded on the difference in the depth of colour in the heartwood and not on any specific difference in the plants. The use
of

sandal

fragrant

made from it, are too well known to need description here. The Hindus use an emulsion of the wood in the worship of their idols
and for painting or anointing their bodies after bathing. Rich natives sometimes use sandal wood for burning their dead
relatives.

Rich or p3or,
pile.
oil

all

add at least one piece of the wood

to

the funeral

The

essential

of

chandan (chua chandana) obtained by

from the heart-wood and roots, is of a pale yellow colour and has a peculiar fragrant smell best appreciated by rubbing a few drops of it cm the hand. It is much used as a
distillation

perfume by the Hindus both for themselves and for their idols. In Orissa it is a practice with the better olasses to rub a little
sandal oil in the spices which they take with their betel-leaf.

Sandal wood

is

desoribed as bitter, oooling, astringent, and

An

useful in biliousness, vomitting, fever, thirst

and heat

of

body.

emulsion of the wood

is

used as a oooling application to the

skin in erysipelas, prurigo and sudamina. 1 Two tolas of the watery emulsion of sandal wood, with the addition of sugar,

honey and rice-water, is given to check gastric dysentery, and to relieve thirst and heat of body. 2

irritability

and

NAT. ORDER EUPH0RB1ACE/E. PHYLLANTHUS EMBLIOA, Linn.


:.

Emhltca

officinalis,

^TWipft,

Amalaki,

-q\dft

Hind,

Like chebulio myrobalan, emblic myrobalan is also extensively used in Hindu medicine, both alone and in combination with
1

ftw%
u

Graft

%qr

mm:

imi: wftm:

v%*\: i*ft*tovi
"araf^r

Fsrant

$n *n farrpf

^ tr^T^

^cwnft^faisiiiPni^^t^ffl
WrUW^iT*:
I

PHYLUXTHUS EMBLICA.
m

227

the two other


striated,

myrobalans.

The

fresh fruits are globular, six-

with a fleshy, acidulous pulp,


sugar,
is

preserve of the ripe

fruits

made with

considered a wholesome article of diet

and a preservative

of health.

The dried

fruits are wrinkled, of a

blackish grey colour, and have an acidulous, astringent taste.

The
diuretic

properties of emblio myrobalan are said to resemble

those of the ohebulio.

and laxative. in hemorrhages. It is said that, the exudation from incisions made on the fruits while on the tree, is a very useful external
application in recent inflammation of the eye.
It
is

The fresh juice is cooling, refrigerant, The dried fruits are astringent and useful

also used as

a collyrium. 1

The following preparation


raisins,

is

used as a cooling and stomachia

drink in irritability of the stomach.

Take

of emblio

myrobalan,
;

sugar and honey, eight tolas each, water half a seer rub them together, strain through cloth and administer the strained
fluid in suitable doses.
2

emblio myrobalan is recommended to About two drachms of paste, with the addition of honey for be given in the form of a and discharge of blood from the uterus. checking monorrhagia

The fresh
diuretic. 8

the ripe fruits is given with honey as a juice of the fruits is applied over the pubio region paste of
4

in irritability of the bladder.

KhawJ'dmalaki

',

or confection of emblio myrobalan.


(

Take
)

of

the pnlp of an old gourd of Benincasa cerifera,


xrafrfrj frm1<ft *n
i

kushndnda

four

1.

^H

f*rifa ^ipt:-i

ttog^ii
2.

^f^n:

(cm TOfareisret
I

wre

mflfom

m ^wi^n
i

f?f*jfai

*re

*tost

*ri%cT tffet

^T ^fi% fa^<"Mi+l

^raPTfr:

for?:

ht^jto:

2%2S

SANSKRIT MATERIA 3IECICA.


ft

hundred
tolas,

tolas,

clarified

butter two seers, sugar four hundred

fresh emblio
cerifera,

Benincasa
fry
it

myrobalans four seers, juice of the gourd of four seers first dry the pulp of the gourd and
;

Express the juice of the emblic myrobalans and boil the fried pulp in the mixed juices of the emblio myrobalan and the pumpkin, with the addition of the
sugar.

in

the clarified butter.

When

the syrup

is

thiok enough,

add the following


tolas,

aromatic substances, namely, long pepper, nigella seeds and ginger, each sixteen tolas, black pepper eight coriander,

cinnamon, leaves called tejapafra, cardamoms, flowers of Mesva


ferrea

Cyprus rotundus (mustaka), and the leaves of Finns Webbiana (tdlisa ), each two tolas (all in fine powder) and stir with a ladle till intimately mixed. Then add
(

ndgalcesara), tuhera ot

honey one seer and


confection.

stir

well

till

reduced to the consistence of a

This preparation is said to be useful in dyspepsia with pain and vomiting after meals, pain

m the precordial region, etc.


as a tonic.

disinclination for food,

It

promotes the appetite and

acts

BUM lauha}

Take of powdered emblic myrobalan,

sixty-

tour tolas, prepared iron thirty-two tolas, liquorice powder sixteen tolas, mix them together and soak in the juice of gnlancha tor seven t.mes successively. This preparation is given in doses 6nty t0 forfc y S rains i anrcmia, jaundice and dyspepsia.

*t

to fin^9r

*nm&

rro*jfa

smita

fanifiratoW
trrT

WfiTI

^W^Ti^^^

^l^tTT^ fimn *\m$

w?*ni

CROTON TIGLIUM. Dhatri


arisJifa'
1

220
of emblio myrobalan.

or

fermented

liquor

Take the fresh juice of two thousand emblio myrobalans, honey


equal to one-eighth of the juice, powdered Io D g pepper sixteen tolas, sugar six seers and a quarter mix them together, boil for a while and leave the mixture to ferment in an earthen jar. This liquor is used in jaundioe, dyspepsia,
;

in quantity

indiges-

tion,

cough,

etc.

CROTON TIGLIUM,
Satis.

Linn.
Kandkaphala.

ST^RM, Jayapdla.

^^wm,

em.

Jaypdl, Beng. Jamdlgotd, Hind.

seeds of Croton Tiglium are considered heating, drastic, and useful in fever, constipation, intestinal worms, enlargements
of the

The

abdominal viscera, ascites, anasarca, etc. They are boiled milk and their outer skin and embryo are removed before
Croton
oil
is

being used internally.

not

mentioned

by any

Sanskrit writer and was

unknown

to the ancient

Hindus. Croton

seeds enter into the oomposition of a great many medicines for the diseases mentioned above. The following are a few illustrations.

Ichchhdvedtvafikd. 2 Take of mercury, sulphur, borax and black pepper, one part each, ginger three parts, croton seeds nine parts

rub them together with water and make into two-grain pills. These are given in fever with constipation as also in ascites

and anasarca.
Rukkesa rasa. 3

Take

of ohehulic

mjrohalan

five parts,

croton

fa*rem^rif f^WTfafW

ii

sn^Tig^lfapg

<it

ferret fera^

jrfw
^^fTn:

*tt^-

i^tsf^r: jp&Tst

tit

^ ^

e-

230
seeds one part,
neriifolia

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEfilCA.

soak them in the milky

juice of Euphorbia
pills.

(snuhi), and

make

into

four-grain

These

are

given with a deoootion of the root of Ipomcea Turpethum


or Baliospermum

(trivrit),
in

montanum (danti), as a

drastic purgative

obstinate constipation.

Mahdndrdcha
Fistula 9

Take chebnlio myrobalan, pulp of Cassia emblio myrobalan, root of Baliospermum montamm
(tiktd)

rasa. 1

(danti), Picrorrhiza Kurroa


neriifoli a (

milky juice of Euphorbia


(trivrit)
;

snuhi

),

root of Ipomoea
(

Turpethum
),

and

the

tubers of Gy perns rotundus


to a coarse
is

mustaka

each one tola

pound them
the
latter

powder and

boil in four seers of

water

till

reduced to one-eighth. Then take a tola of husked oroton seeds, tie them in a pieoe of thin cloth and boil them in the above mentioned deoootion till the latter is reduced to the consistence
of

fluid

extract.

To

this

extract

add a powder composed

of

eight parts of purified oroton seeds, three parts of ginger and two of black pepper, meroury and sulphur, in quantity sufficient to make a pill-mass rub them together for twelve hours, and make
;

into

two- grain

pillg.

These are
rice

given

with

cold

water

in

tympanitis, colio, ascites, etc., as a drastio purgative. operation of this medicine,

After the

should be given with curdled

milk and sugar.

BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM, Mull


Sans.

Banti. Vern. Danti, Hind. Bcng.

The seeds

of Baliospermum

montanum are desoribed

as drastic.

Like oroton seeds they are boiled in milk before use.

The

root of

^
where
1.
?ftf}ref

the plant

considered cathartic Both are much need in diseases purgatives are indicated. The following are a few

is

examples of prescriptions containing these medioines

'TOrrem*;

TOn*Mt to!

^ ^
finw

fe&i

3t ***

w*wto^ji

fsraresTTOriNnfr

*raTfa

xwwwn ^

BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM.

231

Ndrdcha rasa}
of

mercury
seeds

part each, sulphur, ginger and long pepper two parts each,
;

Baliospermum montanum nine parts powder the ingredients and make into two-grain pills with water. These are given in
constipation and tympaniteB.

Danti haritakt* Take twenty- five large ohebulio myrobalans and enolose them in a piece of oloth then take of the roots of
j

Baliospermum montanum and Ipomoea Turpethum (trivrit), eaoh two hundred tolas, water sixty-four seers, boil them together till
the water
ia

reduced

to eight seers.

Strain the decoction, take

out the ohebulio myrobalans and fry

them

in thirty- two tolas of

sesamum

oil.
;

To the

strained decoction add two hundred tolas of


till

old treacle
confection.

then boil

reduced

to the

proper consistence for a


following substances,
(trivrit)

Now

add

to

the mass the

namely powdered root of Ipomoea Turpethum


tolas,

thirty- two
stir

long pepper and ginger, each eight

tolas,

and

them

well;

when

cool

add thirty-two
tejapatra,

tolas

of

honey,

cinnamon,

cardamom, leaves called

and the flowers of Mesua ferrea

fart

tfm^nta

srar jfort**

0<ii3<iit

PmiiuH

11

^rnipt

^uiit

^rvraro:

fat wrftsi

wmw,

11

^rmwafa^gsn^ iro^
www.
1

2.

^f^q^Tti

srasffi

fw?^T

frofa:

to ^wn:i

s*rc.wnfi

232
(ndgahesara)

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDIO*

and prepare a confeotion. The ohebulio inyrob&lans should be kept imbedded in the medicine. Two tolas of the confection and one of the ohebulic mjrobalans
each eight
tolas,

are to be taken every morning.

Guddshtaka.

Take

of danti, trivrit

and plumbago
root,
all

roots, black
in

pepper, long pepper, ginger and long pepper

equal parts

Sne powder

treacle, equal in

weight to

the other ingredients


in
flatulence and

and mix.

Dose, about a tola every

morning
t

retained secretions, anasarca, jaundice, etc.

RICINIS COMMUNIS, Linn.


Sans. Hfig, Eranda. ^f^r, Ruvuka,
Vern. Bherendd, Beng. Erend. Hind.

The
1

root Einnis

Communis and the

oil

obtained from

the

seeds have been nsed in medicine

by the Hindus from a

very

remote period.
of

They are mentioned by Susruta. Two varieties the plant are described, namely red and white. Their
said to be identical.

properties are

Castor

oil

is

regarded

as

purgative and useful in oostiveness, tympanitis, fever, inflammation, etc It is much praised for its efficacy in chronic rheumatic
afEeotions in

which

it is

used in various combinations.

One

of

its

synonyms
also
said

is

v atari or anti -rheumatic.

The
in

of the plant root

is

to be

particularly

useful

the local

varieties of

rheumatism such as lumbago, pleurodynia, and

sciatioa.

a purgative, castor oil is reoommended to be taken wi cow's urine, or an infusion of ginger of the oombi or decoction

As

nation called dasamula (see

Desmodium gangetinm)?

1.

towfu ^^faifiN

wm^ fWf^i

<raw

&*&*

MAU0TU8

PHILIPPENSIS.

233
paste,

The
and

seeds, freed

from impurities and rubbed into a


is

are

boiled in milk
sciatica. 1

and water, and the decoction

given in lumbago
sides,

In pleurodynia, or pain in the


is

a deoootion

given with the addition of yavakshdra, (impure 2 The root of Ricinis communis enters into oarbonate of potash). the composition of various compound prescriptions for rheumatic
of the root

affections

and diseases

of the nervous system.

and root are used in variety of forms and several prescriptions containing them are a given by mo9t writers. A decoction of the bark, leaves and root
In affections of the eyes, castor oil leaves
of the plant, in goat's milk

and water
8

is

recommended

for use as

a wash in recent ophthalmia.

MALLOTUS PHIUPPENSIS, AMU


ft

Syn. Bottlera tinctoria $ Ro.rh.


Sans. Trfm, Kampilla, ^?*nR, Rechanaka.

Vem. Kamihi, Beng. KarnUW, Kamald, Hind.

Roxburgh and Brandis give Pnnndga

aa the Sanskrit for this

information goes, Pnnndga is the Sanskrit plant. Aa far as my a large tree of the Coromandel Coast for Calophylhim inophyttum,

with

beautiful white fragrant

arranged in rows.
the capsules of

Kampilla

is

and numerous stamens the red mealy powder covering


flowers
It is desoribed aa oathartio

allot Philippensis.
ia ohiefly used

and anthelmintic and


to

to expel intestinal

worms.
is

doses of one tola with treacle, Kampilla powder given in


kill

eaid

and expel

all

intestinal

worms.

It

enters

into the

1.

ffrfo wfonft

f<m

ftur^i

mm*

*****
t

*****
i

mw<*iw:
2.
<rnE?ijsf

fans*

^s^pnft q*ri

**fTfr

w^": ^"t'
WTW.
I

*<*TO1*T
3.

II

RT.*qift

1% aft *nf w: ***!


m? *f***j

wnafa ^$raW%^
<*wrv.[
iri?Tw

ft^u
4.
ifcq: w

vftm^nfl
30

*ri*

fWK

ww^
[

whi^TO

234

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

composition of numerous compound prescriptions for worms. The following is an illustration. Take of kampilla, bdberang
seeds,

ohebulio myrobalan, yavahshdra

("impure oarbonate of potash),

and rook

salt,

equal parts, powder and mix.

Dose, about a

draohm, with butter- milk. 1


i

EUPHORBIA NERIIFOLIA,
Sans. w$\ Snuhi, f

Linn.

Roxb
Vajri,

%;*, Sehunda.
Hind.

Vern. Mansds/j, Beng. Sehund, Thohar,

August)

This priokly shrub is sacred to Mansa the goddess of serpents. On the fifth day after full moon of the month of Sravana ( July,
it

is

plated in the oourt-yard of Hindu houses and

worshipped as the representative of Mansa the goddess of serpents. Euphorbia antinnmum, oalled tekatd si) in Bengali on
"
~
*

f its tri anglar stem, is

probably alluded to by some

Sanskrit writers under the name of vajri, which is explained as a variety of snuhi. This plant is supposed to ward off lightening strokes and is generally kept in tubs or pots on the roofs or other exposed parts of native houses. Its popular medicinal
ifolia

j
m

j-

and rubefacient.
.

generally
.

used in oombi
it.

nation with other medicines which are steeped in r urn hale !~ tyrobalan, long are thus administered as drastic purgative's,
in
ascites,

Chebulio

treated and

anasarca and

composition of several compound prescriptions of a drastic character as for example, the MaJulndracha rasa described under Cretan Tiglinm, preparation with clarified butter nt ci;i n

ympanitis.

It enters into the

and Vindn

ghrita a

u;

Tarmerio ponder

m ixed

with the milky juice of Euphorbia


|

h ^W^WTOPqw^lirtlt
2.

fifrnfr

<jft* T

^f^:l

fatf** mm:
it

vfrftfr

*fa*T:

^^ ^mm: Stowww
**rW

mVrica sapidA.
ncriifolia is

235
1

recommended

to be applied to piles.
is

Thread steeped

in

the above mentioned mixture

used in ligaturing external

hemorrhoids. 2 The powdered wood of Berberis Asiatica (ddruharidrd)


is

steeped in the milky juice of snuhi and of Calotropis


(arka), and

gigantea

made

into tents for introduction into the

tracks of fistula- in-ano and other sinuses. 3

NAT. ORDER MYRFCE/E.

MYRICA SAPIDA,
The bark
of Myrica sapida
is

Wall.

Sans, v^qnr, Katpliala Vern. Kdephal, Hind.


(

a Himalayan tree),

is its is

most
dark

valuable product, and

largely exported to the plains. It


is

or brownish grey, with deep vertical wrinkles, and

considered

heating, stimulant and useful in diseases supposed to be caused

by deranged phlegm,
numerous formulae
example.
m

such as
It

catarrhal
into

fever,

cough,

and
is

affections of the throat.

enters

the

composition of
following

for these

diseases.

The

an

Kafphalddi Churna.* Take of the bark of Myrica sapida, tubers of Cyperus rotundas (mustaka), root of Ptcrorrhiza Kurroa (ka*uki) 9
(sat i)

(karkaria sringi)
;

the root of Aplotaxis auriculata (kushta), equal parts

powder

aud mix.

This powder

is

given in doses of about a drachm with

the addition of ginger-juice and honey in affections of the throat,

oough and asthma.

In catarrh with headache the powdered bark


used as a snuff.

is

occasionally

<nm:i

*TO*^||
3.

^w?tt:
i

^w^h ?TfffoJftf wsn fww:


n

w^mfn inm STtm jpwt:


^flf^r:
i

i^t

^irf^f tfJT Trm 4m:


3?*^*J!

<*-N

m jtt

11

f%%^

*^t Wj ^mrenNH

9i$ *

*rg^f

236

SANSKRIT 5IATEEIA JlEDICA.

NAT. ORDER URTICE/E. FICUS RELIGIOSA, Linn. Sans. =*9W, Asvattha.


Hind.
*Z

Vern. Pipal,

FICUS GLOMERATA,
FICUS INFECTORIA,

Willd. Sans.

* O
Hind

Udumbara. Vem.
*

Boxb. Sans, m'fe, Parkati. Vern. Pahur, Beng. Pdkrz. Hind*

root barks of these four species of Ficus together with that of Azadarachta Indica pass by the name of Panchavalkala or

the five barks, and are used in combination. barks, called Pancha valkala kashdya
is

deoootion of these
as a gargle in

much used

a wash for ulcers, and as an injection in leucorrhcea. 1 The powdered root-bark of Ficus religiosa rubbed with honey is applied to aphthous sores of children. 2 It is also sprinkled over unhealthy ulcers to improve their condition and promote
granulation. 3

salivation, as

The

figs

of

Ficus

glomerata

are

considered

astringent,

stomachic and carminative and are given in monorrhagia and haemoptysis in doses of one tola of the dried fruits with sugar and honey.' The fresh juice of the ripe fruit is given as an adjunct to a metallie medicine for diabetes and other an nary complaints, called Vrihat vangesvara rasa, (see Tin).

CANNABIS SATIVA,
Sans. ft^n, Vijayd,

Linn.

VAR. INDICA.
Ganjd,

Bkanyd,

T,

t^m*,

Indrdsana,

Vern. Siddhi Bhdng, t Bcng. Bhang. Hind.

The Cannabis

saliva

both in medicine and a s an intoxicating agent.

has been used from a very remote period

mythological

2.
3.

mmws^zwmft tin*
^^f***t <rcwf mf*ff*r w[
i

WKH

itot^wrj;

mmm fww*m
<ra?*n

CANNAMS

SATIVA, VAE. INDlCA.

23?

origin has been invented for


in the

it.

It is said to

have been produced

shape of nectar while the gods were churning the ocean with the mountain called Maadara. It is the favourite drink of Iudra, the king of gods, and is called vijayd, because it gives
its votaries.
it

success to

human

race sent

to

The gods through compassion on the this earth so that mankind by using it
Durga
pooja,
after the
to

habitually

may

attain delight, lose all fear, and have their sexual

desires excited. 1
idols

On
and
it

the last day of the


it is

are thrown into water,


relatives
is

customary for the Hindus

see their friends

and embrace them.

After this

ceremony

is

over

incumbent on the o^ner of the house


tiffin.

to offer to his visitors a

cup of bhang and sweet-meats for


such
it

An
A

intoxicating agent with

recommendations cannot
in general

but be popular and so we find


classes

use amongst

all

especially in the North- West


it

provinces and Behar.

In

Bengal
but I
the free

has latterly become the fashion to substitute brandy,

w.ell

remember having seen use of bhang among the

in

the days of

my

boyhood

better classes of people

who

would have shunned as a pariah any one of their society addicted


to

the use of

the forbidden spirituous liquor.

At

the doors of

many
the

rich baboos, Hindustani

bhdng in

durwans could be seen rubbing a stone mortar with a long wooden pestle, and the

paste so prepared
servants.

wae not

solely

intended for the use of the


all classes

do not mean to say that

of

Hindoos
classes of

without exception are or were addicted to the use of bhdng.

Some
habits

castes

among

the up-country

men and some


;

people amongst Bengalis are as a rule very temperate in their

and do not use any narcotic at

all

but the ordinary run of

orthodox Hindus, acjustomed to have their little excitements, use bhdng for the purpose without incurring any opprobrium such as

would insult from the use of spirituous

liquors.

The three
in'

principal forms in which Indian

hemp

is

met with

India are,

1,

Gdnjd y the dried flowering tops of the female

tmfom

tffaHt fawiT*wT
H

Www mi

*rc:

*wst ^m^*n*r?^*r*ft k
*nrwr,
i

Mm *4*t

238
plant,

SANSKRIt MATERIA MBDICA.


2,

from wliioh the resin haa not been removed.


*

Qharas, the
3,

resinous exudation from the leaves, stems

and

flowers.

Bhang

the larger leaves and seed vessels without the stalks.


Sir William O'Shaughnessy has so well described the preparations of Indian
so

hemp

in use

amongst the

natives,

and

his

name

is

intimately associated with

the history of this drug, that

cannot do better than quote his account of them.


"Sidhee, Subjce and Bluing
as a drink

(synonymous) are used with water


:

which

is

thus prepared

About

three tolas' weight

(540 troy grains)


to

then rubbed

powder, mixed with blaok pepper, cucumber

and melon

seeds,

sugar, half a pint of milk


is

and an equal quantity of water.

This

considered sufficient to intoxicate an habituated person. Half the quantity is enough for a novioe. This composition is chiefly

used by the Mahomedans of the better olasses.

"Another recipe

is

as follows
of

:-

The same quantity

Hiddhi

is

washed and ground, mixed

with black pepper, and a quart of oold water added. This is drank at one sitting. This is the favourite beverage of the

Hindus who practioe

this

vice,

especially

the Birjobassies and

many

of the

Rajpootana soldiery.
these

"From

either of

beverages

intoxication will ensue


is

in

half an hour.

Al oust invariably the inebriation

of the most

cheerful kind, causing the person eat food to sing and dance, to great relish, and to seek aphrodisiac enjoyments. In per-

sons of a quarrelsome
expected,

disposition
of

it

an

exasperation

their

might be occasions, as The natural tendency.

intoxication lasts

about three hours,

when

sleep supervenes.

nau
all

r sickness of
;

stomach succeeds,
is

bowels at nor are the


vascularity

affected

next day there

slight giddiness and

of the eyes, but no other

symptom worth
:

recording.

Gdnja

is

used for smoking alone

grains) and a little


of the hand, with a

weight, (180 one rupee in the palm dried tobacco are rubbed together

few drops of water.


is

This

suffices
first,

for three

persons.

A little
five

tobacco
t

placed in the pipe

then a layer

of the prepared <jdnja

then more tobacco and the

fire

above

all-

Four or

persons ceually ioin in this debauch.

The

hookah

CANNABIS, SATIVA, YAR. INDICA.

239

passed round, and each person takes a single draught. Intoxication ensnea almost instantly and from one draught to fhe unaccustomed within half an hour, and after four or five inspira;

tions to those

more practised in the vioe. The effects differ from those occasioned by the siddhz. Heaviness, laziness, and agreeable
roused and
is

reveries ensue, but the person can be readily


to discharge

able

routine occupations, such as pulling the p&nkah,

waiting at table, eto.

"The Mdjoon or hemp


butter, flour, milk,

confection,

is

a compound of sugar,

and siddhi or bhang.

The

process has been

repeatedly performed before us by Ameer, the proprietor of a celebrated place of resort for hemp devotees in .Calcutta and who
is

considered the best artist in his profession.

Four ounces

of

siddhi

and an equal quantity

of ghee are placed in an

earthen or

well-tinned vessel, a pint of water added, and the whole

warmed

The mixture is constantly stirred until the water all boils away, which is known by the crackling noise of the melted butter on the sides of the vessel. The mixture is then removed from the fire, squeezed through cloth while hot, by
fire.

over a charcoal

which an oleaginous solution of the active principles and colouring matter of the hemp is obtained ; and the leaves, fibres, etc.,
remaining on the cloth are
solution

thrown

away.

The green

oily

soon concretes into a buttery mass and is then well washed by the hand with soft water, so long as the water

becomes ooloured.

The colouring

matter

and an extractive

substance are thus removed and a very pale green mass, of the
consistence of simple

ointment, remains.
says that these

The washings are


are intoxicating, and

thrown away;
able

Ameer

produce constriction of the throat, great pain and very disagree-

and dangerous symptoms.


of sugar, and adding a

"The operator then takes two pounds


little

a pipkin over the fire. When the sugar a thick scum dissolves and froths, two ounces of milk are added rises and is removed: more milk and a little water are added
water, places
it in
;

and the boiling continued about an hour, the solution being carefully stirred until it becomes an adhesive clear four ounces of tyre syrup* ready to solidify on a cold surface (new milk dried before the sun) in fine powder are now stirred
from time
to time,
;

240
in,

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

and

lastly

brisk

stirring being continued for a


of roses are

few minutes.
in,

A few

drops of

attar

and the mixture poured from the pipkin on a flat cold dish or slab. The mass concretes immediately into a thiok oake, which is divided into small
then quiokly sprinkled
lozenge- shaped pieces.

A seer thus prepared


will intoxicate a

sells for four rupees.


;

One draohm by weight


one experienced in
agreeable.

beginner

three drachms,

its use.

The

taste

is

sweet and the odour very

Ameer

states

that sometimes

by

special order of

customers he introduces stramonium seeds, but never nux vomica that all classes of persons including the lower Portugese or Kala

Feringhees and especially their females, consume the drug


it is

that

most fascinating in

its effects,

producing extatic happiness,

a persuasion of high rank, a sensation of flying, voracious appetite

and intense aphrodisiac desire."*

The

leaves of Cannabis sativa are purified

by being boiled

>milk before use.

They are regarded as heating, digestive, astringent and narcotic. The intoxication produoed by bhang is ld to be of a pleasant description and to promote talkativeness.
In sleeplessness, the powder of the fried leaves
suitable doses for inducing sleep
is

given

in

and removing pain.

Jdtiphatedya

chuma?

nutmeg, cloves, cinnamon Take of

Mesua ferrea ( ndgakesara)* camphor, sandal wood, sesamum seeds, bamboo manna, flow rsof
# Bengal Dispensatory, p. 582.

oartlamon, tejapatra leaves, flowers of

MH<tp**|

11

zfa:\

^W mm%\
"mvm&nm

m#* fa^

ipj, T

f^f ?^tr^

fir?*

&*

TCTiTOfarcr: muf mfH f*m:

ii

CANNABIS SATIVA, VAR. TNDICA.


Tabernoemo7itana coronarta
tagara

-241

),

ohebulic and

cmblio myro-

balans, long pepper, blaok pepper, ginger,

leaves of Finns

Webof

biana ( tdlisa ), Embelia Ribes

plumbago
(

root,

cumin seeds and the seeds

viranga

),

equal parts, purified bhang equal in

weight to
the bhang.

all

the above ingredients, and sugar twice as

muoh

as

Powder and mix. Dose, about twenty


is

to forty grains.
loss

This preparation
of appetite.

given

in diarrhoea,

indigestion and

Jvdldnala rasa. 1

Take

of yavakshdra,

and sarjikdkshara, (im*

pure carbonates of potash and soda), borax, mercury, sulphur, long pepper, black pepper, Piper Ckaba ( chavya ) and ginger,
equal parts, fried leaves of Cannabis sativa equal to all the above
ingredients, root of Moringa pterygosperma half the weight of

bhang

powder the

ingredients,

for three

days in each of
juice of the

mix and soak the mixed powder the following fluids, namely a decoction
of

or fresh

leaves

Cannabis Indica, the roots of


rosea,

Moringa pterygosperma and Plumbago

Then
juice

roast the mass lightly and


of

make

into

and dry in the sun. a pill mass with the


(

the leaves of Wedelia calendulacea

bhringardja
is

),

Dose,

about half a drachm with honey.

This medicine

given in

indigestion and loss of appetite with nausea

and vomiting.
as Kdmesvara
etc.,

Numerous confections of bhdng such Madana modaka, Bdlyasakrdsana modaka,


9

books.

and are used in chronic bowel oomplaints and nervous debility. Most of them are prepared with equal parts of a number of supposed tonic and aphrodisiao substances in small quantities and
bhdng equal in weight to
sugar, honey an
all

1*
d the usual aromatios.
^torj

modaka

are described in

These, as their names imply, are considered aphrodisiao

the other ingredients, together with

Mdjoon, the preparation

^nw^ to;
^gt q%

jjcFTRft

n^<*Hfa?

wr

r-

sSi^pan

w
w

?mt

?mew

ZT*rft **ft ^rrFT^t

re*r

faster f

^WWW 5ft*
31

tl

hww

242
of

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA,


I believe,

which has been already described, would


illustration*
w

be a neater
following
ia

substitute for these complicated preparations.

The

an

Take of the three myrobalans, ginger, pepper, black pepper, Rhus succedanea ( sringi ) Pdchak
f

Madana modaka.

long
root,

coriander, rock salt,


(tdlisa), bark
of

zedoary root,

leaves of Finns

Webbiana

Myrica sapida

(Jcatphala)

flowers of Mesna

ferrea (ndgakesara) , ajowan, seeds of Seseli

Indicum (yanayamdni),
(

liquorice root, seeds of Trigonella fcenum- grcecum

methi

),

cumin

and nigella seeds equal parts


fried

hemp
in

leaves with flowers and seeds

in clarified butter, equal


;

weight to

all

the

other

ingredients

sugar equal in weight to the hemp. Prepare a syrup

with the sugar, then add the other substances in fine powder and make into a confection. Lastly add clarified butter, honey,

powdered
and camphor, each two
eighty grains each.
tolas,

cinnamon, tejapatra

leaves

and make
is

into boluses of abont

This confection

used in cough, chronic

bowel complaints and impotence.

NAT. ORDER PIPERACE/E.

PIPER NIGRUM,
5Rfi?ar,

linn.

Maricha, =nsw

H
The use of black pepper as a condiment is too well known require any notice here. Medicinally it ia much used
to

in

*M

qft^q^ii

wf^cj

f^ror

^j^tqft

toft*

firywvns*

'TT^TIWTfwr

II

mrtlq

PIPER NIGRUM.
*

243
/

combination with long pepper and ginger, under the name of trikatu or the three acrids. In fact, as any reader who has gone

through these pages must have noticed, very few compound


are free from the three myrobalans, and the three
acrids,

added often without reason, and sometimes for the sake of rhyme. Black pepper is described as acrid,
to be

which seem

pungent, hjt, dry, carminative and useful in intermittent fever,

hemorrhoids and dyspepsia. Externally


in alopecia

it is

used as a rubefacient

and skin

diseases.

In intermittent fever, black pepper in doses of about a drachm, is recommended to be given with the juice of the leaves
of

Oct

mum

sanctum

( tulasi ), or

Leucas

linifolia (

dronapushpi

).*

It enters

into the composition of numerous prescriptions for

dyspepsia, piles

and

indigestion.

The following

is

an example.
tolas,

Prdnadd gudikd?
ginger twenty-four
(

Take of black pepper


long pepper sixteen

thirty- two

tolas,

tolas,

Piper Chaba
tdlisa ) eight (
tolas,

chavya

eight tolas, leaves of Pinus Webbiana


of

tolas,

flowers

Mesua

ferrea,

(ndgakesara) four

long

pepper root sixteen tolas, leaves called tfjapatra and cinnamon one tola each, cardamoms and the root of Andropogon muricatus,

two tolas each, old treacle two hundred and forty tolas rub them together. Dose, about two drachms. This confection
( usira )
is

given in haemorrhoids.

When
is

there

is

coativeness and a sense

of heat, ohebulic

myrobalan

substituted for the ginger in the

above prescription.

The bald patches

of alopecia are

recommended

to

be ribbed

vir^ir:

244

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

with some rough leaves as of Streblns asper


sprinkled over with powdered black pepper.
1

sdkhota

PIPER LONGUM,
Sy7i.

Linn.

Chavica Roxburghii, Miq.

Sans, f^^ft, Pippali.

WW> Kami,

^wr, Krishna.

Vern. Pipul, Beng. Pipal, Hind.

The dried catkins and the root of Piper longum are used in medicine. They are considered heating, stimulant, carminative,
alterative,

laxative and useful


etc.

in cough,

hoarseness, asthma,

dyspepsia, paralysis,

Old long pepper is said to be more efficacious than the fresh article. In the form trihatn or the three aor ids (Piper nigrum) % it is much used as an aromatic adjunct in compound prescriptions. Powdered long pepper, administered
with honey,
is

said to relieve cough, asthma,

hoarseness, hiccup,
root,

and sleeplessness. 2

mixture of long pepper, long pepper


is

black pepper and ginger in equal parts,

prescribed by several

writers as a useful combination for catarrh

and hoarseness.
for use in
is

As an

alterative tonic, long

pepper

is

recommended

a peculiar manner.

An

infusion of three long peppers


first

to be
dayfl

taken with honey on the


the

day, then for ten successive

every day,

so

that

on the tenth day the patient will take thirty at one dose. the dose is to be gradually redaced by three daily and
the medicine
is

Then
finally

to

be omitted.

Thus administered

it

is

said to

aot as a valuable

chronic congb> alterative tonic in paraplegia,


etc.

enlargements of the spleen and other abdominal viscera,


1.

?^?r ^nra:

q^^ref 3^w
fat^

^f^^ft^: ^n^ffl^^Hfi^^l
:i

2.

*njin

firrsft^i

^re j^to.^

f^wpam^t ^?j
KT*!reiT*f

*M

n f i *l fa

^1

*n**rafT*f

PIPER PETLE.

245
of of

Long pepper and blaok pepper enter into the composition several irritating snuffs. The following is an example. Take

black pepper, long pepper, seeds of Moringa pterygosjxrma (sv<fa maricha ) and ginger equal parte powder the ingredients and
;

dijloraf

(vaka).

This preparation

is

used

as

a snuff in

coma

drowsiuess.

Ashtakatvara taila}

Take

of ginger

and long pepper each

sixteen tolas, mustard oil four seers, butter-milk thirty-two seers,

curdled milk four seers and boil them together in the usual way.

This

oil is

rubbed externally

in seiatioa and paraplegia.

PIPER CHABA,
Beng.
CJidb,

Hunter. Sans. ^fam,

ChaviM.

Vem

Chai,

Hind.

The

fruits

of this

species of Piper are

considered stimulant, anti- catarrhal and

carmirative and are

much used

as adjuncts to medicines for cough, cold and hoarseness.

PIPER BETLE,
"rrr^

Linn.

The

leaves of this creeper are, as

is

well known, mastioated

by the natives of India.

The Poorer

clashes

make

their packet of

catechu and betle-nuts. The rich betle with the addition of lime, add cardamoms, nutmegs, cloves, camphor and other aroroatics.
Betle-leaf thus

chewed

acts as a gentle

stimulant and exhilarant.

Those accustomed
of
it.

to its use feel

a sense of langour when deprived

The ancient Hindu

writers

recommend that
'

betle-leaf

should be taken early in the


-

morning,
""

after meals
i

and at

**tftaf

w&m vm*\

s*faifcw:

wt *n*ra: 15*^*:

Tfafwfc

fcn

nm inra^:
1.

s?tafa*n

^^r^^wren
<

*-*

nvK n
:

vs*i* ?ra^
11

qsrrot

M^mi' m ^f?*:
i

Hmw.

wit
i

*w

*mmw*r*:

***$%* tW

w^rf****

11

vwrz:

246
bed-time.

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDlCA.

According to Susruta,

it

is

aromatic,

carminative,

stimulant and astringent.

It sweetens the breath,

improves the
According
to

voice and removes all foulness

from the mouth.

other writers
,

it

acts as
it is

an aphrodisiac.
supposed to be

Medicinally

said to be useful in diseases


its

caused by deranged phlegm and

juice

is
;

much
that

used as an
the
pills

adjunct to

pills

administered in these diseases

is,

are rubbed into an emulsion with the juice of the betle-leaf and
licked up.

Being always at hand, pan leaves are used as a domestic remedy in various ways. The stalk of the leaf smeared
with
oil
iB

introduced into the rectum in the constipation and

tympanitis of children, with the object of inducing the bowels


to act.

The leaves are


and swollen

headache
glands for promoting

relieving pain, to painful

absorption,

and

to

the

checking the secretion

mammary glands with the object of of milk. Pan leaves are used as a ready
seem
to

dressing for foul ulcers which

improve under them.

NAT.
,

ORDER CONIFERS.
Wall.

PINUS WEBBIANA,

Syn. Abies Wcbbiana, Ltndl.


Sans. rrr#snr?, Tdlisapatra, Vern.
1'dlispalra

Bmg.

Mind.
of

The
Garden

dried leaves used

by

Kavirajas

under the name

tdlisapatra,

were identified at the herbarium of the Royal Botam'o

be the leaves of Pinus Webbiana. They are single, spirally arranged all round the branchlets, flat, narrow, linear, one to three inches long, one line broad, narrowed into a short
to

terete petiole, under side with

furrows on either two longitudinal side of the raised midrib, upper side shining. Sanskrit term The
tdlisapatra has

been hitherto translated by most writers on Botany and Materia Medioa, as Flacourtia cataphrada. The error originated probably in Wilson's Sanskrit- English dictionary and has since been repeated by subsequent writers. This medicine
arded as carminative, expectorant and useful in and asthma.
phthieiflt

PTNUS LONGIFOLTA.

'
,

247

The powdered
Adhatoda
(

leaves are given


)

with the juice of Justicvi

vdsaka

and honey

in cough,

asthma and haemoptysis. 1

A confection

called Tdlisddya churna is prepared with tdlisapatra,

black pepper, long pepper, ginger, bimboo-manna, cardamoms,

cinnamon and sugar, and


2 diseases.

is

used

in

the

above

mentioned

These leaves enter into the composition of numerous

complex prescriptions.
)

PINUS LONGIFOLTA.
Sans.
^civ[,

Raxb.

Sarah, Vern.

Chir, Saral, Hind.


.

Tub aromatio wood of Pznus longifolia is used in Hindu medicine. The tree yields an oleo- resin called sarala drava, sricdsa and kshira in Sanskrit. In the vernaoular it is oalled gandhabirozd Dr. Royle remarked, "The chir exudes or yields
.

to incisions a

very

fine turpentine.

This
is

is

chiefly valued

by the

natives for its resin, and as the latter

only obtained by exposing


is

the turpentine to
dissipated to
still,

heat,

the

oil,
;

the more valuable produot

procure the resin

but by adopting a very simple

the resin was obtained as good as ever for the purposes of


oil of

the natives^while the

turpentine which distilled over was

pronounced on being sent to the General Hospital of Calcutta,


to be of

very superior quality."

Turpentine

is

now
is

distilled

by

the natives in the Panjab but the distilled oil

not mentioned

by Sanskrit writers.

The

wood

of

Pznus
in

longzfolia

is

considered

stimulant,

diaphoretic

and useful
;

burning of the body, cough, fainting

and ulcerations

it is

generally used in combination with other

IRTtf

m^tora
*.-

j5^

m^H *rft^ Wf f^#

*ra^fa*rT

f%fc

'SFT'lfecFT

vvihi*

248
medicine?.

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

The

oleo-restn

or orude turpentine

is

used in the

preparation of plasters, ointments


It
is

and

pastiles for fumigation.

applied to buboes and abscesses for promoting absorption.

The following is an example of a pastile oontaining crude crude turpentine, bdellium, wood of Take of turpentine. Aquilaria Agallocha (aguru), and resin of Shorea robusta and make into pastiles. These are used for fumigating unhealthy
%

and painful

ulcers.

CEDRUS DEODARA,
Pinus Deodar
Sana. ???t^, Devaddru.
4

Loud.

Booth.
%

Vem. Deoddr Hind.


elegant pine
is

The aromatic wood

of this

considered

oar-

minative, diaphoretic, diuretic

and useful in

fever,

flatulence,

inflammation, dropsy, uiinary diseases, etc*

It is ohiefly used in

combination with other medicines.


of a diuretic

The following is an example mixture containing this drug. Take of devaddru


.

wood, root of Moringa pterygosperma (sigru) and Achyranthes


aspera

(apdmdrga

),

one drachm

paBte with each and reduoe to a


is

cow's urine.

This composition

given

in ascites.

"

NAT. ORDER PALMACE/E.

COCUS NUCIFERA,
Sans. snft^T, Ndrikela,

Linn.

Vem. Ndrial, Hind. Ndrikel, Beny


uses of this valuable tree are
fully

The numerous economical


detailed in standard works.
I

to suoh of them will refer only

as

are mentioned in Sanskrit medical works.

The

of the water

unripe fruit

is

described as a fine-flavoured, cooling, refrigerent

drink useful in thirst, fever and urinary disorders. The tender pulp of the fruit is said to be nourishing, cooling and diuretic The pulp of the ripe frnit is hard and indigestible but is used

B0RAS3CTS MAMLLTPORlria.

249
is

medicinally.

The terminal bud

of

the tree

esteemed as a

strengthening and agreeable vegetable. remark-applies to the tops of tdl palm and date trees.
of the eoooa-nut is used as a

nourishing,

The same The root


is

diuretic as also in uterine diseases.


tlie

Codoanut

oil is said to

promote

growth

of hair.

It

muoh

used as a hair-oil by the lower olasses of native women. For this purpose ft is scented by steeping in it a number of fragrant vegetable substances sold in packets under the Bengali name of
Mdthdijhasd.

The ashes
refrigerent

of the leaves are used in medicine.

They
is

contain a great deal of potash.

considered

and

The fresh diuretic. The

juice of the tree

fermented

juice

constitutes one of the spirituous liquors described writers.


in

by the ancient
it

The
in

cleared shell of the nut or portions of


hot, covered

are burnt

fire

and while Fed

by a stone cup.
is

The

fluid
is

deposited

the interior of the cup

rubefacient and

an

effectual domestic

remedy

for

ringworm.

Karikelakhanda}
half a seer, fry
boil
it

Take

of the

pounded

pulp of cocoa-nut,

in eight tolas of clarified butter,


till

and afterwards

in

four seers of cocoa-nut water

reduced to a syrupy

consistence.

Now add

coriander,

long pepper, bamboo manna,


fejapatra,

cumin seeds, nigella seeds, cardamoms, cinnamon,


tubers of
ferret*
(

the

Cyperns rotundus (mnstaha


)

),

and the flowers of Memo,


fine

n&gaJees&ra

one tola each in


to four tolas, in

powder and prepare a

confection. Dose,

two

dyspepsia and consumption.

BORASSUS FLABELLIFORMIS,
Sans.
:*BTT

Linn.
F,

The properties
described in
restorative.

of the

various parts of this noble palm are

detail

in Sanskrit works.

The

root

is

cooling and

"The saccharine juice obtained by the excision of the spadix or young flowering branch," is when freshly drawn,

32

250
cooling, sweet

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

and useful
juice

in

inflammatory affections and dropsy.


tdri

The fermented

called

or toddy

is

intoxicating.

The

yellow pulp surrounding the seeds of the ripe fruit

is sweet,

heavy and indigestible.

It

is

extracted by rubbing the feeds

over a wooden soratcher, and with the addition of a little lime, it settles into a firm jelly wbich is a ready mode of taking the
pulp.
It is also

made

into cakes witb flour

and other

ingredients.
is

The young

seeds contain a clear watery fluid

whioh

very

refreshing and oooling.

They form one


after extracting

of the edible fruits of the


in

oountry and are sold in the markets in Iirge quantities when


Feason.

The natives

the pulp from the

fibres

surrounding, the ripe seeds, preserve them for some months. When the embryo begins to germinate and enlarge, the seeds are cut open and the expanded embryo is extraoted and eaten. It is
oooling,
tdl

sweet and palatable.


is

The terminal bud

or top of the

tree

regarded as nutritive, diuretic and tonic.

The

leaves

palm tree were used for writing on by the ancient Hindus. The letters were engraved upon the leaves by a pointed iron
instrument.

of this

This system of writing

is

still

followed to a con-

siderable extent in Orissa

where boys in the indigenous patsalis write with iron pens on palm leaves. In Bengal the leaves are written upon with pen and ink as on paper. The ashes of the
flowering stalk are said to be useful in enlarged spleen. 1

ARECA CATECHU,
8am.
^

Linn.

Puga, m^W, Kramnka. Tern. Qua, Supdri, Beng. Svpdri, Hind. The chief consumption of betel-nuts is as a masticatory.
jpn^f,
utt,

Quvdha

alone or in conjunction with nuts are said betel leaf. The unripe to be laxative and carminative. The fresh nuts when not yet dry in their interior, nave intoxicating properties and produce giddiness. The dried nuts sard to are masticated. They are

sweeten the breath, strengthen tastes from the gums, remove bad
larant
the

system.

The burnt nuts


The

are
in urinary disorders and
as

Medicinally betel-nuts are used


aphrodisiac.
1
.

paration called
:

Tnw^w^r: *V:

g^

:?hRT*R:

vus*

'

'

uirroxis OrcHioides.

'J5i

Bativallava pugapnka.
in milk,

It ia a confection
of a

made

of betel-nuts boiled

with the addition

number

of aromatic

and stimulant
Sometimes

substances supposed to have aphrodisiac properties.

datura seeds and the leaves of Cannabis sativa are added to this
confection

when

it is

called Kdmesvara modaka.

Betel-nuts are also used as vermifuge.

Dose, one-fourth tola


juice.
1

rubbed into a paste with 2


?

tolas of fresh

lemon
Sans.

PBXKNIX SYLVESTRIS,
Vcrn. Khejur, Beng. Hind.

Eoxb.

13^

Kharjura.

The Phoenix

sylvestris is

indigenous to
is

India and

ia

cultivated for the Bake of its sweet sap which

manufactured into yur or jagari.


dactylifera are

The imported

fruits of Phoenix

used medicinally as demulcents and expectorants.

NAT. ORDER HYPOXIDE/E. HYPOXIS ORCHIOIDES.


>Sy.

Gurculi'jo orchioidv*, tlacrtn.

Sans. Jjq#, Mtishali, nn*T*J#, Tdlamuli. Vern. Tdllura, Beng.

Mushali Hind.
9

The tuberous
tonic,

roots

of this in

plant are considered alterative,


piles,

restorative

and useful

debility and impotence.

Tliey enter into the composition of several medicines intended to


act as aphrodisiaos

and restoratives. The following


(satdvari,

is
)

an example.
Sphoeranthus

Take of the root

of Asparagus racemosus

mollis (munditikd), gulancha, seeds of Butea frondosa (hastikarna),

powder and mix. and the tuberous roots of viushali equal parts Dose, about a drachm with honey or clariSed butter, in the
% ;

debility of old age. 2


of nucshali,

The Raja nirghantu mentions two varieties namely, white and black. The properties of the white
to

be inferior to those of the black which is preferred for use as an alterative tonic. Steuart says that the black or siya musli is obtained from Anilema tuberosum. Horn.
variety are said

252

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDINA.

(Watt.) The roots of Bombax Malabaricum and Asparagus raccmosus are sometimes sold by the native druggists of Calcutta under the

name

of suffed

muslL

These articles have however

separate

names and are not designated by the name of


native medical work. or musali
is,

suffed musli in

any

On

the contrary a white variety or tdlamuli

as already noticed,

mentioned

in the

Raja nirghantu.

The tubers
like

of Curculigo orchiotdss

become when dry,

translucent

ambar.

The

dried roots were probably considered a separate

variety, namely, the white

by the ancients.

NAT. ORDER AROIDE^E.

ACORU3 CALAMUS,
The aromatic rhizome

Linn.

or root-stock of Acorns

Calamus

is

considered emetic in large doses, and nervine in smaller doses.

stomachic, carminative and

As an emetic

it

is

administered

in

do3es of about eighty

grains with half a seer of tepid salt-water. 2

The

following

is

an

example o a prescription for dyspepsia containing this drug. Take of Acorns Calamus root, assafcetida, at is, long pepper, black
pepper, ginger, chebulio myrobalan and sonchal salt equal parts
;

powder and mix.


or nervine
it
is

Dose, about half a drachm. 3

As

a stimulant
in low

nsed in combination with other medicine

fevers, epilepsy

and insanity.

AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULA!!^,
Syn,
Sans.

Blunie.

Arum

<

<

mpanulatum,

llovb.
ol,

ns*t Surana,

*fa, Olla.

Vem.
is

Bmg. Hind.
like

The Amorphophallus cdmpanulatm


of its tubers,

for the sake cultivated

which are cooked and eaten by the natives

yams

or potatoes.

The tubers oontain an acrid

should be juice wtteh

KWrfl
9
3.

w*wft$n yfann

^# ftTO^sfw^Tfwgf*?n:

fa?^

ft* ufafcm ^t*

w^
i

wn

*pr^:

AiocAbiA indila.

253
otherwise the

*ot rid off by thorough

boiling

and washing,

vegetable
fauoes.

is

apt to cause troublesome irritation in the mouth and


is

Medicinally, surana
;

considered serviceable in hemoris

rhoids

in

fact one of
It
is

if

Sanskrit Fynonyms

arsoyhna or the

curer of piles.
forms.
in

administered in this disease in a variety of


is

The tuber
;

covered with a layer of earth and roasted


is

fire

the roasted vegetable


1

given with the addition of

oil

and

salt.

Several confections are described such as the Laghu-

surana modaka, Vrihat surana mcdoka, Surana pindi, Kdnkdyana

modaka,

etc.

These are

all confections

made

of

the tubers of

Amorphophallus companulatits with the addition of treacle and


various aromatics and aerids.

Svalpa or Laghu surana modaka

is

thus prepared.

Take

of

black pepper one part, ginger two parts, plumbago root four
parts,

tuber of surana eight parts, treacle sixteen parts, mix


Dose, about a tola every

together and prepare a confection.

morning, in piles and dyspepsia.

SCINDAPSUS OFFICINALIS,
Iioxb. Sans,

Schott. Syn.

Pathos

officinalis,

^fq^pft, Gajapippali*

Vern.

Gajapi/ml, Beng. Hind.

The sliced fruits oE this plant pass by the name of gajapipuL They are considered aromatic, carminative, stimulant and useful
asthma and other affections supposed to be caused hy deranged phlegm. They are chiefly used as an aromatic
in diarrhoea,

adjunct to other medicines.

ALOCASIA 1NDICA,
Syn.
Sans. *fTW3T,

Schott.

Arum

Indtcnm, Iioxb.

Mdnaka,

Vern. Mdnhachu, Beng. Mdnkanda, Hind.


of Alocasia Indica constitute a vala%

The underground stems


able and
1.

important

vegetable of
iizmzft wsjSto
i

native dietary.

The stems

k*g

gp?w?T3

qm <?pr
su-rtnc

*%ft i&mw. 9*taf *te*n sfasiw:

*w ^^^

srercs^fcr

**w^h

firfrraft i?ttrewfier *mmv

*m*m\

254

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA

sometimes grow to an immense size, from six to eight feet in length and can be preserved for a considerable time. Henoe they are of great importance in jail dietary when fresh vegetables

become scarce in the bazar or jail garden. They thrive best shade under the eaves of huts or buildings and beside fences.
Medicinally mdnaka
disease
it is

in

is

said to be useful in anasarca,

in which

used in tbe following manner. Take of the powdered meal of Aheasia Indica eight tolae, powdered rice sixteen tolas,

water and milk, forty-eight tolas each, boil them together till the water is evaporated. This preparation called Mdnamawja, is given
as diet. 1

No
is

other article

is

allowed in addition to

it

except milk.
paste of

A ghrita

also ordered to be
it is

made with a decoction and

mdnaka but

not in vogue.

NAT.

ORDER SCITAMINE/E.
Botcoe.

ZINGIBER OFFICINALE,
Saus.^\i-^ A'rdraka,

w%T,

tiringavera.

Vern. Add, Beng. Adrah, Hind.


Gix<;er
in
is

described as acrid, heating,

carminative and useful

dyspepsia, affections of the throat,


urticaria,

head and
It
is

chest, piles,

rheumatism,

used as a carminative adjunct along with black pepper and long pepper under the name of Irikatu or the three acrids. The dried root is called NJgara, Sunti and Mahaushadha in Sanskrit. In addition
dropsy,
etc.

much

to possessing the properties of

ginger

it is

said to be laxative.
is

Ginger with
carminative.

ealt

taken before meals,

praised as a highly

It is said to purify

the tongue and throat, increase


sensation.

the appetite and produce an agreeable the active ingredient of several


haimorrhoids.

Ginger forms

medicines for dyspepsia and

Samasarhara churna*
1.

Take of cardamoms one


*nfa?r

part,

cinnamon

yn^

k<fai*f3w*i*n
farfnRT*ajm:

*
^v

fait
farsre:
2.
II

*$W

ftwzn

^t ,*,,

^M^mfi^n^^

ffotf

*faf

ZINGIBER OFFICINALE.

"

255

two parts, flowers of Metua ferrea (wgabmra) three pnrts, black pepper four parts, long pepper five parts, dried ginger six
parts,

sugar in quantity equal to all the other ingredients powder and mix. Dose, about a drachm in dyspepsia, loss of

appetite

and

piles.

Saubhdrjya sunti}
four seers,
boil

Take

of clarified butter,

sixteen tolas, milk;

sugar six seers and a quarter, drj ginger one seer them together so as to make an eleotnnry. Then add
fennel

coriander twenty-four tolas,


seeds,

seeds forty tolas, Uberang

oumin

seeds,

nigella seeds,

long pepper, black pepper,

ginger, tubers of Gyperus rotundns, leaves oalled icjapatra, flowers of Memta ferrea ndyalesara
(
),

cinnamon and cardamoms each


till

eight tolas in

fine

powder, and stir with a ladle


as a

cold.

This

confection is

much used

carminative tonic

in dyspepsia

and in disorders of the


confinement.

alimentary

canal in females

after

Bunti ghrifa*

This

is

a preparation of ginger made with


in

a decoction and paste of the root, clarified butter and kdnjika the usual proportions. It is said to be useful in rheumatism.

Ardraka khanda.
clarified butter,

This

is

a confection made with ginger,


of

milk and sugar with the addition of n number aromatios in small quantities. It is used in urticaria.

In cephalalgia and other affections of the head, ginger juicf

,pan7

5TTtf^ Safari 333rrf<(41(<4h(l4fTOOTTOV?ra9'!

wr^ra "*!':

ntonwiet

^rrsq

mm q^H*H

*rew: itstpt

^r^r:

wnm

qr-

hpth^to:

sfqik^s^r ^Htt ?rai^i

faiflfirart

3sw^ra^

trc*

wrtpstw:!

256
9

SANSKRIT MATERTA ME MCA.


is

mixed with milk

used as a snuff.

The

fresh

juice

of

ginger

taken with honey relieves catarrh, cough and loss of appetite. 2

Saindhavddya taila?

Take

of

dry ginger forty

tolas, rook-salt,

long pepper root and plumbago root,

sixteen tolas each, marking


seers,
oil in

nuts twenty in number,

fermented rice water sixteen

sesamum

oil

four seers, boil them together

and prepare an

the usual way.

This

oil

is

rubbed externally in

soiatica and

other forms of rheumatism.

ZINGIBER ZERUMBET,
granthi, Vera.

Roxb.

Sans,

^srafar,

SthfOm

Mahd ban

bach, Hind. Beng.

ZINGIBER CASSUMUNAR,
draka, Vern. Bandda, Beng.

Roxb.

Sans,

wrv,

Vamk-

ALPINIA GALANGA,
Vern. Kulinjdu, Beng. Hind.

Linn.

Sans.

^faSH,

Kulinjana.

The aromatic tubers

of

these three speoies are occasionally


f

used as carminative or fragrant adjuncts in complex prescriptions but they have nothing peculiar in their properties or action.

CURCUMA LONGA,
Sans, ffoj,

Roxb.
H~.

Hmdrd,

fan, Niid. Vern. Halnd, B. Haldi,


is

The turmerio plant


its

extensively cultivated for the sake

of

tubers which are an essential

ingredient of native curry


oil, is

powders.

Turmeric pounded into a paste and mixed with

rubbed on the skin to improve its and prevent skin appearance diseases. The rubbing of turmerio and oil is an essential part of
the

Hindu marriage
1.

festival

as

well as

of

some

religions

snTpr^fM ftr to* #f%m


ii

u;*jt*t

srpn^^m
^TO^ronrW

ftffc*t
:i

<frmrra
2.

Wtoto:

sfo^t

sromyii

if*

v^*"*

SffafaB

jtofwi

CURCUMA LONGA.
earemonies.

257

Medicinally turmeric

is

used chiefly in Bkin diseases

both externally and internally. Turmeric paste with the addition


of a
litfcle

lime

is

a popular application to sprains and bruises.


is

A decoction of turmeric
cloth

used as a cooling wash in ophthalmia

steeped in

it

is

employed as an eye-shade.

paste of

turmeric and the leaves of Justicia AdJiafoda ( vdsalca), with oow's urine is rubl jd on the skin in prurigo. 1 Several other oombinations of the
ecrfc

are in voerue. such as turmeric and nivi leaves*


etc.

turmeric and the ashes of the plantain tree,

Turmeric

is

urine in prurigo and eczema

Haridrdkhanda. 3

Take

of turmerio

sixty-four tolas, clarified

butter forty-eight tolas, milk sixteen seers, sugar twelve tolas,

and

boil

them together over a

gentle fire in an earthen pot.


ginger, cinnamon, cardamom,

Then add black pepper, long pepper,

tejapatra, bdberang seeds, root of Ipomcea

Turpethum
(

(trivrit), the
)

Mesua ferrea
(

ndgakesara

tubers of

mastaJca

powder, and prepare a confection. Dose, one tola every morning in prurigo, boils, urticaria, etc. A cure is said to be
fine

effected in seven days.

The term haridrddve, or the two turmerics, signifies turmerio and the wood of Berberis Asiatica. They are often used together in compound prescriptions both for external and internal use and
their properties are said to be analogous.

1-

?w$ ft^?R^
ii

*f*ni stf*5T*iT

*fa**

f^^^f

fan*

wrfa
i

fa%Fra:

ixw.
/

fofttf

fron

m\

ii

^*Npg

*rafir

*^ wqm
33

fimii t*rt qj* *ftf sft

v^\

#**s

mM**

f*mte

*&\

*n*R

*rc*fcre*u

u?nw^nT^
*&siimi:

lforfiriteitf 3T*[

wilt* *n*^<

258

SANSKRIT MATERIA

MEDICA.

CURCUMA ZEDOARIA,
Syn. 0. Zertwibet, Boxb.

Jfcww.

*.

The rhizomes

of this plant possess


bitterish,

an agreeable oamphoraceous

smell and warm,

spicy taste.

They are

considered

and useful in fever and skin diseases arising from carminative

impnre or deranged blood.


nation with other medicines

They are generally used


as
also

in combiof

in the

preparation

medicated

"The dry root powdered and mixed with the powdered wood of the Cceesalptnia Sappan makes the red powder
oils.

called abir by the Hindustanis,

and phdg by the Bengalis.


Huli

It

is

March

CURCUMA AROMATICA,
The rhizomes

Salisb.

Syn. 0.

Zedoaria, Boxb.

Sans. ^tfrST, Vanaharidrd. Vern. Banhalud, Beng. Jed war, Hind. of this plant are of a pale yellow colonr and have
as

an agreeabte fragrant smell. The Bhavaprakasa describes them


useful in skin diseases and disorders of the blood.

They are

some-

times used in combination with other medicines in these diseases.

CURCUMA XMXDX,
harldd. Vern.

Boxb.

Sans.

**ifrTft?T,

Karpnrathis
to

A'mddd, Beng.

The Bb&vaprakasa mentions


is

plant under the

name

of harpurahartdrd, but the term

not

be found in standard lex?oons.


,

The

fresh root possesses the

smell of green

mango and

is

used as a condiment and vegetable.

Medicinally

it is

described as cooling and useful in prurigo.

ELETTARTA
momum

CARDAMOMUM.
*rar

White

et

Maton.
Eldchi%

Also

Vern.

SinA

Gujrdti eldeh, Beng.

Cardamor.

fA* nsad as aromatic

adjuncts but have no peculiarity deserving of special notice

NAT, ORDER MUSACE/E.

MUSA
ipientum

^ft, Kadali, vw, Ramhhd. Vern. KaU Beng. KeU, Btnd. The eoonomtcal uses of this most valuable plant are too wellknown to need, any notice here. I will refer only Jo one of them.
Sans,
t

VANDA ROXBURGHII.

259
yield alkaline ashes

The leaves and

leaf-stalks

when burnt

whioh can be used instead of country soap or fuller's earth, in washing clothes. In the Noakhally jail, the old leaves are
collected, dried

The ashes being placed on a piece of cloth supported on four posts, water is made to percolate through them into an earthen vessel. The alkaline water thus
to ashes.

and burnt

used for steeping clothes intended to be washed. As the stems of the plantain are cut down soon after the fruit ia
is

obtained

gathered, there is always a large quantity of leaves and stalks


available in all gardens

where

it

is

cultivated.

They can be
if

readily economised in the simple

method above described,

not

manufactured into cloth or paper.

The unripe fruit, cooling and astringent


Kadalyddi ghrita. 1
four seers; boil
strain.
clarified

called mochaka in Sanskrit,


;

is

considered

it is
:

much used

in diabetes in the

form of

a ghrita prepared as follows

Take

of plantain flowers twelve seers

and

a half, watery juice of the root-stock of the plantain tree sixty-

them together

tilL reduced to one -fourth and

To the

strained

decoction add four seers of prepared

butter and the following*, substances in the form of a


sandal

paste,

namely, unripe plantains, cloves, cardamoms


)
t

wood, wood of Pinus longifolta, (sarala

jatdmdnsi too

myrobalans, Rapkanus sativus (mulaka), and the fruit


elephantuvi (kapittha ) in equal parts, one a ghrita in the usual way. This medicine

seer in
is

all,

and prepare

generally given alorg


metallic medicine in

with some preparation of tin or other


diabetes.

Dose, about two

tolas.

NAT. ORDER ORCHIDACE^ VANDA ROXBURGHII, It. Br.


iSft/ii._

dnrnhiAium

te.s&aloides.

Roxb.

KJW1,

Rasnd % i[^\\^t
used

Under the rasna and Acampe papillosa, are

*Wfw^n

^^

*tf *?tfirt wit

fcn

w fowwfow-

**

260

'

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

physicians.
roots
fruits*

They

are very similar in the appearance of


differ

their

and leaves, though they

much
I

in their flowers and

One

native physioian
;

whom

consulted, pronounoed
I

both these plants to be rdsnd

showed him the different flowers and fruits of the two species, he was puzzled. He had never looked to the flowers before, but only knew the roots and leaves. These epiphytes are very oommon on mango

when however

treeB.

Bdsnd root

is

said to be
allied

fragrant,

Tjitter
it is

and

useful in

rheumatism and
variety of forms.

disorders, in

which

prescribed in a

Bdsndpanchalca. 1

Take

of

rdsnd,

gulancha, devaddru, ginger,

and the root

of the castor oil plant in

equal parte,

and prepare

ft

decoction in the usual

way. This is apparently a popular prescription for rheumatism, being mentioned by most writers. Bdsnd guggulu. 2 Eight parts of rdsnd and ten of bdellium are
beaten into a uniform mass with clarified butter.
Dose, about a

drachm, in

soiatioa.
oils

Bdsnd enters into the composition of several medicated


for external application in

rheumatism
the

nervous

system,

such

as

and Mahdmdsha

diseases
taila,

of the

Madhyama

Nardyana

taila, etc.

NAT. ORDER L1LIACE/E.

ALOE INDICA,
Vern. Ghritakumdri, Beng.

Boyle.

&** T*TRt, Ghrilahimdri,

WW,

Kany<

Ghikumdri, Hi
thoi

(called mushabbar in the vernacular),

native

They

*t$ *#sit

ft^

II

^Wtvan

*ik^

ASPARAGUS KACE3JOSU5.

261

mention only the fresh juice of the leaves which is regarded as cathartic, cooling, tonic and useful in fevers, enlarged lymphatic
spleen and liver, eye diseases, etc. The fresh juioe is much used in making up various Borts of pill-masses and more particularly those of a purgative character, as for example the preparation called Taruna jvardri rasa, described under
glands,

Mercury

(see

page 32).

In glandular, enlargements and spleen


leaves
is

disease, the

juice of the

given with the

addition of powdered

turmeric. 1

ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS,
Sans,
smreft, Satdvari,

Willd.

m^t,
is

Satamuli.

Vern. Satamuli, Beng. Satdvari, Hind.

The Sanskrit name


roots),
is

satamuli (that

possessing a hundred

in allusion to the numerous fusiform tubers of this


as oooling,

plant.

These are regarded

demulcent, diuretic, tonic

and aphrodisiac, and are used both internally and in the prepara-

The tubers are candied and taken as a sweet-meat. This preparation howerer has scarcely any other taste dr flavour besides that of the sugar. The fresh juice
of the

tion of several medicated oils.

root

is

given with

honey as a demulcent in
aphrodisiac tonic,
:

bilious

dyspepsia or diarrhoea. 2
variety of forms.

As an
is

it is

need in a

A ghrita
Take

prepared as follows

Satdvari ghrita. 3

of clarified butter four seers,

juice of

Asparagus racemosus four seers, milk forty seers, boil them together and prepare a ghrita. This is given with the addition
of sugar, honey,

and long pepper.


This
is

Phalaghrita.
butter,

prepared with four seers of

clarified

and sixteen

seers each of the juioe of Asparagus racemosus

and oows milk, with the addition of a number of other medicines


ia

small quantities, in the form of a paste.

Its use is said to

increase the secretion of semen, to cure barrenness in


to

women and

remove disorders

of the female genitals.

ffreg^

*WT

262 ^

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


I

As a

diuretic,

it

is

prescribed in combination with other


is

an illustration. Take of the roots of Asparagus racemosus, Saccharum spontaneum ( kdsa ), Poa cynosuroides (kusa), Oryza saliva (variety called sdlidhdnya ) and Saccharum officinarum ( iksliu), Batatus paniculatus ( viddri),
its class.

medicines of

The following

Scirpus Kijsoor (kaseruka), and

Tribulus

terrestris

(gokshura)

equal parts, and prepare a decoction in the usual way. This deoootion is administered, with the addition of sugar and honey,
in scanty urine with heat

and ardor urime. 1

drug taken with milk is useful in use of the drug however oonsists in the preparation of several popular cooling and emollient medicated oils for external
application
affections

The juice of Gonorrhoea. 2 The chief

this

in

disorders

of

the nervous system, rheumatic

and urinary diseases. Ndrdyana taila? popularly known as Madhyama ndrdyana taila is made by taking of the bark of JEgU Marmelos ( vilva ), Premna spimsa (agnimantha), Calosanthes Indica (syondka), tereospcrmum

suaveolens (pdtald), Erythrina Indica (pdribhadra)


t

Pvederia foetida

(prasdram) Withania somnifcra (asvagandhd) Solatium Jacquinii , (kantakdri) % Solatium Indicum (vrihati), Sida cordifolia (bala), Sida
ifolia

(danshtrd)

diffusa (punarnavd),

eaoh twenty

tolas,

water sixty-four

seers,

and
the

boiling
1.

down

till

reduced to one- fourth and straining.

To

mv

*wtai^
***fa

^^

^mn

ftrcfawrrraFs

^^ ,^ ^^^ ^^
^inm

q*
"<

^rt*

*rfofa

fti^ri

^fontf

*nw**j**

AltlUM SATIVUM.
strained decoction

add four

seers each of the~ juioe of Asparagus"


oil,

racemosus and prepared


goat's

sesamum

sixteen seers of cow's or

milk and the following substances, namely, fennel seeds, wood of Gedrus Deodara ( devaddru ), jatdmdnsi root, liquid storax,
A<xrus Calamus
(

vdcM

(tagarapddukd),

sandal wood, Limnanth&i,* im cristatum Aplotaxis auriculata (kushtha) cardamoms,


),
(

Desmodium

gangeticum

salaparni

),

Tirana

lagopodioides
labialis

(prisniparni), Phaseolus trilobus


,

(mudgaparni), Glycine

(mdshaparni) Withania somnifera (asvagandhd), Vanda Roxburghii (rdsnd), Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnavd ) and rook salt, four tolas
each in the form of paste and prepare an
oil in th
)

usual way.

When

ready, boil again with fragrant substances as directed in


oils.

the introduction under the head of Medicated

This

oil

is

much ussd by native


joints, stiff neck,

physicians in rheumatism, diseases of the

hemiplegia and other diseases of the nervous

system.

Vishnu
It is

taila*

This

is

an

oil

much used

in nervous diseases.

prepared with sesamum

oil,

cow's or goat's milk, and the


of a

juice of Asparagus racemosus, with the addition

number

of

substances in small quantities in the form of a paste.

Prameha mihira
of Asparagus

taila.

This

oil

is

prepared with the juice

sesamum oil, decoction of lac, whey and milk with the addition of a number of substances in the form
racemosus
of a paste.

It

is

rubbed on the body and more particularly over

the public region in chronic gonorrhoea, stricture of the urethra,

&nd other diseases of the urinary organs,

ALLIUM SATIVUM,
Sans, g^r, Rasuna,

Linn.
Lasuna.

w&>

Vern. Rasun, Beng. Lasun, Hind.

Garlic

is

described as oarmi native, stomachic, alterative, tonic


flatulence, hysteria,

and useful in affections of the nervous system,


eto.

During

its

use, the diet should

oonsist of wine,

meat

and aoids.
decoction of garlic. 1

Take

garlio thirty-two tolas, water of

204

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA,


till

four seers, milk four seers, boil together


rated and strain.

the water

is

evapo-

This decoction in milk

is

given in small doses

in hysteria, flatulence, sciatica

and heart disease.


of garlic twelve tolas, assafcetida,

Svalparasuna pinda. 1

Take

cumin
mix.

seeds,

rock

salt,

sonchal salt, ginger,


;

long pepper and

black pepper, each one-eighth of a tola

powder them finely and Dose, about twenty-two grains every morning with a
affections.

decoction of the root of the castor oil plant, in faoial paralysis*

hemiplegia, sciatica, paraplegia and convulsive

This

medicine should be continued for $ month.


Garlic juice slightly
otalgia.

warmed

is

used as a local application in

A bulb

of garlic is

sometimes introduced into the meatus

for relief of pain in the internal ear. 5

Sans.

GLORIOSA SUPERBA, Linn. *u^Rt*T, Ldngalikd, ^rfaf TO Agmsikhd, ^facfiTft,


,

Kalihdru

Vem. BishaMnguli, Beng.

Karilidri,

Hind.
India.
of the

"The

Gloriosa

Superba

is

a native of the forests of

It appears during the rainy season in Bengal,

and

is

one

most ornamental plant any country can boast of." Its bulb is one of the seven minor poisons of Sanskrit writers (see page 7). One of its Sanskrit synonyms is Garbhaghdtini or the drug that oausea
abortion, but I

am

not aware of

its

being used as an abortive

for

criminal purposes.
is

The

root,

powdered and reduced

to a paste,

applied to the r avel, supra-pubio region and vagina with the object of promoting labour pains. 3 In retained placenta a paste
I
.

*P*nre>rtw:

vmti

wg*

**ftw Sft? <r*

f^^Msfa*^

3.

TOT ^T3frtW*it TOp^f-; *q*

STTfotf%*WTfftT<t

&3

1P&*

im*r%

IsfR^

CYPERUS PERTENUrS.
of root is applied to the palms

'

265

and

eoles,

while powdered nigella

and long pepper are given internally with wine, 1 This root enters also into the composition of some complex prescriptions for internal use, as for example the Ldngali gutikd described in
seeds

the Bhavaprakc4sa.

NAT. ORDER. SMILACE^E SMIL AX CHINA, Linn.


Sans. vfHfapij Chohachini.
Vern. Ohohchini. Hind.

Fluckiger and Hanbury state that "the use of

remedy for syphilis was made known

to

drug as a the Portuguese at Goa


this

by Chinese traders about A. D. 1535." If this statement, which ia given on the authority of Garcia d'orta, is correct, the history of
this

drug

will enable us to fix the approximate age of the latest

and most comprehensive treatise on Sanskrit Medicine, namely, the Bhavaprakasa. In this work China root is described under
its

vernacular

name

of

chobchini, as a root like Acorus

Calamust
used in

brought from a fpreign country


epilepsy,

and useful

in
2

rheumatism,
It
ia

insanity and particularly in syphilis.


as

an alterative along with anantamul and other drugs of reputed efficaoy in syphilis and rheumatism.

modern Hindu medicine

NAT. ORDER CYPERACE/E.

CYPERUS ROTUNDUS,
Sans,

Linn.

g^, CYPERUS PERTENUIS,

Mustaha. Vern. Muthd, Beng. Mothd, Bind.

Roxb*

Sans. ?TPTt^r^, NdgaramustaJca, Vern. Ndgarmiithd, Beng. Hind.

The tubers of these two species of Gyperus are much used in Hindu medicine. Gyperus rotundus is the most common variety
1

i^N surfer:

ufinr

^TfaraTf

wnich

w: fqwif^r:

^mtt

firorwrcrfirft

*n*ra mm:

maintained
speoiea
;

it ia

variety of the 0. rotundus of Linnsoaa.

G. K.

34

266

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


is

and

used infernally. Its tubers are about the size of a pigeon's


;

egg and of a dark brown oolour externally


fragrant.

internally white and

Those growing in moist


is

soil are

preferred for use. The

somewhat tuberous with many dark coloured villous fibres. It grows in low wet places and is chiefly used in the preparation of medicated oils. The properties of both are said to be identical. They are considered diaphoretic,
root of

Cyper us pert emit s

astringent, stomachic and useful in fever, diarrhoea and dyspepsia.

The tnhers

of

Cyperus rotundus are

extensively

used as an

aromatic adjunct to numerous compound medicine*.

Shadanga pdniya. 1
red sandal wood,
landia herbacea,

Take of the tubers

of Cyperus rotundus,

root of Andropogon muricatus, (usira). Olden(parpata), Pavonia odorata (bald) and dry
;

ginger each one draohm, water two seers boil down to one seer. This decoction is given as a drink for appeasing thirst and
relieving teat of body in fever.
It

may be taken ad

libitum.

NAT. ORDER GRAM1NE>. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM, Linn. ETC.


Sans. Kg, Ihhu. Vern. Ak, Beng. Uk, Hind.

products sugar and treacle were known to the Hindus from a very early age. From -the Sanskrit term sarkara are derived the saccharum and Arabio takkar, Latin, English sugar.* Twelve varieties mentioned by of sugar-oane are
suorar-oane

The

and

its

*3f:

nn.veraally employed in the Malayan Archipelago where on the o'ber bnd, they have their own names This for the aopar-eane, althongh not for angar. f"" fact again speaks, for Bitter's nin, +v.* in * !_-*: i **r i

In the Pharmaoographia by Floehiger and Hanbnry it is Btated : "C*<*y as sngar ,n large oryetala is called, i 8 derived from the Arabic hand or Jcandat a name of the same signification. Berg*l * An old 8amkrit name of Central Oura whence is deri^ the word Quia meaning raw engar, a term for r>wr

dne to the inhabitants of Bengal." The Arabio land ii apparently derived from the Sanekrit khanda, that is treacle candied into white aand-like grains. Again the Bengali term Gura is derived from the Sanskrit Guda which is mentioned by arch ancient writers as Charaka and Hnsrnta. The mannfaotnre of sn*ar therefore was evidently nnderetood m Upper India before it was known in Bengal, at any rate there is nothing to Bhew that engar was first prepared
in Bengal.

crystalline state is

SACCHARUM OFPICINARUM.
Sanskrit writers, but these oan not
all

267

be identified at present.

The products or preparations


Sanskrit writers, are as follows
! 2.

of the sugar-cane, as desciibed


:

by

HH3T, Ikshu rasa or sugar-cane


Hiifacj,

ju'ce.
to one-

Phdnita or sogar-oane juice boiled down


-

fourth.
3

It
^Tf,

oan be drawn out in threads.

Ourja or sugar-cane juice boiled to a thiek consistence,

that is treacle.
4.

*T^f%^rr, Matsyandihd

is

sugar-cane juice boiled

down

to a

solid consistence
5.

but which
is

still

exudes a

little fluid

on drawing,

jj^ Khanda
si^iTT,

treacle partially dried or candied in white

sand like grains.


6.
7. 8.

Sarkara or white sugar.


Sitopald or eugar oandy.
treacle.

fsitfliHr,
?fhft,

Gaudi or fermented liquor obtained from

9
juice.

^tlj,

fermented liquor obtained from sugar-cane Sidhu or

preparations are described separately, properties of these reproduco those details here. but it is scarcely worth while to demuloent and diuretic The root of the sugar cane is considered used in Hindu Medicine. Sagar and treacle are very largely for medicinal purposes. Old treacle preferred to new,

The

is

Trinapancha mula.

Under

this

name

the roots of five sorts of


as follows
:

grasses are used in combination.


1.

They are

T%, Ikshu.
jft,

Saccharum

officinarum, Linn.

2.
3. 4.
5.

Sara.

Saccharum Sara, Linn.


spontaneum, Linn. Saccharum
cynosuroides, Linn.

^tjt,
ejfsr,

Kdsa.

Kusa.

Poa

^,

Darva. Imperata cylindrica,

Beauv. Some
m
*

practitioners
X

1 1_ ^

substitute the
cylindrica.

fill /W14*/T Imperata


ffl.

of these roots is decoction


is

demulcent and considered

diuretic

and

largely prescribed

as

an adjunct

to

metallic

and suppression medioines in gonorrhoea, strangury in these diseases The following nnnWion is also much used

urine of -""

HTVRiTH

268
Kusdvaleha.
tolas
1

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDlCA.

Take

of the five roots

each,

water sixty-four seers,

above mentioned, eighty boil down to eight seera and

Then add sugar four seers, and reduce to the consistence of a thick syrup. Remove the syrup from the fire and add to it the following substances, namely, liquorice reot, cucumber seeds,
strain.

the seeds of Cucumis melo

( karTcati ),

bamboo- manna, emblio


cinnamon, bark
ndgakesara
ladle
of

myrobalan,

tejapatra

leaves,

cardamoms,
ferrea

Cratceva religiosa (varuna), gulancha, 6eeds of Aglaia Boxburghiana

(P*
tolas each in fine

),

two

powder

stir

them well with a

and prepare

an electuary.

Dose, one to two tolas.

ORYZA SATJVA,
The
following varieties of food

Linn.
grains

ETC.
belonging to
:

this

important natural order, are mentioned by Sanskrit writers ^PT, Dhanya. Oryza sativa, Linn. Vern. Dhdn^Beng. Kind.
*fhFT,

Godhuma. Triticum vulgare, Linn. Gam, B. Genhu, H.

Yava.

Hordeum hexastichum, Linn.

Jab, Beng. Jow, Hind.

These three are considered the best of grains. The following varieties pass by the n*mo of Kudlidnya or inferior grains and iR^t% Kshudra dhanya or minor grains.

^t%

SP^PjT Ydvandla. Holchus Sorghum, Linn.


Jot,

Jodr, Janiri,

Hind.

Beng.

*& Kwgii.

Letaria Italica, Millet,


%

E. Kunth.

Vern.

Kdngni

^
sffFTTSR',

Kawan, B. Kord R.
__

_____

Sydmdka. Panicttm frumentaceum, B<xb. Shydmddhdn, B.


Nivara. Wild variety of Oryza sativa, Linn. Uridhdn, B Panicum Sjpicatus, Eoxb. Bajra

^r^
iffaTC,

*rk

Hind

%f^*njsT^u

-rem**

cT?r:

q^ ^jiiiTtoTfT
i

wtai
i

w**-^*

^wrem
t

wt?i, fWtf *Pu ^rerareroronCfc

Sfro^ stfim \Um\

ii

vsrdroiar*

^ gf*< ^

^ ^ifa^ %f**H
fanwrrnft


ORYZA SAT1VA.

269

arundinacea. Willd
^F5ff,

Chdruka. Seeds of Saccharum Sara, Roxb. Sarahij, B.

OATS.

Avena

Sativa.

No
is

native or Sanskrit name.


rated in Bengal.

It

is

indigenous to Europe and

is oulti

ORYZA. SATIVA.
food of

Rice

the principal and often the only

the great mass of the Indian population.

JDhdyna the

means the supporter or nourisher of mankind. It is regarded as the emblem of wealth or fortune. On a thursday in the month of Pausha (December, January) after the new paddy has been reaped, a rattan-made grain measure called
Sanskrit
of

name

paddv,

rek in Bengali, is filled

with new paddy, pieces of gold, silver and copper coins, and some shells called cauries, and worshipped as
the representative
of

the goddess of fortune.

This appaiatus

is

and brought out for worship on preserved in a clean earthen pot following Hindu months, namely, one thursday in each oE the Such is the form of the domestic Chaitra, Sravana, and Kartika. people living chiefly on rice. goddess of wealth of an agricultural
are Sdli or that reaped in The three prinoipal classes of rioe iu the rainy eeason, and the cold season, Vrihi or that ripening This in low lands. Shasfaika or that grown in the hot weather
1

is

reaped within sixty days of its

sowing.

The

varieties of

each of these three classes of rice

numerous and confounding. are


is

Bakta sdli popularly

known

as

DdudkUni

the variety of rice

and suited for use by that is considered superior to all others used in sick diet and sick persons. preparations of rioe The works are as follows described iu Sanskrit medical with water for the powdered rice boiled Yavdgu or **H,
:

use of the sick

and convalescent.

It is

made

of three

streng hs
;

namely, with nine, eleven and respectively Vilepi, Peyd and Manda.
water, a decoction of

of water called nineteen parts instead^ of Sometimes,

medioinadj^^
*&* TO ^

*****

.rwmntfrani

^^"

270
Thus, for example,

SANSKRIT MATERIA MBDICA


if

ifc

is

ordered to give the patient yavdgu made

with ginger and long pepper, the process adopted in preparing it is as follows. Take of dry ginger and long pepper, one tola each,
boil
r

in four seera of water

till

reduced

to

two and

strain.

Now

take nine, eleven or nineteen parts of this

strained decoction and

one part of powdered rice for making yavdgu of the strength


ordered.

m$n

Ldjd,

Vern.

Khai

), is

paddy

fried in a sand hath.

The
It is

husks open out and the rice swells into a light spongy body.

considered a light article of diet suited to invalids and dyspeptics.

Wci^i,
bath.

Bhrishta tandula,
is aleo

Vern,

Muri)
Et

is

rice fried in a sand


is

This

a light preparation of rice and


is

given to sick
used by

persons as a substitute for boiled rice.

also

much
this,

the poorer classes for

tifiia

and early breakfast.


Churd).

Y^f,

Prithulidt

(Vern.

To prepare

paddy

is

moistened and lightly


preparation of rice
It is well
is

fried. It is

then flattened and husked. This

given with curdled milk (dadhi) in dysentery.

washed and softened in water or boiled before use.


Pdyasa
is

WTQ

a preparation of rioe with nine parts of milk.

cf^TW, Tanduldmbu
steeped.

rice has been is water in which unboiled This sort of rice-water is sometimes prescribed as a

vehicle for some powders and confections.

The produots

of the acetous

fermentation of rice

and other

grains have been already described in the introduction.

Three mentioned in the Bhavaprakasa namely Mahdgodhuma or


Linn.
varieties of

TRITICUM VULGARE,

wheat are
large

grained, Madhuli or small grained 1


is

without awn.

The

first

and NihsuH variety is said to come from the west

beardless, that or

and the second

middle region comprising the modern provinces of Allahabad, Agra, Delhi, Oudh, etc.
to be indigenous to the
is

Wheat

considered the most nutritive of the food-grains, but less easily digested than rioe.

HORDEUM HEXASTICHUM,
esteemed than wheat
It is chiefly
1.

Linn.

Barley though

less

more employed in the dietary of the siok. used in the form of saktu or powder of the parched
is
Mtfte*

njwr:

*9tit^: tfa sffonsanpr

ANDROPOGON MCRICATtTS.
grains.

271

Gruel prepared with saktu

is said to

be easily digested

and to be useful in painful dyspepsia*

ZEA.

MAYS,

Linn called makJcdi in the vernaoular has no


It
is

Sanskrit name.
cultivated in

indigenous to America but

is

now

largely

Behar and Upper India,


grains
are not of any

The minor food


classes or for cattle.

importance in a

medicinal point of view.

They are used as food by the poorer

Old rice
digested,

is

preferred to

new

as being lighter and

more

easily
to old.

but new wheat and barley are considered superior These are said to lose in flavour and taste by long keeping.
PoultioeB

made

of rioe, barley or

wheat

flour,

with the addition

of

oil

are applied to abscesses for hastening or clarified batter,

suppuration. 1

ANDROPOGON MURICATUS,
Sans, ^afa,
Urira,

Rett.

$m,

Tirana.
"

Bend, Beng. Khas, Hind. Vern.

Thb
which

root of this plant

is

well

talis

or door screens are


is

known made for watering daring

as the khas khas root of

the hot

weather.

It

useful ia pyrexia, thirst,

refrigerant, stomachic and described as cooling, irritability of stomach, etc. inflammation,

cooling medicine*^ as for It enters into the composition of several

example, the preparation called


rotundus).

( is

weak
it is

infusion of the root

sometimes used as a

febrifuge drink.

Externally
root is
of the

used

in

a variety of

way s.

paste of the

rubbed on
body.

This use of the drag

oppressive heat or burning the skin to relieve to have been popular appears

with the ancients.

allies to

it

Kalidnssa in his passage quoted below.' as will appear from the


*T>t

drama

called

Sakuntala

An

1.

4*

ffa

*Tfr

* ******

*WHn*g*TO **
^w:

*m*m
2.

VRriftfK;

RW^wwwr^'

fiwwn

mm

iuft

****

*fwstt
*tf*nt

272

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA,


is

aromatic cooling bath


following

prepared by adding to a tub of water the

substances jn fine powder, namely, root of Andropogon

muricatus, Pavonia adorata (bald), red sandal wood,

and a fragrant
to

wood

called

a thin

The same medicines are reduced 2 emulsion with water and applied to the skin.
kdshtha.

padma

ANDROPOGON SCHCENANrHUS,
Bhustrina, Vern. Gandha bend, Beng.

Linn.

Sans,

qm,
vm^m,

ANDROPOGON IWARANCUSA,

Boxb.

Sans,
*

Ldmajjaka. Vern, Ldmjak, Hind. Karankusd, Beng.

These two fragant grasses are occasionally used as aro natios

and refrigerants
sclioenanthus is

like

the

roots

of

Andropogon muricatus.

A.
for

common

in Bengal,

being cultivated in gardens


is

the sake of

its

fragrant leaves.

A. Iwarancusa

"a native of the


virtues seem to

skirts of the

Northern mountains of India."

Its

reside in the larger roots

marked with annular

cicatrices.

BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA,
Sans,
^fa,

Willd.

Va7isa. Vern.

Bdns Beng. Hind.


9

The bamboo

siliceous
is

concretion found
<fa
ffa*T,

the joints of the female in


is

called

Bansa rochana in Sanskrit, and


aphrodisiac and
etc.

described as sweet, cooling, tonic,

useful

cough, consumption,

asthma,

fever,

enters into tbe It

composition of numerous compound


of the lungs.

prescriptions for affections

The following
Take

is

an

illustration.
parts, long eight

Sitopalddi churna?

of

bamboo-manna
qqfrfn4*nf<T

1.

ffo inraWN: ^^<r*Tft<*TT

trftt

^mf^rt
:

ra
i

2.

h^t: <?ftw? sm*f q^*s^:

trw^frfft *reqr

^**t vwft
:i

WINIS AND

SPIRITS.

273

pepper four parts, cardamoms, two parts, cinaraon one part, sugar

powder the ingredients and mix. Dose, about a drachm with honey and clarified batter. This preparation given
sixteen

parts

in

phthisis with pain in the sides, baBtnoptysie, loss of appetite and

burning of the hands and feet.

CYNODON DACTYLON,
Durbdy
like

Pers,

Sans

jn f

Durvd.

Vern.

Beng.

Dub, Hind.

This elegant and most valiable grass

many other meful


religion.

vegetables, has a niche in the temple of the


is

Hindu
sidered

Medicinally the fresh juice of the leaves

con-

astringent,

and

is

used as a snuff

in

epi&taxis. 1

The

bruised grass is

a popular application

to bleeding

wounds.

PRODUCTS OF FERMENATION AND


DISTILLATION.

WINES AND

SPIRITS.

All fermented and distilled liquors causing intoxication, are The following varieties are called Madya or Madird in Sanskrit. mentioned by the later writer*.
rn*fNT,

Mdddhika, or

spirit distilled

from grapeB.
dates.

W&t, Kharjura,
ftft,

do.

do.

Gaudi,

do.
do.

do.
do. do.

trebde.

*I, Sidhu,
SU, Surd,

engar-cane juice.
rice.
V.

do.
do.

ft**,Kohala,
^firar,

do.
do.
do.

barley.

(m^fqwickn
sorts of grain.

MadhuliM,

do.

wheat.

%$,Paishti,
*J^il*Ml8f,

do.
ynis
tifolta

from different
do.

Madhuha

do.

the flowers of

*n*%* .J&mbava,

do.

do.

ripe fruits of
do.

Eugenia Jambolana.

^fT^ft. Kddambari.

do.

flower* of Anthpcephalus

Cadamba.
*T*&^, YalhaU,
IWNft,

do.

do.

atid

Vdruni

is

the fermeote<

^f^^t, Akshiki or

bark
spirit fro;

i* vfaritft ^t Systran
35

*n*rfe*r:

v*^

*nf*1*T~

^tfir^i

huh*uui

274
3*JT,
%

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


Sveta

means

liquor

from

rice of

white colour.

being red.

jfa Moireya or a
9

sort of

spirituous liquor from the blossoms

frutecosum

or fermented

liquor

from Bugar

or

B
TOST
to

some

it

is

liquor distilled

from rioe with the addition

of

medicinal herbs.

Some
two

of these spirituous >iquors

have several

varieties.

Thus

varieties of sidhu are mentioned, namely, that produced from boiled sugar-cane juice and that The

fmm

the unboiled

j a ice.

liqnor distilled from rice receives different names according to its consistence. The clear transparent flnid which floats on the top
is called

pramnnd

that below
;

it, is

called

Udambari

jaqala

is

thicker fluid t^an hddambari


of all

medaka in the thickest and weakest


have been already

The forms

of medicated ppiritunne liquors

described in the introduction, (see page 13 ). SpiritnouF liquors are described as stimulant, sedative, agreeable, heating, intoxicating, digestive and nourishing. They are
eas^lv assimilated
but, injurious to

health in hot climates.

New

disagreeable to the taste and smell, unpleasant in its effects not easily assimilated, laxative, heating and injurious to health. Old wine is agree* ble, light and appetizng. It promotes the
is

wine

circulation of the fluids in the vessels and renders the senses acute.

In amiable and virtuous men, wine promotes mirth and a desire

for

*mu
with

u
s
.

table

food,

wine acts like nectar.

If taken to excess

it

of diseases. Medicinal'y, spirituous liquors are said to he useful in emanation. derulity.anjBmia. urinary disacep,

indues a host

dy-pppsia, chronio b:>wel seoretioflfof milk, etc.


A.

complaints, ohronio fever,

deficient

mixture of ginger, cumin seeds, treacle, wine and warm water is given in ague with prolonged cold stage. l In ohronio
1
rffcj,

V3fT3ft

fqtf

qt^N

^Tf^C^T

N^T

uf,*

$* m*pw

^^

WINES AND

SPIRITS.

275

intermittent fever with debility, spirit distilled from rice, together with the flesh of fowls is recommended to be given as diet by

most writers, but their advice


Several preparations
addition of
in different

is

not followed in the present day. 1


distilled

of

spirit

from treacle with the


.

various medicinal and aromatic substances are used


diseases.

The

following
of

is

an example.
treacle eight

Mritasanjivani surd}
and steep
the
it

Take

new

hnudred
to the

tolas
-

in thirty times its weight of water.

Add

mixture

following substances in the form of a paste, namely, pinger

sixteen tolas,

bark of Acacia Arabzca two

seers, of Ziziphus Jujuba

(kola)

two

seers, of Symplocos racemosa (lodhra)

half a seer,

betel-nuts as

many

as desired

stir in a large

earthen vessel, and

keep the mixture for twenty days in a covered jar.


period

After this

remove the fermented


it,

fluid to

a distilling apparatus, and

add to
cloves,

the following aromatic substances, namely, betelnuts,

sandal wood, cumin seeds, djowan, black pepper, ginger, nutmegs, cardamoms, cinnamon, tejapatra leaves, fennel seeds,
aigella seeds,
ka
(

fragrant substances called elavdluka, padmathe


*7

eaoh eight tolas,


liquor
ia

in coarse powder, and

distil.

This distilled

used as a tonic,

and invigorating drink. astringent

Stfp^t vvm

ppt*

^wnwV fa^^

*^
*^**

HgwjifW
^p:
i

5^
2

i#^wi
||

*ctf

&mw
*ct?^p

*&**

rtw\
i

pp3P

W $* Plffl^
l^ni ftw n f**^: n ^%

^ijtsref

$T* *t

<ram
'
i

^^ ^

*rai*

Pi?

N fRW
v* pan

******

wm

^ **&&' "i S^^*


***
** T

^ ^^l
T

^z

*****
**tf>

fWw'
Stft

p tfN

^
Itft

pp*t*ph
i

****
<?*t

w* ^^
^r

"^*
"

^^
jf!_
** Wl

aftarcpp,

*rt

nt\ p5tpt
I

pritPPPS'**
J

**T

Wt

^ rasm
i

Mf^PT^

PI**!

^^W VPitv to* Piqfel P>.

*W

fq%|pl

*rorg *pm:

wpst*p* p*t pt^J tPPTwar

5^

W ^* f **

P1CTO *

THE

MATERIA MEDICA
OF THE HINDUS

PART

III.
s

ANIMAL MATERIA MEDICA.

THE LEECH.
Leeches have been employed by the Hindus from a very re* mote period, Susruta gives a detailed account of their varieties,
habits,

mode

of application, etc.

translated in fall

Hie aceonnt of leeoheB has been by Dr. Wise. Pundit Madhu Sudan Gupta ba<i
on the subjeot for publication in the Bengal

aleo furnished a note

Dispensatory.

I will not therefore

will give an extract

from Dr.

attempt a new "There are twelve Wise

translation but

varieties of leuohea, six of

which are venomous, and

six uteful

The venomous leeches are found near putrid fish or animals in foul, Btagnant and putrescent water. Such leeches are consequently to be avoided. The good leeches are found in clear and deep pools of water which contain water lilies, and are surrounded with sweet
smelling plants.

The middle

sized

leeches are the best.

These

leeches are to be caught on a piece of leather or cloth, and placed in a new water pot in which son^e clay and pure water has been plac d in put. i plants are to be
1^

the pot for them to


flesh are to be

lie

upon, and the roots of water

lilies

and dry
m

given them for food.

The water

is
,

be changed to
**

every third day, and water pot every seventh day.


leeches do
t

not

fix

quiokly,

apply a drop or two

or blood of milk

part,

or

make one

or two very

w- hioh slight scarifications-

them

to fix themselves

more

readily.

When

Lie.

277
bod

When
drop

the leeob.es have removed the neoessarj quantity of blood, sprinkle a small quantity of salt upon their heads to make them
off.

Put the gorged leeches upon some dry bran, put a little oil and salt upon their mouths and then strip them. Pat them next in fresh water and, if they are lively, they will live and may
;

be need again

but

if

they are languid, they will soon die and they

should therefore be at onoe thrown away. The part upon which the leeches have been is to be smeared with honey, cold water and
astringent substances.

In other cases poultices

may

be applied."

LAC.
Sans*
^JTisrT,

Ldkshd Vem. Lakh, Hind, Gdtd, Beng.


i

The

lac insect

Coccus lacca

).

has been

known
is

to the

Hindus

from a very ancient period.


lac is said to

The Butea frondosa


The
fluid
is

called Ldkshd

iaru or lac plant in Sanskrit, this being the principal tree in which

be produced.

lac-dye obtained bj dissolcalled Alakta.


It is

ving the orushed stick lac in water


colouring
flat

used in

silk.

Cotton coloured with this dje and pressed into


is

circular pieces
is

sold in the

bazars under the

and

used in painting the hands and feet of


in the preparation of

name of A'Ud Hindu female**.

Shell-lac is used

sealing wax, varnish for


Shell- lac, finely powdered,

carpenters and ornaments for women.


1

with honey and prepared in the form of an half-a-tola, mixed


electuary
is

given in HjEcaatemesis.

decoction of shell-lac
oils,

is

much used
LdksMdi

in the preparation of several medicinal

suoh as

taila,

Ghandanddi

taila,

Angdraka

taila, etc.

Lakshdditaila? Take of shell lac two seers, water sixteen seers,

mw^ p
i

^teiareiifatf

swftau

*pwft *Tf?rw* war-

faro faifa?^
2

mwfe

fa*i
d

<3T*rrc9*i

fa

mm* <w*n

wit fiw *\\


i

*far $*!*?

^:
b

vj^r tffWr

^t *mn w: **:

far rof**

wwrapnfipiTH

swrot'iire

TOnwmnw

** *ro* H*v

nU^t ^ waft

*nw*TC

278
boil till
shell lac

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDIdA

reduoed to four seers and strain.

add four seers of

To this deoootion prepared sesamum oil, sixteen seers

of
of

whey, and two tolas each of the following substances, namely, asvagandhd ), turmeric, devaddru wood, root Withania somnifera (
of Sanseviera Zeylanica

(mwtva

),

Pandanus odoralissimus
in the usual

(ketaki),

Vanda Roxburghii
form
of

rdsna),

dill

seeds and liquorice root in the

a paste and

prepare an

oil
is

way

lastly add

four tolas of campbor.

This

oil

muoh used
oils

for inunction in

chronic fever and consumption*

The other

containing lac are

prepared in a similar way, with the addition of varioUB medicinal


substances in the form of paste.

HONEY AND WAX.


\San$>
*r*f,

Madhu,

fTTf^f, MdJcshiJca.

Vern.

Madhu, Beng. SJiahad, Hind.


:

Eight sorts of honey are described by Susruta, namely 1. Mdkshika or the honey collected by tlife common bee called
madhumakshikd.
2.

Bhrdmara, or the honey collected by a large black bee


Kshaudra, or honey collected by a sort of small bee of
colour, called Kshudra.

called bhramara.
'-*>.

tawny

4
5,

Pauttika,

or

honey

collected

by a small black

bee

resembling a gnat, and called puttiha.


Chhatra^ or honey formed by

yellow wasps which tawny or


like

make
6.

their hives in the shape of umbrellas.

Argha or wild honey collected by a sort of yellow bee


AuddlaJca
is

the bhramara.

a bitter and ac in the nests of white ants.


8.

T.

Bala or unprepared honey found on flowers.


first

Of these varieties the


writers

four only are

described by recent

considered demulcent and laxative.


is

med Honey more than a


Old honey
is

New

honey

is

year old

said to be astringent

and demulcent.

preferred

SERPENT POISON,
to

279
confections

new.

It is

much used

in the preparation of
to decoctions, pills
is

and

electuaries,
.

and as an adjunct

and powders.

Wax,

called siktha in Sanskrit,

used in the preparation of

ointments and ghritas for for external application.

SERPENT POISON.
Sans. ?prPrc, Sarpavisha,
*TC3T,

Garala.
since a very
is

Serpent poison has been used


recent

in

Hindu medicine

period only.

Even the Bhavaprakasa which


old does not mention
it.

not more

than three centuries


containing
it

Prescriptions

are found in such modern compilations as the


etc.

Bhaishajya Ratnabali, Sarkaumudi,

The poison of the black cobra


Beng.
) is

sdp,

used.

It is

Naga tripndians. collected by making the reptile


(

Vern. Kent*3
bite on

a pieoe

of

stiok or

wood when the poison

is

piured out and

reoeived on a pieoe of plantain leaf.

It is preserved in

two ways.
it is

The liquid poison


rubbed

to congeal and dry in a cup or is allowed

with a fourth

part of mustard oil

and spread out on a

pieoe of plantain leaf.

Thus

treated

it

rapidly coagulates into a

yellowish-brown oolonr. Wh granular agglutinated mass of a poison coagulates into allowed to dry spontaneously, serpent shining, orystalline yellowish white granules. It is used in

with arsenic, aconite and other complicated fever in combination


ttedicines.
in

Numerous

recent compilations.

containing this poison are given formulre are a couple of examples. following

The

Suchikd bharana
tin,

rasa.

mercury, sulphur, prepared Take of


parts,

aconite and cobra poison, equal

mix them together

and soak the mixed powder


Rohita),

wild b>ar,

peioook,

rohitaha G-h ( Gyprinus in the bile of successively and buffalo and goat
is

make into a

pill-mass.

This medicine

administered in doses
s

CT?T5^:

*fa m* f 5iT*w:

wajiautft
n

230

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.

that can be taken tip

by the paint of a needle, hence


given in remittent

it i9 oalled

suchikdbharana.
complications.

It

is

fever with cerebral


r

-Take of black cobra poison, sulphur, white arsenic, aconite, black pepper, long pepper, ginger, borax, mercury, prepared iron and copper equal parts soak them in the five kinds
rasa.
;

Kdldnala

mentioned above and make into one-grain pills with the juioe of datura root. These are given in fever with coma, delirium and droweinesp.
of bile

musk:
Sans.

whiRt, Mrigandbhi, tfmft, Kasturi.


describes three varieties of musk, namely,

The Bhavapr&kasa

Kdmrupa, Nepdla and Kdshmira musk. Kdmrupa musk is said to be of blaok colour and superior to the others. It is probably China or Thibet musk brought via Kamroop. Nepdla muek is
described as of bluish colour and intermediate quality,

Kdshmira

musk

is

of inferior quality.
is

regarded as stimulant and aphrodisiac and is used in low fevers, chronic cough, general debility and impotence. In low fevers with prostration, two grains of musk with two of Makara-

Muek

dhwaja are given every three hours with the addition of honey.
Svalpa kasturi bhairava.
*

Take

of

oinnabar, aoonite, borax,

nutmeg, maoe, long pepper, blaok pepper and musk, equal parts

TOitfrrar

CITIT 04T.

1S1

and

make

into four-grain

pills.

These are given in remittent

fever of

low type.
l

Mrigandvyddyavaleha
oinnamon
with

Take

of

musk, eardamoms, olovee,

and

dates,

equal

parts and

make

into a linotus

honey and
speeeh.

clarified butter.

This

is

given in hoarseness and

loss of

Vasantatilaka

rasa. *

gold one part, tale and Take of prepared

preparation of mereury tin two parts eaoh, iron three parts, the ooral, fonr parts eaeh celled rasasindura and aaloined pearle and sngar
)

ing vegetables.
it

Enolose the mass

in

a sand-bath for three hours.

orueible and roast in a eovered to it four parts* Lastly add


into four-grain
pills.

eamphor and four of

musk and make

These

e given

as

an

alterative tonie in a

diseases, but variety of

more

especially in

ppoeed to be eaused

by deranged

CIVET CAT
WKfo,
unctuous
ndrjdra. Fern Kanaka

poueh of the oivet cat


odorous
,

(FeWm
\.zjk

aaeretion

..,

^^\^ Z
and used extracted
ihhitctc
i

** **

*^** wm^^r. n^******^**

**>*.

wm
se

fim

w. *l

**** **

282
perfumery.
it,

SANSKRIT MATERIA MEDICA.


i

The pouch together with the

seoretion

contained in
oils.

are used by native physicians in scenting meditated

HARTSHORN.
The
antler of

Sans.

*nrw,

Mrigasringa.
vessels is

the deer incinerated in closed

need in

painful affections of the heart, pleurodynia, soiatioa and lumbago.


It is given
butter.
of lime. 1

in

doses of about twenty -two grains with clarified

Burnt hartshorn leaves 57 5 per oent of phosphate

MILK AND ITS PRODUCTS


various
great d
tooling

Milk in general
vitalizing.

is

considered
is

Cow's milk

pleasant to take and very wholesome. It promotes memory strength and longevity and increases the secretion of semen.
Buffalo's

milk

is

said to be sweeter,

heavier and

more

cooling

than tow's milk.


brings on cold.

It induces sleepiness,
is

spoils the appetite and


It

Goat's milk

sweet, cooling and astringent.


is

promotes the digestive power and


diseases,

useful in

hemorrhagic
is saltish,

phthisis,

bowel complaints,

etc.

Ewe's milk
Mare's milk

disagreeable and

not eaaily digested.


Ass's

is

saltish,

acidulous and
digested,

easily digested.

milk

is

saltish,

easily

and useful in debility and urinary complaints.


sweet,
saltish,

Camel's

milk

is light,

laxative and

useful in dropsical

affections.

Human
as

milk

is light,

cooling, nutritive, strengthening

a collyrium or wash in eye diseases. All milk except human milk should be taken boiled. Warm milk just
said to be like nectar

and useful

As
child re

demulcent, laxative,

or those reduced by debauohery, for

women who

are suckling
diseases,

and for patients suffering from chronic fever, mental

MILK KND
dyspepsia, diarrhoea,

ITS PRODUCTS.

283
ascites

urinary complaints,
of

and anasarca,
(

A pure milk-diet to the exclusion


excepting
stages of

every other article

not

even salt and water )

is

often prescribed

in the later

anasarca, ascites and chronic bowel complaints.

Along
vati,

with this

some Svrnaparpati or Mdna manda,


milk
diet,

sort of
is

medicine, finch as Dugdha

usually prescribed.
sorts of butter- milk are des-

m
oribed,

Takra or butter-milk.

Four

namely

ghola or pure butter milk

admixture

one-fourth part of water, udasi water, takra or butter- milk with or that mixed with half its bulk of water, and chhachchhikd or
very dilute butter-milk.

The eeoond form


nutritive, tonic,

called takra

is

used in

medioine
light,

and as an

article of sick diet. It is

regarded as astringent,

cooling, appetizing,

and useful in diarrhcea,


ascites,

dysentery,

dyspepsia, urinary diseases,

poisoning, etc.

nor to those suffering It is not suited to the weak, or consumptive use of butter-milk is from fever and nervousness. The habitual
said to

be oonduoive to health and

againBt disease. a preservative

Sf*
a little

Badhi or curdled milk

is

some aoid or prepared by adding


previously boiled.

curdled milk as a ferment to milk milk thus acted upon the course of twelve hours the whole of the
is

In

changed into a more or

less

thick, acidulous,

jelly-like
is

mass.

It

and cooling, and is considered agreeable, digestive


an article of diet by all classes of natives.
bilioueness and catarrh.

much used
to excess it

as

Taken

causes

useful in fever, It is
disinclination for food.

diarrhoaa,

ojeentery, urinary disorders and

1* Mastu
of of

curdled milk.

similar to those have properties or whey is said to favour the circulation it is said to particular

In

the animal fluids

and

in constipation. to be useful
(

f*Sl** KiUtaka or curd of milk


* digestion,

Vem. chhend, Beng.

ia

hard

persons wito and suited to but is nourishing, tonic

strong digestive

powers.

*mp
***
'tomaehie

Santiniki or crem

>i*

"*

ai

^^^

*"*

^ouriehing, agreeable

and demulcent.
butter is tonic,
piles,

Navanita or

astringent,

and

useful in phthisis,

paralysis, etc. facial

^^l

^ees

best with the old and young.

284

SANSKRIT MAXIAIA HSDICA.


clarified butter is

19 Qhrita or
is

much used both

as an artiole of

diet and in pharmacy.

Clarified batter obtained

from cow's milk


is

considered superior to that prepared from the milk of the

buffalo

and

is

preferred for fhedioinal use.

Clarified butter

eonsidered cooling, emollient and stomachic.


fatty
tissues

It increases the

and mental powers, improves the voice, beautj and


is

complexion and

useful

in

eye diseases, retained aeoretions,


It

insanity, tympanites, painful dyspepsia, jricers, wounds, etc.


is

the basis of a form of medicinal preparation called ghritapdka


(

already deseribed in the introduction,


tpj^l^T
old, passes

see page 14

),

Purdna

ghrita.
1

Clarified
It

butter more than ten years

by this name.

has a strong pungent odour and the butter


is

solour of lac.
cacious
it is

The longer

this old

kept the more

effi-

said to prove as
is

an external application.
often heard
of.

Clarified

butter a hundred years old

The

richer natives

always have a stock of old ghrita of this description which they


preserve with care for their
their poorer neighbours.

own

use as well as for distribution

to

some specimens of old clarified butter #which were quite dry and hard and nearly inodorouB. They looked more like some sort of earth than an animal substance.
I have seen

OW clarified butter is used externally.


soapy frothy
iii t

It is first
it

with cold water, and then rubbed with


fluid

repeatedly washed till it is reduced to a


It
is

which

is

used as a liniment.
is

regarded as
such

oling

and emollient and

much used

in nervous diseases

as insanity, epilepsy, neuralgia, paralysis, cephalalgia

and asthma
o?

in rheumatic affections,
feet, affections of

stiff joints,

burning of the body, hands

the eyes,

etc.

recommended for reducing the temperature of the skin in strong fever. The patient's body should be anointed with an emulsion of eandal wood and of old clarified butter that has been washed a hundred times in cold
is

The

following treatment

**mtft

fct: wt

smt i** othi

mwtM

3*nf wrswrofetf

wi^

i
4

TOi

quki.
water.

286
for

He
)
l

should then enter a tepid bath

a short while.
speciosum

kaviala

BLLE.
Sans,
faff,

Pitta.

The
fish (

bile of

the buffalo, wild boar, goat, peacock and rohitaka


),

Cyprinus liohita

is

used in medicine, either singlj or in

combination under the designation of Pancha pitta or the five biles. Bile is considered laxative and is chiefly used in soaking

powdera intended for being made into

pill-masses.

Udakamanjari
borax,
rohitaka

rasa.

Take

of

merour), sulphur, oaloined


;

and blaok pepper eaob one part


fish,

sugar and the bile of


for three days

four parts eaoh


pills.

rub them together


If there
it.

and

make

into six-grain

These are given with ginger jaice


is

in recent bilious remittent fever.

muoh

heat of head,

oold

water should be applied

to

For other preparation

containing bile, see under eerpent poison, page 27o\ concretions found in the gall-bladder ftftvn G'orochand, or the
aromatic and useful in abortions of the ox, are considered cooling,

and diseases supposed to be caused by

evil spirits.

Oonekana

is

doses as a laxative. It enters sometimes given to infants in small medicines for skin diseases. into the composition of some

UKINE.
The
goat,

Sao*-

*2*>

Mutra

'

animals, sueh as the the urine of various properties of

eheep, horse,

oamel
both

minutely described.
internally

Of

these,

cow's

and externally,

purification of various in the

oetoh

VI*'.

*&Hjit

*frt vi Pro* *t tc

w^K

4^whwito <W **

266

SANSKRIT MiTIBlA MEDICA.


oils,

and in the preparation of


laxative, diuretic
colic,

deoootions, etc.

It

ie

described as

and useful
given

in constipation, suppression of urine,

anasarca, jaundice, leprosy and other skin diseases.


is

Goat's
in

urine

Bometimes

internally

as for example

the

prescription quoted under Nardostachys jatamansi.

In congestive
of
It

fever with constipation,


fresh
is

flushed face
is

and headaohe, an ounce

and warm cow's urine

given as a domestic medicine.

sometimes given as the vehicle for administering castor oil, (see page 231). Cow's urine is used in the preparation of various
for
is

medicines
following

jaundice,
illustration.

anasarca

and

allied

diseases.

The

an

Punarnavd mandura. 1
Ipomtta

Take

of Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnavd)

Turpcthum (trivrit), ginger, long pepper, black pepper,

plumbago root, pdtchak root, the three myrobalants, turmeric, wood of Herberts Asiatica, (ddruharidra ) root of Baliospcrmum montanum, ( danti ) Piper Chaba
(chavikd
long pepper root and the tubers of
(

bdbcrang seeds, devaddru wood,

katuki )
),

Cyperus rotundus

mustaka
all

equal parts

iron rust in weight equal to


;

twice that of
boil the

the

other ingredients
in eight times

mix them together and


weight of cow'e urine
of

mixed powder
is

its

till

the watery parts

evaporated.
anasarca,

Dose, about twenty -two grains, in jaundice, ascites,

enlargements
etc,
iaila.

the

abdominial

viscera,

painful

dyspepsia

Marichddya

Take

of

mustard

oil

four aeers,

aow'fl

urine sixteen seers,

aconite eight tolas, orpiment, realgar, black

pepper, milky juice of Calotropis gigantea (arfca), root of Neriuwi odorum (karavira), root of Ipomosa Turpeihum (trivrit), aolooynth
root,

Aplotaxis

auriculuta ( kushtha

),

turmeric,

wood

of Berberis

Aslatica (ddruharidrd) , devaddru wood,

and red sandal wood, each


is

four tolas, and prepare an oil in the usual way. This oil

said to

ANIMAL FLESH.

287

b8 useful ia leukoderma, chronic prurigo and other obstinate akin


diseases,
1

ANIMAL FLESH.
In describing the properties of the
Sanskrit
flesh of

various animals,

writers divide them into two classes,

Jdngala or land, and


living
arUFST

^q

namely 5TTTW Anupa or water animals Animals


:

on land are sub-divided


Jdngala or animab
living

into eight orders


in

the

wilderness as deeri

antelopes, etc.
fasrerr:

Vilasthd,

or animals living in holes under ground, a

serpents, lizards, porcupines, etc.


ipSTOn:,
bears, eto.
xpniin:,

Guhdsayd or animals living


Parnamrigd or animals

in oaverns, as tigers lion*

living

on

trees,

as

monkey

squirrels, etc.
fafarcn,

Vishkira or birds whioh take their food after tearing o


it,

scattering

as peacocks, quails, partridges,


strike

etc.

iRRT
pigeons, wag-tails, cuckoos, eto.
W*J\: Prasahd or birds
9

with their beaks, as

of prey, as the

hawk, faloon

etc.

qrwr:,
eta.

Grdmyd

domestic animals, as ox, goat, horse, sheep, or

Animals

water or marshy lands are sab-divided living in


:

into five classes as follows

Kulechard, or animah grazing !hro,


yak, rhinooeras, etc.

in marshes, as buffalos,

Pldvd, or birds which swim Sin,


cranes, etc.
^ftaSTT:,

in water,

as geese, ducks

enclosed in shells, as conch-shells, Kosarthd, or animals


footed aquatic animals as Pddtna, or
tortoise, crocodile,

hi valve-shells, eto.

qrfw:,

Porpoise, eto.

288

<

SANSKRIT

VATCRU MK PICA,

if?p?r,

Matiya> or fishes.
classes,

Of these

Jdngald or animals living in the wilderness,

and Vishkira or birds which scatter their food are considered


superior to the others in an alimentary point of view.
different properties of the

The

meat

of

various animals are described

by Sanskrit writers
and suited
use.

in

preat detail.
partridge
is

The

flesh

of the goat,

domestic fowl, peacock and


to

said to be easily digested

the siok and

convalescent.
is

sambar, hare, quail, and partridge


Fish, beef and

The meat of the deer, recommended for habitual

pork are considered hard to digest and


animals

unsuited for dailr use.

The

flesh of various

is

used in medioine ohiefly in the

form of ghrita or taila pdka. The following is a list of the more important and oommonly used ghritas and oils made with the flesh
of different animals.

prepared with the flesh of geese, and used in cephalalgia and nervous diseases.
ghrita,

Hansddi

Kuhhitddi
chronic cou^h.

ghrita,

prepared with the flesh of fowls, and used

in

msani
Ghhdgalddi ghrita nervous diseases.
%

prepared with goat's meat, and used in

Sdmbukdditai
used externally
i

prepared with the

flesh of

snails

and

Nakulddya ghrita is prepared with the and used in nervous diseases.

flesh of

the mungoose

The following are two


animal
flesh.

illustrations

of

preparations with

Ghhdgalddya ghrita. 1

Take

of

goat's

meat

six

seers

and a
in

quarter, the ten drugs called

dasamula six seers and a quarter

INTRODUCTION,
all,

289
the latter
butter,
is

water sixty-four seera

boil

till

reduced to

one-fourth
juice of

and

strain.

Take

of clarified

milk and the


;

Asparagus racemosus (satamnli), four seera eaah and the following substances in the form of a paste, namely, Tinospora cordifolia bamboo- manna, Withania ( guruchi sommfera (asvagandhd), Hemidesmus Indicus (sdrivd), berries oalled kdkoli,
,

talbs oalled kshirakdkoli, pulse of Phaseolus trilobus (mugdni), and


of Glycine

debilis

(mashdni),
all
is
;

Codogyne
boil

ovalis,

(jivanti),

and
a

liquorice root,
ghrita,
ioss of

one seer in

them together and prepare

/This preparation

given in facial paralysis, deafnees,


sciatica,

voice or indistinct speech, convulsions, hysteria,

paralysis

and other
taila}

diseases of the nervous system.


of goat's
till

Mdsha
fleers;

Take

meat eight
is

seers,

water

sixty* four

boil

together

the latter

reduced to sixteen seers.

Take of the pulse of Phaseolus Roxburgh (mdsha), linseed, barlty foot of Barlcria Prionites (kurantaka), of Solanum Jacquinii, (hantakdri) t

Tribulus

terrestris

( gokshura

),

bark of Calosanthes Indica


,

($yvndka),jatdmdnsi root, seeds of

ach one seer,

water sixty -four

Mucuna pruriens (Jcapikvachchhu) boil down to sixteen seers. seers


;

Take of cotton seeds, seeds of

Grotolaria juncea ( sana

),

pulse of
{fo>la) %

Volichoi unijlorus (kulattha), dried pulp of Ziziphus Jujuba

aoh two seers, water sixty four seers

boil

down

to sixteen seers.

Take of ginger, long pepper,

dill seeds, root of

Bidnus communis

(eranda), of Boerhaavia diffusa (punamavd), Pcederia fottida (prasdrani), Vanda Uoxburghii (rdsnd), Sida cordifolia (bereld),

and Picrorrhiza Kurroa ( hatuhi ) cordifolia ( gulancha ) e ^al parts and reduce them to a paste. Boil in all one seer, the above the paste with four seers of mentioned decoctions and aasamum oil in the usual way. This oil is ruhbed externally in
;

Tinospora

onvulaions, paralysis, wasting of limbs and other diseases of the

orvou8 system.
1

*tw^

w*rft tfrc ??* ** *fiw^mronfT w*fwm

WfWnWTWWT

3?

GLOSSARY
OF

INDIAN PLANTS
MENTIONED
SANSKRIT MEDICAL WORKS WITH BENGALI, HINDI AND LATIN SYNONYMS.
IN
4

Sanskrit

Vernacular.
Xob, B.
&\, H.

Scientific Names,

Aohohhuka

Morinda
Morinda

citrifolia,

Linn, and

tinotoria,

Roxb.

Adhaki

Arhar, B.
Tor, H.

Cajanus indioue, Spreng.


Syn. Gytisus Cajan, Linn.

Adityabhakta
*llfi5WHM

Hurhuria, B.

Oleome

visoosa, Linn.
IF.

Hurhur, H.

Agaeti

See Vaka.

Agnimantha

Gani&ri, B.

Ami, Agetha, H.
AgDiaikhi

Premna integrifolia, Linn. Syn. Premna $pino$a Roxb.


9

See L&ngaliki.
Aquilaria Agallooha,

n fa fk WT Agnra
*RP5

Agar, B,

Roxb

Agar, H.

AiiinarA

Kiurigurk&mii, B.

Cappaiis eepiaria, Linn.

*fV*r

Ahiphena
iffifrT
I

iphim,

Pa paver somniferum, Linn.

Aphim, H.
Ajmad, H.
Randhani,

Opium poppy.
Carum Roxburghianum, Benth

Ajamodd
^n^fNf?

involucratum, Roxb. Syn, Afrium

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS.

291

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.

Scientific

Names.

Akarakarabha A'karkara, B. H.

Anaoyolus Pyrethrum, DC.


Pellitory root.

Akaaamdnsi

small variety of Jatamanei said to be produced in the Ked&r mountain.

Akasavalli

A'kasbel, 8.

Cassytha

filiformis,

Linn

Amarbeli, H.

Akhukarni
*

See Mushikaparni.
Juglans regia, Linn

*ll<S<if

Akahota
IHild

Xkhrot, H. B.

Alabu

Lu, B. Lauka,

Lagenaria vulgaris, Sering.


Cucurbit a lagenaria, Willd. Syn.
Caiotropisgigantea. or proceia, E. Br.

sm$
Alarka
^rerer

Mithi tumbi, H.
Svetakand, B.

MAdar, H.

The

varieties with white flowers.

^malaki

Xmla, B. A'nola, H.
*

Emblica, Linn. Phyllanthus


Syn. Emblica
officinalis, Gaert.

Ambasbtha

See Pitha.

Ambuvetasa

Barabet,

B
H.

Calamus

fasoioulatus,

Boxb

Amlalonika

Xmrnl

sak, B.

Oxalis oornioulata,

Linn

Amla ana
*PIPT

Lalgulmakhmal,B

Gomphrena

globosa,

Linn

Amlayetasa

See Chukra.

-W

*>"*" while a r.tcao growing in water, therefore doabrful. " wood. trawlation i. and not in marahe.. Th.

* Roxburgh gi,e.

LI

** M

the Sanskrit for

* 1

0*--

^*""^ *
I

ua.e

aot botn able to procure the plant.

'

292

GLOSSART OF INDIAN PLANTS,

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.

Scientific Names,

Amra
^TO [haridra

Vm, B.

Mangifera Indica, Linn.

Am,

H.

The Mango

tree.

Amragandhi-

Ambabaldi, H.

Cnroama

reolinata,

Roxb.

Vmritaka

Amra, B.

Spondia8 mangifera, Willd.

Ambr&i EL
Amritaphala
^rernjrar
[

Hog plum.
Pyrus communis, Linn.

Naahpati,

Nak, Punj.

The

pear-tree*

Ananta
^W*fl

Anantamul, B.
Anjir, H,

Hemidesmus

indious, R. Br. Syn. AscUpias pseudosarsa, Roxb.

Anjira

vak
Ankofa
Apaniirga
Dhalakura. B. Dhera, H.

Fiona Carioa, Linn, in Bengal, Psidium pomiferum, Linn, is oalled Anjira in Sanskrit.

Alanginm Lamarkii, Thwaites.


Syn. A. Hexapetalum, Roxb.

^pang, B.
Latjira,

Aohyranthes aspera, Linn.


Also A. bidentata, Bl.
Clitoria Ternatea, Linn.

U.

Aparijitii

Aparajita, B.

Viannkranti, H.

\ragbadha

WW
^T^I

Sondhali, B.
^malt&s,

II.

Cassia Fistula Linn.


Syn, Gathartocarpus
fistula^

Fers

Aralu,

See Syonaka.
Zingiber
Rose.

Xrdraka
*r*m

diB.
Adrak, H.
Go&bibla. B.

officinale,

Common
Syn.

ginger.

Arimeda

Aoaoia Farneeiana, Willd.

^fW?
Arjuna

Gandbabul, H.
Arjun, B.

Mimosa Farnesiana, Roxb.

*w*
Arkanmla
TOiJ*T

Kahti,

H7

Terminalia Arjuna, Bedd. Sgn. Pentaptera Arjuna, Roxb,


Arietoloohia indioa, Linn.

Ifibarmul, B.

Arka

Akand, B,

Calatropiigiganfcea or procera, B.

Br

TO

MMir H
(

Syn, AscUpias gigantea, Willi

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS.

293

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.
i

Scientific Namis.

Arkapushpika

Arkahuli, B.

Gynandropsis pentaphjlla, DC.


Syn.

Sadahurhuria, B.

Cleome pentaphylla, Linn,

Aruehkara
^*t*FC

See Bhallataka.
Terminalia tomentosa,W. and A.
Syn. Pentaptera tomenlosa, Roxb.

Asana

Piasal, B.

SW
Aehjavarga*

Aean, H.

Asoka
*C*&*X

Asok, B. H.

Saraoa indica, Linn.


Syn. Jcnesia AsoJca, Roxb.

ABthisanhara

Harjora, B.
Harsaiikari H.

Vitia quadrangularis, Wall.

quadrangularis , Lint Syn. Gissus

Aavagandha.

Aevagandha,

somnifera, Dunal. Withania

Asgandh, H.
Asvakarna
Sal, B.

H.

Shorea robusta, Gaertn

Asvattha
*rra

Asvattha, B.
Pipal, H.

Fioas religiosa, Linn.


Syn. Urostigma religiosum,

Gasp

Atasi 1

Masina, B.

Linum

usitatieBimum, Linn.

^nl>
AtibaU
^rfaror
#

Tisi,

H.
B.

Pitfaala,

da rhombrfolia, Linn. Si

This

is

eolleotive

name

are

not available at present. procurable, are as follows substituted for those that are not

medicines, eix of which for eight ar names and the artiolee Their
:

Meda,

iter

Aavagandha
**l?teT

is

used inetead.
99

9ft* *ff

>

HW*
Riddhi,

wff

Bala,

Vriddhi, ifa Mahabala,


Kakoli,

WTfNt

under this nameSee


Do.
Do.

VtrfTft^

294.

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS.

Sanskrit.
f
.

Vernacular
Atis,

Scientific Names.

Ativisha
*rfafa*T
/

H. B.

Aoonitum heteropbyllum, Wall.

Atmagupta
^TTO^T
Avalguja
^WJ5r
Avartani
*nT^*ft

Alkusi, B,

Muouna
p

prurient, DC.

Kiwanoh, H.

Syn. Carpopogon pruriens, Eoxh

See somaraji.

Atmora, B.
Mararphali, H.

Helio teres lsora, Linn. Syn. Isora corylifolia,Schott et End.

Badama
*T*TO

Badam, H.

Primus Amygdalue, BailL Syn. Amygdalus communis^ Linn. The almond tree.

Badara

See kola.
Cordia Mjxa, Linn.
Cordia latifolia,Roxb> Bara Lasord.

UK
Bahuvara
Bahuari, B.
Lasora, H.
Berela, B. Khai eti, Bariar, H.

*T*K
Bala
*wt
Bala

Sida oordifolia, Linn.

WT
Bandhuka

B&U, H. SngandhaBala,H.
Bandhuli, B.

Pavonia

odoiatat, Willd.

Pentapetes phcenioea, Linn.


[

Dopohoria, H.

Roxb

Bhadramunj&

Ramsar, B, H.

variety of

Saooharum Munja

Bhadravalli

Haparmali,
!

Vallaris Heynei, Spreng.

Syn. Echites dichotoma, Boxb.

Bhallataka

Bhela, B.

Semeoarpus Anaoardium, Linn.

Bhilawa, H.

The marking nut

tree.

[Gaertn.

Bhandira

Bhant, B. H.

Clerodendroninfortunatum,
Syn. Volkameria tnfortunata,Roxb>

Bhanga
TTT

Siddhi, B.

Bhang, H.
t

Cannabis eati va, Linn. Var. Indioa Indian hemp.


*

Bhanfchki

Se% Vartaku.

msuft

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PUNTS.

295

Sanskrit.

Vernacular,

Scientific

Names

Bbarad va j i

See Vanakarp&ai.
[

R. Br.

Bhargi VPff

Bamanhdti, B.
Bharangi, H.
Chalfc4,

Olerodendron Siphonanthus,
Syn. Siphonanthus Indica, Lunik.
Dillenia indioa, Linn.

Bhavya
*J

B.

Syn. Dillenia speciosa, Thunb.

Bhringaraja

Bhimruj, B.

Wedelia oalendulaoea, Lees.


Syn, Verbesina ealendulacea
B.
JVilld.

Bh*nr, H.

BhumiobamP*ka] sftppro

Bhuiohampa,

Kaempferia rotunda, Linn.

Bhnmijambu
*jfWW

Bhuijam, B.

Premna

herbacea, Roxb.

[manda
Bhuikamra,

Bhumikush-

Ipomcea digitata, Linn.


Batatas paniculata, Chois Syn.

Bhumyamala-

Bhuiamla,

PhyllanthuB Nirari, Linn.

Jar&mla, H.

Bhnnimba
Bhurjapatra

**

See Kir&tatikte.
Betula Bhojpattra, Wall

Bhnrjapatra, B.

Bhujpatar, H.
Bhustrina

Gandhabena, B.

Sehoenanthus, Lino. Andropogon

Bhutakeei

Bhutkeai, B. H.

^*ft

[ $ ika

Corydalis Govaniana, Wall. [ R. Br.

Brahmaaayaa

B4manhdti, B.
Bharangi. H.

Siphonanthus, Clerodendron
Siphonanthus Indica, Syn.

Lawk.

Srahmi
*Tgft

Brihrai

flak,

B.

[ka

Bar&mbhi, H.

Monnieria, H. B. K. Herpestes Monnieria, Linn. Syn. Gratiola


Tora, Linn. Cassia Senna Tora, Roxb. Syn.

G hakramarda

ChakandiiB. [H.
Panwar,ohakaund,

c tampaka

Oharap&, B. H.

Champaoa, Linn. Miohelia

296

CUOSSAIT OF INDIAN PLANTS.

SAN3XBIT,

Vernacular,
Chhola, B.

Sciintinc Names.
Cioer arietinum, Linn.

Chanaka
^irar

Chana, H.

Gram

or ohiok-pea

Chandana
Chandrika

Cbandan, B.
Safed Chandan.H

*
*

Santalnm album, Linn White sandal-wood.


See Chandrasura.

Chandraeura

Halim,

H
sak, B.

Lepidiam

aativuni, Linn.

Chungeri

^mrul

H.

Oxalie oornioulata, Linn.

Chavika

Chai, B.

Piper Chaba, Hnnter.


Syn. Chavica officinaruin, Miq.
j

Chavi, H,

Chhikkani

Nakohhikni.B. H.

Ceniipeda orbieulata, Lour.


Syn. 0. Minuta
%

Bentlu

Chiohinda

Chiehinga, B.

Triohoaanthes anguina, Linn.

Chaohenda, H.

China

Chinighas, B.'

Panionm miliaoenm, Linn.

^T
Chitraka

Chena, Chin, EL
Chit4, B. H.

Plnmbago

zeylanioa, Linn.

faro
Chobaohini
Chobchini,

Smilax China, Linn.

Chorapnshpi

Chork&nU/B.

Chrysopogon aoionlaris Retz.


Syn. Andropogon aciculatus, Rozb

Chnkra

Chukapalang, B.

Rumex

resioarias, Linn*
sorrel.

3*
Dadima

Chnkeki

sik,

H.

Conntry

Daiim, B.

Paniea Granatum, Linn.

Xnar, H.

Pomegranate

tred.

Dadrnghna

Didmardan, B.

Cassia alata, Linn.

Dahu

Midir,

Artooarpus Lakuoha, Roxb.

**

Dahn, H,

.GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANT

29

Sanskrit.

VfiRNA

(iAR.

Scientific

Names

Damanaka

Dona, B.
Daona, Marwa, H.

Artemisia vulgaris, Linn,


Syn. Artemisia indica, Willd.

Dandalu

Khamilu, B.

Dioscorea alata, Linn,

Dandotpala

Oausoora^ieoussata, Hoera,

et

Dankuni, B.

Sohulr
Syn. Pladera deeussata, Boxb.
.

^J^fN^
Danti

B&liospermum montannm, Mull.


ArR.
Syn. Croton polyandrum, Boxb.

Dauti,
3*ft

11

H.

Darbh a

Ulu, B.

[mperata ^rundinaoea, CyrilL


Syn.

Dabh, H.
Daruharidra, B.
D&rubaldi, H.

Cylindrica, Beaiiv,

Daruharidra

Berberia asiatioa, Roxb.

Also B. aristata, DC.


* t
I

Darvi

See Daruharidra.

Devaduru

Debdaru, B.
Deodar, H.

Cedrus Deodara, Loud.


Ptnus Deodara, Boxb. Syn.

Devadhanya
Devatida

Deodhan, B.

saooharatum, P*vs * Sorghum $accharatus f Boxb Syn. Andropogon

Detara, H. B.

Andropogon

serratns, Retz.

Dhan ana
****

Dhamaui, B.
Dhau, B. H.

See Dharmana
sativa, Lian. Oryza riee plant. Common

Dhu nya

*TO

'*

Dbinyaka

v*mr

ba

Dhane, B. Dhania, H.

sativnm, Linn. Coriandrum

Coriander plant.
B*

Dhirakadam-

Kelikadamba,
Haldu, H.

Adina

eordifolia,

Benth

&

Hook.

Syn. Kauclea

eordifolia,

Boxb

Dharmana
Dhitaki

Dh&mani, H. B#
Dhaiphul, B. Dhai, H.

Grewia
Syn. Q.

var. ve'itita.Wall asiatioa Elattica, BayUt.

Woodfordi*

floribnoda, Salitk.

TPnft

tom*nto$at &oxo. Syn. Grisle*

3*

293

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS,

Sanskrit,

Vernacular.

Scientific Names.

Dhaya
in
[drika

Dhaoya, B. H,

Anogeiseus

latifolia,

Wall.

Syn. GonoGarpus latifolia % Bcxb.


Dholsaraudra,

Dholaaamn*

Leea maorophylla, Roxb.

Dhnetura

Dhutwi,
ka
Dbatnra,

B.
JI.

Datura Metal, Linn.


Also Datura faetuosa, Linn,
i

WC
Dr&ksha

Dirghapatoli-

Dhundul, B.
Gbiatorai. H.

Luffa aegyptiaaa, Mill.


Syn. L. Cylindrical Itocm.
Vitis vinifera, Linn.
i

Augur,

H.

Dried fruits called Kismis.

Dronapnahpi

Halkasa, B.

Leuoas

linifolia,

Spreng.
%

Guma, H.
Dagdhika
Khirai, B.

Syn. Phlomis Zeylanica Boxb*

Dudhialata,

Oxystelma eseulentun), R. Br. Syn Asclepias rosea, Boxb.


Alhagi Maruorum, Desv.
Syn. Iledysartim Alhagi, Linn*

Daralabba
7

Daralabh;!, B.
Jawi'iaii,

nram

H,

Durva

Durba, B.

Dnb, H.

Cynodon Daotylon, Pars. Syn. Panicum Dactylon, Linn.

Elasukshma

Gujrati elaohi,

Chbota
Elabiluka

elaohi, B.

oardamomum, Maton. AIro Amomnm Riihnlatum. Roib


Elettaria

Lilaka, B.
Elai, B.

red
seed

Eraki
^HRT

HogU,

B,

Typha

angustifolia, Lion.

P*tr, H.

Syn, Typhm elephmntina, Roxb.

Eranda
TTOr

Bberendi, B. Erand, H.
Phnti, B.

RttinuB oommunifl, Linn. [dioa Castor oil plant.


Guouinis Melo, Linn, var

Ervi *ru
<**tf*

Momor

Phoot, H.
Gajapipal, B.

Syn, OucHmis Momordica, Ro*b*

Gajapippali

Soindapaus
Syn. Pctho$

offioinalis, Sabott.
officinalis,

Boxb.

Gambhari

Gamari, H.

Gmelina arboroa, Linn.

Khambhari, H.

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS.

299

Sanskrit.
L

Vernacular.
t, B.
Sharif*, Sitapbal,

Scientific

Names.

Gandagatra

Anona squamosa, Linn


Custard apple.

Gandhar6ja

Gandharaj, B.

Gardenia

florida,

Linn.

Gandhatrina
i

See Bhufitrina.

Ganikarika
'rf^nnft^f
!

Ganiari,

Premna

integrifolia, Linn.

Ami, XL
Patespipal, B.

Syn. P. spinosa, Rozh.

Gardhabhanda

Thespesia populnea, Corr.


Hibiscus populneoides, Korh Syn.

Gajahanda,
Garjara
TBIt

H
#

Gajar, H.

Dauous Carota, Linn.

Gavedhuka

Gargaredhan, B.

Some

apeoies of Coix

G Aanfapafali

Ghantaparnl.B.H

swietenioides, Roxb. Sohrebera

Ghantarava

Jhanjhania,

B.

Crotalariaserieea,Retz.[8p.Fork.

WTO
Ghritakumari
ViTf qrf

Ghritakaniari, B.

Linn. Var. officinalis Aloe Vera,


A. Indica, Royle. Syn.
Vitia pedata, Vabl.
Gissus pedatti$, Syn.

Ghikumir, H.
Goalilatd, B.

Godhapadi

Lamk.

Godhuma
Godamba

Gam, B, Genhn H.
Gomuk,
B.

rulgare, LinnTritioum

Common

wheat.

l&oxb. Linn. Cuonmis Melo, madraspatanus, Syn. Cucum.it


eeaber, Linn. Elepbantopna

Gojihba

Gojialata, B.

Gobhi, H. >
Gokflhur a

Gokahora, B-

Tributes

terreEtris, Linn.

Gokhurn,
Granthiparna
*jfapro
j

H
A.

Linn
oaused by an in sort of gall
sect

Gantiala, B.

Thivan, H.

on iomt

tret.

300

GLOSSHT OF INDIAN TLANTf,

SANSKRIT.

VlRNACCLAR.
Gimaeak, B.

Scientific Namis.

Griehmasun
tfN^
3

Mollugo eerviana Seringe.


Syn. Pharnaceum Mollugo, Linn.

[dara

G udatvak a
Guduehi
Gulanoba, B.

See Tvaoha.

Tinosporaoordifolia^liers.tTTilW.
Syn*.

Guraoh, H.

Menispermum Cordifolium.

Guggulu

Guggul, B. H.

Balsamodendron Mukul,Hooker,
Also B, pubescens, Stoeka.

^51
Gundra

Gand

pater,

H.

Panioum uliginosum, Roxb.


preeatoriue, Linn

Gunj a

W
3*P*

Kunob, B.
Ohirmiti, Gunj, H.
Sapari, H.

Abrus

Guvaka

Areca Catechu, Linn,


*

Gua, B.

Tbe

betle-nut tree.

Hallaka

Raktakambal, B.

Nymphaea Lotus, Linn.


f

Syn. N. rubra, Roxb.

Hapueha

Habueh, H.

Blaok stalks like those of black


pepper
;

aromatio.
of sandal wood.

Hariofeandana

Pitebandan, B.

Yellow variety

Haridra

Hal ad, B,
Haldi, H.

Curcuma

longa, #

Roxb

Haritaki

Haritaki,
|

Terminalia Chebula, Retz.


Chebulid myrobalan.

T*t**> [iaea

Har, EL

Hastikarnapa

Butea euperba, Roxb.

Haatiaundi

Hatiaura, B.

Ileliotropium indioum, Linn.


Syn. 4Ielwphytum Indicum, I

TfaWT

[ka

Hemapuahpi-

See Suvarnajuthika.

Hiijala

Hiiial, B.

Barringtonia acutangula, (iaertn.


Syn, Eugenia acutangula, Linn-

f^WTO

GLOSSARY CF INDIAN SLANTS.

301

Sanskrit.

Scientific Namis.

Hilamoehika

Hincha, B.
Harhnc-b, H.

Enhydra

fluctuans, Lour.

yn. Hingtsha repent, Boxb.

Ilingu

Hing, H. B.

Ferula Aseafretida, Linn. F. AUiaeea, Boise,

Hingupatri

leaves of Balanites Roxburghii, Planchon, are bo


4

The subacid

called.

Hintala

Hental, H. B.

Phoenix paladosa, Roxb.

Hrivera

Bala

Pavonia odorata, Willd.


bala,

Sagandha
Ikshu

H
Saccharum
a

Uk, H.

offioinarum, Linn.

I*
Indravaruni

A'k, B.

Indrayan, B.

Citrullus Colocynthig, Sohrad.

Makal. H.
Indray ava
Indrajab, H. B.

Syn. Cucumis Colocynthis, Linn.

Seeds of Bolarrhena antidysenterica,

Wall.

Ingudi

Hingan, H.
Ingua, H.

Balanites Roxburghii, Planchon

Ximenia JEgyptiaca, Jh*b. Syn.

Jalapippali
*raf*rnft

Panikanohira, B.
Jalpipari, H.

Commeljna

galioifolia,

Roxb.

Jambi ira
aifa;

Goranebu, B.

Citrus medica, Linn. Citrus aoida, Var.


3.

of Roxb.

Jambir nebu, H.
Kala jam, Jaman, H.
B.

Jamba
*r*r
at a ^manei

Jambolana, Lamk, [A. Eugenia Jambolanum,W A Syn. Syzygium


.

ma

Jafamansi, B. H.

Jatamansi, D. C. Nardoetaobya
Jatamansi, Jons*. Syn. Valeriana

rznttf
Jati

Balaohar, H.

Chameli, H.
Wrfl
Jati
f

Jasminum

grandiflorum, Linn.

B.

Jatipbal a

Jayphal, B.
^TlfiiqWl

fragrans Hontfc. Myristioa Officinalifl, Linn. M.

The nutmeg

tree.

for a MWC

Jaba, B.

Gadhal.

Rosa-Sinensie, Linn Hibiscus Shoe-flower plant.

302
t

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN tLLSTE,

Saks ie it.
Jayanti
rN*>

VlKNACULAR
Jayanti, B. H.
I

SCIIKTIHC NAMIS.
Seebania aonleata, Ferg.
notnene

Jayapala
eflTOTO

Jayapal, B.

Croton Tiglium, Linn.

Jamalgofa,

Croton

oil plant.

Jhavuka

Jhau, B.

II,

Tamarix

gallioa,

Linn.

**m
Jhingika
f^TT^f Jhin*i

Syn. T. Indica, Willd.


Jhinga, B.
Torai, H.

Luffa aentangnla, Boxb.


Syn. Oucumis acutangulus f Linn
Barleria cristata, Linn.

Jhinti, B.

f*R#
Jingini
fsrfcft
Jiol, B.

Odin a Wodier, Roxb.


H.
H.

JJngan
!

Jiraka
5ffr<*

Jiri, B.

Caminum Cyminum, Cammin seeds.

Linn.

Jivanti

Jibai,

B B

CaoJogyneflvalie, Lindl.

Jiba Bag, H.

Jyotishmati

Nayaphatki,

Cardioapermurn Halioaoabum,

Linn
Kacbchi
Kaohu, B.

Colooasia antiquorum, Sohott. Syn. Arum Golocasia^ Boxb.

Kadali

Kala, B.

Mnsa
Linn

*tt
Kadamba

Kela, H.

Cadamba
Kadam, B.H.
and Hook.
f$yn.
.

*T^
Kairata

ft

Naucha

Sea Bhunimba.
Capparia sepiaria, Linn.

*TTrf

Kakadani

Kaliakara, B.

Kantagarkamai

B.

Kakadumbar

Tofmila, H.

Fiona hispida, Lino.


II.

til.

Kakdamar, B.
Ki'ikajaugha

Syn. Ficus oppositifolia, Roxb

Kakjanghi, H. B.

Leea hirta, Boxb.

GLOSGAKY* OF

THMAN

PfcASttS

303

Sahsmit.
Kikaii

VERNACULAR
K&koli, H. B.

Scientific Names.

A
^

WTO?*

root said to be brought from Nepal or MoruDg.

Kakamiehi

Gnrkam&i, 6.

Solanum nigrum, Linn.


Diospyros melanoxylov, Roxb.
Also Diospyros tomentosa, Roxb.

Mako, H.
Kakatindnka

Mikri kendu, B
Kowidodi, H.

Kikatundi

ourassavxca

Kakkolaka

Kakala, B. H.
Sitalchini,

Berries containing a black aromatie


H.

waxy

substance.

KiUkuta
ft

sort of Aooaite.

Kalambi

Kalmi

sik, B.

Ipomaea aquatica Forsk.


Syn.
I.

Peptans, Poir.

[Griseb.

Kalanusdriva

Shiuliehhop, B.

Limnantbomum

oristatum,

Tagarmul, H. B.
Kalasaka

Syn. Menyanihes cristata, Boh.

Naroha, B.
GhinalitA, B.

Corohorus oapsularis, Linn


Jute plant.

^TIHT^
Kald aya

Mafar, B. H.

Pisum sativum, Linn.

^IHI
Kamala
^nni

Common
Padma, B. Kamal, H.

pea.

Nelumbium speoiosum, Willd. Lotus. * The eaored


Ipomsea Quamooiit, Linn.
Syn. Quamoclit vulgaris, Qhaisy.

Kimalata
*n*nnrr

ParuUU,

B.

KampilUka
'fiflW [da

Kamalaguri, B.

Mallotaa Philippeasia Muli/Arg


tincioria, Roxb.,

Kamili.KambiUpH, Syn. RottUra


P&hari, erand, H.

Ktnana eran-

Jatropha Curoaa, Linn.

Bigbherenda, B.
ana

The physio nut

tree.

Kaohnar, H.

Bauhinia aouminata, Linn.


i

Kinahan, B

K aaohan4da
^T^^pf
I

Rakta K*nohan,BKaohnarj H.

Bauhinia variegata, Litn.


\

304

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.

Scientific NamIs.

Kanohat

Kaohradam, 8.
Kanohara, B.

Commelina bengalensia* Linn.

Kangu

Kangu, kora 9 B.

^T
Kantakari

Kangni,

II

Setaria italioa, Beaur. Syn. Panicum Italicum, Linn.

Kanatak&ri, B,
Katii, Kateli,

Solanum xanthooarpum, Sohrad. & Wendl. Syn. Solanum Jacquinii, Willd.

Kapikaohcbu
Kapittha

Alkusi, B.

Mnouna

Kiwaoh, H.
Kathbel, B.
Kaith,
i

pruriens, D. C. Syn. Garpopogon pruriens, Roxb*

Feronia elephantum, Corr.

H.

The wood apple


Syn
B.

tree.

Karamardaka

Karamaha, B.
Karaunda, H,

Carissa Carandas, Linn.


G. congesta,

Wight.

Karanja

Dahar karanja,
Kiramal, H.

Ponganaia glabra, Vent.


Syn. Galedupa Indica,

Lamk.

Karavella

Karala, B.
Kareli,

Momordioa Cbarantia, Linn,


Syn, M. muricata, Willd.

H$
Karavira

H.

Karabi, B.

vofa
Karira
^ffh;

Kaner, H.
Karil,

Nerium odorum, Soland. Sweet aeented oleander.


Capparis aphylla, Both.
/Syn.

H.

Gapparis Sodada, R. Br.

Karkataka

Kakrol, B, H.

Momordioa mixta Roxb.


Syn.

M
%

Oochinchin$n$i$% Spreng.

Karkataaringi Kakra sringi, B.

Kakar
Karkati

singi,

H,

Rhus suooedanea, Linn. Syn. R acuminata DG.


Cuoumia Mel, Linn. Jar.

[aima.
Utilis-

Kakur, B,
Kakri, H.

Syn. Gucumis utiliisimus, Roxb.

Karmaranga

Kamranga, B.

Averrhoa Carambola, Linn.

Kamarakh, H.
Karnikara

Carambola

tree.

Kanakchampi, B,
Kaniar, H.

Pteroapermum aoerifoliuia.Willd

lrfw*K

Kai rpaa\

Karpaa, B.

Gossypiam herbaeeum, Linn.


Cotton plant.

Kapas, H,

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS.

305

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.

Scientific Names.

Karpura
[dra

Karpur, B.

Cinnamomum Camphora,
Camphor.

Nees.

Kapur, H.
Karpurhaldi, H.
Amiida, B.

Karparahari-

Curouma Amada, Roxb. Mango ginger.


Citrus medioa (variety of).

Karunn

Karuna nebu,

B.

Kafia

Kas, B. H.

Saooharnm spontaneum, Linn


Cassia Sophtfra, Linn.
Syn. Sqnna Sophora, Roxb.

Kasamarda

Kalkaeunda, B.

Kasaunda, H.
Kaseruka
Keftur, B.

Scirpua Kysoor, Roxb.

Kasuru, H.
Kasmari

See Gambhiri.

Kataka,

Nirmali, B. H.

Stryolmoa potatorum, Linn. Clearing nut tree.


Mirioa Nagi, Thunb. Syn..M. sapida, Wall

Katphala
WZVRf*

Kay&phal, B.
Kaephal, H.

Kattri riua
4

*
Katuki

Ramkarpura, B. Rohish, H.
Katki, B.

fragrant grass.

Picrorrhiza Kurroa, Benth-

5^ T
Katutumbi

Kutki, H.

Tikta lau, B.

Wild variety

of.

Tumbi, H.

Lagenaria vulgaris, Sering.


Coatus speoiosus, Linn-

Kemuka

Keu, B.
Keua, H.

Kesaraja

Kesuria, B.

Eolipta alba, Haesk.


Syn. E. Prostrata
fy erecta,

Linn.

Ketaki
ffti^ft

Keyu, B.
Keora, H.

odoratiasimus, Roxb. Pandanns

Khadi ira

Khayer,
Kat, H.

Aoaoia Cateohu, Linu.

*fo
39

Mimosa Cat&chu, Linn. Syn.

306

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS,

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.
Khagr&, B.

Scientific Names.

Khaggara
Kharjura

A large

variety of

Saocharum

epontaneum, Linn.
Khejur, B, Khajur, H.

Phoenix sylvestris, Roxb. Wild date palnu

Khar vn jd
Kinsnka

Kharbnjn, H.

Cuonmis Melo, Linn.


\

See Palasa.

Kir&tatikta

A name for ohirey ta.


Bhunimba.

See

Kodrava

Kodoa dhan, Kodo, H.


Rakta kamal,

B.

Paspalum serobioulatum, Linn

Kokanada
Kokilukaha
^stfarow

Nelumbium speoiosum, Willd. Red variety,


Bygrophila spinosa, T. Ander.
Syn. Ruellia longifolia, Roxb.

Kantaknlika, B. Kuliakhara, B

Talmakhana, H.
Kul, B. Baer,

Kola

Zizyphus Jujuba, Lamk. Mangifer* sylvatioa, Roxb.


Lnffa aoutangula Roxb.
I

*ta

Kosamra
Koshataki

Koshaoi,

Ghoshalata, B.

Karwitarui,

Syn. Lujfa amara Roxb


%

Kovidara

See K&nohanada.

Kriahnaohudi

Krishna chara,

Cesalpinia puioherrinia, Sw.


Syn. Poindana pulcherrima Linn
$

Krianajiraka

Kalajiri, B. H.
Magrelfc,

Nigella aativa, Linn.

H.
Mirabilis Jalapa, Linn.

Krisnakeli

Krishnakeli, B,

iPHt

[pati

Kahetrapar-

Khetpipra, B.

Oldenlandia herbaoea, DC. Syn. Oldenlandia Corymbpsa


Linn.

W^ft

Daman

papar, H,

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS.

307

Sanskrit,
.

Vernacular.
T

Scientific

Names.

Kshirakakoli

A bulb of the onion tribe brought


from the Himalaya.
Kuja, B.
Kujai, H.

Kubjaka
fiaTO

Rosa mosohata,MilL (variety


Syn. Rosa pubescens, Roxb.

of.)
N

Knohila

See Vishanmsbti

Knkubba
Ktikuradru

See Arjuna.

Kukursunga, B.

Blumea

laoera,

DC.

Kukkurbanda, H.
KuJahala

Syn. Conyza lacera, Burm.


Celsia coromandeliana,

Koksima, B.

Vahl

f^I^I
Kulani ana j

Mahabarivach,
Kulinjan, H,

Alpinia Galanga, Willd.


Syn. Galanga major, Rumph,

Kulattha

Kulthi, B, H.

Doliohos uniflorus, Lamk.


Doliohoe biflorus, Linn.

f^Rf
Kulika
* *

See Kokilaksha.

Kumbhika
|

Takupana, B. H.

Pistia Stratiotes, Linn.

Jalkumbhi, H.
*

Kumk uma
Kntnuda

Jafran, B. H.

Croous sativus, Linn.


Saffron.

Saluk, B.

N Nymphaea Lotus, Linn.

Koi, H.

Kunda
$*?

Kuijdphul, B. H.

Jasminum pube3oens, Willd.


[

Colebr.

Kunduru

Kundarkhati, H.

Boswellia serrata

Roxb ox

Syn. B. Thurifera, Colebr.

Kupilu

Knohila, B. H.

Stryohnos Nux-vomioa, Linn,


Barleria prionitis, Linn

Karuntaka

K&ntajati; B.

Katsareya, H.

303

GLOSSARY OF 1KDIAN PLANTS.

Sanskrit,

Vernacular.
Rakfcajhiuti,

Sciektific

Names

Knruvaka

H.

Barleria oristata, Linn.

3*3*
,

Red
Kue, B. H.

variety.

Kusa

Poa cynosuroides, Linn.


Syn. Eragrostis cynosuroides^
k

^n
Knehmanda
Kumra, B.
Pefha, H.

Itetx.

Beninoasa cerifera, Savi.


Syn. Cucurbita Pepo, Rvzb.

Kneumbha

Kusamphul, B.
Kasain, H.

Carthamne
Safflower.

tinotoiius, Linn.

3W
Kufihfha

Kur, B. P4chak,

S*
Kutaj*

Knt H.
Kurohi,

Sau88urea Lappa C. B. Clarke. Syn. Aplo taxis auriculata^ DC,


'

H.

Holarrhena an tidy sent erica, Wall


Syn, Echttes antidysenterica,Roxb.

Kureya, H.
Lajjalu **XT%

Lajak, B.
Lajj4vati, H.

Mimosa pudica, Linn. The sensitive plant.


Artooarpus Lakoocha, Roxb.

Laknoha

Madur, H.
Barhal, Dahu,

H
Andropogon [ivarancnea, Linn
Sjpt.

Lfcmajjaka

Lamjak, H,

*R*M|
Langalika
*nrf*F
LatakasturikA
Bishaljinguli, B.

Andropogon laniger Desp.

Gloriosa superba, Linn.

Karihari, H.

Latakasturi, B.

Hibiscus Abelmogchus, Linn. Syn. Abelmosehus moschatus,


Moerich.

Maehkdana, H.
Lavali

Lona> B.

Anona

reticulata, Linn.

TO\
Lavanga
<*

Lang, H,

Caryophyllua aiomatioue, Linn.


Clove a.
<

wnLavangalata

Langa, B.

Langphul, B.

Luvunga soandens, Ham.


8y. Limonia scandens, Roxb*

Lavani
f?!TO*

Noari,

Thy Uanthus diBtichu^Mnll.Arg.

Harfajauri,
Fatinebu,
.

Syn. P. lovgifolin$

Roxb.

Limpaka
V*w*nn

Variety of Citrus aeida, Roxb.

-.

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN 'PLANTS.

309

Sansxbit.

Scientific Names.

Lodhra
tof
Loni

Lodh, B. H.

Symplocos raoemosa, Roxb,


Portnlaca oleraeea, Linn. Also P. quadrifida, L.

Chhotalunia.B H.

Mw
Madana

Baralunia,

B
1

II.

Mad an,

B.

Randia dumetorum, Lamk.


Syn. Posoqueria dumetorum, Eoxb.

*&
I

Mayin, H.
Madbavilata,B.II.

Madhavi

*mrft

Hiptape Madhablota, Gaeitn. Syn. Qaertnera racemose Boxb.


Bassia
latifolia,

Madhuka

Maui, B. H.

Roxb.

mm
Madhuriki

Mauri, B.
Sonf, H.

FoBDioulum vulgare, Gaertn

Fennel seeds.
Diosoorea aoiileata, Roxb,

Madhvalu

Manalu, B.

Svet berela, B.
Sahadebi,
^ahak^la
II.

rbomboidta, Roxb. Sida

Makal, B.
I nd raj an,

Tricbosanthes palmata, Roxb.

H.
Melia Azedaraoh, Linn.

Mah;mimba

Ghoianiro, B.

Bakain, H.

Melia sempcrvirens, Sw. Syn.

^kh;mna

Makbana,

B.

Euryale ferox, Salieb.


Anneslea spinas*, Boxb. Syn.
i

^fcushtaka

Maf, H.

aconitifolius, Jaoq. Phaseolus

*$*
Malati
TT<3ift

Banmudga,

B.

Malati, H. B.

Aganbsma

caryopbyllata,(>.Don.

caryophyllata, Boxb. Syn. Kchites

iUllika

Mallika, B.
Bel,

Jasminum Sambac

Ait.
,

*fl*T

H. B.
indioa. Sobofct, Alooasia

kanaka

M;in kaobu, B.

Wiw
bandar*
**!*

Man

kand, H.

Syn.

Arum

Ivdicum, Roxb.

See Farijata

310

GLOSSARt OF INDIAN PLANTS.

Sanskrit.
:l

Vernacular.

Scientific Names.

Mandukaparnil Thulkuri, B. [B.

Hydrocotyle

asiatioa, Linn.

s^^i^ff
Manjishfa
*rf%*T

Brahmamanduki,
Manjiahta, B.
Manjit, H.

Rubia

cordifolia, Linn.

Syn. R. Munjista, Roxb.

Marioha
iftcs

Golmarioh, B. Kalimarich, H,

Piper nigrum, Linn. Blaok pepper.

Marifiha
*TTfc*

Natiya sag, Mars&, H.

Amaranfcus oleraceus, Linn,

Mitsha
*T*

Ma&hkalai, B.
I

Phaseolue

Mungo

Linn. Var.
9

Urid,H.
Mashani/B. Mashoni, H.
-

radiatns Linn, Syn Phaseolus Roxburghii W. A.

-Mashaparni

Teramnus

labialis,

Spreng.

Syn. Glycine debilis, Roxb.

Masara
Matulunga
Mayurasikha
i

Masur, B. H.

Lens esoulenta Mcenoh.


Syn. Cicer lens Roxb.
t

Chholanga nebu,B. Citrus medioa, Linn. Tai.


Lai murga, B.
Celosia, cristate, Linn.

aoida.

Kokan, H.

Mendika
Meshasringi

Mendi, B. Hena, H.
Merasingi, B.

Laweonia

alba, Lamk. Syn. L. inermis, Linn,

Gymnema

sylvestre, R. Br.

Syn. Asclepias geminata, Roxb,

Methika

Methi, B. H.

Trigonella foBnumgi8BCum,Linn

Misrejil

Sulpha, B.

Sowa, H,

Peuoedaniam graveolens Bentb, Syn, Peucedanum Sotva,


Bth. & Hf. Dill seeds.
\

Muchukunda

Muohkand,

B. H.

Pterospermum suberifolium, Lamk.


*

Mudga

Moorg, B. H*
Mugani, B. H.

Phaseolus Mungo, Linn

Mud gap arm

Phaseolus trilobus, Ait.

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS

311

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.

Scientific Names.

Mulaka

MuI4, B.
Muli, H.
,

Raphanus sativus, Linn, Garden radish.


Sphoeranthus indious, Linn
Syn. 8. mollis, Bozb.
\

Mnnditika

Murmuria, B.

Gorak mundi H.
Mutija

Munj, B H.

Saooharum Munja, Boxb.


Sansevieria zejlanica, Willd. Syn. S. Boxburghiana, Schult.
Salyinia ououllata, Roxb.

s*
Murva

Goraohakra, B.

Morv a,
Muahikaparni

B.

Ifldurkani, B.

Mashkaka
Maataka

Ghanta

parol, B,

Sohrebera swietenioidea, Roxb.

Banpalas, H.

MathS, B. Motha, H.
#

Cyperus rotundas, Linn.


Sida spinosa, Linn.
Syn. S. alba, Linn.

%abala
Nagadamani
*

Gorakbhaulia, B.
_

Guleakari, H.

Nagdond, B.
Nagdoni, H.

Artemisia vulgaris, Linn


Syn. A. Indica,
Willd.

Nagakesara

Nagkesar, B. H.

Mesna

ferraa, Linn.

Nagana
*W*\ [taka

See Jautishmati.
per tenuis, Roxb. Cyperus soariosus R. Br Syn. Cyprus

K a gara mus

Nagarmutha,B

Nagaranga

Kamla

neba,

Aurantium, Linn. Citrus


sweet orange. The
Betle, Linn. Piper

Narangi, H.

N%avalli
i

Pan, B. H.

Chavica BetU> Miq. Syn.


m

^ktamaia
Nakali

See Karanja.
said
(

* *

Nai, B.

H.

This

is

yarie
it

Vanda Roxburgh
substituted for

prescriptions

312

OLOSSAfcT Of INDIAN FLANT3,

Sanskrit.

Vernacular
Nal B.
f

Scientific Names.

Nala
*ra

Phragmitee Karka, Trin.


Syn. Arundo Karka, Retz* Hibiscus oannabinuB, Linn

Narkul, H.
Meetapat, B.

Nali
^r^t

N&litt,

H.

Nalika

Nalipatari,

red

bark used in soentiug


oils.

medicinal

Nandi vriksba Tun, B, H.

Cedrela Toona, Roxb.


Is

a large tree.^

Nadika

Pat, B.

H.

Corohorus olitorius, Linn


Jute plant.

Karikela

Nirikel, B.

Cooos nucifera, Linn.


j

Nana!, H.

Cocoa-nut palm.
Jason inn

Navamalika

Nabain&llika, B.
Motia, H,

Sauibac, Linn.

Double flowered Jasraiue.


.

Nidigdhika

See KantakAri,

Nila

Nil,

B. H.

Indigofera tinotoria, Linn.

Indigo plant.

Nilakamala

Blue Lotus

Nilotpala

Nileapli,
Nilofar,

Nympho

stellata, Willd.

H.
Melia Azadiraohta, Linn.
Syn. Azadirachta Indica, Jus$.
Citrus medioa, Linn var,
aoida.

Nimba
ft*

Nim, B. H.
Kagjinembu H. B.
y

Nimbuka
ft5*

Nirgundi

Nisindi, B.

Vitex Negunco, Lyan

f*nr^
Nirvisha
fff*WT

Sambbalu,

H
Kyllingia raonocepbaia, Linn
-

Nirbiski, B. H.

Nisi
f**X

Halad, B.
Haiti, H.

Curcuma

longa, Linn.

Turmerio plant,

GLOSSARY OF TNDTAN PLANTS,

313

Sanskrit

Vernacular.
Barbati, B.

Scientific Name*-

Nishpava
f*WT*

Vigna oatiang, Endl.


Syn. Dolichos sinensis% Linn.

Lobia, H.

Nivara

Uridhan,

Wild variety
Linn.

of

Oryza

sativa,

fmK
Nyagrodha

See Vata.
[

Blume.

Olla
"fin

01, B.

H.

Amorphophallua oampanulatus,
Syn.

Jimikand, H.

Arum campanulatum,

Roxb,

Padma
to
Padmaoh&rini

Padma,

B. H.

Nelumbium speoiosum,
See Sthala padma.

Linn.

Padmak&shta

wood resembling toon Padmakashta,B H. A Malwa or brought from


fragrant

TOW
Palandu
Piaj, B. H.

Southern India.

Allium Cepa, Linn.

imW
Palanki
Piilang sag, B.

Common

onion.

Beta maritima, Linn.


Syn. B. Bengalensts,

wnft
Palasa

Palanki, H.
Palas, B.

Bmb.

frondosa, Roxb. Butea

^rw
Panasa

Dbak, H.
Kantal, B.

Artooarpus
[

integrifolia,

Linn
[

Vn

mani

Kathar, H.
/

H.

Indian jaok-tree
Seeds of

Linn

Parasikaya-

Khurasanijamam

Hyosoyamus

niger,

Parij&ta
<wft*IHI
J
l

Palita mandar, B.

indioa, Linn. Brythrina

Pharhad,Pangra,H.
Palaa pipal, B.

Coral tree
populnea, Corr. Thespesia Hibiscus popttlneotdes, Syn.
lU>xo.

arisa

<nftw

Pares pipal, H.

Parkat i

qV*
Parpata

Pakur, B. Pakhar, H.

Fions infeotoria,

Roxb.

See Kshetraparpati

q*& 40

314

GLOSSART OP INDIAN PLANTS

Sanskrit.
i

Vernacular.
Phalsu, B.

Scientific Names.

Parusha
tjtct [

Grewia

aaiatioa,

Linn

dana

Pharsa, H.
Hath&jori, B.
i

Paahiin abhe-

H
H

Selaginella imbrioata, Spring


Syn. Lycopodium imbricQ Uim,Roxb

Paehanabhedi
t*T*TO$t

Pathor ohar,B-

Coleua. aromatiaus, Benth.

Syn,
Parul, B.

(7.

AmboinicuSj Lour,

Fatal a

Stereospermum suaveoleue, DC.


Syn. Bignonia suaveolens, Roxb.

mz^\
Path*
tfHT

Par, H.

Akanadi,

Stephania hernandi folia, Walp.


Syn. Cissampeloshernandifolia, Linn,

Nerauku,
* * *

B
*

Pathya
q^T
Patola

See Haritaki,
Triahosanthes dioica, Roxb.
Csesalpinia Sappau, Linn

Patol, B*

t^fa
Pafctanga

Palwal, H.

Bakam, B,
Pattang, B,
Rithu, H, B.

*TW
Phenila

Sapindus

trifoliatus, Lieu.

vfam
Pilu
Pilu, B.

Syn. S. Fmarpinattis, Vahl.

H.

Salvadora persiea, Linn.

fa^

[ra
Pindakhejur, H.B,

Wight
Phoenix daoty lif era, Linn

Pindakharju-

fVwfsrc
*

The date palm.


Chuprialu, B.

Pindalu Pindara
fa*on*.

Diosoorea globosa,

Roxb

Pindara, H.
Pitali,

Trewia nudiflora, Liun

B.

Pippali
fara?t

Pipul, B.

Piper longurn, Linn,


fyft,

Pi pal, H.
Piyal, B,

Ghavica Roxburghii, Miq.

Piyala

fasra

Buahanama latifolia, Roxb. The nuts are called Cherauuji


mn.

Plakaha
I

iae

Parka tu

GLOSSARY OF 1NDUN

UNTS-

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.
Paniala, B.

Scientific

Name

Praohiuamalaka] irr^rn9^

Flaoouitia Cataphraota, Roxb.

Paniamlak, H.
Panderia, H.
Root-8tock of Nympba?a Lotus

Prapaundari ka] inftwfta

Willi
Gandhahadulia, B.
Khip,Gandbali,H.
Ptederife fcefcida, Linn,

Prasarani

Prikka
S3fT

Piring sak, B. Chini, H.


Pitvan, H,

See Sprikka

Prisni mparni

Uraria lagopoides, DC.


Dtodia lagcpcdioidts, Hesb Syn.

Chakulia, B.

Priyangu
fariF

Priangu, B. H.

Aglaia Roxburghiana, Miq.

Puga
Punarnava

m * *

See Guvaka.

Puuarnabii- B.
SaD*p H-

Boerbaavia diffusa, Linn. and erccia, proa <yn. B.

Pundarika

Svetpndroa, B.

Xelumbium

specioeum,

Willd.

white variety.

Punnaga
S^T*
[

Puxinag, B,
la

inophyllum, Linn, Calopbyllum

Polang, Oorya,

PuehkaramtiS
15

Pohokarmuly, H.

*^
Poisak, B.
Poi,

the not available This root Aplotaxis auritulata root, of substituted for it is
is
;

Putika

Base Ha rubra, Linn.


Bonduoella, Fleming. CaeBalpinia

H.
f

Putikaranja

Naia B.
Katkarannj,

H
Roxburgbii, Putranjiva Nageia Puiranjua, Syn.
VAensiue

Putranjivsr

JiMputa, H, B.

Wall Btok

Ragi
TPlt

Mariiii, B.

&

ib

-eartn.

Kagi, H, Man(W,

Rajadani
M*!Kft

Khirkhejur, B,
Ksbiri, H.

Mimnsopa hexandra,
Jyn,

Roxb
-

Mi

P*

WWW DC

316

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS,

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.
(

Scientific Names.

Rajakoshataki

Dhundul, B.
Ghiatarui, H.

Luffa aegyptiaoa, Mill.


Syn. Luffa pentandra, Roxb.

Raja masha

Barbati,

Vigna Catiang, Endl.


Syn. Dolichos sinensis Linn.
,

Lobia, H.

Rajanigandha

Rajanigandha, B.
Gulshabba, H.

Polyanthes tuberosa, Linn.

Tube

rose.

Rajasarsapa

Raisarisa, B.

*wm

Brassioa junoea, Hf. and T.


Syn. Sinapis ramosa, Roxb.

[na

Rdi, H.

Raktaohanda-

Raktaohandan, B, Lalohandan, H.

Pterooarpus Fantalinus, Linn

Red sandal wood*


Plumbago
rosea, Linn,

Raktaohitraka Lalohita, B. H.

Raktalu

Rangalu, B.
Ratalu, H.

Ipomoea Batatus, Lamk.

Raktotpala

Raktakambala, B.

Nymphcea Lotus, Linn.


Syn. N. rubra, Roxb.

Randa

WT
Rasna
TOTT

See Mushikaparni,

Rasna, B. H.

Vanda Roxburghii, R. Br, Syn. Cymbidium tessaloides Roxb.


9

Rasonaka
TOto^i

Rasun, B.

Allium sativum, Linn.

Lahasun,

Garlio.

bably.
;

Renuka
Rohitaka

Renuka, B.
Tiktaraj, B.

Piperaurantiaoum, Wall.

pro-

Amoora Rohituka, W. and


%

A.

Harinhara, H.

Syn. Andersonia Rohituka Roxb.


Elaeooarpus Ganitrus, Roxb.

Rudraksha
*5T*

Rudraksha, B.

[ya

Rudrakh, H.
Chharila, H,

Sailaja, Saile-

speoies of Liohen.

Saivala

Seyala, B.

Vallisneria spiralis, Linn.

mm
t

Siyal,

H,

Syn. Blyxa octandfa

Iiich<

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS.

317

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.

Scientific Names.

Saka
*IT^

Segun, B. H.

Tectona grandis, Linn.

fil.

Teak
Syaora, B.
Siora,

tree.

Sakholaka

Streblas asper, Lour*

H.

Syn. Trophts aspera,

retz.

Sala
*TTC[

Sal, B.

H,

Shorea robusta, Gaertn.

Sakhu, H,
Salpani, B.

Salaparni
UTOq^fT

Desmodium gangetioum,

Dc,

Sari van, H.

Syn.Hedysarum gangeticuin^Linn,
Alfcernanthera sessilis, R. Br.

Salincha

Sanohi, B.

Syn. Acheranthes triandra, Roxb.


Sallaki
*

Salai, B. H,

Boswellia serrata, Roxb. ex.


Colebr.

mtft
Salmali

Simul, B.
Serual, H.

Bombax Malabarioum, DC.


Syn. B* heptaphylla, Oav.

irat
Saluka

Saluk, B.

Roots of different species of

*n$w

Nympha?a.
Saio, B.

Sam
*Nt

Aoaoia Sama, Ham.


Syn. Mimosa Suma, Roxb.
Crotalaria junoea, Linn.

Chhikura, H
San, B. H.

Sana

*W
Sanapushpi
Bansanui, B.

Indian hemp.
Crotalaria verruoosa, Linn

Sanhuly, B.

Sankhalu

Sankalu, B.

Pachyrhizus angulatus, Rich.


Dolichos bulbosus, Linn. Syn.

Sankhapnahpi

Dankuni, B.
Sankhahuli, H.

deoassata, R. at* Soh. Canaoora

Syn. Pladera decussata,

Jftw*.

Saptaohhada

Chhafcin, B.

Alstonia soholaris, R. Br,


Syn. Echites scholaris, Eoxb.

WH*$?
Sara

Chhatian, H.
Sar, B.

*T
Saral a

Ramsar, H.
Ohir, Saral, H.

Saooharum Sara, Roxb. Pen reed grass.


Pinus longifolia, Roxb.

uto

318

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN FLAHTB.

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.

Scientific Names.

Sarapunkha
*ncg*r

Sarphonka, B. H.

Tephrosia purpurea, Pers.


Syn. Galega purpurea, Linn,

Suriv.
*nfnrT

Sj

mlatn, B.

Ichnoearpus frutescens, R. Br.


Syn* Echites frutescen&s Hoxb.

Sarpagandha
TC*W
Sarpakslit
fltffa

Chandra, B.

Rauwolfia serpentina, Benth.

Gandbanakuli,
Sarahati, H.
Sarisa, B.

Ophiorrfciza Mungos, Linn.

Sarshapa

common name

for

W
Sarvajaya

Sareon, H.

mustard seeds.

Sarbajaya, B.

Canna

indica, Linn.

^WWT
Satamuli
Sata-bari, B.
Sat/i var,
;

Indian shot.

Asparagus raoemosus, Willd.

H.

Satapatri

Sittti,

H.B.

Rosa moeehata,

Mill.

Syn* B. glaudulzfcra, Roxb.

Satapushpi

* #

See Misreya.

Sati

Karchur, H.
nt
Sati, B.

Curcuma Zerumbet, Roxb


Pisum sativum, Linn.

Satil;

Majar, B. H.

^ft^T

Saureya
sftt*

N uklajhinfi, B.

See Jhinti.

Selu
UT~}

Bahubara, B.
Lasora, EL
Seuli. B.

Cordia Myxa, Linn.

Seph.Uil
^qnfis.^1

Nyctanthes Arbor- triatis, Linn


If

Harsingar,
Seb,

Seva
*r*

B
H

Pyrus Mains,

Lirxn.

S 07>

The apple
i

tree.

Ssvafci

#
t

See Satapatri.

%Wt

0LOS3ART 0? INDIAN PLANTS

Sanskrit

Vernacular.

Scientific Names.

Sfgru

<

See Sobhinjana.

fR
Silhaka
Bilha, Silaras, B,

Liquidamber

orientalis, Miller.

ftp**

Nagorigcmd, H.
>

Liquid storax,

Simbi

Sim.

B.

name

for several species

of

Doliaho*.

Sindhnvara

iVishinda, B.

Vitex Negtmdo, Liuu.

Sambhal,
Si nsapa
f^fwq-T

ff.

Sistii

B. H.

Dalbergia Sissoo, Roxb,

Smsaa l
fWta
Sifcalapatrikd
ift?raqfa^l
Siteli
(

Siris, B.

H,

Albizzia Lebbek, Benfcb.

Ifdktfpff?, B.
Sitfripitir gucli, B.
*
|

Maranta diobotoma, Wall


fly* Phrynium d

hotomum,Bo.rb

See Kaliimisariva*

^cT^t Snnhi i

Mansa
fl

sij t

B.

Euphorbia
yn,
J?,

neriifolia, Linn.
,

Thohar, H.
SajiVf, B. H.

ligularia. Bosh.*.

SoMj.-injana

NT oringa
,<//.

pterygosperma, Gaertn.
f

Sahiniau, H.

Hyperanthera moringa Witid.

Somalati

Somlata,

B H.

<aroostemma brevf stigma, W, A.


Asclepias acida, Rorb. Syyh

Somaraji

Somraj, BBakuchi, H*
Piring sak, B.

anfcbelmintioa, Willd. Vernonia

fKKifa
Sprifcka

Serratula anthelmintica % li Syn.

b.

Trigonella ooruiaulata, Linn,

*in

Lankayikd, H.
Pinna tongifoita, Roxb, habiraja,H.B. Resin of Grand
[

Srih asa

*Vw

ka
Sial kanta,

Srijfnlakanta.

Argemoue

fxi

na. Liar

iakul,

tKnoplia, Mill Ziz/phns

320

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS,


\

Sanskrit.

Vernacular.
Paniphal, B. Singhard, H,

Scientific Names.

Sringataka

Trapa bispinosa, Roxb,


See Karkatasringi.

Sringi

nfl
Sriphala
*ft<rai

See Vilva.

Sthalapadma
Sthauneya

S thai pad ma, B.


Sfchalkamal, H.

Hibiscus mutabilis, Linn.

See Granthiparni.

Sthulaila

Bara

eliiohi,

B. H.

Amomnm

subulatum, Roxb.

Sudarsana

Pad ma gulanoha,B. Tinospora tomentosa, Miers.


Syn. Menispermum
Roxb. tomentosum,
[

Sunanda
Sunisannaka

Ishermul, B.

Aristoloohia Indiea, Lion.

Sunsunia, B. Chaupatte, H.

Mar si lea

quardrifolia, Linn.
[

Blume

Surana

01

B. H.

Jimikand,

Amorphophallus oampanulatus, Syn. Arum campanulatum, Roxb


Hibiscus pbcenioeus, Willd.

Snrjamani

Snrjamani, B.

Surjavarta

Hurhurifc, B.
Htil hul,

Gynandropsis pentapbylla, DC.


Syn. Cleome pentaphylla, Linn.

H.
H.

Sushavi

Shia

jird,

Carum

Carui, Linn.

Sushavi

Uchohhe,

B.

Karela, H.

Momordioa Charantia, Linn. Syn. Momordica muricata, Willd.

Svarnajuthika Svarnajui, B.

Jasminum humile, Linn.


Syn. J. chrysanthemum, Roxb.

Svarnakshiri

Chos, Chok, H,

Cleome

felina, Linn, f

Syn. Polanisia felina,

DC.

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN PLANTS.

m
Roxb

Sanskrit,

Vernacular.

Scientific Names.

Syamaka
jgrrarw

Syama dhan,
Saraak, H.

B.

Panioaai frumentstoeum,

Syamalata

Syamalata, B.

rohuocarpus frutesoens, R. Br.


Syn. Echites frutescens, Ihxb.

wwiit
Syonaka
Somi, B.

Oroxylum indicmm, Vent.


Syn. Bignonia Indica, Linn.

wtare
Tagara

Arlu, H.
Ta<?arf

W
<rr*r

Taberuaarnontana coronaria Br.

Chandni, H.
Tal, H. B.

Tdl a

Borassus

flabelliformifi,

Linn,

Talamuli

Mushpli, H.

Curculigo orohioides, Gaertn

Tal muli, B.
Ti'iligapatra
IT reft ire*

Talispatra,

Pinus Webbiana, Lindl Abie* Webbiana, Lindl Syn*


Garoinia Xanthochymu8,Kook.f name for Cinnamominn Also a Tamala, Nees.

Tama fa
ramal, B.

Tumbula

Paii|

B.

Piper Betle, Linn.


Ghavica Betle, Miq, Syn.
Nicotiana Tabaeam, Linn,

Tambula, H.

Tamrakuta

Taniak, B.

Tambaku, H.
Tanduliya*

Tobaooo plant.

Champa

natia,

polygamus, Linn. Amarantus

Cholai, H.

Tankiiri

Tekari, B Tepuria, B.
Tarniuj, B.

Syn.

peruviana, Linn. Phjsalis P. edulis, Sims.

Tarambuja
*1T*5*T

Tarbuz, H.
Seuti, B.

vulgaris, Sohrad. Oitrullus Cilrullus, Roxb. Cucurl