Lecture Notes
Dr. UD Dwivedi
Introduction
Threephase induction motors are the most common
and frequently encountered machines in industry
Simple design, Low cost and rugged, requires little or no
skilled maintenance
wide range of power ratings: fractional horsepower to
10 MW
Explosion free, due to the absence of a commutator or
sliprings and brushes with their associated sparking,
Run at nearly constant speed from zerotofull
Its speed depends on the frequency of the power
source
not easy to have variable speed control
requires a variablefrequency powerelectronic drive for
optimal speed control
Construction: has two main parts
Stator consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow,
cylindrical core of stacked laminations. Slots on the internal
circumference of the stator house the stator winding.
Rotor also composed of punched laminations, with rotor
slots for the rotor winding.
Stator
Rotor
Induction Motor: Stator
Stator is made from laminated iron
3 phase windings, 120 spatially apart (star/delta)
Stator winding is carried in slots around the circumference of
a cylindrical bore.
There is a separate winding for each phase.
Induction Motor: Rotor
1. Squirrelcage induction motor:
2. Woundrotor induction motor
1. Squirrelcage induction motor
most common type of IM
has squirrelcage rotor windings
squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars,
bar ends are welded to copper end rings, so that all
the bars are short circuited.
2. Woundrotor induction motor
has a 3phase winding, similar to the stator winding.
= =
slip s
s n n =
OR
Frequency of the induced emf and current in the rotor:
The frequency of the voltage induced in the rotor is given by
Where f
r
= the rotor frequency (Hz)
P = number of stator poles
nsl = slip speed (rpm)
120
sl
r
P n
f
=
( )
120
120
s
r
s
P n n
f
P sn
sf
=
= =
Or
r
s =
And hence,
The rotor circuit:
AT the starting or when the rotor is blocked (s =1)
Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = E
2
The largest voltage and rotor frequency are induced in the rotor,
Why?
If the rotor rotates at synchronous speed (s =0)
and Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = 0
The induced voltage and frequency in the rotor will be equal to zero,
Why?
.
Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = s E
2
Therefore in General, If the rotor speed is n (slip =s)
Rotor Reactance at any slip s
We know that reactance,
So, as the frequency of the induced voltage in the rotor
changes, the reactance of the rotor circuit also changes
Rotor reactance at slip s can be obtained as
Where X
2
is the rotor reactance at the supply frequency
(stationary rotor)
.
.
2 X L f L = =
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r
X L f L
sf L
sX
= =
=
=
Induction Motors and Transformers
Both IM and transformer works on the principle of
induced voltage.
Transformer: voltage applied to the primary windings
produce an induced voltage in the secondary windings.
Induction motor: voltage applied to the stator windings
produce an induced voltage in the rotor windings.
the primary of the transformer corresponds to the stator of the
induction motor, whereas the secondary corresponds to the
rotor on a per phase basis.
The difference is that, in the case of the induction motor,
the secondary windings can move .
Induction Motors and Transformers
Therefore an IM is equivalent to a rotating transformer
with its secondary windings (i.e. rotor)short circuited.
Presence of airgap:
The other very important difference is that a large
magnetising current is required to set up working flux in an
induction motor due to presence of airgap between stator
and rotor.
so, induction motors have poor power factor.
Also due to the rotation of the rotor (the secondary
winding of the IM), the induced voltage in it does not have
the same frequency of the stator (the primary) voltage
The rotor equivalent circuit: on per phase basis
Divide both the numerator
and denominator by s
Stator of an IM is similar to primary of a transformer so equivalent circuit can
be represented as:
Rotor equivalent circuit
E
1
Stator equivalent circuit
Induction motor equivalent circuit:
The stator equivalent circuit: on per
phase basis
Actual rotor
resistance
Resistance
equivalent to
mechanical load
Performance of Induction Motor
Several performance parameters can be obtained
using Rotor Equivalent circuit
Torque, Power, Power losses
Speed verses Torque characteristics
Slip verses Torque characteristics
I
The rotor equivalent circuit: on per phase basis
The relation between rotor input, rotor copper loss
and rotor output:
From the equivalent circuit:
Total input power to the rotor (P2) which is also the power crossing the air
gap is:
Power lost in rotor winding or rotor copper loss is:
Total mechanical power output is:
2
2
2 2
3.( ) .
R
P I
s
 
=

\ .
2
2 2 2
3.( ) .
Cu
P I R =
2 Cu
P
2
2 2
1
3.( ) .
m
s
P I R
s
 
=

\ .
2
2
2 2
3.( ) .
R
P I
s
 
=

\ .
2
2 2 2
3.( ) .
Cu
P I R =
2 2 Cu m
P P P = +
2
2 2
1
3.( ) .
m
s
P I R
s
 
=

\ .
A Very Important relationship:
2 2
: : ( 1 1 ) : :
m Cu
P s s P P
2
2
2
and,
1
m
Cu
P
P
P
P
s s
= =
Power relations
2 2
1
:
:
:
: (1 )
C m u
P
s
P P
s
2
P
2 Cu
P
m
P
1
s
1s
Rotor input or
air gap power
Mechanical
Power Developed
Rotor copper
Loss
Gross Torque Developed
The gross (total) Torque developed is:
Where is rotor speed.
m
m
r
P
T
=
2
1
= .
(1 ) (1 )
m m m
m
r s s s
P P P P
T
s s
= = =
r
2
=
m
m
r s
P P
T
=
Total rotor input power (air gap power)
m
s
T
=
Shaft Torque = Gross Torque Friction loss
sh m loss
T T T =
Shaft Torque Developed
2
2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
3.( ) . 3. .
( )
R sE R
P I
s s
R sX
 
   
 = =
 

\ . \ .
+
\ .
2
/ .
m s
T P =
We know that rotor input power or air gap power is given as:
And Total mech. Torque, Therefore,
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
3
. .
( )
m
s
sE
T R
R sX
 
=

+
\ .
Torque Slip Characteristics:
We know that total torque developed is :
Now, Let us examine the torque verses speed characteristics for different
operating conditions:
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
3
. .
( )
m
s
sE
T R
R sX
 
=

+
\ .
Case 1: Motor Running near Synchronous speed (s very small)
Case 2: At Starting (s=1)
Ts curve: Case 1: Motor Running near Synchronous speed
Slip s is very small, and hence, So torque
expression becomes:
Near synchronous speed:
Torque increases linearly with slip.
If rotor resistance is high rated torque is reduced
Torque is proportional to the square of applied voltage.
2 2
2 2
( ) . R sX >>
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
3
. .
( )
m
s
sE
T R
R sX
 
=

+
\ .
2
2
2
3
.
m
s
sE
T
R
 
=

\ .
2
2
2
m
sE
T
R
denotes propotionality
General torque expression is:
Ts curve: Case 2: At Starting
For large value of slip and At starting (s=1), So
torque expression becomes:
During Starting:
Starting Torque increases linearly with rotor resistance (in wound rotor
motor, higher starting torque is obtained by inserting external in rotor
circuit).
If leakage reactance is high, starting torque is reduced
Torque is proportional to the square of applied voltage.
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
3
. .
( )
m
s
sE
T R
R sX
 
=

+
\ .
2
2 2
2
2
.
st
E R
T
X
denotes propotionality
2 2
2 2
( ) . sX R >>
2
2
2
2
2
3
. .
st
s
E
T R
X
 
=

\ .
General torque expression is:
TorqueSlip (Speed) Characteristics
Starting Torque
Maximum Torque
Or Breakdown Torque
Full Load Torque
Linear Torque slip Region
Speed
.
Torque
Rated Load
Slip
Comments (Torquespeed char.)
1. The induced torque is zero at synchronous speed.
Discussed earlier.
2. The curve is nearly linear between noload and full
load. In this range, the rotor resistance is much
greater than the reactance, so the rotor current, and
torque increase linearly with the slip.
3. There is a maximum possible torque that cant be
exceeded. This torque is called breakdown torque
and is 2 to 3 times the rated fullload torque.
Comments(Torquespeed char.)
4. The starting torque of the motor is slightly higher
than its fullload torque, so the motor will start
carrying any load it can supply at full load.
5. The torque of the motor for a given slip varies as
the square of the applied voltage.
6. If the rotor is driven faster than synchronous speed
it will run as a generator, converting mechanical
power to electric power.
Maximum Torque and condition for Max. Torque:
Maximum Torque (also called breakdown torque)occurs when,
Slip at Maximum Torque:
Maximum Torque Tmax:
The Value of Maximum Torque does not depend on Rotor resistance.
But slip at which it occurs depend on rotor resistance (proportional to it)
2 2
. sX R =
maxT 2 2
/ s R X =
2
2
max
2
3
.
2
s
E
T
X
 
=

\ .
Effect of rotor resistance on torqueslip (speed) characteristic
Slip
s=1
Ns
(Rotor Resistances)
s=0
Speed
Effect of rotor resistance on torqueslip (speed) characteristic
Rotor Resistances
Speed
0
0
Ns
Need for a starting method
A squirrel cage motor is at stationary before it is started, there
rotor induced emf is very high.
Therefore, if this motor is connected directly to the supply, will
take an initial starting current which is about 5 to 6 times of the
full load value.
Though this current decreases rapidly as the motor accelerates, it
will cause harm to the motor and will affect the voltage (cause
voltage dips inthe power supply) and hence the other loads.
Small motors up to the size of
5 hp are allowed to be started
with direct on line (DOL)
starter
St art ing Met hod of I nduct ion Mot ors
Motor Three
phase
supply
contactor
1. Direct on Line (DOL)
When the rating of the motor exceed 5 hp Some starting means
must be used to start the motor. A star/delta starter is normally
used because it is the simpliest and cheapest type of starter.
During starting, the stator winding is temporarily connected in
star. therefore only phase voltage (1/ sqrt (3) of line voltage ) is
applied to the stator. The starting current is reduced to 1/3 of the
Direct on line starting current. The starting torque, which is
proportional to the starting current, reduces also to 1/3 of the
value at direct on line starting.
After a period of about 5 seconds, the motor have accelerated to
nearly full load speed. The stator winding is now reconnected as
delta, and full line voltage is applied in each phase of the stator.
2. St arDelt a St art er
Rotor
Stator
Running Starting
Delta
Star
Switch
Supply
Schemat ic Diagram of a St arDelt a St art er
Some loads are very heavy and it will take a few minutes
before it can run to full speed, these motors have to be started
by means of transformer starter.
The reduced voltage during starting is obtained from the
different tappings (40% , 60%, 75%) of an autotransformer.
In the running condition, full voltage is applied to the stator
and the transformer is cut out of the circuit.
3. Aut ot ransformer St art er
Supply
Rotor
Stator
Winding
Autotransformer Starter
Starting
Running
The wound rotor (slip ring) induction motor can be started by
inserting additional resistance in series with the rotor winding
through the slip rings.
In this way, maximun torque is obtained during starting. The
additional resistance is cut off from the circuit as soon as the motor
is started to avoid excessive power loss in the resistance.
Three
Phase
Supply
Brush
Rotor Windings
Slip Rings
Stator Windings
Running Position
Starting Position External Resistors
4. St art ing of Wound Rot or I nduct ion Mot or
Extra slides
Rotating Magnetic Field
The three phases of the stator winding carry balanced alternating
sinusoidal currents
Three pulsating mmf waves are now set up in the airgap, which have a
time phase difference of 120 degree from each other. These mmfs are
oriented in space along the magnetic axes of the phases, a,b & c,
Example
A 208V, 10hp, four pole, 60 Hz, Yconnected
induction motor has a fullload slip of 5
percent
1. What is the synchronous speed of this motor?
2. What is the rotor speed of this motor at rated
load?
3. What is the rotor frequency of this motor at
rated load?
4. What is the shaft torque of this motor at rated
load?
Solution
120 120(60)
1800
4
s
f
n rpm
P
= = =
(1 )
(1 0.05) 1800 1710
s
n s n
rpm
=
= =
0.05 60 3
r
f sf Hz = = =
2
60
10 746 /
41.7 .
1710 2 (1/ 60)
out out
sh
m
P P
T
n
hp watt hp
N m
= =
= =